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Sample records for bulk sample activation

  1. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably.

  2. Sample dependent response of a LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector in prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of bulk hydrocarbon samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman,; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-08-11

    The response of a LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector has been found to depend upon the hydrogen content of bulk samples in prompt gamma analysis using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The moderation of 14 MeV neutrons from hydrogen in the bulk sample produces thermal neutrons around the sample which ultimately excite chlorine capture gamma rays in the LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector material. Interference of 6.11 MeV chlorine gamma rays from the detector itself with 6.13 MeV oxygen gamma rays from the bulk samples makes the intensity of the 6.13 MeV oxygen gamma ray peak relatively insensitive to variations in oxygen concentration. The strong dependence of the 1.95 MeV doublet chlorine gamma ray yield on hydrogen content of the bulk samples confirms fast neutron moderation from hydrogen in the bulk samples as a major source of production of thermal neutrons and chlorine gamma rays in the LaCl{sub 3}:Ce detector material. Despite their poor oxygen detection capabilities, these detectors have nonetheless excellent detection capabilities for hydrogen and carbon in benzene, butyl alcohol, propanol, propanic acid, and formic acid bulk samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering.

  3. Calculation of thermal neutron self-shielding correction factors for aqueous bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Km. 6, Ravand Road, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mnnasri@kashanu.ac.ir; Jalali, M. [Isfahan Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Km. 6, Ravand Road, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    In this work thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing materials is studied using bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) with the MCNP code. The code was used to perform three dimensional simulations of a neutron source, neutron detector and sample of various material compositions. The MCNP model was validated against experimental measurements of the neutron flux performed using a BF{sub 3} detector. Simulations were performed to predict thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing solutes. In practice, the MCNP calculations are combined with experimental measurements of the relative thermal neutron flux over the sample's surface, with respect to a reference water sample, to derive the thermal neutron self-shielding within the sample. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the average thermal neutron flux within the sample volume is required.

  4. Contribution of macrophages to plasmin activity in ewe bulk milk

    OpenAIRE

    Albenzio, M; A. Sevi; A. Marzano; Marino, R; Schena, L.; Caroprese , M

    2010-01-01

    A total of 225 bulk sheep milk samples were collected throughout lactation to assess the contribution of macrophages to the regulation of the plasmin/plasminogen system. Samples were analyzed for composition, milk renneting parameters, and for activities of plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG) and plasminogen activators (PA). Isolation of macrophages from milk was performed using a magnetic positive separation; separated cells were lysed and activity of urokinase-PA was determined. PL activity in m...

  5. Gamma self-shielding correction factors calculation for aqueous bulk sample analysis by PGNAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Modern Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir; Mohammadi, A. [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University (PNU), Kohandej, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, M. [Isfahan Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRT), Reactor and Accelerators Research and Development School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) was applied to aqueous sample analysis using a relative method. For elemental analysis of an unknown bulk sample, gamma self-shielding coefficient was required. Gamma self-shielding coefficient of unknown samples was estimated by an experimental method and also by MCNP code calculation. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the gamma self-shielding within the sample volume is required.

  6. Shock wave consolidated MgB 2 bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ohashi, Wataru; Kakimoto, Etsuji; Dohke, Kiyotaka; Atou, Toshiyuki; Fukuoka, Kiyoto; Kikuchi, Masae; Kawasaki, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2004-10-01

    Commercially available MgB 2 powders were consolidated into bulk samples by two different shock wave consolidation methods: underwater shock consolidation method and gun method. Resistance vs. temperature of the samples was measured by the four-terminal method for pulsed currents of up to 3 A in self-field, as well as Vickers hardness, SEM micrographs of fraction surfaces, packing densities, and X-ray diffraction patterns. These results, in comparison with cold isostatic pressed samples, indicated that the underwater shock consolidated sample was superior in grain connectivity to the others. This is probably because the underwater shock consolidation generated most anisotropic and hence high frictional, compressive, intergrain forces.

  7. Shock wave consolidated MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ohashi, Wataru; Kakimoto, Etsuji; Dohke, Kiyotaka; Atou, Toshiyuki; Fukuoka, Kiyoto; Kikuchi, Masae; Kawasaki, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2004-10-01

    Commercially available MgB{sub 2} powders were consolidated into bulk samples by two different shock wave consolidation methods: underwater shock consolidation method and gun method. Resistance vs. temperature of the samples was measured by the four-terminal method for pulsed currents of up to 3 A in self-field, as well as Vickers hardness, SEM micrographs of fraction surfaces, packing densities, and X-ray diffraction patterns. These results, in comparison with cold isostatic pressed samples, indicated that the underwater shock consolidated sample was superior in grain connectivity to the others. This is probably because the underwater shock consolidation generated most anisotropic and hence high frictional, compressive, intergrain forces.

  8. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Gondal, M. A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Isab, A. A.; Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53-3.68, 4.51, 5.27-5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  9. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  10. Directional cellular growth of Al-2 wt% Li bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, H. [Erciyes University, Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Kayseri (Turkey); Cadirli, E. [Nigde University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Nigde (Turkey); Guenduez, M. [Erciyes University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Al-2 wt% Li alloy was prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in the vacuum atmosphere. The bulk samples were directionally solidified upward with a constant growth rate, V, ({proportional_to}8.30 {mu}m/s) and different temperature gradients, G, (3.11-6.06 K/mm) and also with a constant G (6.06 K/mm) and different V (8.3-164.70 {mu}m/s) in the directional solidification apparatus. The cellular spacings, {lambda}, were measured from both transverse and longitudinal section of the specimens and expressed as functions of solidification processing parameters, G and V, by using a linear regression analysis. The effects of the G and V on {lambda}, were investigated. The experimental results were compared with the current theoretical and numerical models, and similar previous experimental results. (orig.)

  11. Contribution of macrophages to plasmin activity in ewe bulk milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Albenzio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 225 bulk sheep milk samples were collected throughout lactation to assess the contribution of macrophages to the regulation of the plasmin/plasminogen system. Samples were analyzed for composition, milk renneting parameters, and for activities of plasmin (PL, plasminogen (PG and plasminogen activators (PA. Isolation of macrophages from milk was performed using a magnetic positive separation; separated cells were lysed and activity of urokinase-PA was determined. PL activity in milk decreased during lactation (P < 0.001. The reduction in plasmin activity recorded in the mid and late lactation milk matched with the increase in PG/PL ratio (P < 0.001. The activity of PA increased throughout lactation (P < 0.001, the highest value being recorded in the late lactation milk.The amount of isolated and concentrated macrophages was higher in early and mid lactation milk than in late lactation milk (P < 0.01. Stage of lactation did not influence the activity of u-PA detected in isolated macrophages. The activity of u-PA associated with macrophages was lower than total PA activity detected in milk. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that in ewe bulk milk from healthy flocks macrophages only slightly contributed to the activation of plasmin/plasminogen system.

  12. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  13. High mechanical Q-factor measurements on silicon bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrodt, R; Zimmer, A; Koettig, T; Schwarz, C; Heinert, D; Hudl, M; Neubert, R; Thuerk, M; Nietzsche, S; Vodel, W; Seidel, P [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: ronny.nawrodt@uni-jena.de

    2008-07-15

    Future gravitational wave detectors will be limited by different kinds of noise. Thermal noise from the coatings and the substrate material will be a serious noise contribution within the detection band of these detectors. Cooling and the use of a high mechanical Q-factor material as a substrate material will reduce the thermal noise contribution from the substrates. Silicon is one of the most interesting materials for a third generation cryogenic detector. Due to the fact that the coefficient of thermal expansion vanishes at 18 and 125 K the thermoelastic contribution to the thermal noise will disappear. We present a systematic analysis of the mechanical Q-factor at low temperatures between 5 and 300 K on bulk silicon (100) samples which are boron doped. The thickness of the cylindrical samples is varied between 6, 12, 24, and 75mm with a constant diameter of 3 inches. For the 75mm substrate a comparison between the (100) and the (111) orientation is presented. In order to obtain the mechanical Q-factor a ring-down measurement is performed. Thus, the substrate is excited to resonant vibrations by means of an electrostatic driving plate and the subsequent ring-down is recorded using a Michelson-like interferometer. The substrate itself is suspended as a pendulum by means of a tungsten wire loop. All measurements are carried out in a special cryostat which provides a temperature stability of better than 0.1K between 5 and 300K during the experiment. The influence of the suspension on the measurements is experimentally investigated and discussed. At 5.8K a highest Q-factor of 4.5 x 10{sup 8} was achieved for the 14.9 kHz mode of a silicon (100) substrate with a diameter of 3 inches and a thickness of 12 mm.

  14. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...

  15. Direct observation of nucleation in the bulk of an opaque sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William

    2017-01-01

    differential aperture X-ray microscopy is used for the measurements, allowing us to map a selected gauge volume in the bulk of the sample in the deformed state, then anneal the sample and map the exact same gauge volume in the annealed state. It is found that nuclei develop at sites of high stored energy...

  16. Nitrogen Detection in Bulk Samples Using a D-D Reaction-Based Portable Neutron Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Naqvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen concentration was measured via 2.52 MeV nitrogen gamma ray from melamine, caffeine, urea, and disperse orange bulk samples using a newly designed D-D portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma ray setup. Inspite of low flux of thermal neutrons produced by D-D reaction-based portable neutron generator and interference of 2.52 MeV gamma rays from nitrogen in bulk samples with 2.50 MeV gamma ray from bismuth in BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays indicates satisfactory performance of the setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  17. Analysis and Optimization of Bulk DNA Sampling with Binary Scoring for Germplasm Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio; Martínez, Octavio; Simpson, June; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Cortés-Romero, Celso

    2013-01-01

    The strategy of bulk DNA sampling has been a valuable method for studying large numbers of individuals through genetic markers. The application of this strategy for discrimination among germplasm sources was analyzed through information theory, considering the case of polymorphic alleles scored binarily for their presence or absence in DNA pools. We defined the informativeness of a set of marker loci in bulks as the mutual information between genotype and population identity, composed by two terms: diversity and noise. The first term is the entropy of bulk genotypes, whereas the noise term is measured through the conditional entropy of bulk genotypes given germplasm sources. Thus, optimizing marker information implies increasing diversity and reducing noise. Simple formulas were devised to estimate marker information per allele from a set of estimated allele frequencies across populations. As an example, they allowed optimization of bulk size for SSR genotyping in maize, from allele frequencies estimated in a sample of 56 maize populations. It was found that a sample of 30 plants from a random mating population is adequate for maize germplasm SSR characterization. We analyzed the use of divided bulks to overcome the allele dilution problem in DNA pools, and concluded that samples of 30 plants divided into three bulks of 10 plants are efficient to characterize maize germplasm sources through SSR with a good control of the dilution problem. We estimated the informativeness of 30 SSR loci from the estimated allele frequencies in maize populations, and found a wide variation of marker informativeness, which positively correlated with the number of alleles per locus. PMID:24260321

  18. Analysis and optimization of bulk DNA sampling with binary scoring for germplasm characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Humberto Reyes-Valdés

    Full Text Available The strategy of bulk DNA sampling has been a valuable method for studying large numbers of individuals through genetic markers. The application of this strategy for discrimination among germplasm sources was analyzed through information theory, considering the case of polymorphic alleles scored binarily for their presence or absence in DNA pools. We defined the informativeness of a set of marker loci in bulks as the mutual information between genotype and population identity, composed by two terms: diversity and noise. The first term is the entropy of bulk genotypes, whereas the noise term is measured through the conditional entropy of bulk genotypes given germplasm sources. Thus, optimizing marker information implies increasing diversity and reducing noise. Simple formulas were devised to estimate marker information per allele from a set of estimated allele frequencies across populations. As an example, they allowed optimization of bulk size for SSR genotyping in maize, from allele frequencies estimated in a sample of 56 maize populations. It was found that a sample of 30 plants from a random mating population is adequate for maize germplasm SSR characterization. We analyzed the use of divided bulks to overcome the allele dilution problem in DNA pools, and concluded that samples of 30 plants divided into three bulks of 10 plants are efficient to characterize maize germplasm sources through SSR with a good control of the dilution problem. We estimated the informativeness of 30 SSR loci from the estimated allele frequencies in maize populations, and found a wide variation of marker informativeness, which positively correlated with the number of alleles per locus.

  19. Can Soil Penetration Resistance and Bulk Density Be Determined in a Single Undisturbed Sample?

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    Carolina Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality indicators such as penetration resistance (PR and bulk density (BD are traditionally determined in a single undisturbed soil sample. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PR measurements of undisturbed samples on the determination of BD in the same sample of two soils differing in clay contents. To this end, samples were collected from the 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m layers of two soils of clayey and very clayey texture. Volumetric rings were used to collect a total of 120 undisturbed soil samples from each soil layer that were divided into two subsets containing 60 units each. One sample set, designated “perforated samples”, was used to determine PR and BD in the same undisturbed sample; the other, named “intact samples”, was used to determine BD only. Bulk density values for perforated and intact samples were compared by analysis of variance, using a completely randomized experimental design. Means were compared by the t-test at 5 %. The BD values for the clayey soil were similar in perforated and intact samples from the two layers. However, BD of the very clayey soil was lower in the perforated than in the intact samples at both depths. Therefore, PR and BD in clayey soils can be accurately determined in the same undisturbed sample whereas in very clayey soils, different samples are required for this purpose.

  20. Impact of sample acquisition and linear amplification on gene expression profiling of lung adenocarcinoma: laser capture micro-dissection cell-sampling versus bulk tissue-sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigle Dennis A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methods used for sample selection and processing can have a strong influence on the expression values obtained through microarray profiling. Laser capture microdissection (LCM provides higher specificity in the selection of target cells compared to traditional bulk tissue selection methods, but at an increased processing cost. The benefit gained from the higher tissue specificity realized through LCM sampling is evaluated in this study through a comparison of microarray expression profiles obtained from same-samples using bulk and LCM processing. Methods Expression data from ten lung adenocarcinoma samples and six adjacent normal samples were acquired using LCM and bulk sampling methods. Expression values were evaluated for correlation between sample processing methods, as well as for bias introduced by the additional linear amplification required for LCM sample profiling. Results The direct comparison of expression values obtained from the bulk and LCM sampled datasets reveals a large number of probesets with significantly varied expression. Many of these variations were shown to be related to bias arising from the process of linear amplification, which is required for LCM sample preparation. A comparison of differentially expressed genes (cancer vs. normal selected in the bulk and LCM datasets also showed substantial differences. There were more than twice as many down-regulated probesets identified in the LCM data than identified in the bulk data. Controlling for the previously identified amplification bias did not have a substantial impact on the differences identified in the differentially expressed probesets found in the bulk and LCM samples. Conclusion LCM-coupled microarray expression profiling was shown to uniquely identify a large number of differentially expressed probesets not otherwise found using bulk tissue sampling. The information gain realized from the LCM sampling was limited to differential analysis

  1. Molecular detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine raw milk samples obtained directly from bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Acácia Orieth; Cortez, Adriana; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is the most common infectious disease affecting dairy cattle; in addition, it remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world. Streptococcus agalactiae, a contagious pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, is highly infectious. This bacterium can cause an increase in bulk tank bacterial counts (BTBC) and bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The microbiological identification of S. agalactiae in samples from bulk tanks is an auxiliary method to control contagious mastitis. Thus, there are some limitations for time-consuming cultures or identification methods and additional concerns about the conservation and transport of samples. Bulk tank samples from 247 dairy farms were cultured and compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directed to 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae, followed by BTBC and S. agalactiae isolation. The mean value of BTBC was 1.08×10(6) CFU mL(-1) and the bacterium was identified through the microbiological method in 98 (39.7%; CI(95%)=33.8-45.9%) and through PCR in 110 (44.5%; CI(95%)=38.5-50.8%) samples. Results indicated sensitivity of 0.8571±0.0353 (CI(95%)=0.7719-0.9196) and specificity of 0.8255±0.0311 (CI(95%)=0.7549-0.8827). The lack of significant difference between microbiological and molecular results (κ=0.6686±0.0477 and CI(95%)=0.5752-0.7620) indicated substantial agreement between the methods. This suggests that PCR can be used for bulk tank samples to detect contagious mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  2. Prompt gamma tests of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and BGO detectors for detection of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Fares A.; Khiari, F.Z. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-08-21

    Prompt gamma ray tests of cylindrical lanthanum halide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) and bismuth germanate (BGO) gamma ray detectors have been carried out for detection of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen concentrations in bulk samples via inelastic scattering of neutrons using a 14 MeV neutron-based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis setup. Regardless of its intrinsic activity, the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector showed superior performance than the BGO detector for the detection of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen concentrations in benzene, water, toluene, propanol, ethanol and methanol bulk samples. The BGO detector has a large concentration of oxygen in its detector material and is consequently less sensitive for oxygen detection in bulk samples. Hence, it is not a suitable choice for oxygen determination in bulk samples.

  3. {sup 10}Be measurements at MALT using reduced-size samples of bulk sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho, E-mail: kh@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Oniyanagi, Itsumi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Wasada, Hiroshi [Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Graduate school of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [MALT, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    In order to establish {sup 10}Be measurements on reduced-size (1-10 mg) samples of bulk sediments, we investigated four different pretreatment designs using lacustrine and marginal-sea sediments and the AMS system of the Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT) at University of Tokyo. The {sup 10}Be concentrations obtained from the samples of 1-10 mg agreed within a precision of 3-5% with the values previously determined using corresponding ordinary-size ({approx}200 mg) samples and the same AMS system. This fact demonstrates reliable determinations of {sup 10}Be with milligram levels of recent bulk sediments at MALT. On the other hand, a clear decline of the BeO{sup -} beam with tens of micrograms of {sup 9}Be carrier suggests that the combination of ten milligrams of sediments and a few hundred micrograms of the {sup 9}Be carrier is more convenient at this stage.

  4. Microstructural evolution in multiseeded YBCO bulk samples grown by the TSMG process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, A.; Shi, Y.-H.; Durrell, J. H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Speller, S. C.

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting single-grain YBCO bulk samples with the ability to trap high magnetic fields can be grown using the top-seeded melt-growth process. Multiseeding techniques have the potential to enable larger diameter bulks to be grown, but the performance of these materials is not yet comparable to the single-seeded bulks. Here we carry out detailed three-dimensional microstructural characterisation on a multiseeded sample grown with the seeds aligned in the 0°-0° geometry using high resolution microanalysis techniques. Chemical and structural variations have been correlated with the trapped field distribution in three separate slices of the sample. The top slice of the sample shows four peaks in trapped field, indicating that the current flows in four separate loops rather than in one large loop within the sample. This has been explained by the build-up in insulating Y-211 particles where the growth fronts from the two seeds meet, forming a barrier to current flow, as well as the low Y-211 content (and hence low J c) of the large c-axis growth sector.

  5. Preparation and investigation of bulk and thin film samples of strontium ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Poorbafrani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available   In this article, bulk and thin film samples of strontium ferrite have been studied. Due to the high electrical resistivity in strontium ferrite, energy loss due to eddy currents reduces and because of this, it can be used in high frequency magnetic circuits. On the other hand, strontium ferrite has attracted much attention as a permanent magnet. At first, we study the preparation process of bulk samples of strontium ferrite by a solid state reaction technique. In preparation of samples, to optimize the magnetic properties, we have used the stoichiometry factor (n = Fe2O3 / SrO of 5.25. In addition, we have used additives such as CaO and SiO2 to control grain growth. The samples have been prepared in two series: Isotropic and Anisotropic. For preparation of anisotropic samples, the magnetic field of 1T has been used for orientation of the grains during the press. Then, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, EDAX analysis and Magnetometer, was used for analyzing and comparing of structural and magnetic properties of isotropic and anisotropic samples. The results indicate that, due to the applied magnetic field, the structural and Magnetic properties of anisotropic samples improved efficiently because of the orientation of the grains during the press. In the next stage, we used bulk samples to prepare strontium ferrite thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique (PLD. The Si (111 substrate has been used to prepare the thin films. Then we have studied the microstructure of thin films by X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDAX analysis. These studies on different samples show that for the preparation of crystalline phase of strontium ferrite thin films, the substrate temperature must be higher than 800˚C. The optimum conditions for preparation of strontium, ferrite thin films have been achieved on the substrate temperature of 840˚C and oxygen pressure of 75 mtorr.

  6. Titania doping effect on superconducting properties of MgB2 bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, G.; Bridoux, G.; Serquis, A.

    2009-05-01

    In this work we study the microstructural and superconducting properties of doped and undoped bulk MgB2 samples prepared by solid-state reaction, with 0 and 2.5 %at. nominal TiO2 nanotubes contents, annealed at different temperatures in the 750-900°C range. We discuss the Tc, Jc and Hc2 performance and their correlation with the different synthesis parameters.

  7. Titania doping effect on superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, G; Serquis, A [Institute Balseiro - Centra Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bridoux, G, E-mail: serranog@ib.cnea.gov.a [Institute Balseiro - Centra Atomico Bariloche, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    In this work we study the microstructural and superconducting properties of doped and undoped bulk MgB{sub 2} samples prepared by solid-state reaction, with 0 and 2.5 %at. nominal TiO{sub 2} nanotubes contents, annealed at different temperatures in the 750-900 deg. C range. We discuss the T{sub c}, J{sub c} and H{sub c2} performance and their correlation with the different synthesis parameters.

  8. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  9. Electrical switching in bulk samples of 0. 15As-0. 12Ge-0. 73Te glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckels, D.E.

    1976-06-01

    Switching in bulk samples of 0.15As--0.12Ge--0.73Te glass is found to be caused predominantly by the thermal switching mechanism for near threshold applied voltages. Switching also occurred by the thermal mechanism even for applied voltages an order of magnitude above the threshold voltage of the sample. In order to investigate a switching event in this glass sample, a constant voltage pulse was applied to the sample and the delay time and the electrical energy input to the sample during the delay time measured. A log--log plot of the energy input to the sample during a delay time of 1.00 s as a function of the electrode spacing on the sample's surface was found to have a slope of approximately 1.6. For the theoretical study of the thermal switching mechanism, a one-dimensional calculation of the heat balance equation with radial heat flow was made and the results of the calculation followed the same trends as the experimental data. The large scatter in parts of the data and the increase in the average resistance of the sample for a switching event with near threshold applied voltages could not be explained by the thermal switching mechanism. These effects could be a manifestation of the structural changes which probably occur in the sample as a result of the high temperatures present at the moment of switching. 33 fig.

  10. Electric transport measurements on bulk, polycrystalline MgB2 samples prepared at various reaction temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Murakami, M.; Hartmann, U.

    2016-03-01

    A series of disk-shaped, bulk MgB2 superconductors (sample diameter up to 4 cm) was prepared in order to improve the performance for superconducting super-magnets. Several samples were fabricated using a solid state reaction in pure Ar atmosphere from 750 to 950oC in order to determine the optimum processing parameters to obtain the highest critical current density as well as large trapped field values. Additional samples were prepared with added silver (up to 10 wt.-%) to the Mg and B powder. Magneto-resistance data and I/V-characteristics were recorded using an Oxford Instruments Teslatron system. From Arrhenius plots, we determine the TAFF pinning potential, U 0. The I/V-characteristics yield detailed information on the current flow through the polycrystalline samples. The current flow is influenced by the presence of pores in the samples. Our analysis of the achieved critical currents together with a thorough microstructure investigation reveals that the samples prepared at temperatures between 775°C and 805°C exhibit the smallest grains and the best connectivity between them, while the samples fabricated at higher reaction temperatures show a reduced connectivity and lower pinning potential. Doping the samples with silver leads to a considerable increase of the pinning potential and hence, the critical current densities.

  11. Crystallization of bulk samples of partially amorphous spray-dried lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, P; Buckton, G

    1998-11-01

    The crystallization of partially amorphous spray-dried lactose was studied as a function of sample size. Crystallization occurred gradually over a period of 80 hr for a 95-g sample. The water content during crystallization was lower than that needed to cause crystallization if it had been distributed evenly throughout the bed, thus the absorbed water must have been unevenly distributed. The weight of the sample continued to change for days after crystallization was completed, because of the slow desorption of condensed water and the very slow formation of the hydrate form. Surprisingly, all samples with a weight between 42 and 95 g were found to take up the same mass (not percent) of water at the same time. This provides further evidence that the water was not evenly distributed throughout the sample. Water loss after this peak differed in the different weight samples, with the largest weights resulting in the lowest residual weight after 2 weeks. Only the sample of 22 g load had a different peak weight and a much lower weight loss after crystallization. This study provides detail of how partially amorphous bulk samples crystallize.

  12. Magnetism in Mn and Co doped ZnO bulk samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YongQiang; YUAN SongLiu; SONG YunXing; LIU Li; TIAN ZhaoMing; LI Pai; ZHOU YuanMing; LI YunLong; YIN ShiYan

    2007-01-01

    Bulk samples with nominal composition Zn0.95Co0.05O and Zn0.92Co0.05Mn0.03O were fabricated by a solid-state reaction method at 600℃. X-ray diffraction experiment showed that the peaks of secondary phase Co3O4 with a cubic structure were visible in both samples, besides the main peaks of wurtzite structure as ZnO. Magnetization measurement indicated that doping Co alone can induce ferromagnetism in ZnO itself, while the introduction of Mn significantly enhances ferromagnetism. However,both samples showed different magnetic behavior at temperatures below 50 K. It was also noted that ferromagnetic coupling interaction was weakened due to the presence of antiferromagnetic Co3O4.

  13. Direct observation of nucleation in the bulk of an opaque sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew; Wu, Guilin; Liu, Wenjun; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Liu, Qing; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2017-02-01

    Remarkably little is known about the physical phenomena leading to nucleation of new perfect crystals within deformed metals during annealing, in particular how and where volumes with nearly perfect lattices evolve from structures filled with dislocations, and how local variations at the micrometer length scale affect this nucleation process. We present here the first experimental measurements that relate directly nucleation of recrystallization to the local deformation microstructure in the bulk of a sample of cold rolled aluminum, further deformed locally by a hardness indentation. White beam differential aperture X-ray microscopy is used for the measurements, allowing us to map a selected gauge volume in the bulk of the sample in the deformed state, then anneal the sample and map the exact same gauge volume in the annealed state. It is found that nuclei develop at sites of high stored energy and they have crystallographic orientations from those present in the deformed state. Accordingly we suggest that for each nucleus the embryonic volume arises from a structural element contained within the voxels identified with the same orientation. Possible nucleation mechanisms are discussed and the growth potentials of the nuclei are also analyzed and discussed.

  14. Universality in the bulk of the spectrum for complex sample covariance matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Péché, S

    2009-01-01

    We consider complex sample covariance matrices $M_N=\\frac{1}{N}YY^*$ where $Y$ is a $N \\times p$ random matrix with i.i.d. entries $Y_{ij}, 1\\leq i\\leq N, 1\\leq j \\leq p$ with distribution $F$. Under some regularity and decay assumption on $F$, we prove universality of some local eigenvalue statistics in the bulk of the spectrum in the limit where $N\\to \\infty$ and $\\lim_{N \\to \\infty}p/N =\\gamma$ for any real number $\\gamma \\in (0, \\infty)$.

  15. Serosurveillance of Schmallenberg virus in Switzerland using bulk tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Sandra; Vögtlin, Andrea; Thür, Barbara; Büchi, Martina; Abril, Carlos; Houmard, Matthias; Danuser, Jürg; Schwermer, Heinzpeter

    2014-10-15

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus transmitted by biting midges, can cause abortions and malformations of newborns and severe symptoms in adults of domestic and wild ruminants. Understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the virus in a certain territory is important for the control and prevention of the disease. In this study, seroprevalence of antibodies against SBV and the spatial spread of the virus was investigated in Swiss dairy cattle applying a milk serology technique on bulk milk samples. The seroprevalence in cattle herds was significantly higher in December 2012 (99.5%) compared to July 2012 (19.7%). This high between-herd seroprevalence in cattle herds was observed shortly after the first detection of viral infections. Milk samples originating from farms with seropositive animals taken in December 2012 (n=209; mean 160%) revealed significantly higher S/P% ratios than samples collected in July 2012 (n=48; mean 103.6%). This finding suggests a high within-herd seroprevalence in infected herds which makes testing of bulk tank milk samples for the identification farms with past exposures to SBV a sensitive method. It suggests also that within-herd transmission followed by seroconversion still occurred between July and December. In July 2012, positive bulk tank milk samples were mainly restricted to the western part of Switzerland whereas in December 2012, all samples except one were positive. A spatial analysis revealed a separation of regions with and without positive farms in July 2012 and no spatial clustering within the regions with positive farms. In contrast to the spatial dispersion of bluetongue virus, a virus that is also transmitted by Culicoides midges, in 2008 in Switzerland, the spread of SBV occurred from the western to the eastern part of the country. The dispersed incursion of SBV took place in the western part of Switzerland and the virus spread rapidly to the remaining territory. This spatial

  16. Femtosecond laser fabrication of linear graphitized microstructures in a bulk of polycarbonate samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, D. V.; Lapshin, K. E.; Obidin, A. Z.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We have fabricated high aspect ratio straight and curved graphitized lines inside of polycarbonate samples by using a femtosecond laser. Use of a spherical lens with high NA to focusing femtosecond pulse in the bulk of material leads to self-diffraction of laser beam and formation a filamentary structure. We fabricated two kinds of graphitized lines. The first type is a straight line extended in the direction of the laser beam. This type of lines was created by femtosecond laser scanning without pulse overlapping. The second type of graphitized lines is curved lines, which was created by scanning with a significant overlapping of focal spot. We determined conditions of the formation of straight graphitized lines by one femtosecond pulse with diameter about 2 pm and length greater than 1 mm in polycarbonate samples. Mechanism of formation and potential applications of these structures are also discussed.

  17. Microstructural and magnetic analysis of a superconducting foam and comparison with IG-processed bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Ide, N.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Hauet, T.; Murakami, M.

    2016-03-01

    YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) foam samples show an open, porous foam structure, which may have benefits for many applications of high-T c superconductors. As the basic material of these foams is a pseudo-single crystalline material with the directional growth initiated by a seed crystal similar to standard melt-textured samples, the achieved texture of the YBCO is a very important parameter. We analyzed the local texture and grain orientation of the individual struts forming the foam by means of atomic force microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Furthermore, the magnetic properties of a foam strut are evaluated by means of SQUID measurements, from which the flux pinning forces were determined. A scaling of the pinning forces in the temperature range between 60 K and 85 K was performed. These data and the details of the microstructure are compared to IG-processed, bulk material.

  18. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, R; Philippe, M; Wera, L; Fagnard, J F; Vanderheyden, B; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Cardwell, D A; Vanderbemden, P

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm(3)) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m(2) (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

  19. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Preparation of carbon-nitride bulk samples in the presence of seed carbon-nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I. [Korea University of Technology and Education, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Zorov, N. B. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-05-15

    A procedure was developed for preparing bulk carbon-nitride crystals from polymeric alpha-C{sub 3}N{sub 4.2} at high pressure and high temperature in the presence of seeds of crystalline carbon-nitride films prepared by using a high-voltage discharge plasma combined with pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target. The samples were evaluated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Notably, XPS studies of the film composition before and after thermobaric treatments demonstrated that the nitrogen composition in the alpha-C{sub 3}N{sub 4.2} material, which initially contained more than 58 % nitrogen, decreased during the annealing process and reached a common, stable composition of approx 45 %. The thermobaric experiments were performed at 10 - 77 kbar and 350 - 1200 .deg. C.

  1. What governs the bulk velocity of the jet components in active galactic nuclei?

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Bo; Gu, Minfeng

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on the K\\"{o}nigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long-baseline interferometry and X-ray data. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecul...

  2. Somatic Cells in Bulk Samples and Purchase Prices of Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Kvapilík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were calculated the somatic cell count (SCC 209 (36 – 468 103ml–1, the total count of microorganisms (TCM 25 103ml–1 (from 5 to 377, fat 3.84 % (from 3.23 to 4.46 and protein content 3.39 % (from 3.04 to 3.75 and milk freezing point (MFP –0.525 °C (from –0.534 to –0.395 of the 522 monthly bulk milk samples from 11 experimental stables during the period from 2012 to 2015. Residues of inhibitory substances were not detected in any sample. Milk sale reached 7,999 liters (l with fluctuating between 6,150 and 10,532 l per cow. This can be deduced from the regression coefficients that due to increase in the SCC by 100 103ml–1 the TCM increased by 2.9 to 4.2 103ml–1, the fat content decreased by 0.09 to 0.13 % and protein about 0.01 to 0.05 %. Influence of SCC, TCM and the fat and protein content calculated from monthly samples for individual stables can be estimated at –0.12 CZC, fluctuations between the stables at +0.46 to –0.84 CZC per l of milk. The increase in milk price by 0.17 CZC in the range of –0.92 to +0.92 CZC per l of milk corresponds to averages of indicators calculated from 522 samples.

  3. Identification of rhenium donors and sulfur vacancy acceptors in layered MoS2 bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, F. D.; Ribeiro, G. M.; Vaz, P. H.; González, J. C.; Krambrock, K.

    2016-06-01

    MoS2 monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) direct semiconductor material with an energy gap of 1.9 eV, offer many opportunities to be explored in different electronic devices. Defects often play dominant roles in the electronic and optical properties of semiconductor devices. However, little experimental information about intrinsic and extrinsic defects or impurities is available for this 2D system, and even for macroscopic 3D samples for which MoS2 shows an indirect bandgap of 1.3 eV. In this work, we evaluate the nature of impurities with unpaired spins using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in different geological macroscopic samples. Regarding the fact that monolayers are mostly obtained from natural crystals, we expect that the majority of impurities found in macroscopic samples are also randomly present in MoS2 monolayers. By EPR at low temperatures, rhenium donors and sulfur vacancy acceptors are identified as the main impurities in bulk MoS2 with a corresponding donor concentration of about 108-12 defects/cm2 for MoS2 monolayer. Electrical transport experiments as a function of temperature are in good agreement with the EPR results, revealing a shallow donor state with an ionization energy of 89 meV and a concentration of 7 × 1015 cm-3, which we attribute to rhenium, as well as a second deeper donor state with ionization energy of 241 meV with high concentration of 2 × 1019 cm-3 and net acceptor concentration of 5 × 1018 cm-3 related to sulfur vacancies.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identification and quantitation of asbestos in bulk material samples that have undergone prior analysis by PLM or... must be analyzed initially for asbestos content by PLM. XRD should be used as an auxiliary method when... (sample size, homogeneity, particle size distribution, and overall composition as determined by PLM);...

  5. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  6. Denitrification, activity of bacterial flocs, and growth of a filamentous bacterium in relation with the bulking of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Activated sludge with poor settling characteristics is caught under the term "bulking" sludge. Various types of bulking activated sludge can be distinguished.
    1) Sludge containing an abundance of filamentous microorganisms.
    2) Sludge, characterized by excessive amount of

  7. Denitrification, activity of bacterial flocs, and growth of a filamentous bacterium in relation with the bulking of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Activated sludge with poor settling characteristics is caught under the term "bulking" sludge. Various types of bulking activated sludge can be distinguished.
    1) Sludge containing an abundance of filamentous microorganisms.
    2) Sludge, characterized by excessive amount of bacteria

  8. Denitrification, activity of bacterial flocs, and growth of a filamentous bacterium in relation with the bulking of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Activated sludge with poor settling characteristics is caught under the term "bulking" sludge. Various types of bulking activated sludge can be distinguished.1) Sludge containing an abundance of filamentous microorganisms.2) Sludge, characterized by excessive amount of bacterial slime.3) Flotating s

  9. Effect of Ca substitution on some physical properties of nano-structured and bulk Ni-ferrite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assar, S.T., E-mail: soha_talaat@yahoo.com; Abosheiasha, H.F.

    2015-01-15

    Nanoparticles of Ni{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.10) were prepared by citrate precursor method. A part of these samples was sintered at 600 °C for 2 h in order to keep the particles within the nano-size while the other part was sintered at 1000 °C to let the particles to grow to the bulk size. The effect of Ca{sup 2+} ion substitution in nickel ferrite on some structural, magnetic, electrical and thermal properties was investigated. All samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). A two probe method was used to measure the dc electrical conductivity whereas the photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to determine the thermal diffusivity of the samples. To interpret different experimental results for nano and bulk samples some cation distributions were assumed based on the VSM and XRD data. These suggested cation distributions give logical explanations for other experimental results such as the observed values of the absorption bands in FTIR spectra and the dc conductivity results. Finally, in the thermal measurements it was found that increasing the Ca{sup 2+} ion content causes a decrease in the thermal diffusivity of both nano and bulk samples. The explanation of this behavior is ascribed to the phonon-phonon scattering. - Highlights: • The physical properties of both nano and bulk samples of Ni-Ca ferrites were investigated. • Cation distribution plays a vital role in tailoring the physical properties of all the samples. • The dc conductivity of the nanosamples is higher than their bulk counterparts. • Increasing Ca{sup 2+} content enhances M{sub s}, M{sub r}, and σ{sub dc} of the bulk samples over their nanocounterparts. • The behavior of thermal diffusivity of the samples attributed to the phonon-phonon scattering.

  10. Contribution of macrophages to proteolysis and plasmin activity in ewe bulk milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, M; Marzano, A; Schena, L; Marino, R; Santillo, A; Albenzio, M

    2007-06-01

    A total of 225 bulk sheep milk samples were collected from 5 intensively managed flocks during early, mid, and late lactation to assess the contribution of macrophages to the regulation of the plasmin-plasminogen system. Samples were analyzed for composition, somatic cell counts, milk renneting characteristics, and for plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG), and plasminogen activators (PA) activities. Isolation of macrophages from milk was performed using a magnetic positive separation and mouse antiovine macrophage antibody; separated cells were lysed by several freeze-thaw cycles, and activity of urokinase PA (u-PA) was determined. Plasmin activity decreased during lactation (42.06 +/- 0.66, early; 31.29 +/- 0.66, mid; 28.19 +/- 0.66 U/mL, late). The reduction in PL activity recorded in the mid and late lactation milk matched the increase in PG:PL ratio. The activity of PA increased throughout lactation; the highest value being recorded in the late lactation milk (260.20 +/- 8.66 U/mL). Counts of isolated and concentrated macrophages were higher in early and mid lactation milk (3.89 +/- 0.08 and 3.98 +/- 0.08 log10 cells/mL, respectively) than in late lactation milk (3.42 +/- 0.08 log10 cells/mL). Stage of lactation did not influence the activity of u-PA detected in isolated macrophages. The activity of u-PA associated with isolated milk macrophages only minimally contributed to total PA activity detected in milk. Proteolytic enzymes, associated with isolated macrophages, act on alpha-casein hydrolysis, as shown by urea-PAGE electrophoresis analysis. Somatic cell counts did not exceed 600,000 cells/mL, and this threshold can be considered a good index of health status of the flock and of the ability of milk to being processed. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that macrophages in ewe bulk milk from healthy flocks only slightly contribute to the activation of the PL-PG system.

  11. Suppression of integrin activation by activated Ras or Raf does not correlate with bulk activation of ERK MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul E; Oertli, Beat; Hansen, Malene; Chou, Fan-Li; Willumsen, Berthe M; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2002-07-01

    The rapid modulation of ligand-binding affinity ("activation") is a central property of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. The Ras family of small GTP-binding proteins and their downstream effectors are key players in regulating integrin activation. H-Ras can suppress integrin activation in fibroblasts via its downstream effector kinase, Raf-1. In contrast, to H-Ras, a closely related small GTP-binding protein R-Ras has the opposite activity, and promotes integrin activation. To gain insight into the regulation of integrin activation by Ras GTPases, we created a series of H-Ras/R-Ras chimeras. We found that a 35-amino acid stretch of H-Ras was required for full suppressive activity. Furthermore, the suppressive chimeras were weak activators of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway, suggesting that the suppression of integrin activation may be independent of the activation of the bulk of ERK MAP kinase. Additional data demonstrating that the ability of H-Ras or Raf-1 to suppress integrin activation was unaffected by inhibition of bulk ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation supported this hypothesis. Thus, the suppression of integrin activation is a Raf kinase induced regulatory event that can be mediated independently of bulk activation of the ERK MAP-kinase pathway.

  12. Non-destructive automated sampling of mycotoxins in bulk food and feed - A new tool for required harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, M; Stroka, J; Patel, S; Buechler, S; Pittet, A; Barel, S

    2001-06-01

    Mycotoxins contamination is highly non-uniformly distributed as is well recog-nized by the EC, by not only setting legal limits in a series of commodities, but also schedule a sampling plan that takes this heterogeneity into account. In practice however, it turns out that it is very difficult to carry out this sampling plan in a harmonised way. Applying the sampling plan to a container filled with pallets of bags (i.e. with nuts or coffee beans) varies from very laborious to almost impossible. The presented non-destructive automated method to sample bulk food could help to overcome these practical problems and to enforcing of EC directives. It is derived from a tested and approved technology for detection of illicit substances in security applications. It has capability to collect and iden-tify ultra trace contaminants, i.e. from a fingerprint of chemical substance in a bulk of goods, a cargo pallet load (~ 1000 kg) with boxes and commodities.The technology, patented for explosives detection, uses physical and chemistry processes for excitation and remote rapid enhanced release of contaminant residues, vapours and particulate, of the inner/outer surfaces of inspected bulk and collect them on selective probes. The process is automated, takes only 10 minutes, is non-destructive and the bulk itself remains unharmed. The system design is based on applicable international regulations for shipped cargo hand-ling and transportation by road, sea and air. After this process the pallet can be loaded on a truck, ship or plane. Analysis can be carried out before the cargo leaves the place of shipping. The potent application of this technology for myco-toxins detection, has been demonstrated by preliminary feasibility experiments. Aflatoxins were detected in pistachios and ochratoxin A in green coffee beans bulk. Both commodities were naturally contaminated, priory found and confirm-ed by common methods as used at routine inspections. Once the contaminants are extracted from a

  13. Phase analysis of aluminium modified GeSbTe bulk prepared from XRD of samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sharanjit; Singh, D.; Kumar, S.; Thangaraj, R.

    2016-05-01

    Various compositions of Aluminium modified GST as Alx(Ge2Sb2Te5)1-x x= 0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 are prepared to study as a phase change material. Bulk prepared is studied with XRD scans for various phases formed. Phases other than Ge2Sb2Te5 do come in but dominated one is Ge2Sb2Te5 hexagonal phase.

  14. Genomic and in situ investigations of the novel uncultured Chloroflexi associated with 0092 morphotype filamentous bulking in activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta;

    2016-01-01

    Overgrowth of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to impaired sludge settleability, a condition known as bulking, which is a common operational problem worldwide. Filaments with the Eikelboom 0092 morphotype are commonly associated with such bulking...

  15. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Mg1-xB2 Bulk Samples and Cu/Nb Sheathed Wires with Low Grade Amorphous Boron Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Alexiou, Aikaterini; Rubesova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulk and wire samples were prepared using cheap, low grade amorphous boron powders. Based on chemical analysis performed on the starting reagents, three nominal stoichiometries were studied. It was found that the structural and superconducting properties of the bulk samples were not affected...

  17. The activated sludge bulking filament Eikelboom morphotype 0914 is a member of the Chloroflexi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Lachlan B M; McIlroy, Simon J; Petrovski, Steve; Seviour, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    The filamentous bacterium Eikelboom morphotype type 0914 responsible for bulking in activated sludge plants is identified here for the first time as a member of the phylum Chloroflexi subgroup 1. Two FISH probes, CFX67a and CFX67b, targeting the 16S rRNA sequences of this filament morphotype were designed, validated and used successfully for its in situ identification. A survey of plants in eastern Australia with the CFX67a probe showed it targeted only the type 0914 morphotype that was common especially in long sludge age plants designed to remove phosphorus and nitrogen microbiologically, although being in very low abundance in many samples. Filaments responding to the CFX67b probe also exhibited the type 0914 morphology but were less frequent, although again occurring in similarly configured plants. All these filaments showed an uneven FISH signal suggesting their ribosomes are localized at the ends of their cells. Furthermore, some generated distinctive FISH signals in all biomass samples containing them, where only certain cells within any single trichome fluoresced with probes designed against different target sites. Helper probes for each of these were required before all cells fluoresced above the visual detection limits of FISH.

  18. Ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped KNbO{sub 3} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astudillo, A., E-mail: jaastudillo@unicauca.edu.co [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cauca, Calle 5 No. 4-70, Popayán (Colombia); Izquierdo, J.L. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellín, Departamento de Física, Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos y Vítreos, A.A. 568, Medellín (Colombia); Gómez, A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellín, Facultad de Minas, Laboratorio de Caracterización de Materiales, A.A. 568, Medellín (Colombia); Bolaños, G. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cauca, Calle 5 No. 4-70, Popayán (Colombia); Morán, O. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellín, Departamento de Física, Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos y Vítreos, A.A. 568, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, polycrystalline KNb{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) samples were synthesized through standard solid-state reaction, and their structural and magnetic properties were carefully studied. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns show reflections of a pure orthorhombic structure (space group Bmm2) with lattice parameters being very close to those reported in the literature. The most important point here is that all the samples ended up being single-phase with no affectation by impurities or segregates. The XRD peaks of Co-doped samples are broadened and shifted to the right side as compared to those of the pristine compound (x=0) suggesting effective substitution of Nb by Co ions. The Co-doped samples exhibit ferromagnetic properties at room temperature, which contrasts starkly with the paramagnetic behavior exhibited by the undoped sample. Interactions between bound magnetic polarons are considered as a possible scenario to explain the appearance of the ferromagnetic signal in the Co-doped samples. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline KNb{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) is synthesized by physical route. • XRD patterns show reflections of a pure orthorhombic structure. • No affectation by impurities or segregates is verified by XRD analysis. • The Co-doped samples exhibit ferromagnetic properties at room temperature.

  19. Anisotropic grain connectivity in shock consolidated MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hideyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Ohashi, Wataru [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kitazawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Matsuzawa, Hidenori [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Takano, Yoshihiko [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Atou, Toshiyuki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fukuoka, Kiyoto [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kikuchi, Masae [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawasaki, Masashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kakimoto, Etsuji [Advanced Material and Process Development Group, Explosives Division, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Oita 870-0392 (Japan); Dohke, Kiyotaka [Advanced Material and Process Development Group, Explosives Division, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Oita 870-0392 (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    We consolidated commercial MgB{sub 2} powders by two different shock consolidation methods: the single-stage propellant gun method and the underwater shock consolidation method. The samples prepared had anisotropic resistance-temperature features; the narrowest resistive transition width was observed along the directions of shock loading. In contrast, onset temperatures were independent of the directions and methods. No grain orientation previously observed would have resulted from the consolidation processes with a very short duration of {approx}1 {mu}s. The samples showed higher diamagnetism than a cold isostatic pressed (CIPed) sample at a low field of 1 Oe. However, their diamagnetism relatively degraded with increasing fields and eventually became much less than even that of the CIPed sample. This is due possibly to thick, much distorted grain boundaries that would have behaved as weak links at high fields.

  20. SUMMARY REPORT: THE CAUSES AND CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE BULKING AND FOAMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 92-page Technology Transfer Summary Report provides reference material on the causes and controls of sludge bulking and foaming in activated sludge treatment that can be readily understood, and it includes sufficient detail to help plant operators control their systems. The ...

  1. Study on effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneendra, Konduru, E-mail: phaneendra-50@yahoo.com; Asokan, K., E-mail: phaneendra-50@yahoo.com; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Vasanth Kung, New Delhi-110067 (India); Awana, V. P. S. [Quantum Phenomena and Applications, National Physical Laboratory, K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Sastry, S. Sreehari [Dept. of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522510 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of Magnesium Diboride (MgB{sub 2}) bulk superconductor samples prepared by solid state route method are compared. The samples are made by taking Magnesium and Boron powders in stoichiometric ratio, grounded well and pelletized at pressure of about 10Tonnes. These pellets are annealed in both Argon and vacuum environment separately up to 800°c for two hours. Both the samples show clear superconducting transition at Tc ∼ 38 k. This is further conformed by AC/DC magnetization (M-T), Resistivity [ρ (T, H)] measurements under magnetic field up to 14 Tesla as well. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction of both samples conformed the MgB{sub 2} phase formation with P6/mmm space group symmetry. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the surface revile more agglomeration of grains in case of Argon annealed samples. This result in more critical current density (J{sub c}) of Argon annealed samples than vacuum annealed one calculated from Bean's critical state model. This high Jc is explained in terms of more inter grain connectivity for Argon annealed sample than vacuum annealed sample.

  2. Study on effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of MgB2 bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneendra, Konduru; Asokan, K.; Awana, V. P. S.; Sastry, S. Sreehari; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-04-01

    Effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) bulk superconductor samples prepared by solid state route method are compared. The samples are made by taking Magnesium and Boron powders in stoichiometric ratio, grounded well and pelletized at pressure of about 10Tonnes. These pellets are annealed in both Argon and vacuum environment separately up to 800°c for two hours. Both the samples show clear superconducting transition at Tc ˜ 38 k. This is further conformed by AC/DC magnetization (M-T), Resistivity [ρ (T, H)] measurements under magnetic field up to 14 Tesla as well. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction of both samples conformed the MgB2 phase formation with P6/mmm space group symmetry. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the surface revile more agglomeration of grains in case of Argon annealed samples. This result in more critical current density (Jc) of Argon annealed samples than vacuum annealed one calculated from Bean's critical state model. This high Jc is explained in terms of more inter grain connectivity for Argon annealed sample than vacuum annealed sample.

  3. Numerical Study of the Effect of the Sample Aspect Ratio on the Ductility of Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) Under Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunpeng

    2016-05-01

    In this article, a systematic numerical study was conducted to study the detailed shear banding evolution in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with various sample aspect ratios under uniaxial compression, and whereby the effect of the sample aspect ratio on the compressive ductility was elucidated. A finite strain viscoelastic model was employed to describe the shear banding nucleation, growth, and coalescence in BMG samples with the help of Anand and Su's theory, which was incorporated into the ABAQUS finite element method code as a user material subroutine VUMAT. The present numerical method was first verified by comparing with the corresponding experimental results, and then parameter analysis was performed to discuss the impact of microstructure parameters on the predicted results. The present modeling will shed some light on enhancing the toughness of BMG structures in the engineering applications.

  4. Preparation of a Ag-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk sample by the floating-zone method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yukio; Michishita, Kazuo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Higashida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Hisanori

    1989-11-01

    Bulk samples with nominal composition of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(y) doped with 0, 10 and 20 wt pct Ag were prepared by the floating-zone method at growth rates of 2 mm/h and 5 mm/h. Ag-doping seems to slightly enhance J(c) while annealing is very effective for J(c) enhancement. From preliminary ac susceptibility measurements, the J(c) enhancement by annealing is considered to be due to improvement of the weak link between superconducting grains. The 10 percent Ag-doped sample grown at 2 mm/h possessed J(c) of 5360 A/sq cm at 77 K under zero magnetic field after annealing.

  5. Preparation of high J(c) Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk sample by floating zone method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yukio; Michishita, Kazuo; Higashida, Yutaka; Mizuno, Masatoshi; Yokoyama, Hisanori

    1989-04-01

    Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk samples with three different nominal compositions of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(y) Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(y) and Bi(0.7)Pb(0.3)SrCaCu(1.8)O(y) were prepared by the floating zone method at growth rates ranging from 2 mm/h to 70 mm/h. The sample grown at 2 mm/h with the nominal composition of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(y) possessed high density, highly aligned morphology, and a transport critical current density higher than 1490 A/sq cm at 77 K under a zero magnetic field without any postannealing.

  6. Investigations on neutron-induced prompt gamma ray analysis of bulk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokhale, P A; Csikai, J; Oláh, L

    2001-06-01

    A systematic investigation was carried out for the improvement of the prompt gamma interrogation method used for contraband detection by the pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA) technique. Optimizations of source detector shielding and geometry, role of the type and dimension of the gamma detector, attenuation of neutrons and gamma rays in bulky samples were also studied. Results obtained for both the shielding materials and elemental content of cocaine simulants have been compared with the values calculated by the MCNP-4A code.

  7. Note: Broadband cavity ring-down spectroscopy of an intra-cavity bulk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, T; Paa, W; Mühlig, C; Stafast, H

    2013-03-01

    A cavity ring-down (CRD) setup equipped with a pulsed broadband light source (480 nm ≤ λ ≤ 650 nm) and a multichannel detection system (temporal gate width Δτ = 20 ns) is used to simultaneously record the optical loss spectrum of an intra-cavity CaF2 sample and its changes upon transverse ArF laser irradiation at 193 nm. The CRD setup with mirrors of high reflectivity (R > 99.93%) allows to register loss changes of 5 × 10(-5) with a spectral resolution of 0.3 nm in less than 2 min.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of bulk and surface recombination lifetimes on asymmetrical silicon samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirleto, Luigi; Irace, Andrea; Vitale, Gianpaolo F.; Zeni, Luigi; Cutolo, Antonello

    2000-08-01

    In this paper, a contractless, all-optical and non-destructive method for separating the minority carrier recombination lifetime and surface recombination velocities on assymetrical silicon samples (that is with different surface recombination velocities on the front and back surface) at low injection level is presented. The technique can be described as a pump-probe method where the excess carrier density is probed by analyzing free carrier absorption transient following excitation pulses having several wavelengths. A novel theoretical approach to evaluate the recombinative parameters is extensively analyzed and numerical simulations, which validate the proposed methodology, are presented.

  9. Spectroscopy of PTCDA attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, M; Knoblauch, T; Bünermann, O; Rydlo, A; Minniberger, S; Harbich, W; Stienkemeier, F

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure and has not liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  10. A validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of mosapride citrate in bulk drug samples and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Y S R; Murthy, T K; Sankar, D G; Satyanarayana, V

    2002-12-01

    Mosapride citrate, a selective serotonin 5-HT4 agonist, is a novel and potent gastroprokinetic drug. So far no assay procedure has been reported for the estimation of this drug either in bulk drug samples, pharmaceutical formulations or in biological samples. A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of mosapride citrate in bulk drug samples and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Risperidone was used as an internal standard (ISD). A HPLC system consisting of gradient pump, reverse phase C-18 analytical column, a variable UV-visible detector set at 274 nm and an integrator was used. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 4.0 with o-phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v), and was pumped at 1 ml/min at 40 degrees C. The drug and ISD were eluted at 8.10 and 2.27 min, respectively. The peak drug/ISD area ratio versus drug concentration relationship was linear (r = 0.9998). The method was validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5 to 30 micrograms/ml. The lower detection limit was found to be 0.23 microgram/ml. The intra- and inter-day variation was found to be less than 1% showing high precision of the assay method. The mean recovery of the drug from the solutions containing 2, 4 or 10 micrograms/ml was 101.55 +/- 0.97% indicating high accuracy of the proposed HPLC method.

  11. Position control of active magnetic levitation using sphere-shaped HTS bulk for inertial nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, K.; Riku, K.; Agatsuma, K.; Ueda, H.; Ishiyama, A.

    2008-02-01

    We have developed an active magnetic levitation system that comprises a field-cooled disk-shaped or sphere-shaped HTS bulk and multiple ring-shaped electromagnets. In this system, the levitation height of HTS bulk can be controlled by adjusting the operating current of each electromagnet individually. Further, the application of the vertical noncontact levitation system is expected due to its levitation stability without mechanical supports. We assume that this system is applied to inertial nuclear fusion. However, one of the important issues is to achieve position control with high accuracy of the fusion fuel in order to illuminate the target evenly over the entire surface. Therefore, this system is applied to the levitation and position control of a sphere-shaped superconducting capsule containing nuclear fusion fuel. In this study, we designed and constructed a position control system for the sphere-shaped HTS bulk with a diameter of 5 mm by using numerical simulation based on hybrid finite element and boundary element analysis. We then carried out the experiment of levitation height and position control characteristics of the HTS bulk in this system. With regard to position control, accuracies within 59 ?m are obtained.

  12. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Smillie, Karen J; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-12-02

    The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.

  13. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  14. Preservation media analysis for ex vivo measurements of endogenous UV fluorescence of liver fibrosis in bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Perez-Garcia, Adolfo; Aleman-García, Nathalie; Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Sánchez-Pérez, Celia; Franco, Walfre; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín.

    2017-02-01

    Non-subjective, minimally-invasive, and quantifying techniques may support development and evaluation of a fibrosis regression treatment. The build-up of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis may result on changes of the endogenous fluorescence of tissue. In this work, we evaluate the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix in the UV range for several bulk samples of murine hepatic tissue preserved in different media. Chemical changes on tissue, caused by formaldehyde preservation, alter the endogenous fluorescence spectra. To avoid these drawbacks, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium were used. PBS buffer showed to be the less harmful and cost-effective preservation medium to study the endogenous fluorescence in fibrotic tissue.

  15. The in situ physiology of "Nostocoida limicola" II, a filamentous bacterial morphotype in bulking activated sludge, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and microautoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, E M; Eales, K; Izzard, L; Beer, M; Carr, E L; Seviour, R J

    2006-01-01

    The in situ physiology of the actinobacterial bulking and foaming filamentous bacterium "Nostocoida limicola" II was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization/microautoradiography. Substrate assimilation patterns of pure cultures of this bacterium were different to those seen in activated sludge biomass samples. There was no evidence to suggest that "N. limicola" II preferred hydrophobic substrates, but evidence was produced to support the view that it is metabolically active under anaerobic conditions in activated sludge.

  16. Thermally activated reaction–diffusion-controlled chemical bulk reactions of gases and solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Möller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical kinetics of the reaction of thin films with reactive gases is investigated. The removal of thin films using thermally activated solid–gas to gas reactions is a method to in-situ control deposition inventory in vacuum and plasma vessels. Significant scatter of experimental deposit removal rates at apparently similar conditions was observed in the past, highlighting the need for understanding the underlying processes. A model based on the presence of reactive gas in the films bulk and chemical kinetics is presented. The model describes the diffusion of reactive gas into the film and its chemical interaction with film constituents in the bulk using a stationary reaction–diffusion equation. This yields the reactive gas concentration and reaction rates. Diffusion and reaction rate limitations are depicted in parameter studies. Comparison with literature data on tokamak co-deposit removal results in good agreement of removal rates as a function of pressure, film thickness and temperature.

  17. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  18. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  19. Effects of P and C inputs on microbial activities in P limiting bulk and rhizosphere soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyera, Nataliya

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: phosphorus, soil ATP, phosphatase, microbial biomass, Cambisol. Phosphorus (P) is the second important nutrient for plants and limiting element in many ecosystems. P is a non-renewable resource, and based on its current rate of use, it has been estimated that the worlds known reserves of P rocks may be depleted within the current century. Soils with high-sorption P capacity require higher P additions, but, do not provide plants with sufficient available P. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce P application rates, but facilitate soil microbiological activity to maintain good P availability for plants. We aimed to study soil adenosine triphosphate (ATP), microbial biomass (MBC) and phosphatase activity as microbial response to contrasting P input in a low P Cambisol in a 5 days incubation experiment. The treatments were i) bulk soil (no C), ii) rhizosphere soil (10 μg C g-1 soil day-1 - root exudates imitation) and iii) glucose addition to soil (50 μg C g-1 soil - for microbial activation). Three rates of P as KH2PO4 were applied at each C treatments: i) no P (P0) - for P severe limitation; ii) 10% P from initial extractable soil P (P10) - low P input; and iii) 50% P from initial extractable soil P (P50) - high P input. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) the better response of MBC and ATP to P is expected to be in the rhizosphere soil, as continuous C input resulted in gradual microbial activation; 2) phosphatase activity will decrease with increasing P rates in all soils. Microbial biomass grew linear (R2=0.99) and simultaneously with incremental P addition in bulk soil. In rhizosphere and C-amended soils, on contrary, the MBC response to P level was represented by quadratic model (y=-0.06x2+2.84x+37.03; R2=0.93). This model shows the highest MBC value at P23, which indicates optimal and the most effective application rate for this soil type. The correlation between soil ATP content and P rates ascended in the order bulk soil (R2=0.34) > C

  20. Nocturnal motor activity in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, E; Alanen, E; Hyyppä, M T

    1993-09-01

    The relationships between nocturnal motor activity and daytime psychophysiological activation were investigated in a random community sample of 199 subjects aged 35-55 years. Nocturnal motor activity was recorded with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB, Bio-Matt). The association of nocturnal motor activity with demographic features, health status, laboratory blood values, afternoon electrodermal activity (EDA) and psychological distress was studied. A model for nocturnal motor activity was constructed and statistically analyzed. The analysis revealed that psychological distress, breathing disturbance, plasma glucose level and sympathetic activity were related significantly and independently to nocturnal motor activity. Their relations and the associations of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), sleep latency and health status with nocturnal motor activity were discussed in the context of the arousal theory of poor sleep.

  1. Plasma treatment of bulk niobium surface for superconducting rf cavities: Optimization of the experimental conditions on flat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rašković

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator performance, in particular the average accelerating field and the cavity quality factor, depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity surface. Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to eliminate nonsuperconductive pollutants in the penetration depth region and to remove the mechanically damaged surface layer, which improves the surface roughness. Here we show that the plasma treatment of bulk niobium (Nb presents an alternative surface preparation method to the commonly used buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing methods. We have optimized the experimental conditions in the microwave glow discharge system and their influence on the Nb removal rate on flat samples. We have achieved an etching rate of 1.7  μm/min⁡ using only 3% chlorine in the reactive mixture. Combining a fast etching step with a moderate one, we have improved the surface roughness without exposing the sample surface to the environment. We intend to apply the optimized experimental conditions to the preparation of single cell cavities, pursuing the improvement of their rf performance.

  2. Irreversibility line and magnetic field dependence of the critical current in superconducting MgB sub 2 bulk samples

    CERN Document Server

    Gioacchino, D D; Tripodi, P; Grimaldi, G

    2003-01-01

    The third harmonic components of the ac susceptibility of MgB sub 2 bulk samples have been measured as a function of applied magnetic fields, together with standard magnetization cycles. The irreversibility line (IL) of the magnetic field has been extracted from the onset of the third harmonic components. Using a (1 - t) supalpha glass/liquid best fit where alpha 1.27 IL shows a coherent length xi divergence with exponent nu = 0.63, which indicates a 3D behaviour. Moreover, using the numerical solution of the non-linear magnetic diffusion equation, considering the creep model in a 3D vortex glass, a good description of the vortex dynamics has been obtained. The behaviour of the magnetization amplitude (approx Hz) and the ac susceptibility signals (kHz), at different applied magnetic fields, 3.5 T < H sub d sub c < 4.5 T, and at the reduced temperature 0.86 < t < 0.93 (T = 22 K), shows that the superconducting dynamic response of vortices in the MgB sub 2 samples is not evidently dependent on the f...

  3. Effects of different bulking agents on the maturity, enzymatic activity, and microbial community functional diversity of kitchen waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenwei; Gu, Jie; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-10-01

    Aerobic composting is an effective method for the disposal and utilization of kitchen waste. However, the addition of a bulking agent is necessary during kitchen waste composting because of its high moisture content and low C/N ratio. In order to select a suitable bulking agent, we investigated the influence of leaf litter (LL), sawdust (SD), and wheat straw (WS) on the enzymatic activity, microbial community functional diversity, and maturity indices during the kitchen waste composting process. The results showed that the addition of WS yielded the highest maturity (the C/N ratio decreased from 25 to 13, T value = 0.5, and germination index (GI) = 114.7%), whereas the compost containing SD as a bulking agent had the lowest maturity (GI = 32.4%). The maximum cellulase and urease activities were observed with the WS treatment on day 8, whereas the SD treatment had the lowest cellulase activity and the LL treatment had the lowest urease activity. The compost temperature and microbial activity (as the average well color development) showed that bulking the composts with SD prolonged the composting process. The diversity index based on the community-level physiological profile showed that the composts bulked with LL and WS had greater microbial community functional diversity compared with those bulked with SD. Thus, the maturity indexes and enzymatic activities suggest that WS is a suitable bulking agent for use in kitchen waste composting systems.

  4. Windowed active sampling for reliable neural learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I; Spaanenburg, L

    1998-01-01

    The composition of the example set has a major impact on the quality of neural learning. The popular approach is focused on extensive pre-processing to bridge the representation gap between process measurement and neural presentation. In contrast, windowed active sampling attempts to solve these pro

  5. Calculation of elastic properties in lower part of the Kola borehole from bulk chemical compositions of core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babeyko, A.Yu.; Sobolev, S.V. [Shmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany); Sinelnikov, E.D. [Shmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Smirnov, Yu.P. [Scientific Center SG-3, Zapoliarniy (Russian Federation); Derevschikova, N.A. [Shmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-01

    In-situ elastic properties in deep boreholes are controlled by several factors, mainly by lithology, petrofabric, fluid-filled cracks and pores. In order to separate the effects of different factors it is useful to extract lithology-controlled part from observed in-situ velocities. For that purpose we calculated mineralogical composition and isotropic crack-free elastic properties in the lower part of the Kola borehole from bulk chemical compositions of core samples. We use a new technique of petrophysical modeling based on thermodynamic approach. The reasonable accuracy of the modeling is confirmed by comparison with the observations of mineralogical composition and laboratory measurements of density and elastic wave velocities in upper crustal crystalline rocks at high confining pressure. Calculations were carried out for 896 core samples from the depth segment of 6840-10535m. Using these results we estimate density and crack-free isotropic elastic properties of 554 lithology-defined layers composing this depth segment. Average synthetic P-wave velocity appears to be 2.7% higher than the velocity from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), and 5% higher than sonic log velocity. Average synthetic S-wave velocity is 1.4% higher than that from VSP. These differences can be explained by superposition of effects of fabric-related anisotropy, cracks aligned parallel to the foliation plain, and randomly oriented cracks, with the effects of cracks being the predominant control. Low sonic log velocities are likely caused by drilling-induced cracking (hydrofractures) in the borehole walls. The calculated synthetic density and velocity cross-sections can be used for much more detailed interpretations, for which, however, new, more detailed and reliable seismic data are required.

  6. IMITATION OF STANDARD VOLUMETRIC ACTIVITY METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhukouski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific character of problems in the field of ionizing radiation spectroscopy, the R&D and making process of standard volumetric activity metal samples (standard samples for calibration and verification of spectrometric equipment is not only expensive, but also requires the use of highly qualified experts and a unique specific equipment. Theoretical and experimental studies performed have shown the possibility to use imitators as a set of alternating point sources of gamma radiation and metal plates and their use along with standard volumetric activity metal samples for calibration of scintillation-based detectors used in radiation control in metallurgy. Response functions or instrumental spectra of such spectrometer to radionuclides like 137Cs, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co, 54Mn, 232Th, 226Ra, 65Zn, 125Sb+125mTe, 106Ru+106Rh, 94Nb, 110mAg, 233U, 234U, 235U and 238U are required for calibration in a given measurement geometry. Standard samples in the form of a probe made of melt metal of a certain diameter and height are used in such measurements. However, the production of reference materials is costly and even problematic for such radionuclides as 94Nb, 125Sb+125mTe, 234U, 235U  etc. A recognized solution to solve this problem is to use the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Instrumental experimental and theoretical spectra obtained by using standard samples and their imitators show a high compliance between experimental spectra of real samples and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models, between spectra of real samples and the ones of their imitators and finally, between experimental spectra of real sample imitators and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models. They also have shown the adequacy and consistency of the approach in using a combination of metal scattering layers and reference point gamma-ray sources instead of standard volumetric activity metal samples. As for using several reference point gamma-ray sources

  7. Optimizing vermistabilization of waste activated sludge using vermicompost as bulking material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-03-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting system has been developed for stabilization of waste activated sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as bulking material and Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Composting was considered as the main processing unit and vermicomposting as polishing unit. The integrated system was optimized by successive recycling and mixing of bulking material with WAS during composting and examining the effects of environmental condition (i.e. temperature: 10-30°C and relative humidity: 50 and 90%) and stocking density (0-5 kg/m(2)) on vermicomposting. The composting stage resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with WAS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting of composted material caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and a substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP). The environmental conditions (i.e. temperature: 10-30°C and relative humidity: 50 and 90%) and stocking density (0-5 kg/m(2)) have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is the best suited environmental condition for vermicomposting employing E. fetida. The favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg/m(2) (optimum: 0.5 kg/m(2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg/m(2) (optimum: 3.0 kg/m(2)), respectively. The integrated composting-vermicomposting system potentially stabilizes and converts the hazardous WAS into quality organic manure for agronomic applications without any adverse effects.

  8. Morphology dependent oxygen reduction activity of titanium carbide: bulk vs. nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Srinivasu, Kancharlapalli; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2013-06-14

    Titanium carbide (TiC) possesses fascinating properties like high electrical conductivity and high mechanical strength coupled with high corrosion resistance and stability in acidic and alkaline environments. The present study demonstrates the tunability of mechanistic aspects of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using TiC nanostructures. One dimensional TiC nanostructures (TiC-NW) have been synthesized using a simple, hydrothermal method and used as a catalyst for ORR. Shape dependent electroactivity is demonstrated by comparing the activity of TiC-NW with its bulk counterparts. Comparative studies reveal higher ORR activities in the case of 1D TiC-NW involving ~4 electrons showing efficient reduction of molecular oxygen. Excellent stability and high methanol tolerance with good selectivity for ORR is reported.

  9. Key physiological parameters dictate triggering of activity-dependent bulk endocytosis in hippocampal synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Wenzel

    Full Text Available To maintain neurotransmission in central neurons, several mechanisms are employed to retrieve synaptically exocytosed membrane. The two major modes of synaptic vesicle (SV retrieval are clathrin-mediated endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE. ADBE is the dominant SV retrieval mode during intense stimulation, however the precise physiological conditions that trigger this mode are not resolved. To determine these parameters we manipulated rat hippocampal neurons using a wide spectrum of stimuli by varying both the pattern and duration of stimulation. Using live-cell fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy approaches, we established that stimulation frequency, rather than the stimulation load, was critical in the triggering of ADBE. Thus two hundred action potentials, when delivered at high frequency, were sufficient to induce near maximal bulk formation. Furthermore we observed a strong correlation between SV pool size and ability to perform ADBE. We also identified that inhibitory nerve terminals were more likely to utilize ADBE and had a larger SV recycling pool. Thus ADBE in hippocampal synaptic terminals is tightly coupled to stimulation frequency and is more likely to occur in terminals with large SV pools. These results implicate ADBE as a key modulator of both hippocampal neurotransmission and plasticity.

  10. Adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 are essential for generation of synaptic vesicles from activity-dependent bulk endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael A

    2012-04-25

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis is the dominant synaptic vesicle retrieval mode during high intensity stimulation in central nerve terminals. A key event in this endocytosis mode is the generation of new vesicles from bulk endosomes, which replenish the reserve vesicle pool. We have identified an essential requirement for both adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 in this process by employing morphological and optical tracking of bulk endosome-derived synaptic vesicles in rat primary neuronal cultures. We show that brefeldin A inhibits synaptic vesicle generation from bulk endosomes and that both brefeldin A knockdown and shRNA knockdown of either adaptor protein 1 or 3 subunits inhibit reserve pool replenishment from bulk endosomes. Conversely, no plasma membrane function was found for adaptor protein 1 or 3 in either bulk endosome formation or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Simultaneous knockdown of both adaptor proteins 1 and 3 indicated that they generated the same population of synaptic vesicles. Thus, adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 play an essential dual role in generation of synaptic vesicles during activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

  11. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs.

  12. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.;

    2012-01-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae, ...

  13. The activated sludge bulking filament Eikelboom morphotype 0803 embraces more than one member of the Chloroflexi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Lachlan B M; Tucci, Joseph; Seviour, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    The Eikelboom filamentous morphotype 0803 is commonly found in activated sludge systems globally, where it contributes to sludge bulking events. Earlier reports have suggested that it is a member of both the Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. This study shows that this filament contributing to a period of poor sludge settleability in an Australian activated sludge plant is a member of the Chloroflexi, but not within the Caldilinea, as reported for this morphotype in Danish plants. Instead, it is a member of the Anaerolineae. The fluorescent signals generated in these filaments using the FISH probes designed here were unevenly distributed, a situation similar to that seen earlier in the Anaerolineae morphotype 0092 to which it is more closely related phylogenetically than it is to the Caldilinea morphotype 0803. FISH-based surveys showed that this 0803 phylotype is uncommon in Australian activated sludge systems, and where seen is present usually at low abundances. The FISH probes described here will facilitate attempts to map the distribution and impact of this Australian filament morphotype 0803 in activated sludge systems of different configurations in plants around the world.

  14. A comparative study of the density of defect states in bulk samples and thin films of glassy Se$_{90}$Sb$_{10}$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KUMAR ANJANI; DWIVEDI PRABHAT K; SHUKLA R K; KUMAR A

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports the comparative study of density of defect states (DOS) between bulk samples and thin films of glassy Se$_{90}$Sb$_{10}$. These glasses have been prepared by the quenching technique. Thin films of these glasses have been prepared by vacuum evaporation technique. Space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) has been measured at different temperatures.The density of localized states near Fermi level is calculated by fitting the data to the theory of SCLC for the case of uniform distribution of localized states for bulk as well as for thin films. A comparison has been made between the density of states calculated in these two cases.

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis specific IS900 insertion sequences in bulk-tank milk samples obtained from different regions throughout Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Roger

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease or not. Raw milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of MAP to human population. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that MAP are found in raw milk samples obtained from a defined region in Switzerland. The aim of this work is to collect data about the prevalence of MAP specific IS900 insertion sequence in bulk-tank milk samples in different regions of Switzerland. Furthermore, we examined eventual correlation between the presence of MAP and the somatic cell counts, the total colony counts and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae. Results 273 (19.7% of the 1384 examined bulk-tank milk samples tested IS900 PCR-positive. The prevalence, however, in the different regions of Switzerland shows significant differences and ranged from 1.7% to 49.2%. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant (p >> 0.05 differences between the somatic cell counts and the total colony counts of PCR-positive and PCR-negative milk samples. Enterobacteriaceae occur as often in IS900 PCR-positive as in PCR-negative milk samples. Conclusion This is the first study, which investigates the prevalence of MAP in bulk-tank milk samples all over Switzerland and infers the herd-level prevalence of MAP infection in dairy herds. The prevalence of 19.7% IS900 PCR-positive bulk-milk samples shows a wide distribution of subclinical MAP-infections in dairy stock in Switzerland. MAP can therefore often be transmitted to humans by raw milk consumption.

  16. Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols were measured at a regional/suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP, which is occasionally heavily polluted by anthropogenic aerosol particles and gases. A Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN closure study is conducted with bulk CCN number concentration (NCCN and calculated CCN number concentration based on the aerosol number size distribution and size-resolved activation properties.

    The observed CCN number concentration (NCCN-obs are higher than those observed in other locations than China, with average NCCN-obs of roughly 2000, 3000, 6000, 10 000 and 13 000 cm−3 at supersaturations of 0.056, 0.083, 0.17, 0.35 and 0.70%, respectively. An inferred critical dry diameter (Dm is calculated based on the NCCN-obs and aerosol number size distribution assuming homogeneous chemical composition. The inferred cut-off diameters are in the ranges of 190–280, 160–260, 95–180, 65–120 and 50–100 nm at supersaturations of 0.056, 0.083, 0.17, 0.35 and 0.7%, with their mean values 230.1, 198.4, 128.4, 86.4 and 69.2 nm, respectively.

    Size-resolved activation measurements show that most of the 300 nm particles are activated at the investigated supersaturations, while almost no particles of 30 nm are activated even at the highest supersaturation of 0.72%. The activation ratio increases with increasing supersaturation and particle size. The slopes of the activation curves for ambient aerosols are not as steep as those observed in calibrations with ammonium sulfate suggesting that the observed aerosols is an external mixture of more hygroscopic and hydrophobic particles.

    The calculated CCN number concentrations (NCCN-calc based on the size-resolved activation ratio and aerosol number size distribution correlate well with the NCCN-obs, and

  17. Deep green emission at 570nm from InGaN/GaN MQW active region grown on bulk AlN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Grandusky, J. R.; Jamil, M.; Jindal, V.; Schujman, S. B.; Schowalter, L. J.; Liu, R.; Ponce, F. A.; Cheung, M.; Cartwright, A.

    2005-09-01

    Relatively intense deep-green/yellow photoluminescence emission at ~600 nm is observed for InGaN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW) structures grown on bulk AlN substrates, demonstrating the potential to extend commercial III-Nitride LED technology to longer wavelengths. Optical spectroscopy has been performed on InGaN MQWs with an estimated In concentration of greater than 50% grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy at 750oC. Temperature- and power-dependence, time-resolved photoluminescence as well as spatially resolved cathodoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy have been applied to understand and elucidate the nature of the mechanism responsible for radiative recombination at 600nm as well as higher energy emission band observed in the samples. A comparison between samples grown on bulk AlN and sapphire substrates indicate a lower degree of compositional and/or thickness fluctuation in the latter case. Our results indicate the presence of alloy compositional fluctuation in the active region despite the lower strain expected in the structure contrary to that of low In composition active regions deposited on bulk GaN substrates. Transient photoluminescence measurements signify a stretched exponential followed by a power decay to best fit the luminescence decay indicative of carrier hopping in the active region. Our results point to the fact that at such high In composition (>30%) InGaN compositional fluctuation is still a dominant effect despite lower strain at the substrate-epi interface.

  18. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in relation to the somatic cell count in quarter, cow composite and bulk tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Maria; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2007-05-01

    Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is the gold standard in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, and is also an important parameter in quality programmes of dairy cooperatives. As routine SCC analysis is usually restricted to central laboratories, much effort has been invested in the search for alternative biomarkers of mastitis and milk quality, including the presence in the milk of the acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA). The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between Hp, SAA and SCC in quarter, cow composite, and bulk tank milk samples. Cows (n=165), without any clinical signs of disease or abnormalities in the milk or udder, from three different dairy farms, were used. Cow composite milk samples from all cows delivering milk at the sampling occasion were taken once in each herd. In one of the farms, representative quarter milk samples (n=103) from 26 cows were also collected. In addition, bulk tank milk samples from 96 dairy farms were included in the study. Samples were analysed for Hp, SAA and SCC, and relationships between the parameters were evaluated at quarter, cow and tank milk levels using Chi-square analysis. Milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, and the presence, or no presence, of SAA and Hp, based on the detection limits of the screening methods (0.3 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l for SAA and Hp, respectively). Hp and SAA were found in milk at quarter, cow composite and bulk tank levels. A large proportion (53%) of the animals had detectable milk concentrations of APP, and SAA was detected more frequently, and at higher concentrations than Hp, regardless of sample type. SAA was detected in as many as 82% of the bulk tank milk samples. Significant relationships were found between Hp, SAA and SCC at quarter and cow composite milk levels, but only between SAA and SCC at bulk tank milk level. Detectable levels of APP were more common at high SCC.

  19. Analytical tools for determination of new oral antidiabetic drugs, glitazones, gliptins, gliflozins and glinides, in bulk materials, pharmaceuticals and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumieniczek Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents analytical methods for determination of new oral drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, focusing on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (glitazones, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (gliptins and sodium/glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (gliflozins. Drugs derived from prandial glucose regulators, such as glinides, are considered because they are present in some new therapeutic options. The review presents analytical procedures suitable for determination of the drugs in bulk substances, such as pharmaceuticals and biological samples, including HPLC-UV, HPLC/LC-MS, TLC/HPTLC, CE/CE-MS, spectrophotometric (UV/VIS, spectrofluorimetric and electrochemical methods, taken from the literature over the past ten years (2006-2016. Some new procedures for extraction, separation and detection of the drugs, including solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (SPE-MIP, liquid phase microextraction using porous hollow fibers (HP-LPME, HILIC chromatography, micellar mobile phases, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS and isotopically labeled internal standards, are discussed.

  20. Partial ozonation of activated sludge to reduce excess sludge, improve denitrification and control scumming and bulking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Marc; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2003-07-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge is forbidden and agricultural use of stabilized sludge will be banned in 2005 in Switzerland. The sludge has to be dewatered, dried, Incinerated and the ashes disposed in landfills. These processes are cost intensive and lead also to the loss of valuable phosphate resources incorporated in the sludge ash. The implementation of processes that could reduce excess sludge production and recycle phosphate is therefore recommended. Partial ozonation of the return sludge of an activated sludge system reduces significantly excess sludge production, improves settling properties of the sludge and reduces bulking and scumming. The solubilized COD will also improve denitrification if the treated sludge is recycled to the anoxic zone. But ozonation will partly inhibit and kill nitrifiers and might therefore lead to a decrease of the effective solid retention time of the nitrifier, which reduces the safety of the nitrification. This paper discusses the effect of ozonation on sludge reduction, the operation stability of nitrification, improvement of denitrification and gives also an energy and cost evaluation. (author)

  1. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  2. An Ionic Liquid Bulk-Modified Carbon Paste Electrode and Its Electrocatalytic Activity toward p-Aminophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya; ZHENG Jian-Bin

    2007-01-01

    An ionic liquid bulk-modified carbon paste electrode (M-CPE) has been fabricated by using 1-heptyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as a modifier. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the proposed electrode by choosing p-aminophenol (p-AP) as a model compound. Both at a bare carbon paste electrode (CPE) and the M-CPE, p-AP yielded a pair of redox peaks was 0.233 V, while at the M-CPE the AEp was decreased to 0.105 V. Furthermore, the current response to p-AP at the M-CPE was 10.2 times of that at the CPE by DPV. The electron transfer rate constant (ks) of p-AP at the M-CPE was 13.3 times of that at the CPE. Under the optimal condition, a linear dependence of the catalytic current versus advantages of simple prapartion, surface renewal, good reproducibility and good stability. It has been used to determine p-AP in simulated wastewater samples.

  3. Non-Destructive Study of Bulk Crystallinity and Elemental Composition of Natural Gold Single Crystal Samples by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S; Rakovan, John; Shinohara, Takenao; Kockelmann, Winfried; Losko, Adrian S; Vogel, Sven C

    2017-01-19

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging enables non-destructive analyses of bulk structure and elemental composition, which can be resolved with high spatial resolution at bright pulsed spallation neutron sources due to recent developments and improvements of neutron counting detectors. This technique, suitable for many applications, is demonstrated here with a specific study of ~5-10 mm thick natural gold samples. Through the analysis of neutron absorption resonances the spatial distribution of palladium (with average elemental concentration of ~0.4 atom% and ~5 atom%) is mapped within the gold samples. At the same time, the analysis of coherent neutron scattering in the thermal and cold energy regimes reveals which samples have a single-crystalline bulk structure through the entire sample volume. A spatially resolved analysis is possible because neutron transmission spectra are measured simultaneously on each detector pixel in the epithermal, thermal and cold energy ranges. With a pixel size of 55 μm and a detector-area of 512 by 512 pixels, a total of 262,144 neutron transmission spectra are measured concurrently. The results of our experiments indicate that high resolution energy-resolved neutron imaging is a very attractive analytical technique in cases where other conventional non-destructive methods are ineffective due to sample opacity.

  4. Erosion patterns in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment revealed by bulk-sample versus single-mineral provenance budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Andò, Sergio; Yang, Shouye

    2016-05-01

    The Changjiang, the fourth longest river on Earth and the largest in Eurasia, has a complex sediment-routing system presently interrupted by the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric engineering project. To study sediment-generation processes in the huge catchment and compare the different erosion patterns obtained by different methodological approaches, high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral analyses were performed on sands from the trunk river and its major tributaries. The frequency distributions of diverse groups of detrital amphiboles were also investigated. Rigorous statistical methods were used to define end-members, evaluate mineralogical variability, assess similarities among samples, and eventually calculate the relative contributions from each major tributary to the trunk river by forward end-member modelling of integrated compositional data. The litho-quartzose sand with few heavy minerals generated in Tibetan headwaters evolves downstream to feldspatho-litho-quartzose with medium-rank metamorphic rock fragments and moderately rich amphibole-epidote suites. Sand across the Sichuan basin and as far as the Three Gorges Dam is enriched in mafic volcanic, clinopyroxene, and carbonate grains eroded from Permian basalts and Paleozoic strata of the South China Block. The final (Yangtze) tract is characterized by litho-feldspatho-quartzose sand with moderately poor, amphibole-dominated suites with epidote, clinopyroxene, and garnet. The orogenic compositional signature acquired in the upper part of the basin is thus carried all the way to the Chinese passive margin, as observed also for the Yellow River in the north. Even after long-distance transport across wide continental areas, detrital modes thus reveal the tectonic character of the source rather than the geodynamic environment of the sink. Quantitative provenance analysis indicates that left-bank tributaries draining the Longmen and Qinlin mountains supply most of the sand reaching

  5. Effect of CuF2 on the Synthesis and Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 Bulk Ceramic Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2013-01-01

    Bulk polycrystalline samples with Bi1.72Pb0.34Sr1.87Ca1.91Cu3.13O9.83−x F x (0.00≤x≤0.51) were prepared by a solid-state route using CuF2 as a fluorine source. CuF2 was introduced in the precursor powders either by direct mixing with the other starting reagents or by addition to precalcined precu...

  6. A theory of synchrony for active compartments with delays coupled through bulk diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2017-02-01

    We extend recent work on the analysis of synchronization in a pair of biochemical oscillators coupled by linear bulk diffusion, in order to explore the effects of discrete delays. More specifically, we consider two well-mixed, identical compartments located at either end of a bounded, one-dimensional domain. The compartments can exchange signaling molecules with the bulk domain, within which the signaling molecules undergo diffusion. The concentration of signaling molecules in each compartment is modeled by a delay differential equation (DDE), while the concentration in the bulk medium is modeled by a partial differential equation (PDE) for diffusion. Coupling in the resulting PDE-DDE system is via flux terms at the boundaries. Using linear stability analysis, numerical simulations and bifurcation analysis, we investigate the effect of diffusion on the onset of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. The direction of the Hopf bifurcation is determined by numerical simulations and a winding number argument. Near a Hopf bifurcation point, we find that there are oscillations with two possible modes: in-phase and anti-phase. Moreover, the critical delay for oscillations to occur increases with the diffusion coefficient. Our numerical results suggest that the selection of the in-phase or anti-phase oscillation is sensitive to the diffusion coefficient, time delay and coupling strength. For slow diffusion and weak coupling both modes can coexist, while for fast diffusion and strong coupling, only one of the modes is dominant, depending on the explicit choice of DDE.

  7. Comparative Investigation between In Situ Laser Ablation Versus Bulk Sample (Solution Mode) Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Analysis of Trinitite Post-Detonation Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Megan K; Koeman, Elizabeth C; Simonetti, Antonio; Torrano, Zachary; Burns, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    In the event of the interception of illicit nuclear materials or detonation of a nuclear device, timely and accurate deciphering of the chemical and isotopic composition of pertinent samples is pivotal in enhancing both nuclear security and source attribution. This study reports the results from a first time (to our knowledge), detailed comparative investigation conducted of Trinitite post-detonation materials using both solution mode (SM) and laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. Trace element abundances determined for bulk Trinitite samples subsequent to digestion and preparation for SM-ICP-MS analysis compare favorably to calculated median concentrations based on LA-ICP-MS analyses for the identical samples. The trace element concentrations obtained by individual LA-ICP-MS analyses indicate a large scatter compared to the corresponding bulk sample SM-ICP-MS results for the same sample; this feature can be attributed to the incorporation into the blast melt of specific, precursor accessory minerals (minerals in small quantities, such as carbonates, sulfates, chlorites, clay, and mafic minerals) present at ground zero. The favorable comparison reported here validates and confirms the use of the LA-ICP-MS technique in obtaining accurate forensic information at high spatial resolution in nuclear materials for source attribution purposes. This investigation also reports device-like (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios (∼0.022) for Pu-rich regions of the blast melt that are also characterized by higher Ca and U contents, which is consistent with results from previous studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Different bulk and active bacterial communities in cryoconite from the margin and interior of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibal, Marek; Nielsen, Morten Schostag; Cameron, Karen A.;

    2015-01-01

    composition of cryoconite over a melt season at two contrasting sites at the margin and in the interior of the Greenland ice sheet, using sequence analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction of coextracted 16S rDNA and rRNA. Significant differences were found between bulk (rDNA) and potentially active......Biological processes in the supraglacial ecosystem, including cryoconite, contribute to nutrient cycling within the cryosphere and may affect surface melting, yet little is known of the diversity of the active microbes in these environments. We examined the bacterial abundance and community...

  9. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis and increased cytosolic calcium are both necessary but not sufficient for activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Andrew; Marland, Jamie R K; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. By definition this mode is triggered by neuronal activity; however, key questions regarding its mechanism of activation remain unaddressed. To determine the basic requirements for ADBE triggering in central nerve terminals, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. ADBE was monitored both optically and morphologically by observing uptake of the fluid phase markers tetramethylrhodamine-dextran and horse radish peroxidase respectively. Ablation of SV fusion with tetanus toxin resulted in the arrest of ADBE, but had no effect on other calcium-dependent events such as activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation, indicating that SV exocytosis is necessary for triggering. Furthermore, the calcium chelator EGTA abolished ADBE while leaving SV exocytosis intact, demonstrating that ADBE is triggered by intracellular free calcium increases outside the active zone. Activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation was also arrested in EGTA-treated neurons, consistent with its proposed role in triggering ADBE. Thus, SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient individually to trigger ADBE. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. To determine the minimal requirements for ADBE triggering, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. We found that SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient to trigger ADBE.

  10. Activated carbon enhanced ozonation of oxalate attributed to HO oxidation in bulk solution and surface oxidation: effect of activated carbon dosage and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linlin; Xie, Yongbing; Minakata, Daisuke; Cao, Hongbin; Xiao, Jiadong; Zhang, Yi; Crittenden, John C

    2014-10-01

    Ozonation of oxalate in aqueous phase was performed with a commercial activated carbon (AC) in this work. The effect of AC dosage and solution pH on the contribution of hydroxyl radicals (HO) in bulk solution and oxidation on the AC surface to the removal of oxalate was studied. We found that the removal of oxalate was reduced by tert-butyl alcohol (tBA) with low dosages of AC, while it was hardly affected by tBA when the AC dosage was greater than 0.3g/L. tBA also inhibited ozone decomposition when the AC dosage was no more than 0.05g/L, but it did not work when the AC dosage was no less than 0.1g/L. These observations indicate that HO in bulk solution and oxidation on the AC surface both contribute to the removal of oxalate. HO oxidation in bulk solution is significant when the dosage of AC is low, whereas surface oxidation is dominant when the dosage of AC is high. The oxalate removal decreased with increasing pH of the solution with an AC dosage of 0.5g/L. The degradation of oxalate occurs mainly through surface oxidation in acid and neutral solution, but through HO oxidation in basic bulk solution. A mechanism involving both HO oxidation in bulk solution and surface oxidation was proposed for AC enhanced ozonation of oxalate.

  11. Genomic and in situ investigations of the novel uncultured Chloroflexi associated with 0092 morphotype filamentous bulking in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Albertsen, Mads; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Seviour, Robert James; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2016-09-01

    Overgrowth of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to impaired sludge settleability, a condition known as bulking, which is a common operational problem worldwide. Filaments with the Eikelboom 0092 morphotype are commonly associated with such bulking episodes. Members of the uncultured B45 phylotype, which is embraced within the phylum Chloroflexi, were recently shown to exhibit this morphology. Although these organisms are among the most abundant populations recorded in activated sludge processes, nothing is known about their metabolic characteristics. In this study, a genome sequence, representing the B45 phylotype, was retrieved from a metagenome generated from an activated sludge WWTP. The genome consisted of two chromosomes and one plasmid, which were 4.0, 1.0 and 0.04 Mbps in size, respectively. A metabolic model was constructed for this organism, based on annotation of its genome, showing its ability to generate energy by respiration, utilizing oxygen, nitrite or nitrous oxide as electron acceptors, or by fermentation of sugars. The ability of B45 members to ferment sugars under anaerobic conditions was validated in situ with microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization. The provisional name of 'Candidatus Promineofilum breve' is proposed for this species. This study represents the first detailed information on an uncultured genus of filamentous organisms from activated sludge.

  12. MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION METHODS TO ESTABLISH ACTIVE PHASES ON HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS: CASE OF BULK TRANSITION METAL SULPHIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Machín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of procedures based on mathematical optimization methods to establish optimal active sulphide phases with higher HDS activity. This paper proposes a list of active phases as a guide for orienting the experimental work in the search of new catalysts that permit optimize the HDS process. Studies in this paper establish Co-S, Cr-S, Nb-S and Ni-S systems have the greatest potential to improve HDS activity.

  13. Comparative study of resin composite class I restoration microleakage between bulk fill technique with and without sonic activation, and incremental technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, A. D.; Indrawati, D.; Kamizar

    2017-08-01

    A good marginal adaptation of a restoration can be measured by the absence of microleakage at the interface area. Resin composite undergo contraction during polymerization which may result in microleakage The purpose of this study was to analyze the microleakage of class I cavity preparations that were filled with sonic-activated bulk-fill resin composite, bulk-fill resin composite without sonic activation, and composites that were filled incrementally Standardized class I cavities were prepared in 27 extracted human upper premolars and randomly assigned to three groups. The first group was filled with sonic-activated bulk-fill resin composite; the second group was filled with bulk-fill resin composite without sonic activation; and the third group was filled incrementally. The specimens were subjected to: thermocycling; immersion in 1% methylene blue dye for 24 hours; sectioning longitudinally; evaluation of microleakage under a 12 x magnification stereomicroscope; and scoring on an ordinal scale (0-4). Statistical analysis was performed with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups. Class I cavity preparations that were filled with resin composites incrementally have less microleakage compared to both sonic-activated bulk-fill and bulk-fill without sonic activation.

  14. Dynamics in the dry bulk market : Economic activity, trade flows, and safety in shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecent dynamics in iron ore markets are driven by rapid changes in economic activities that affect commodity markets, trade flows, and shipping activities. Time series models for the relation between these variables in Southeast Asia and the Australasian region are supplemented with

  15. Dynamics in the dry bulk market : Economic activity, trade flows, and safety in shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecent dynamics in iron ore markets are driven by rapid changes in economic activities that affect commodity markets, trade flows, and shipping activities. Time series models for the relation between these variables in Southeast Asia and the Australasian region are supplemented with mode

  16. Compressive strength and the effect of duration after photo-activation among dual-cure bulk fill composite core materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    To assess compressive strength and effect of duration after photoactivation on the compressive strength of different dual cure bulk fill composites. Seventy-two disc shaped (4x10mm) specimens were prepared from three dual cure bulk fill materials, ZirconCore (ZC) (n=24), MulticCore Flow (MC) (n=24) and Luxacore Dual (LC) (n=24). Half of the specimens in each material were tested for failure loads after one hour [MC1 (n=12), LC1 (n=12) & ZC1 (n=12)] and the other half in 7 days [MC7 (n=12), LC7 (n=12), ZC7 (n=12)] from photo-polymerization using the universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 cm/minutes. Compressive strength was calculated using the formula UCS=4f/πd(2). Compressive strengths among different groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Maximum and minimum compressive strengths were observed in ZC7 (344.14±19.22) and LC1 (202.80±15.52) groups. Specimens in LC1 [202.80 (15.52)] showed significantly lower compressive strength as compared to MC1 [287.06 (15.03)] (pstrengths compared to LC7 [324.56 (19.47)] and MC7 [315.26 (12.36)]. Compressive strengths among all three materials were significantly higher (pstrength compared to MC and LC. Increasing the post photo-activation duration (from one hour to 7 days) significantly improves the compressive strengths of dual cure bulk fill material.

  17. A Monte Carlo Library Least Square approach in the Neutron Inelastic-scattering and Thermal-capture Analysis (NISTA) process in bulk coal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhancan, Iskender Atilla; Ebrahimi, Alborz; Çolak, Üner; Erduran, M. Nizamettin; Angin, Nergis

    2017-01-01

    A new Monte-Carlo Library Least Square (MCLLS) approach for treating non-linear radiation analysis problem in Neutron Inelastic-scattering and Thermal-capture Analysis (NISTA) was developed. 14 MeV neutrons were produced by a neutron generator via the 3H (2H , n) 4He reaction. The prompt gamma ray spectra from bulk samples of seven different materials were measured by a Bismuth Germanate (BGO) gamma detection system. Polyethylene was used as neutron moderator along with iron and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The gamma detection system was equipped with a list mode data acquisition system which streams spectroscopy data directly to the computer, event-by-event. A GEANT4 simulation toolkit was used for generating the single-element libraries of all the elements of interest. These libraries were then used in a Linear Library Least Square (LLLS) approach with an unknown experimental sample spectrum to fit it with the calculated elemental libraries. GEANT4 simulation results were also used for the selection of the neutron shielding material.

  18. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClanahan, Tucker C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Lu, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  19. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient...... viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through...... and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational...

  20. Management experience on microthrix parvicella bulking in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant; Esperienza di gestione del bulking filamentoso causato da microthrix parvicella in un impianto a biomassa sospesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bortoli, N.; Mion, M. [AMGA S.p.A., Azienda Multiservizi, Udine (Italy); Di Giorgio, G.; Goi, D. [Udine Univ., Udine (Italy). Dipartimento di scienze e tecnologie chimiche

    2005-10-15

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment processes may give inefficiencies due to biological imbalances involving biomass. In fact, external causes as temperature lowering can increase the proliferation of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella into activated sludge flocks. Microthrix parvicella increases may create dangerous bulking phenomena compromising secondary settling without varying bio-kinetic parameters. In this case of study, a method to defeat growth of Microthrix parvicella has been set up. Aluminium poly-chloride (PAC) has been added to activated sludge contained into oxidation tanks of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, where a large growth of Microthrix parvicella has been periodically observed. It has been demonstrated that a definite PAC concentration can reduce Microthrix parvicella proliferation into activated sludge flocks so bulking phenomena can be well reduced. [Italian] I trattamenti di depurazione basati sulla tecnologia a biomassa sospesa possono essere soggetti a malfunzionamenti legati ad alterazioni degli equilibri biologici del complesso di microrganismi del fango attivo. In particolare, alcuni fattori esterni quali le basse temperature possono incrementare lo sviluppo del batterio filamentoso Microthrix parvicella, la cui eccessiva proliferazione nei fiocchi del fango attivo provoca pericolosi fenomeni di bulking filamentoso con peggioramento del processo di sedimentazione secondaria. La presenza di tali situazioni critiche puo non alterare necessariamente i parametri biocinetici principali del processo. Nella presente sperimentazione, condotta nelle vasche di un impianto di depurazione biologica di reflui urbani soggetto alla frequente proliferazione di Microthrix particella, si e voluto mettere in atto una procedura di controllo nei confronti dell'eccessiva crescita di tale specie batterica. E stata verificata l'utilita dell'impiego nel fango attivo del policloruro di alluminio (PAC) che, in opportune

  1. The Construction and Validation of All-Atom Bulk-Phase Models of Amorphous Polymers Using the TIGER2/TIGER3 Empirical Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianfeng; Murthy, Sanjeeva; Latour, Robert A

    2011-07-12

    A new empirical sampling method termed "temperature intervals with global exchange of replicas and reduced radii" (TIGER3) is presented and demonstrated to efficiently equilibrate entangled long-chain molecular systems such as amorphous polymers. The TIGER3 algorithm is a replica exchange method in which simulations are run in parallel over a range of temperature levels at and above a designated baseline temperature. The replicas sampled at temperature levels above the baseline are run through a series of cycles with each cycle containing four stages - heating, sampling, quenching, and temperature level reassignment. The method allows chain segments to pass through one another at elevated temperature levels during the sampling stage by reducing the van der Waals radii of the atoms, thus eliminating chain entanglement problems. Atomic radii are then returned to their regular values and re-equilibrated at elevated temperature prior to quenching to the baseline temperature. Following quenching, replicas are compared using a Metropolis Monte Carlo exchange process for the construction of an approximate Boltzmann-weighted ensemble of states and then reassigned to the elevated temperature levels for additional sampling. Further system equilibration is performed by periodic implementation of the previously developed TIGER2 algorithm between cycles of TIGER3, which applies thermal cycling without radii reduction. When coupled with a coarse-grained modeling approach, the combined TIGER2/TIGER3 algorithm yields fast equilibration of bulk-phase models of amorphous polymer, even for polymers with complex, highly branched structures. The developed method was tested by modeling the polyethylene melt. The calculated properties of chain conformation and chain segment packing agreed well with published data. The method was also applied to generate equilibrated structural models of three increasingly complex amorphous polymer systems: poly(methyl methacrylate), poly

  2. Bulk δ(15) N measurements of organic-rich rock samples by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry with enhanced oxidation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wennian; Feng, Lianjun; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Wei

    2017-01-15

    Elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) has been widely used for nitrogen isotope ratio determination in various organic and inorganic samples. However, the extent of the redox reaction in the EA reaction tube can greatly affect the accuracy and precision of measurements, especially in the case of complex geological samples. It is therefore necessary to determine the appropriate reaction conditions to reach a high recovery of nitrogen by complete combustion or thermal decomposition and quantitative reduction. The conventional Dumas dual-inlet method was used to determine the bulk nitrogen isotope composition of SGR-1 (an organic-rich standard sample), which then was analyzed by EA/IRMS under different EA reaction conditions to study the influence of the redox environment on the δ(15) N measurements. The measured data together with the results reported by previous researchers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the nitrogen extraction for organic-rich rock samples. Our results demonstrated that with the Dumas dual-inlet method more oxidizing agent (CuO) addition to SGR-1 would yield a higher nitrogen content of 0.91% than the recommended content (0.81%) although a δ(15) N value of 17.39 ± 0.09‰ was consistent with the recommended value by USGS. Using EA/IRMS, when more O2 was injected in the reaction tube, a high nitrogen content (0.92 ± 0.01%) and a δ(15) N value (17.43 ± 0.17‰) close to that of the Dumas dual-inlet method were obtained. The addition of V2 O5 or CuO in a continuous-flow system of EA/IRMS could not effectively enable the complete combustion of SGR-1. When measuring the nitrogen isotope composition of organic-rich rock sample dominated by reduced substances with EA/IRMS, greater O2 injection will enable more complete combustion to obtain reliable nitrogen yields compared with the addition of V2 O5 or CuO. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Brazilian samples of bee samples pollen: palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Vanilda Aparecida Soares de; Santos, Alexandre Vieira dos; Figueiredo, Davi; Meira, Sampaio; Leticia M. Estevinho; Barth, Ortrud Monika; Freitas, Alex da Silva; Almeida-Muradian,Ligia Bicudo de

    2012-01-01

    Total phenolic and flavonoids phytochemical concentration was measured in bee pollen samples, Appis Mellifera , as well as their botanical origin, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. Pollen loads were washed with 70% ethanol and identified using a 400x magnification. The content of total polyphenols and flavonoids was measured spectrophotometrically with gallic acid and quercetin as standard. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the linking capacity of (i)the fre...

  4. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2007-09-15

    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  5. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    and relative specificity were 82 and 100%, respectively. The herd-level relative sensitivity depended on the within-herd prevalence of seropositive cows and the cut-off value in the assay, but not on the time interval (up to 90 days) between the collection of the bulk-tank milk sample and the individual serum......Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...... samples. The BHV-1 blocking ELISA on bulk-tank milk could detect seropositive herds (few), with prevalence proportions as low as one seropositive cow out of 70 cows....

  6. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  7. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A

    2003-02-01

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  8. Performance of an improved thermal neutron activation detector for buried bulk explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFee, J.E., E-mail: jemcfee@gmail.com [Defence R and D Canada – Suffield, Medicine Hat (Canada); Faust, A.A. [Defence R and D Canada – Suffield, Medicine Hat (Canada); Andrews, H.R.; Clifford, E.T.H. [Bubble Technology Industries Inc., Chalk River (Canada); Mosquera, C.M. [Defence R and D Canada – Suffield, Medicine Hat (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    First generation thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on multi-sensor landmine detection systems. The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. The sensor is described, with emphasis on the improvements. Experiments to characterize the performance of the second generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) hidden in culverts are described. Performance results, including comparisons between the performance of the first and second generation systems are presented.

  9. Approximate determination of efficiency for activity measurements of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Bothe, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Some calibration samples are necessary with the same geometrical parameters but of different materials, containing known activities A homogeniously distributed. Their densities are measured, their mass absorption coefficients may be unknown. These calibration samples are positioned in the counting geometry, for instance directly on the detector. The efficiency function {epsilon}(E) for each sample is gained by measuring the gamma spectra and evaluating all usable gamma energy peaks. From these {epsilon}(E) the common valid {epsilon}{sub geom}(E) will be deduced. For this purpose the functions {epsilon}{sub mu}(E) for these samples have to be established. (orig.)

  10. Neutron Activation Analysis of Inhomogeneous Large Samples; An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a powerful technique for the determination of trace-element concentrations. Since both neutrons that are used for activation and gamma rays that are detected have a high penetrating power, the technique can be applied for relatively large samples (up to 13 L), as demon

  11. Sampling frequency affects ActiGraph activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    in Matlab and sampled at frequencies of 30-100 Hz. Also, acceleration signals during indoor walking and running were sampled at 30 Hz using the ActiGraph GT3X and resampled in Matlab to frequencies of 40-100 Hz. All data was processed with the ActiLife software.Results: Acceleration frequencies between 5....... The difference increased with increasing activity intensity, with up to 1000 counts per minute at fast running.Discussion & conclusions: Activity counts from vigorous physical activity is highly attenuated with the ActiLife software. High frequency movement and noise information escape the bandpass filter...

  12. Carrier dynamics in active regions for ultraviolet optoelectronics grown on thick, relaxed AlGaN on semipolar bulk GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Gregory A.; Rotella, Paul; Shen, Hongen; Wraback, Michael [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Haeger, Daniel A.; Chung, Roy B.; Pfaff, Nathan; Young, Erin C.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Cohen, Daniel A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Active regions for mid-ultraviolet laser diodes grown on bulk AlGaN templates are investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence. The active regions were grown pseudomorphically on thick, relaxed AlGaN on bulk GaN in the semi-polar orientation where it has been shown that the glide of dislocations create strain relieving defects confined to the AlGaN/GaN interface, away from the active region. The photoluminescence lifetimes were found to have mono-exponential decays of around 500 ps and calculated radiative and non-radiative lifetimes are compared to previously reported results for active regions on bulk m-plane GaN. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Lokendra

    2017-10-01

    We report here the impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. The solar cells were prepared in normal architecture on FTO coated glass substrates with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer on FTO as electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole transport layer (HTL). For comparison, a few solar cells were also prepared in planar heterojunction structure using CH3NH3PbI3 only as the active layer. The bulk heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM active layer exhibited very large crystalline grains of 2-3 μm compared to ∼150 nm only in CH3NH3PbI3 active layer. Larger grains in bulk-heterojunction solar cells resulted in enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) through enhancement in all the photovoltaic parameters compared to planar heterojunction solar cells. The bulk-heterojunction solar cells exhibited ∼9.25% PCE with short circuit current density (Jsc) of ∼18.649 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.894 V and Fill Factor (FF) of 0.554. There was ∼36.9% enhancement in the PCE of bulk-heterojunction solar cells compared to that of planar heterojunction solar cells. The larger grains are formed as a result of incorporation on PCBM in the active layer.

  14. Occurrence and fate of bulk organic matter and pharmaceutically active compounds in managed aquifer recharge: A review

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2011-05-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a natural water treatment process that induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient through soil/sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well. It is a relatively cost-effective, robust and sustainable technology. Detailed characteristics of bulk organic matter and the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during MAR processes such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (AR) were reviewed. Understanding the fate of bulk organic matter during BF and AR is an essential step in determining pre- and/or post-treatment requirements. Analysis of organic matter characteristics using a suite of analytical tools suggests that there is a preferential removal of non-humic substances during MAR. Different classes of PhACs were found to behave differently during BF and AR. Antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta blockers, and steroid hormones generally exhibited good removal efficiencies, especially for compounds having hydrophobic-neutral characteristics. However, anticonvulsants showed a persistent behavior during soil passage. There were also some redox-dependent PhACs. For example, X-ray contrast agents measured, as adsorbable organic iodine (AOI), and sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic) degraded more favorably under anoxic conditions compared to oxic conditions. Phenazone-type pharmaceuticals (NSAIDs) exhibited better removal under oxic conditions. The redox transition from oxic to anoxic conditions during soil passage can enhance the removal of PhACs that are sensitive to redox conditions. In general, BF and AR can be included in a multi-barrier treatment system for the removal of PhACs. © 2011.

  15. Bulk Hydrogen Content OF High-Silica Rocks in Gale Crater With the Active Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, T. S. J.; Hardgrove, C.; Litvak, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Jun, I.; Mischna, M.; Tate, C. G.; Moersch, J.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nikiforov, S.; Sanin, A. B.; Vostrukhin, A.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Franz, H. B.; Thompson, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover recently traversed over plateaus of mafic aeolian sandstones (the 'Stimson' formation) that overlie mudstones (the 'Murray' formation). Within the Stimson formation we observed many lighter-toned, halo-forming features, that are potentially indicative of fluid alteration (see Fig. 1). These halo features extend for tens of meters laterally and are approx.1 meter wide. The halo features were characterized by Curiosity's geochemical instruments: Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), Chemin, Chemcam and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM). With respect to the host (unaltered) Stimson rocks, fracture halos were significantly enriched in silicon and low in iron [1]. Changes in hydrogen abundance (due to its large neutron scattering cross section) greatly influence the magnitude of the thermal neutron response from the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument [2]. There are also some elemental species, e.g. chlorine, iron, and nickel, that have significant microscopic neutron absorption cross sections. These elements can be abundant and variable results provide a useful estimate of the lower bound for bulk hydrogen content (assuming a homogeneous distribution).

  16. Extraction DNA from Activated Sludge-Comparing with Soil Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 奚旦立; 陈季华

    2003-01-01

    DNA directly extraction from activated sludge and soil sample with enzyme lyses methods was investigated in this paper. DNA yield from activated sludge was 3.0 mg/g. VLSS, and 28.2-43.8 μg/g soil respectively. The resulting DNA is suitable for PCR.By studied methods, higher quality and quantity of sludge DNA could be obtained rapidly and inexpensively from large number of samples, and the PCR product obtained from this protocol was not affected by contaminated higher concentration of heavy metals.

  17. Batch Mode Active Sampling based on Marginal Probability Distribution Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Rita; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Wei; Davidson, Ian; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Ye, Jieping

    2012-01-01

    Active Learning is a machine learning and data mining technique that selects the most informative samples for labeling and uses them as training data; it is especially useful when there are large amount of unlabeled data and labeling them is expensive. Recently, batch-mode active learning, where a set of samples are selected concurrently for labeling, based on their collective merit, has attracted a lot of attention. The objective of batch-mode active learning is to select a set of informative samples so that a classifier learned on these samples has good generalization performance on the unlabeled data. Most of the existing batch-mode active learning methodologies try to achieve this by selecting samples based on varied criteria. In this paper we propose a novel criterion which achieves good generalization performance of a classifier by specifically selecting a set of query samples that minimizes the difference in distribution between the labeled and the unlabeled data, after annotation. We explicitly measure this difference based on all candidate subsets of the unlabeled data and select the best subset. The proposed objective is an NP-hard integer programming optimization problem. We provide two optimization techniques to solve this problem. In the first one, the problem is transformed into a convex quadratic programming problem and in the second method the problem is transformed into a linear programming problem. Our empirical studies using publicly available UCI datasets and a biomedical image dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in comparison with the state-of-the-art batch-mode active learning methods. We also present two extensions of the proposed approach, which incorporate uncertainty of the predicted labels of the unlabeled data and transfer learning in the proposed formulation. Our empirical studies on UCI datasets show that incorporation of uncertainty information improves performance at later iterations while our studies on 20

  18. Short communication: comparing real-time PCR and bacteriological cultures for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus in bulk-tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, G; Caminiti, A; Delle Donne, G; Moroni, P; Santi, A; Galletti, G; Tamba, M; Bolzoni, G; Bertocchi, L

    2014-09-01

    For more than 30 yr, a control plan for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus has been carried out in more than 1,500 dairy herds of the province of Brescia (northern Italy). From 2010 to 2011, the apparent prevalence of Strep. agalactiae has been relatively stable around 10%, but the apparent prevalence of Staph. aureus has been greater than 40% with an increasing trend. The aim of this paper was to estimate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 assays for the detection of Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus in bulk-tank milk samples (BTMS) in field conditions. The assays were a qualitative and a quantitative bacteriological culture (BC) for each pathogen and a homemade multiplex real-time PCR (rt-PCR). Because a gold standard was not available, the sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were evaluated using a Bayesian latent class approach. In 2012 we collected one BTMS from 165 dairy herds that were found positive for Strep. agalactiae in the previous 2-yr campaigns of eradication plan. In most cases, BTMS collected in these herds were positive for Staph. aureus as well, confirming the wide spread of this pathogen. At the same time we also collected composite milk samples from all the 8,624 lactating cows to evaluate the within-herd prevalence of Strep. agalactiae. Streptococcus agalactiae samples were cultured using a selective medium Tallium Kristalviolette Tossin, whereas for Staph. aureus, we used Baird Parker modified medium with added Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen ISO-Formulation. In parallel, BTMS were tested using the rt-PCR. Regarding Strep. agalactiae, the posterior median of Se and Sp of the 2 BC was similar [qualitative BC: Se=98%, posterior credible interval (95%PCI): 94-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%; quantitative BC: Se=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 95-100%] and higher than those of the rt-PCR (at 40 cycle threshold, Se=92%, 95%PCI: 85-97%; Sp=94%, 95%PCI: 88-98%). Also in case of Staph. aureus, the posterior medians

  19. Performance of an active well coincidence counter for HEU samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Francesca, E-mail: fra.ferrari@gmail.co [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC), 21020 Ispra (Italy); Peerani, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.i [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC), 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    Neutron coincidence counting is the reference NDA technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. For high-enriched uranium (HEU) samples active neutron interrogation is generally performed and the most common device used by nuclear inspectors is the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). Within her master thesis at the Polytechnic of Milan, the first author performed an intensive study on the characteristics and performances of the AWCC in order to assess the {sup 235}U mass in HEU oxide samples at the PERLA laboratory of JRC. The work has been summarised in this paper that starts with the optimisation of the use of AWCC for nuclear safeguards, describing the calibration procedure, reporting results of a series of verification measurements, summarising the performances that can be obtained with this instruments during inspections at fuel production plants and concluding with the discussion of uncertainties related to these measurements.

  20. Application of carbon and oxygen isotope data from bulk samples to stratigraphic and paleo-environmental studies; Aplicacao dos dados isotopicos de carbono e oxigenio, de rocha-toral, em estudos paleoambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ricardo Latge Milward de; Rodrigues, Rene [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia; Takaki, Tikae [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Geoquimica

    1997-12-01

    The usefulness of oxygen and carbon stable ({delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C) isotopes from bulk samples has been evaluated in a Quaternary section of the Campos Basin. Comparisons were made with values found in benthic and planktonic foraminifera. There are limits inherent to bulk samples but, results suggest that isotopic studies are applicable in such samples. This method has the advantage of being less expensive and time-consuming. The isotopic curves for the Campos Basin section were compared with a Quaternary section data of the Ocean Drilling Program, which were drilled in the equatorial Pacific. The curves are equivalent and prove the stratigraphic meaning of isotopic results, allowing conclusions to be drawn about the paleo-oceanographic conditions during the last 40,000 years. (author)

  1. Multiphased (NaCl){sub x}(KCl){sub y-x}(KBr){sub 1-y} single crystals: ac conductivity activation energy versus bulk properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsika-Tsigourakou, Vassiliki, E-mail: vkatsik@phys.uoa.g [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Zografos (Greece)

    2009-11-01

    The ac electrical measurements have been just reported for alkali halide mixed crystals that were melt grown from NaCl, KCl and KBr starting materials. They showed a nonlinear variation of all the electrical parameters with the bulk composition. In this short paper, we show that these mixed systems, depending on their major constituent, are classified into three categories in each of which, the activation energy for the ac conductivity increases linearly with BOMEGA, where B is the isothermal bulk modulus and OMEGA the mean volume per atom. In addition, the resulting three straight lines are formed to have almost the same slope.

  2. Active Fault Diagnosis in Sampled-data Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault diagnosis (AFD) in closed-loop sampleddata systems. Applying the same AFD architecture as for continuous-time systems does not directly result in the same set of closed-loop matrix transfer functions. For continuous-time systems, the LFT (linear fractional...... transformation) structure in the connection between the parametric faults and the matrix transfer function (also known as the fault signature matrix) applied for AFD is not directly preserved for sampled-data system. As a consequence of this, the AFD methods cannot directly be applied for sampled-data systems....... Two methods are considered in this paper to handle the fault signature matrix for sampled-data systems such that standard AFD methods can be applied. The first method is based on a discretization of the system such that the LFT structure is preserved resulting in the same LFT structure in the fault...

  3. Enhanced activities of organically bound tritium in biota samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L

    2014-11-01

    A pilot study aimed on possible occurrence of elevated activity of non-exchangable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT) in biota was performed. The first results showed a significant surplus of NE-OBT activity in biota of the valley of Mohelno reservoir and Jihlava river. The liquid releases of HTO from the nuclear power plant Dukovany is the source of tritium in this area. This area can be a source of various types of natural samples for future studies of tritium pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes in the Active Layer: Effect of Nanocomposite Synthesis Technique on Photovoltaic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Keru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs have been synthesized by two methods; specifically, direct solution mixing and in situ polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dispersive surface energy analysis. The nanocomposites were used in the active layer of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with the composition ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:N-CNTS:PCBM/LiF/Al. TEM and SEM analysis showed that the polymer successfully wrapped the N-CNTs. FTIR results indicated good π-π interaction within the nanocomposite synthesized by in situ polymerization as opposed to samples made by direct solution mixing. Dispersive surface energies of the N-CNTs and nanocomposites supported the fact that polymer covered the N-CNTs well. J-V analysis show that good devices were formed from the two nanocomposites, however, the in situ polymerization nanocomposite showed better photovoltaic characteristics.

  5. Responses of soil enzyme activity and microbial community compositions to nitrogen addition in bulk and microaggregate soil in the temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yao; Sheng, Lianxi; Wang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Xinyu; He, Nianpeng; Yu, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    In order to explore the responses of soil enzyme activities and microbial community compositions to long-term nitrogen (N) addition in both bulk soil and microaggregate of chestnut soil, we conducted a 7-year urea addition experiment with N treatments at 6 levels (0, 56, 112, 224, 392 and 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in a temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia in China. Soil properties and the activities of four enzymes involved in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling were measured in both bulk soil and microaggregate, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were measured in bulk soil. The results indicated that: 1) in bulk soil, N addition significantly decreased β-1,4-glucosidase (BG) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activities at the treatment amounts of 224, 392 and 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and obviously suppressed β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity at the treatment amount of 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1. N addition enhanced total PLFAs (totPLFAs) and bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs) at the treatment amounts of 392 and 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, but fungal PLFAs showed no response to N addition. The activities of BG, NAG and LAP were positively correlated with soil pH, but negatively correlated with the concentration of NH 4 + -N; 2) in microaggregate (53-250 μm), the activities of BG, NAG and AP showed no response to increased addition of N, but the significantly decreased LAP activity was observed at the treatment amount of 392 kg N ha-1 yr-1. These results suggested that enzyme activities were more sensitive to N addition than PLFA biomarkers in soil, and LAP activity in microaggregate may be a good indicator for evaluating N cycle response to long-term N addition.

  6. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nassiri

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of known percentages of four compounds of benzene, toluene, O-xylene and P-xlene. The adsorption of various parts of sampler tubes was done by a chemical method using CS2 and the final analysis was done by gas chromatography. The results obtained show that the amount of the above named compounds adsorbed by glass wool and foam in comparison to the activated charcoal isn’t significant (respectively P<0.001 & P,0.05. Also the experiments don’s show any significant differences between the total amount of adsorbed chemicals by charcoal in the back-up layer and the sample layer of the foamed tube and the amount adsorbed in the foamless tube, when treated with various compounds (P,0.001. Considering the equal adsorption of both types of tubes and the advantage of foamed tubes in controlling the time duration and the flow rate of sampling, the foamed type was recommended for production and use.

  7. Bulk binary ZrO2-based oxides as highly active alternative-type catalysts for non-oxidative isobutane dehydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otroshchenko, Tatyana; Radnik, Jörg; Schneider, Matthias; Rodemerck, Uwe; Linke, David; Kondratenko, Evgenii V

    2016-06-21

    Bulk binary ZrO2-based oxides efficiently catalyse non-oxidative dehydrogenation of isobutane to isobutylene. Their activity strongly depends on the kind of second metal oxide. So designed CrZrOx showed superior activity to industrially relevant catalysts with supported Pt or CrOx species. It was also stable under alternating dehydrogenation and oxidative regeneration cycles over ca. 110 h under different reaction conditions between 550 and 600 °C.

  8. Time impact on non-activated and kaolin-activated blood samples in thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durila, Miroslav; Lukáš, Pavel; Bronský, Jiří; Cvachovec, Karel

    2015-04-15

    The correct methodology of thrombelastography might be influenced by elapsing time. In our study we investigated kaolin activated citrated samples together with non-activated citrated samples in relation to the elapsed times of 0, 15 and 30 minutes to compare both methods and to find out if there is an impact of time on results of thrombelastography. Blood samples obtained from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed after 0, 15 and 30 minutes from sampling with kaolin activation and without activation. Then the results were analysed and compared between the non-activated and the kaolin-activated method. All blood samples became more hypercoagulable with the time elapsing, both in non-activated and kaolin-activated samples and differences between both groups were found statistically and clinically significant after only 0 minutes. The non-activated citrated method seems to be reliable and suitable for thrombelastography in non-emergency cases (planned surgical procedures) when we have time to wait 15-30 minutes to get results. In urgent situations a rapid thrombelastography test should be preferred. Although the kaolin-activated method can also be used, results must be interpreted with caution.

  9. Different bulk and active bacterial communities in cryoconite from the margin and interior of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibal, Marek; Schostag, Morten; Cameron, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    at the margin site. The rRNA communities at both sites were dominated by a few taxa of Cyanobacteria and Alpha- and/or Betaproteobacteria. The bulk alpha diversity was higher in the margin site community, suggesting that local sources may be contributing towards the gene pool in addition to long distance...

  10. The Mechanism of Carotenoid Degradation in Flue-Cured Tobacco and Changes in the Related Enzyme Activities at the Leaf-Drying Stage During the Bulk Curing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-peng; LI Tong-shuai; ZHANG Yong-gang; CAO Hui-jing; GONG Chang-rong; ZHANG Wei-jian

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of carotenoid degradation and the changes in the activities of related enzymes in flue-cured tobacco at the leaf-drying stage during the bulk-curing process were studied in order to provide theoretical basis for optimization of curing technology.The effect of different rising speeds of temperature on the carotenoid degradation and the related enzymes activities at the color-fixing stage during the bulk curing process was studied by using the electric-heated fluecuring barn designed by Henan Agricultural University,China,based on curing technology with yellowing at low temperature and moderate humidity and leaf drying at moderate humidity.The results showed that the carotenoid degradation components(β-carotene,lutein,neoxanthin,and violaxthin)decreased gradually at the color-fixing stage during the bulk curing process.The carotenoid degradation components viz.,β-carotene,lutein,neoxanthin,and violaxthin at the slow heating curing(T1)were relatively higher than the rapid heating curing(T2)accounting for 10,2,32 and 32%respectively,but there were no differences among treatments(P>0.05).The effect of different conditions of curing on the activities of enzymes related to carotenoids degradation were significant.The lipoxygenase,phenylalanine ammonialyase,peroxidase,and polyphenol oxidase enzymes had a bidirectional effect on the quality of tobacco leaves and it was beneficial to form more premise matter of aroma based on the higher enzyme activities at the early leaf-drying stage.The slow heating could regulate the change in various enzymes' activities reasonably,making cell redox reaction to reach the dynamic balance and make the degradation of carotenoids adequately.Meanwhile,it could avoid the occurrence of browning reaction and provide foundation for improving the quality of tobacco and optimization of technology for bulk curing and further enhancing aroma.

  11. Measurements of 55Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, A.; Dinar, N.; La Torre, F. P.; Leidner, J.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the 55Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the 55Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  12. Glycolytic activities in size-fractionated water samples: emphasis on rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fucosidase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Colombo-Corbi; Maria José Dellamano-Oliveira; Armando Augusto Henriques Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Glycolytic activities of eight enzymes in size-fractionated water samples from a eutrophic tropical reservoir are presented in this study, including enzymes assayed for the first time in a freshwater environment. Among these enzymes, rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fucosidase presented high activity in the free-living fraction, while glucosidase, mannosidase and galactosidase exhibited high activity in the attached fraction. The low activity registered for rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fuco...

  13. Occurrence of enterotoxin genes and macrorestriction analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis and bulk-tank milk samples in Italy. An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to genotypically compare S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk and raw milk to identify therelation between strains and to assess the enterotoxigenicity of the isolates. Eighty-three Staphylococcus aureus isolatesrecovered from cows and bulk tank milk of five farms in northern Italy were compared genotypically. The genes for theenterotoxins A, D, G and I, but not for B, C, E and H and the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, were detected byPCR amplification. Macrorestriction analysis with the restrictions enzyme SmaI revealed 14 pulsed-field gel electrophoresispatterns. These were in part different from each other only in a few fragments and thus displayed a closeclonal relation. The results of the present investigation showed that identical or closely related clones seemed to beresponsible for the cases of bovine mastitis in the farms investigated and partly responsible for contamination of bulktank milk.

  14. BULK AND SURFACE PROPERTIES OF TIN BASED HERBAL DRUG DURING ITS PREPARATION: FINGERPRINTING OF THE ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL CONSTITUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Baran Mandal et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tin based herbal drug (Vangaparpam - a Siddha system of Medicine has been widely used for the treatment of urinogenital infection and Arthritis. It was prepared by ten sequential stages of calcinations of the medicinally purified tin along with Aloe vera extract. In this study we analysed samples from various stages of preparation using analytical techniques viz., Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy, Powder X ray Diffraction, X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- ray spectroscopy , Scanning Electron Microscopy, to create fingerprints required for the optimisation of the process parameters, detection of toxic impurities and crystal morphology of the Active Pharmaceutical ingredient during the formulation of drug for which reports are not available. Upon analysis of the samples of various stages of calcinations, we found that there was a programmed heating the medicinally purified tin metal was converted to crystalline tin oxide in the tetragonal phase at the first stage of calcinations itself along with a small percentage of therapeutically important elements of Calcium, Iron, and Potassium. Further calcinations steps brought interplay of nano and sub-micro sized particles for optimum bioavailability of the drug.

  15. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-08-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT) and Köhler theory (KT) to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Wet generated regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Wet generated clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (from low solubility compounds like calcite) present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on the method of threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  16. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT and Köhler theory (KT to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Wet generated regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Wet generated clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (from low solubility compounds like calcite present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method.

    Based on the method of threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to

  17. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  18. Comparative study on bulk and composite fibrous samples photophysical feature: synthesis and characterization of a fluorine-containing Re(I) complex and its electrospinning fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Cangming, Zhao; Qi, Wang

    2015-05-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (referred to as FPOZ) owing two typical electron-withdrawing moieties of an oxidiazole group and a fluorine atom, as well as its corresponding Re(I) complex Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br. Geometric structure and electronic nature of Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br were explored and discussed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation, which suggested that Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br took a distorted octahedral coordination field. The onset electronic transitions owned a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer (LLCT). Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was then doped into a polymer host. Photophysical difference between resulting composite fibers and bulk Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was carefully performed, so that the correlation between emissive performance and electron-withdrawing group/geometric relaxation could be investigated. It was found that the immobilization in polymer matrix could repress MLCT excited state geometric relaxation, leading to improved PL parameters such as emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and higher photostability.

  19. Bulking on the activated slugde process applied to the cheese whey effluent treatment: characterization and use of chemical flocullants to improve settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Duran

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work was studied the activated sludge process applied to an effluent treatment from a cheese manufacture (cheese whey, which is characterized by the high organic content containing easily biodegradable compounds as lactose. In the diluted whey treatment, it was found that the activated sludge is an adequate system at a diluted condition (100x, 50x, 25x e 10x and treatment (HRT varying between 6-36 h and suspended solid (SS between 2800-19417mgL-1. However, the system is susceptible to bulking occurrence. Chemical flocculants were evaluated in order to monitoring the biological flocs sedimentation present in a continuous activated sludge system under bulking conditions. The treatment was carried out in a continuous reactor at laboratory scale and the coagulants (Al2 (SO43 and FeSO4 .7H2O were added to sludge at 50-200 mg L-1 concentration range. The results showed that Al3+ presented higher settling capacity compared with Fe2+ effect, and the good settling characteristics were observed in terms of SVI (sludge volume index. However, more detailed studies in this direction should be done to evaluate if the characteristic organisms in the activated sludge are not irreversible suppressed with the use of chemical flocculants.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bulk PM2.5 and size-segregated aerosol particle samples measured in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Shik; Kim, Young J; Kang, Chang Hee

    2007-05-01

    To analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at an urban site in Seoul, South Korea, 24-hr ambient air PM2.5 samples were collected during five intensive sampling periods between November 1998 and December 1999. To determine the PAH size distribution, 3-day size-segregated aerosol samples were also collected in December 1999. Concentrations of the 16 PAHs in the PM2.5 particles ranged from 3.9 to 119.9 ng m(-3) with a mean of 24.3 ng m(-3). An exceptionally high concentration of PAHs( approximately 120 ng m(-3)) observed during a haze event in December 1999 was likely influenced more by diesel vehicle exhaust than by gasoline exhaust, as well as air stagnation, as evidenced by the low carbon monoxide/elemental carbon (CO/EC) ratio of 205 found in this study and results reported by previous studies. The total PAHs associated with the size-segregated particles showed unimodal distributions. Compared to the unimodal size distributions of PAHs with modal peaks at particles during transport to the sampling site. Further, the fraction of PAHs associated with coarse particles(> 1.8 microm) increased as the molecular weight of the PAHs decreased due to volatilization of fine particles followed by condensation onto coarse particles.

  1. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water inter...

  2. Application of bulk sampling theory in the acceptance of rice%散料抽样理论在大米验收中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包梦醒; 吴新

    2012-01-01

    The process of acceptance inspection on rice between a food manufacturer (B) and a Grain Reserve Corporation (A) was introduced. ①When determined to mean values as indicators of the quality for acceptance sampling inspection, extracting sampling increment, composite sample and test sample from the batch delivery. ② By a single measurement of observed values, we calculate the number of average quality level (x = 14.78), testing accuracy (Sx = 0.08) and one-sided specification limit (μ0 + 1. 645S/√n1 = 15.13) under the conditions of the production side risks α = 0.05 ; consumer risk β= 0. 10; an acceptable level of quality μ0 = 15.0%; limit the level of quality μ1= 15.3 %. ③ To test the stability of the observed values with GRUBBS and Shewhart control charts. ④Finally, it was determined that, this batch had passed the acceptance test.%介绍了以某食品生产商(B)对某粮食储备公司(A)生产的大米进行验收检验的过程。①当确定以平均值为质量指标的验收抽样检验时,对交付批抽取份样、制备集样及试样。②通过单次测量得到的观测值,在生产方风险α=0.05,使用方风险β=0.10,可接受质量水平μ0=15.0%,极限质量水平μ1=15.3%的条件下,计算得到批平均质量水平x=14.78;检验精度Sz=0.08及单侧规范限μ0+1.645S/√n1=15.13。③利用格拉布斯法及常规控制图检验观测值的稳定性。④最终判断该批通过验收检验。

  3. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  4. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  5. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-28

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure without liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  6. Active galaxies in a complete sample of isolated galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabater, J.; Leon, S.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bergond, G.; Carpio, J.; Combes, F.; Espada, D.; Garc??a, E.; Huchtmeier, W.; Lisenfeld, Ute; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Sulentic, J.; Verley, S.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxy evolution depends strongly on the environment, in particular, galaxy-galaxy interaction can induce nuclear activity by removing angular momentum from the gas so feeding the central black hole. Hence a higher rate of nuclear activity is expected in interacting galaxies. Different studies of this topic lead to contradictory results. Some works conclude that galaxies hosting an active galactic nuclei (AGN) have a higher rate of companions than non active ones. On the other hand other stud...

  7. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  8. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L; Paretti, Nicholas V; Foreman, William T; Iverson, Jana L; Alvarez, David A

    2014-03-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19-23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  9. Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China plain: the importance of aerosol size distribution in the prediction of CCN number concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Deng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols were measured at a regional/suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP, which is occasionally heavily polluted by anthropogenic aerosol particles and gases. A CCN (Cloud Condensation Nuclei closure study is conducted with bulk CCN number concentration (NCCN and calculated NCCN based on the aerosol number size distribution and size-resolved activation properties.

    The observed NCCN are higher than those observed in other locations than China, with average NCCN of roughly 2000, 3000, 6000, 10 000 and 13 000 cm−3 at supersaturations of 0.056, 0.083, 0.17, 0.35 and 0.70%, respectively. An inferred critical dry diameter (Dm is calculated based on the measured NCCN and aerosol number size distribution assuming homogeneous chemical composition. This inferred cut off diameter varies in a wide range, indicating that it is impossible to predict NCCN with a fixed critical diameter.

    Size-resolved activation measurements show that most of the 300 nm particles are activated at the investigated supersaturations, while almost no particles of 30 nm are activated even at the highest supersaturation of 0.72%. The activation ratio increases with increasing supersaturation and particle size. The slopes of the activation curves for ambient aerosols are not as steep as those observed in calibrations with ammonium sulfate suggesting that the observed aerosols is an external mixture of more hygroscopic and hydrophobic particles. This conclusion is confirmed by hygroscopicity measurements performed during two intensive field studies in 2009.

    The calculated NCCN based on the size-resolved activation ratio and aerosol number size distribution correlate well with the measured NCCN, and show an average overestimation

  10. Use of Lecane rotifers for limiting Thiothrix filamentous bacteria in bulking activated sludge in a dairy wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive growth of filamentous bacteria is a serious problem in many dairy wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. The objective of the study was to determine whether Lecane inermis rotifers were able to reduce the density of Thiothrix bacteria in activated sludge originating from a dairy WWTP, as well as to identify the impact of rotifers on other organisms in sludge. On a laboratory scale, three experiments were conducted in which activated sludge with a predominance of Thiothrix was inoculated with rotifers at an initial concentration of app. 600 individuals/mL. The results showed that the rotifers, by feeding on the bacterium filaments, are able to reduce significantly the quantity of Thiothrix. A decline in Thiothrix abundance coincided with an improvement of the sedimentation properties of activated sludge. In addition, it was proven that Lecane inermis did not negatively affect the number of Protozoa and Metazoa in activated sludge.

  11. Jazz Listening Activities: Children's Literature and Authentic Music Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nan L.; Fisher, Douglas; Helzer, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Describes a unit that is appropriate for upper elementary and middle school students that focuses on jazz music using biographies about jazz musicians. Discusses the five sections of the unit. Includes a list of "Suggested Jazz Listening Samples," jazz videos, and a bibliography of resources related to jazz music. (CMK)

  12. Jazz Listening Activities: Children's Literature and Authentic Music Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nan L.; Fisher, Douglas; Helzer, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Describes a unit that is appropriate for upper elementary and middle school students that focuses on jazz music using biographies about jazz musicians. Discusses the five sections of the unit. Includes a list of "Suggested Jazz Listening Samples," jazz videos, and a bibliography of resources related to jazz music. (CMK)

  13. Fate of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds in batch experiments simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T

    2013-06-30

    Reduction of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds from primary effluent during managed aquifer recharge was investigated using laboratory-scale batch reactors. Biologically stable batch reactors were spiked with different concentrations of sodium azide to inhibit biological activity and probe the effect of microbial activity on attenuation of various pollutants of concern. The experimental results obtained revealed that removal of dissolved organic carbon correlated with active microbial biomass. Furthermore, addition of 2 mM of sodium azide affected nitrite-oxidizing bacteria leading to accumulation of nitrite-nitrogen in the reactors while an ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 95.5 % was achieved. Removal efficiencies of the hydrophilic neutral compounds phenacetin, paracetamol, and caffeine were independent of the extent of the active microbial biomass and were >90 % in all reactors, whereas removal of pentoxifylline was dependent on the biological stability of the reactor. However, hydrophobic ionic compounds exhibited removal efficiency >80 % in batch reactors with the highest biological activity as evidenced by high concentration of adenosine triphosphate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  14. Determination of specific activity of 230Th in uranium ore samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method suitable for determining specific activity of 230Th in uranium ore samples is built. The method is characterized by adding the 230Th/ 232Th standard dilution agent with lower activity ratio (Its 230Th/ 232Th activity ratio and 230Th have been known) to the samples and using isotopic dilution analysis. The method can be applied to analyses of 230Th specific activity in various 230Th/ 232Th activity ratio samples. The precision can also be improved.

  15. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  16. Structural properties of the active layer of discotic hexabenzocoronene/perylene diimide bulk hetero junction photovoltaic devices: The role of alkyl side chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hussein, M., E-mail: m.alhussein@ju.edu.jo [Department of Physics, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Hesse, H.C.; Weickert, J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience(CeNS), Amalienstr.54, 80799 Munich (Germany); Doessel, L.; Feng, X.; Muellen, K. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schmidt-Mende, L. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience(CeNS), Amalienstr.54, 80799 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    We investigate thin blend films of phenyl-substituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronenes (HBC) with various alkyl side chain lengths ((CH{sub 2})n, n = 6, 8, 12 and 16)/perylenediimide (PDI). These blends constitute the active layers in bulk-hetero junction organic solar cells we studied recently [1]. Their structural properties are studied by both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. The results support the evidence for the formation of HBC donor-PDI acceptor complexes in all blends regardless of the side chain length of the HBC molecule. These complexes are packed into a layered structure parallel to the substrate for short side chain HBC molecules (n = 6 and 8). The layered structure is disrupted by increasing the side chain length of the HBC molecule and eventually a disordered structure is formed for long side chains (n > 12). We attribute this behavior to the size difference between the aromatic parts of the HBC and PDI molecules. For short side chains, the size difference results in a room for the side chains of the two molecules to fill in the space around the aromatic cores. For long side chains (n > 12), the empty space will not be enough to accommodate this increase, leading to the disruption of the layered structure and a rather disordered structure is formed. Our results highlight the importance of the donor-acceptor interaction in a bulk heterojunction active layer as well as the geometry of the two molecules and their role in determining the structure of the active layer and thus their photovoltaic performance.

  17. Comparing near-infrared conventional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for determination of the bulk properties of solid samples by multivariate regression: determination of Mooney viscosity and plasticity indices of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano da Silva, Carlos; Pasquini, Celio

    2015-01-21

    Conventional reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HI) in the near-infrared region (1000-2500 nm) are evaluated and compared, using, as the case study, the determination of relevant properties related to the quality of natural rubber. Mooney viscosity (MV) and plasticity indices (PI) (PI0 - original plasticity, PI30 - plasticity after accelerated aging, and PRI - the plasticity retention index after accelerated aging) of rubber were determined using multivariate regression models. Two hundred and eighty six samples of rubber were measured using conventional and hyperspectral near-infrared imaging reflectance instruments in the range of 1000-2500 nm. The sample set was split into regression (n = 191) and external validation (n = 95) sub-sets. Three instruments were employed for data acquisition: a line scanning hyperspectral camera and two conventional FT-NIR spectrometers. Sample heterogeneity was evaluated using hyperspectral images obtained with a resolution of 150 × 150 μm and principal component analysis. The probed sample area (5 cm(2); 24,000 pixels) to achieve representativeness was found to be equivalent to the average of 6 spectra for a 1 cm diameter probing circular window of one FT-NIR instrument. The other spectrophotometer can probe the whole sample in only one measurement. The results show that the rubber properties can be determined with very similar accuracy and precision by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression models regardless of whether HI-NIR or conventional FT-NIR produce the spectral datasets. The best Root Mean Square Errors of Prediction (RMSEPs) of external validation for MV, PI0, PI30, and PRI were 4.3, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Though the quantitative results provided by the three instruments can be considered equivalent, the hyperspectral imaging instrument presents a number of advantages, being about 6 times faster than conventional bulk spectrometers, producing robust spectral data by ensuring sample

  18. Multi Class Active Learning by Uncertainty Sampling with Diversity Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    number of labels are difficult to get, which require much human labour . Generally speaking, there are three types of approaches to relieve the tedious...algorithm is based on the binary classifier SVM, it may become less effective when the data are multi-class. Motivated by the state of the art of active

  19. Probing the limits of ligand steric bulk: backbone C-H activation in a saturated N-heterocyclic carbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas; Tirfoin, Remi; Aldridge, Simon

    2014-03-24

    The consequences of extremely high steric loading have been probed for late transition metal complexes featuring the expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene 6-Dipp. The reluctance of this ligand to form 2:1 complexes with d-block metals (rationalised on the basis of its percentage buried volume, % Vbur , of 50.8%) leads to C-H and C-N bond activation processes driven by attack at the backbone β-CH2 unit. In the presence of Ir(I) (or indeed H(+) ) the net result is the formation of an allyl formamidine fragment, while Au(I) brings about an additional ring (re-)closure step via nucleophilic attack at the coordinated alkene. The net transformation of 6-Dipp in the presence of [(6-Dipp)Au](+) represents to our knowledge the first example of backbone C-H activation of a saturated N-heterocyclic carbene, proceeding in this case via a mechanism which involves free carbene in addition to the Au(I) centre. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inefficient Driving of Bulk Turbulence by Active Galactic Nuclei in a Hydrodynamic Model of the Intracluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Christopher S; Schekochihin, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Central jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN) appear to heat the core regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) in cooling-core galaxy clusters and groups, thereby preventing a cooling catastrophe. However, the physical mechanism(s) by which the directed flow of kinetic energy is thermalized throughout the ICM core remains unclear. We examine one widely discussed mechanism whereby the AGN induces subsonic turbulence in the ambient medium, the dissipation of which provides the ICM heat source. Through controlled inviscid 3-d hydrodynamic simulations, we verify that explosive AGN-like events can launch gravity waves (g-modes) into the ambient ICM which in turn decay to volume-filling turbulence. In our model, however, this process is found to be inefficient, with less than 1% of the energy injected by the AGN activity actually ending up in the turbulence of the ambient ICM. This efficiency is an order of magnitude or more too small to explain the observations of AGN-feedback in galaxy clusters and groups with shor...

  1. Gibbs Free Energy and Activation Energy of ZrTiAlNiCuSn Bulk Glass Forming Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfei SUN; Jun SHEN; Zhenye ZHU; Gang WANG; Dawei XING; Yulai GAO; Bide ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    The Gibbs free energy differences between the supercooled liquid and the crystalline mixture for the (Zr52.5Ti5Al10- Ni14.6Cu17.9)(100-x)/100Snx ·(x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) glass forming alloys are estimated by introducing the equation proposed by Thompson, Spaepen and Turnbull. It can be seen that the Gibbs free energy differences decrease first as the increases of Sn addition smaller than 3, then followed by a decrease due to the successive addition of Sn larger than 3, indicating that the thermal stabilities of these glass forming alloys increase first and then followed by a decrease owing to the excessive addition of Sn. Furthermore, the activation energy of Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni14.6Cu17.9 and (Zr5 2.5Ti5 Al10 Ni14.6 Cu 17.9)0.97Sn3 was evaluated by Kissinger equation. It is noted that the Sn addition increases the activation energies for glass transition and crystallization, implying that the higher thermal stability can be obtained by appropriate addition of Sn.

  2. Comparative analysis of mitosis-specific antibodies for bulk purification of mitotic populations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Amy E; Hsiung, Chris C-S; Blobel, Gerd A

    2014-01-01

    Mitosis entails complex chromatin changes that have garnered increasing interest from biologists who study genome structure and regulation-fields that are being advanced by high-throughput sequencing (Seq) technologies. The application of these technologies to study the mitotic genome requires large numbers of highly pure mitotic cells, with minimal contamination from interphase cells, to ensure accurate measurement of phenomena specific to mitosis. Here, we optimized a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based method for isolating formaldehyde-fixed mitotic cells--at virtually 100% mitotic purity and in quantities sufficient for high-throughput genomic studies. We compared several commercially available antibodies that react with mitosis-specific epitopes over a range of concentrations and cell numbers, finding antibody MPM2 to be the most robust and cost-effective.

  3. Sample container for neutron activation analysis. Probenbehaelter fuer die Neutronen-Aktivierungsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersmacher, B.; Verheijke, M.L.; Jaspers, H.J.

    1983-06-23

    The sample container avoids contaminating the sample substance by diffusion of foreign matter from the wall of the sample container into the sample. It cannot be activated, so that the results of measurements are not falsified by a radioactive container wall. It consists of solid carbon.

  4. Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation: contact versus non-contact enamel ablation and sonic-activated bulk composite placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckova, M.; Kasparova, M.; Dostalova, T.; Jelinkova, H.; Sulc, J.; Nemec, M.; Fibrich, M.; Bradna, P.; Miyagi, M.

    2013-05-01

    Laser radiation can be used for effective caries removal and cavity preparation without significant thermal effects, collateral damage of tooth structure, or patient discomfort. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of tissue after contact or non-contact Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation ablation. The second goal was to increase the sealing ability of hard dental tissues using sonic-activated bulk filling material with change in viscosity during processing. The artificial caries was prepared in intact teeth to simulate a demineralized surface and then the Er:YAG or CTH:YAG laser radiation was applied. The enamel artificial caries was gently removed by the laser radiation and sonic-activated composite fillings were inserted. A stereomicroscope and then a scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the enamel surface. Er:YAG contact mode ablation in enamel was quick and precise; the cavity was smooth with a keyhole shaped prism and rod relief arrangement without a smear layer. The sonic-activated filling material was consistently regularly distributed; no cracks or microleakage in the enamel were observed. CTH:YAG irradiation was able to clean but not ablate the enamel surface; in contact and also in non-contact mode there was evidence of melting and fusing of the enamel.

  5. Observation of quantum interference effects and SQUID operation in a bulk sample of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/ at 77 and 4. 2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegrum, C.M.; Donaldson, G.B.; Carr, A.H.; Hendry, A.

    1987-10-26

    We have studied the response of a bulk sample of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/ to an applied static magnetic field B and a 20-MHz rf field. At both 77 and 4.2 K we found clear evidence of behavior within the sample that was characteristic of a superconducting quantum interference device. At 77 K, the absorption of rf power was a periodic function of B, characterized by several superposed periods in the range 8 x 10/sup -8/ to 9 x 10/sup -6/ T. At 4.2 K only one period, of 4.8 x 10/sup -7/ T, was evident. By applying flux feedback we could lock to minima in the response, and in this mode of operation as a magnetometer the field spectral density S/sup 1/2//sub B/ was 1.5 x 10/sup -10/ T Hz/sup -1//sup ///sup 2/ at 77 K and 5.8 x 10/sup -10/ T Hz/sup -1//sup ///sup 2/ at 4.2 K.

  6. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some cases...

  8. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  9. Cosmic bulk viscosity through backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Rodrigo M; Zimdahl, Winfried; Piattella, Oliver F

    2015-01-01

    We consider an effective viscous pressure as the result of a backreaction of inhomogeneities within Buchert's formalism. The use of an effective metric with a time-dependent curvature radius allows us to calculate the luminosity distance of the backreaction model. This quantity is different from its counterpart for a "conventional" spatially flat bulk viscous fluid universe. Both expressions are tested against the SNIa data of the Union2.1 sample with only marginally different results.

  10. Towards a methodology for large-sample prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, I.H.

    2004-01-01

    Large-sample prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis, or shortly LS PGNAA, is a method by which mass fractions of elements can be determined in large samples with a mass over 1 kg. In this method the large sample is irradiated with neutrons. Directly (prompt) after absorption of the neutrons photon

  11. Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil Samples from Different Parts of Edirne in Turkey*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, N.; Dogan, C.; Camtakan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of constituent elements were determined in soil samples collected from different parts of the Maritza Basin, Edirne, Turkey. Neutron activation analysis, an extremely accurate technique, and the comparator method (using a standard) were applied for the first time in this region. After preparing the soil samples for neutron activation analysis, they were activated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, TRIGA-MARK II, at Istanbul Technical University. The activated samples were analyzed using a high-efficiency high-purity germanium detector, and gamma spectrometry was employed to determine the elemental concentration in the samples. Eight elements (chromium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, and barium) were qualitatively and quantitatively identified in 36 samples. The concentrations of some elements in the soil samples were high compared with values reported in the literature.

  12. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  13. Determination of the neutron activation profile of core drill samples by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, D; Boden, S; Sima, O; Stanga, D

    2017-08-04

    This paper provides guidance for determining the neutron activation profile of core drill samples taken from the biological shield of nuclear reactors using gamma spectrometry measurements. Thus, it provides guidance for selecting a model of the right form to fit data and using least squares methods for model fitting. The activity profiles of two core samples taken from the biological shield of a nuclear reactor were determined. The effective activation depth and the total activity of core samples along with their uncertainties were computed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial Respiration Chain Enzymatic Activities in the Human Brain: Methodological Implications for Tissue Sampling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Remor, Aline Pertile; Lopes, Mark William; Hohl, Alexandre; Troncoso, Iris H Z; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Boos, Gustavo Luchi; Kondageski, Charles; Nunes, Jean Costa; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Lin, Kátia; Latini, Alexandra Susana; Walz, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes enzymatic (MRCCE) activities were successfully evaluated in frozen brain samples. Epilepsy surgery offers an ethical opportunity to study human brain tissue surgically removed to treat drug resistant epilepsies. Epilepsy surgeries are done with hemodynamic and laboratory parameters to maintain physiology, but there are no studies analyzing the association among these parameters and MRCCE activities in the human brain tissue. We determined the intra-operative parameters independently associated with MRCCE activities in middle temporal neocortex (Cx), amygdala (AMY) and head of hippocampus (HIP) samples of patients (n = 23) who underwent temporal lobectomy using multiple linear regressions. MRCCE activities in Cx, AMY and HIP are differentially associated to trans-operative mean arterial blood pressure, O2 saturation, hemoglobin, and anesthesia duration to time of tissue sampling. The time-course between the last seizure occurrence and tissue sampling as well as the sample storage to biochemical assessments were also associated with enzyme activities. Linear regression models including these variables explain 13-17 % of MRCCE activities and show a moderate to strong effect (r = 0.37-0.82). Intraoperative hemodynamic and laboratory parameters as well as the time from last seizure to tissue sampling and storage time are associated with MRCCE activities in human samples from the Cx, AMYG and HIP. Careful control of these parameters is required to minimize confounding biases in studies using human brain samples collected from elective neurosurgery.

  15. Exploring the relationship between viscous bulking and ammonia-oxidiser abundance in activated sludge: A comparison of conventional and IFAS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Ben; Beard, Helen; Kaeding, Uwe; Giglio, Steven; Short, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the nature of viscous sludge bulking within a molasses-fed integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) and conventional activated sludge (AS) plant by routinely measuring the total carbohydrate and protein fractions of the mixed liquor (ML). The impacts of sludge settleability and plant performance on the relative abundance of ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) (Nitrosomonas oligotropha-cluster) were also investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results showed that sludge volume index (SVI) correlated positively with the amount of ML total carbohydrate in both the IFAS and traditional AS plants, highlighting the influential role that ML polysaccharide concentration plays on sludge settleability in these reactors. Results also revealed a negative relationship between the AOB/total Bacteria ratio and SVI, demonstrating that a poor settling sludge generally coincided with periods of relatively low AOB abundance. The existence of these relationships suggests that readily available organic carbon (molasses) was likely to have been present in excess in these systems. Our qPCR results also showed that concentrations of both AOB and total Bacteria genomic copies detected within the ML of the IFAS and conventional AS plants were remarkably similar. For the IFAS system, results showed that the ML supported an equivalent number of AOB (per gram of biomass) to that detected on the plastic IFAS media carriers, suggesting that the suspended biomass fraction plays an equally important role in the overall nitrification performance of these systems. Interestingly, large observed variations in AOB and AOB/total Bacteria ratio measured within both the ML and IFAS media carriers had no measurable impact on the apparent nitrification performance of these systems; indicating the presence of some excess or 'reserve' nitrifying capacity above that which is required for effective plant performance. Results presented here also constitute the

  16. Industrial Hygiene Air Sampling and Bulk Sampling Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    PCBs) 13 - SKC 225-16 37 Gelman Type A/E PTFE (Zefluor) 37 2 Gelman P5PJ037 (For PAH) 37 2 Membrana - PVC 37 5 Gelman 66467 37 5 Nuclepore 361850 filter...665-0651 800-752-8472 800-521-1520 10. Supelco 4. Membrana Inc. Supelco Park 7070 Commerce Circle Bellefonte, PA 16823-0048 Pleasanton, CA 94566-3294

  17. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  18. Large sample neutron activation analysis: a challenge in cultural heritage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E; Tzika, Faidra

    2007-07-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis compliments and significantly extends the analytical tools available for cultural heritage and authentication studies providing unique applications of non-destructive, multi-element analysis of materials that are too precious to damage for sampling purposes, representative sampling of heterogeneous materials or even analysis of whole objects. In this work, correction factors for neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation and volume distribution of the activity in large volume samples composed of iron and ceramic material were derived. Moreover, the effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was examined.

  19. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  20. Evaluation of Marginal Integrity of Four Bulk-Fill Dental Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Orłowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to compare under in vitro conditions marginal sealing of 4 different bulk-fill materials composite restorations of class II. Methods. Comparative evaluation concerned 4 composites of a bulk-fill type: SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Filtek Bulk Fill, and SDR. The study used 30 third molars without caries. In each tooth 4 cavities of class II were prepared. The prepared tooth samples were placed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h, and after that in each restoration the depth of dye penetration along the side walls was evaluated. Results. The highest rating (score 0, no dye penetration was achieved by 93.33% of the restorations made of the SDR material, 90% of restorations of SonicFill system, 86.66% of restorations of the composite Filtek Bulk Fill, and 73.33% of restorations of the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill. Conclusion. The performed study showed that bulk-fill flowable or sonic-activated flowable composite restorations have better marginal sealing (lack of discoloration in comparison with bulk-fill paste-like composite.

  1. Evaluation of marginal integrity of four bulk-fill dental composite materials: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Mirosław; Tarczydło, Bożena; Chałas, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare under in vitro conditions marginal sealing of 4 different bulk-fill materials composite restorations of class II. Comparative evaluation concerned 4 composites of a bulk-fill type: SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Filtek Bulk Fill, and SDR. The study used 30 third molars without caries. In each tooth 4 cavities of class II were prepared. The prepared tooth samples were placed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h, and after that in each restoration the depth of dye penetration along the side walls was evaluated. The highest rating (score 0, no dye penetration) was achieved by 93.33% of the restorations made of the SDR material, 90% of restorations of SonicFill system, 86.66% of restorations of the composite Filtek Bulk Fill, and 73.33% of restorations of the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill. The performed study showed that bulk-fill flowable or sonic-activated flowable composite restorations have better marginal sealing (lack of discoloration) in comparison with bulk-fill paste-like composite.

  2. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis.

  3. An Activity To Demonstrate the Concept of Sampling Error for the Introductory Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    This activity makes students a part of an investigation that determines the frequency of a particular plant variety in a simulated population. Provides an opportunity for students to observe the inherent variability of estimates, observe the relationship between sample size and sampling error, and consider aspects of research design. (Author/SAH)

  4. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brond, J. C.; Arvidsson, D.

    2016-01-01

    the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Acti...

  5. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  6. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT) and Köhler theory (KT) to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite) present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  7. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT and Köhler theory (KT to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  8. Comparison of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples for thrombelastographic analysis in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Sarah K; Wood, R Darren; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Kruth, Stephen A; Bersenas, Alexa

    2012-06-01

    Thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis is a test of global hemostasis in veterinary medicine; however, there have been limited comparisons of analysis of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples. The purpose of this study was to determine the variation in TEG variables between citrated native and kaolin-activated whole blood samples and to establish reference intervals for both sample types. Citrated whole blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy dogs. Thirty minutes after collection, TEG analysis was performed simultaneously on samples with and without kaolin-activation. Reaction time (R), clotting time (K), angle (α), maximum amplitude (MA), global clot strength (G), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (LY30) were recorded, and the concordance correlation coefficient (ρ(c)) was calculated for each sample type. Significant differences between results obtained for kaolin-activated and native samples were obtained for R (mean difference -1.3 minute, P = .0009), K (-0.7 minute, P = .0003), α (+5.1º, P = .002), MA (+2.4 mm, P = .002), and G (+568 dyn/cm(2), P = .0009). LY30 was not different between methods. There was substantial agreement between methods for G (ρ(c) = .69) and MA (ρ(c) = .65), moderate agreement for R (ρ(c) = .45) and α (ρ(c) = .44), fair agreement for K (ρ(c) = .29), and slight agreement for LY30 (ρ(c) = .04). The TEG variables were significantly altered by kaolin activation; however, some agreement between sample types suggests a consistent bias. In citrated whole blood activated with kaolin, clot formation time is shortened and the amplitude of the tracing is increased, resulting in a TEG tracing that appears to indicate relative hypercoagulability compared with that obtained using native citrated whole blood samples. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Active Sampling Device for Determining Pollutants in Surface and Pore Water - the In Situ Sampler for Biphasic Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supowit, Samuel D.; Roll, Isaac B.; Dang, Viet D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2016-02-01

    We designed and evaluated an active sampling device, using as analytical targets a family of pesticides purported to contribute to honeybee colony collapse disorder. Simultaneous sampling of bulk water and pore water was accomplished using a low-flow, multi-channel pump to deliver water to an array of solid-phase extraction cartridges. Analytes were separated using either liquid or gas chromatography, and analysis was performed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Achieved recoveries of fipronil and degradates in water spiked to nominal concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/L ranged from 77 ± 12 to 110 ± 18%. Method detection limits (MDLs) were as low as 0.040-0.8 ng/L. Extraction and quantitation of total fiproles at a wastewater-receiving wetland yielded concentrations in surface water and pore water ranging from 9.9 ± 4.6 to 18.1 ± 4.6 ng/L and 9.1 ± 3.0 to 12.6 ± 2.1 ng/L, respectively. Detected concentrations were statistically indistinguishable from those determined by conventional, more laborious techniques (p > 0.2 for the three most abundant fiproles). Aside from offering time-averaged sampling capabilities for two phases simultaneously with picogram-per-liter MDLs, the novel methodology eliminates the need for water and sediment transport via in situ solid phase extraction.

  10. Comparing citrated native, kaolin-activated, and tissue factor-activated samples and determining intraindividual variability for feline thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Blois, Shauna L; Wood, R Darren

    2011-11-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is a point-of-care whole blood test of hemostasis. While TEG is becoming more widely used in veterinary medicine, few studies describe the use of TEG in cats. The objectives of the current study were to: 1) document the range of TEG variables produced in healthy cats using 3 sample types (citrated native, kaolin-activated, and tissue factor-activated), and 2) determine if there was a significant difference between 2 separate samples obtained from individual healthy cats on the same day. Jugular venipuncture was performed in 20 cats, and citrated blood collected for TEG. TEG analysis was performed on citrated native, kaolin-activated, and tissue factor-activated blood for each sample. Two hours later, the procedure was repeated from the opposite jugular vein, yielding a total of 120 analyses. Reaction time (R), alpha angle (α), kappa value (κ), and maximum amplitude (MA) were recorded from each tracing. No significant differences were found between TEG tracings from the first and second venipuncture samples. Significant differences were found between sample types for R, α, κ, and MA. Means for citrated native/kaolin-activated/tissue factor-activated methods were R = 4.1/3.7/0.6 min; κ = 2.5/1.8/2.2 min; α = 59.9/65.1/70.4 degrees; MA = 47.4/49.9/44.7 mm. A limitation of this study was the small number of cats used. Thromboelastography analysis may be a suitable method of evaluating hemostasis in cats.

  11. Development of active and diffusive sampling methods for determination of 3-methoxybutyl acetate in workplace air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akito; Takigawa, Tomoko; Kawasumi, Yaeko; Yasugi, Tomojiro; Endo, Yoko; Wang, Da-Hong; Takaki, Jiro; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ogino, Keiki

    2007-11-01

    Monitoring of the workplace concentration of 3-methoxybutyl acetate (MBA), which is used in printer's ink and thinner for screen-printing and as an organic solvent to dissolve various resins, is important for health reasons. An active and a diffusive sampling method, using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector, were developed for the determination of MBA in workplace air. For the active sampling method using an activated charcoal tube, the overall desorption efficiency was 101%, the overall recovery was 104%, and the recovery after 8 days of storage in a refrigerator was more than 90%. For the diffusive sampling method using the 3M 3500 organic vapor monitor, the MBA sampling rate was 19.89 cm(3) min(-1). The linear range was from 0.01 to 96.00 microg ml(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and the detection limits of the active and diffusive samplers were 0.04 and 0.07 microg sample(-1), respectively. The geometric mean of stationary sampling and personal sampling in a screen-printing factory were 12.61 and 16.52 ppm, respectively, indicating that both methods can be used to measure MBA in workplace air.

  12. Reinforcing Sampling Distributions through a Randomization-Based Activity for Introducing ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a randomization-based activity to introduce the ANOVA F-test to students. The two main goals of this activity are to successfully teach students to comprehend ANOVA F-tests and to increase student comprehension of sampling distributions. Four sections of students in an advanced introductory statistics course…

  13. Local activation time sampling density for atrial tachycardia contact mapping: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven E; Harrison, James L; Chubb, Henry; Whitaker, John; Kiedrowicz, Radek; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Cooklin, Michael; Wright, Matthew; Niederer, Steven; O'Neill, Mark D

    2017-04-03

    Local activation time (LAT) mapping forms the cornerstone of atrial tachycardia diagnosis. Although anatomic and positional accuracy of electroanatomic mapping (EAM) systems have been validated, the effect of electrode sampling density on LAT map reconstruction is not known. Here, we study the effect of chamber geometry and activation complexity on optimal LAT sampling density using a combined in silico and in vivo approach. In vivo 21 atrial tachycardia maps were studied in three groups: (1) focal activation, (2) macro-re-entry, and (3) localized re-entry. In silico activation was simulated on a 4×4cm atrial monolayer, sampled randomly at 0.25-10 points/cm2 and used to re-interpolate LAT maps. Activation patterns were studied in the geometrically simple porcine right atrium (RA) and complex human left atrium (LA). Activation complexity was introduced into the porcine RA by incomplete inter-caval linear ablation. In all cases, optimal sampling density was defined as the highest density resulting in minimal further error reduction in the re-interpolated maps. Optimal sampling densities for LA tachycardias were 0.67 ± 0.17 points/cm2 (focal activation), 1.05 ± 0.32 points/cm2 (macro-re-entry) and 1.23 ± 0.26 points/cm2 (localized re-entry), P = 0.0031. Increasing activation complexity was associated with increased optimal sampling density both in silico (focal activation 1.09 ± 0.14 points/cm2; re-entry 1.44 ± 0.49 points/cm2; spiral-wave 1.50 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P density (0.61 ± 0.22 points/cm2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P = 0.0015). Optimal sampling densities can be identified to maximize diagnostic yield of LAT maps. Greater sampling density is required to correctly reveal complex activation and represent activation across complex geometries. Overall, the optimal sampling density for LAT map interpolation defined in this study was ∼1.0-1.5 points/cm2.

  14. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  15. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  16. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  17. Pigeon NCL and NFL neuronal activity represents neural correlates of the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Melissa; Anderson, Catrona; Colombo, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Four birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample task with common outcomes where correct responses during both red and green trials yielded reward. We recorded neuronal activity from the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the avian nidopallium frontolaterale, a higher-order visual processing region. In both regions we found sustained activity during the delay period of both red and green trials. These findings provide the first evidence that delay activity in the pigeon's nidopallium caudolaterale and nidopallium frontolaterale represent a neural correlate for the to-be-remembered sample stimulus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effects of infrared treatment on urease, trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities of soybean samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Seda; Basman, Arzu

    2015-02-15

    In this study, infrared (IR) treatment at different powers (814W, 1003W, 1208W, 1342W) and times (10min, 15min) were applied to unsoaked and soaked (30min, 45min) soybeans (cvs. Adasoy, Nazlican). Effects of IR treatment on urease, trypsin inhibitor, lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-3 activities were investigated. Infrared treatment caused a substantial reduction in urease and trypsin inhibitor activities and considerable decrease was observed as the IR power increased. Urease inactivation in unsoaked samples was achieved at even lower power (1208W). In contrast to urease activity, IR treatment had a more pronounced effect on trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities of soaked soybeans as compared to unsoaked counterparts. Maximum trypsin inhibitor reduction in IR-treated samples was 95% for cv. Adasoy and 97% for cv. Nazlican. IR power of 1003W was sufficient for complete inactivation of lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-3, regardless of the moisture contents of the samples.

  19. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    R transactivation bioassay is utilized in an array of projects to study the AhR-mediated activities of individual chemicals and mixtures and for epidemiological purposes. This review summarizes a series of studies regarding the DL-activity of single compounds and complex compound mixtures in the environment...... a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples....

  20. Active Search on Carcasses versus Pitfall Traps: a Comparison of Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, N I; Camina, R; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D

    2016-04-01

    The study of insect succession in cadavers and the classification of arthropods have mostly been done by placing a carcass in a cage, protected from vertebrate scavengers, which is then visited periodically. An alternative is to use specific traps. Few studies on carrion ecology and forensic entomology involving the carcasses of large vertebrates have employed pitfall traps. The aims of this study were to compare both sampling methods (active search on a carcass and pitfall trapping) for each coleopteran family, and to establish whether there is a discrepancy (underestimation and/or overestimation) in the presence of each family by either method. A great discrepancy was found for almost all families with some of them being more abundant in samples obtained through active search on carcasses and others in samples from traps, whereas two families did not show any bias towards a given sampling method. The fact that families may be underestimated or overestimated by the type of sampling technique highlights the importance of combining both methods, active search on carcasses and pitfall traps, in order to obtain more complete information on decomposition, carrion habitat and cadaveric families or species. Furthermore, a hypothesis advanced on the reasons for the underestimation by either sampling method showing biases towards certain families. Information about the sampling techniques indicating which would be more appropriate to detect or find a particular family is provided.

  1. The impact of agriculture terraces on soil organic matter, aggregate stability, water repellency and bulk density. A study in abandoned and active farms in the Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Di Prima, Simone; Brevik, Erik; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion, land degradation, lack of organic matter, erodible soils, rock outcrops… are a consequence of the human abuse and misuse of the soil resources. And this is a worldwide environmental issue (Novara et al., 2011; Vanlauwe et al., 2015; Musinguzi et al., 2015; Pereira et al., 2015; Mwagno et al., 2016). Agriculture terraces are a strategy to reduce the soil erosion, improve the soil fertility and allow the ploughing (Cerdà et al., 2010; Li et al., 2014). Although this idea is well accepted there are few scientific evidences that demonstrate that soils in the terraced areas are more stable, fertile and sustainable that the soil in non terraced areas. In fact, the ploughing in comparison to the abandoned or not ploughed land results in the soil degradation (Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Gao et al., 2015; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014). This is mainly due to the lack of vegetation that increase the surface runoff (Cerdà et al., 1998; Keesstra et al., 2007). And why is necessary to develop also in terraced landscapes soil erosion control strategies (Mekonnen et al., 2015a; Mekonnen et al., 2015b; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Our objective was to assess the soil organic matter content (Walkley and Black, 1934), the soil bulk density (ring method), the aggregate stabilility (drop impact) and the water repellency (Water Drop Penetration Time test) in four study sites in the Sierra de Enguera. Two sites were terraced: one abandoned 40 years before the measurements and the other still active with olive crops. And two control sites non-terraced. We used the paired plot strategy to compare the impact of terracing and abandonment. At each site we collected randomly 50 soil samples at 0-2 cm, 4-6 and 8-10 cm depth. At each sampling point 100 WDPT measurements where carried out, and one sample for the bulk density, and one for the organic matter, and one for the soil aggregate stability were collected. The soil surface samples shown the largest differences. The

  2. Comparison between active (pumped) and passive (diffusive) sampling methods for formaldehyde in pathology and histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Magrm, Rana; Kusti, Mohannad; Kashon, Michael L; Guffey, Steven; Costas, Michelle M; Boykin, Carie J; Harper, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study was to determine occupational exposures to formaldehyde and to compare concentrations of formaldehyde obtained by active and passive sampling methods. In one pathology and one histology laboratories, exposure measurements were collected with sets of active air samplers (Supelco LpDNPH tubes) and passive badges (ChemDisk Aldehyde Monitor 571). Sixty-six sample pairs (49 personal and 17 area) were collected and analyzed by NIOSH NMAM 2016 for active samples and OSHA Method 1007 (using the manufacturer's updated uptake rate) for passive samples. All active and passive 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) measurements showed compliance with the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL-0.75 ppm) except for one passive measurement, whereas 78% for the active and 88% for the passive samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL-0.016 ppm). Overall, 73% of the passive samples showed higher concentrations than the active samples and a statistical test indicated disagreement between two methods for all data and for data without outliers. The OSHA Method cautions that passive samplers should not be used for sampling situations involving formalin solutions because of low concentration estimates in the presence of reaction products of formaldehyde and methanol (a formalin additive). However, this situation was not observed, perhaps because the formalin solutions used in these laboratories included much less methanol (3%) than those tested in the OSHA Method (up to 15%). The passive samplers in general overestimated concentrations compared to the active method, which is prudent for demonstrating compliance with an occupational exposure limit, but occasional large differences may be a result of collecting aerosolized droplets or splashes on the face of the samplers. In the situations examined in this study the passive sampler generally produces higher results than the active sampler so that a body of results from passive samplers demonstrating compliance with the

  3. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  4. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  5. Behavioural sampling techniques and activity pattern of Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Manidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mohapatra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on six Indian Pangolins Manis crassicaudata observed in captivity at the Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan, Odisha, India over 1377 hours of video recordings for each pangolin between 1500hr and 0800hr on 81 consecutive observational days. Video recordings were made through digital systems assisted by infrared enabled CCTV cameras. The data highlights patterns relate to 12 different behaviour and enclosure utilization. Different interval periods for sampling of instantaneous behaviour from video recordings have been evaluated to develop optimal study methods for the future. The activity budgets of pangolins displayed natural patterns of nocturnal activity with a peak between 20:00-21:00 hr. When out of their burrow, they spent about 59% of the time walking in the enclosure, and 14% of the time feeding. The repeatability of the behaviours has a significant negative correlation with the mean time spent in that behaviour. Focal behavioural samples significantly correlated with instantaneous samples up to 15 minutes interval. The correlation values gradually decreased with the increase in sampling interval. The results indicate that results obtained from focal sampling and instantaneous sampling with relatively shorter intervals (=5 minutes are about equally reliable. The study suggests use of focal sampling, instead of instantaneous sampling to record behaviour relating to social interactions.

  6. Estimating time-correlation functions by sampling and unbiasing dynamically activated events

    CERN Document Server

    Athènes, Manuel; Jourdan, Thomas; 10.1063/1.4766458

    2012-01-01

    Transition path sampling is a rare-event method that estimates state-to-state timecorrelation functions in many-body systems from samples of short trajectories. In this framework, it is proposed to bias the importance function using the lowest Jacobian eigenvalue moduli along the dynamical trajectory. A lowest eigenvalue modulus is related to the lowest eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix and is evaluated here using the Lanczos algorithm as in activation-relaxation techniques. This results in favoring the sampling of activated trajectories and enhancing the occurrence of the rare reactive trajectories of interest, those corresponding to transitions between locally stable states. Estimating the time-correlation functions involves unbiasing the sample of simulated trajectories which is done using the multi-state Bennett acceptance ratio (MBAR) method. To assess the performance of our procedure, we compute the time-correlation function associated with the migration of a vacancy in {\\alpha}-iron. The derivative of t...

  7. Radiative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X

    2001-01-01

    Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.

  8. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  9. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    By combining easy and fast leukocyte enrichment with aminophenyl-fluorescein (APF) staining we developed a method to quickly and specifically address the halogenating activity of the immunological relevant blood heme peroxidases myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, respectively. For leukocyte enrichment a two-fold hypotonic lysis procedure of the blood with Millipore water was chosen which represents a cheap, fast and reliable method to diminish the amount of erythrocytes in the samples. This procedure is shown to be suitable both to human and murine blood micro-samples, making it also applicable to small animal experiments with recurring blood sampling. As all types of leukocytes are kept in the sample during the preparation, they can be analysed separately after discrimination during the flow cytometry analysis. This also holds for all heme peroxidase-containing cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Moreover additional parameters (e.g. antibody staining) can be combined with the heme peroxidase activity determination to gain additional information about the different immune cell types. Based on previous results we applied APF for specifically addressing the halogenating activity of leukocyte peroxidases in blood samples. This dye is selectively oxidized by the MPO and EPO halogenation products hypochlorous and hypobromous acid. This approach may provide a suitable tool to gain more insights into the immune-physiological role of the halogenating activity of heme peroxidases.

  10. The accuracy of instrumental neutron activation analysis of kilogram-size inhomogeneous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, M; Lakmaker, O; van Aller, P

    1997-07-01

    The feasibility of quantitative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of samples in the kilogram range without internal standardization has been demonstrated by Overwater et al. (Anal. Chem. 1996, 68, 341). In their studies, however, they demonstrated only the agreement between the "corrected" γ ray spectrum of homogeneous large samples and that of small samples of the same material. In this paper, the k(0) calibration of the IRI facilities for large samples is described, and, this time in terms of (trace) element concentrations, some of Overwater's results for homogeneous materials are presented again, as well as results obtained from inhomogeneous materials and subsamples thereof. It is concluded that large-sample INAA can be as accurate as ordinary INAA, even when applied to inhomogeneous materials.

  11. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we found that FHH (Frenkel, Halsey and Hill) adsorptio...

  12. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water inter...

  13. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  14. A rapid method for assaying thiaminase I activity in diverse biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E Kraft

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine deficiencies can lead to neurological disorders, reproductive failure and death in wild and domestic animal populations. In some cases, disease is brought about by the consumption of foods high in thiaminase I activity. Levels of thiaminase activity in these foods are highly variable and the factors leading to production of this enzyme are poorly understood. Here we describe improvements in a spectrophotometric thiaminase I activity assay that measures the disappearance of 4-nitrothiophenol, a favored nucleophile co-substrate that replaces the thiazole portion of thiamine during the inactivation of thiamine by the enzyme. Scalable sample processing protocols and a 96-well microtiter plate format are presented that allow the rapid evaluation of multiple, replicated samples in the course of only a few hours. Observed levels of activity in bacterial culture supernatant, fish, ferns and molluscs using this colorimetric assay were similar to previously published reports that employed a radiometric method. Organisms devoid of thiaminase I, based upon previous work, showed no activity with this assay. In addition, activity was found in a variety of fishes and one fern species from which this enzyme had not previously been reported. Overall, we demonstrate the suitability of this technique for measuring thiaminase I activity within small amounts of tissue and environmental samples with replication levels that were heretofore prohibitive. The assay provides a considerable improvement in the ability to examine and understand the properties of an enzyme that has a substantial influence on organism and ecosystem health.

  15. Correlates of physical activity levels in a sample of urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearte, Camille A; Gary, Tiffany L; Brancati, Frederick L

    2004-01-01

    Although regular physical activity is recommended for all adults and is vital in the management of diabetes, activity levels among African Americans with diabetes continue to be sub-optimal. The factors influencing physical activity in this group have not been well examined. Physical activity levels were assessed in 186 African Americans with type 2 diabetes in an urban inner-city community in 4 daily domains; leisure-time physical activity, episodic vigorous activity, blocks walked, and stairs climbed. Linear and logistic regression techniques were used to identify factors independently associated with physical activity levels. A minority of both men (40%) and women (29%) reported engaging in regular physical activity for the purpose of exercise. Women walked significantly fewer blocks/week compared to men (17 vs 41, P weight. These data suggest that, among our sample of African Americans with diabetes, many do not engage in regular activity, women walk significantly less than men, and weight loss efforts may not commonly include physical activity. Obesity, lower income level, and confidence about activity levels may identify individuals with lower physical activity levels. These data should be useful for developing targeted and culturally appropriate interventions to promote physical activity in this high-risk community.

  16. Determination of uranium and thorium by neutron activation analysis applied to fossil samples dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Zahn, Guilherme S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela; Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCRLP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating is based on the fact that ionizing radiation can create stable free radicals in insulating materials, like tooth enamel and bones. The concentration of these radicals - determined by ESR - is a function of the dose deposed in the sample along the years. The accumulated dose of radiation, called Archaeological Dose, is produced by the exposition to environmental radiation provided by U, Th, K and cosmic rays. If the environmental dose rate in the site where the fossil sample is found is known, it is possible to convert this dose into the age of the sample. The annual dose rate coming from the radioactive elements present in the soil and in the sample itself can be calculated by determining the U, Th and K concentration. Therefore, the determination of the dose rate depends on the concentration of these main radioactive elements. Neutron Activation Analysis has the sensitivity and the accuracy necessary to determine U, Th and K with this objective. Depending on the composition of the sample, the determination of U and Th can be improved irradiating the sample inside a Cd capsule, reducing the thermal neutron incidence on the sample and, therefore, diminishing the activation of possible interfering nuclides. In this study the optimal irradiation and counting conditions were established for U and Th determination in fossil teeth and soil. (author)

  17. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  18. Elevated phospholipase A2 activities in plasma samples from multiple cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available Only in recent years have phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2s emerged as cancer targets. In this work, we report the first detection of elevated PLA2 activities in plasma from patients with colorectal, lung, pancreatic, and bladder cancers as compared to healthy controls. Independent sets of clinical plasma samples were obtained from two different sites. The first set was from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC; n = 38 and healthy controls (n = 77. The second set was from patients with lung (n = 95, bladder (n = 31, or pancreatic cancers (n = 38, and healthy controls (n = 79. PLA2 activities were analyzed by a validated quantitative fluorescent assay method and subtype PLA2 activities were defined in the presence of selective inhibitors. The natural PLA2 activity, as well as each subtype of PLA2 activity was elevated in each cancer group as compared to healthy controls. PLA2 activities were increased in late stage vs. early stage cases in CRC. PLA2 activities were not influenced by sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, or body-mass index (BMI. Samples from the two independent sites confirmed the results. Plasma PLA2 activities had approximately 70% specificity and sensitivity to detect cancer. The marker and targeting values of PLA2 activity have been suggested.

  19. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  20. Faulting processes in active faults - Evidences from TCDP and SAFOD drill core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Wenk, H. -R.; Morales, L.; Naumann, R.; Kienast, M.; Song, S. -R.; Dresen, G. [UCB; (GFZ); (NTU)

    2014-08-20

    The microstructures, mineralogy and chemistry of representative samples collected from the cores of the San Andreas Fault drill hole (SAFOD) and the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling project (TCDP) have been studied using optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF analyses. SAFOD samples provide a transect across undeformed host rock, the fault damage zone and currently active deforming zones of the San Andreas Fault. TCDP samples are retrieved from the principal slip zone (PSZ) and from the surrounding damage zone of the Chelungpu Fault. Substantial differences exist in the clay mineralogy of SAFOD and TCDP fault gouge samples. Amorphous material has been observed in SAFOD as well as TCDP samples. In line with previous publications, we propose that melt, observed in TCDP black gouge samples, was produced by seismic slip (melt origin) whereas amorphous material in SAFOD samples was formed by comminution of grains (crush origin) rather than by melting. Dauphiné twins in quartz grains of SAFOD and TCDP samples may indicate high seismic stress. The differences in the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite between SAFOD and TCDP samples are significant. Microstructures resulting from dissolution–precipitation processes were observed in both faults but are more frequently found in SAFOD samples than in TCDP fault rocks. As already described for many other fault zones clay-gouge fabrics are quite weak in SAFOD and TCDP samples. Clay-clast aggregates (CCAs), proposed to indicate frictional heating and thermal pressurization, occur in material taken from the PSZ of the Chelungpu Fault, as well as within and outside of the SAFOD deforming zones, indicating that these microstructures were formed over a wide range of slip rates.

  1. Comparison of chlorzoxazone one-sample methods to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Iza; Dalhoff, Kim; Clemmesen, Jens O

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of a one-sample with a multi-sample method (the metabolic fractional clearance) to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans. METHODS: Healthy, male Caucasians ( n=19) were included. The multi-sample fractional clearance (Cl(fe)) of chlorzoxazone was compared with one...... estimates, Cl(est) at 3 h or 6 h, and MR at 3 h, can serve as reliable markers of CYP2E1 activity. The one-sample clearance method is an accurate, renal function-independent measure of the intrinsic activity; it is simple to use and easily applicable to humans.......-time-point clearance estimation (Cl(est)) at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h. Furthermore, the metabolite/drug ratios (MRs) estimated from one-time-point samples at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h were compared with Cl(fe). RESULTS: The concordance between Cl(est) and Cl(fe) was highest at 6 h. The minimal mean prediction error (MPE) of Cl...

  2. Development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based high altitude balloon (HAB) platform for active aerosol sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateran, S.; Sedan, M. F.; Harithuddin, A. S. M.; Azrad, S.

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge on the abundance and diversity of the minute particles or aerosols in the earth's stratosphere is still in its infancy as aerosol sampling at high-altitude still possess a lot of challenges. Thus far, high-altitude aerosol sampling has been conducted mostly using manned flights, which requires enormous financial and logistical resources. There had been researches for the utilisation of high altitude balloon (HAB) for active and passive aerosol samplings within the stratosphere. However, the gathered samples in the payload were either brought down by controlling the balloon air pressure or were just dropped with a parachute to slow the descend speed in order to reduce the impact upon landing. In most cases, the drop location of the sample are unfavorable such as in the middle of the sea, dense foliage, etc. Hence a system that can actively sample aerosols at high-altitude and improve the delivery method in terms of quality and reliability using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is designed and tested in this study.

  3. Effects of Application Amino Acid Fertilizer on Soil Enzyme Activity and Available Nutrients in Cotton Rhizosphere and Bulk Soils%氨基酸有机肥对棉花根际和非根际土壤酶活性和养分有效性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊华; 沈其荣; 褚贵新; 危常州; 乔旭; 杨兴明

    2011-01-01

    在新疆石河子进行了2年不同氨基酸有机肥施用量的大田试验,测定棉花根际和非根际土壤酶活性和有效养分含量.结果表明,棉花根际土壤过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、纤维素酶活性高于非根际,且脲酶、纤维素酶活性达到显著差异.新陆早8号根际过氧化氢酶活性高于新陆早12号,但蔗糖酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、纤维素酶活性低于新陆早12号.根际碱解N呈显著降低,速效P呈增加趋势.膜下滴灌根际和非根际土壤过氧化氢酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、土壤pH及非根际的碱解N、速效P、根际的速效K较淹灌高,而土壤蔗糖酶、纤维素酶、根际碱解N、速效P、非根际的速效K较淹灌低.氨基酸有机肥对棉花根际和非根际土壤酶活性都有增加作用.土壤pH随着有机肥施用量的增加呈下降趋势,根际低于非根际.氨基酸有机肥增加了土壤碱解N、速效P、速效K含量.%Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of applying an amino acid fertilizer on enzyme activities and available nutrients in rhizosphere and bulk soils of two varieties of different disease-resistance cotton at Shihezi city in Xinjiang in 2006 with open flooding irrigation and in 2007 with film-covered trickle irrigation.Soil samples were collected at the bolling stage.The results showed that the activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and cellulase, urease and cellulase were significantly higher in rhizosphere soils than those in bulk soils.The activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and cellulase except catalase in rhizosphere soils of variety Xinluzao-8 were lower than those of variety Xinluzao-12.The contents of available nitrogen increased while available phosphorus decreased in rhizosphere soils in comparison with bulk soils.When compared to the open flooding irrigation, the film-covered trickle irrigation increased the activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN RH -DENUDED MIE ACTIVE SAMPLING SYSTEM AND TARGETED AEROSOL CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MIE pDR 1200 nephelometer provides time resolved aerosol concentrations during personal and fixed-site sampling. Active (pumped) operation allows defining an upper PM2.5 particle size, however, this dramatically increases the aerosol mass passing through the phot...

  5. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... treated dog (breed, age, gender and neuter status, type of food), and information about past SLENTROL use...

  6. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, Ataç; Sorkun, Kadriye; Onçağ, Ozant; Cogŭlu, Dilşah; Gençay, Omür; Salih, Bekir

    2005-01-01

    Propolis means a gum that is gathered by bees from various plants. It is known for its biological properties, having antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four different Anatolian propolis samples on different groups of microorganisms including some oral pathogens and comparison between their chemical compositions. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from four different Anatolian propolis samples and examined whether EEP inhibit the growth of the test microorganisms or not. For the antimicrobial activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using macrodilution method. The MIC values of the most effective propolis (TB) were 2 microg/ml for Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, 4 microg/ml for Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans and C. krusei, 8 microg/ml for Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacter aerogenes, 16 microg/ml for Escherichia coli and C. tropicalis and 32 microg/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical compositions of EEP's were determined by high-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main compounds of four Anatolian propolis samples were flavonoids such as pinocembrin, pinostropin, isalpinin, pinobanksin, quercetin, naringenin, galangine and chrysin. Although propolis samples were collected from different regions of Anatolia all showed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria and yeasts. Propolis can prevent dental caries since it demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and C. albicans, which involves in oral diseases.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN RH -DENUDED MIE ACTIVE SAMPLING SYSTEM AND TARGETED AEROSOL CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MIE pDR 1200 nephelometer provides time resolved aerosol concentrations during personal and fixed-site sampling. Active (pumped) operation allows defining an upper PM2.5 particle size, however, this dramatically increases the aerosol mass passing through the phot...

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  9. Surface barrier and bulk pinning in MgB$_2$ superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Pissas, M.; Moraitakis, E.; Stamopoulos, D.; Papavassiliou, G.; V. Psycharis; Koutandos, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a modified method of preparation of the new superconductor MgB$_2$. The polycrystalline samples were characterized using x-ray and magnetic measurements. The surface barriers control the isothermal magnetization loops in powder samples. In bulk as prepared samples we always observed symmetric magnetization loops indicative of the presence of a bulk pinning mechanism. Magnetic relaxation measurements in the bulk sample reveal a crossover of surface barrier to bulk pinning.

  10. A new approach to determining cholinesterase activities in samples of whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinsson, K B; Eriksson, H; Faijersson, Y

    1978-10-16

    A sensitive method, especially suitable for clinical laboratories, for the routine determination of cholinesterase activities in whole blood is presented. This method is based on the hydrolysis of propionylthiocholine and the spectrophotometric determination of the thiocholine produced by reaction with 4,4'-dithiodipyridine. The reaction product 4-thiopyridone has an absorption maximum at 324 nm, so that measurement in the presence of hemoglobin is possible. Propionylthiocholine is used at the substrate for both plasma butyrylcholinesterase and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. These two enzymes, in the relative amounts at which they are present in human blood, split this ester at about the same rate. Consequently, a first determination gives the total activity of which each individual activity is about 50%. A second determination in the presence of a selective inhibitor ("Astra 1397") for plasma butyrylcholinesterase gives the activity of the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. The difference between the two values represents the activity of the plasma enzyme. The validity of the method and the reliability of the results were checked with each blood sample in two ways: (1) by determining the activities of whole blood with an earlier gasometric technique which uses blood sample dried on filter paper; and (2) by measuring the activities in separated plasma and erythrocyte hemolysate eith propionylthiocholine as the substrate.

  11. Influence of activators on constitutes of diffusion layer at boronizing pressed samples from iron powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požega Emina D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results of experimental investigation which contributes to study of quantitative changes of porosity during chemical-thermical process, apropos boronizing of pressed samples from iron powder, with variation of boronizing mixture composition are presented. The basic mixture is modified by the addition of activators with different chemical composition and in different percentage rate (0-4 wt%. Mixtures with ammonium chloride, ammonium bifluoride and boron potassium fluoride were investigated. According to the results of the experiments it is found that the content of activators has an influence on the porosity of pressed samples from iron powder. In order to obtain better boride layers it was necessary to choose a mixture for boronizing and to determine the most useful activators and their ratio. The results of research and mathematical processing enable the choice of optimal mixture composition for boroning. .

  12. Carnivore activity in the Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca, Spain) hominin sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The Sima de los Huesos (SH) site is the largest accumulation of human remains from the Middle Pleistocene known to date. Studies in the last two decades have proposed different hypotheses to explain carnivore activity in the SH human sample. This study provides new data in order to test these different interpretations, and therefore to understand the role of the carnivores in site formation at SH. Carnivores are usually not the origin of large accumulations of hominin fossils in the Eurasian record. The results show that marks of carnivore activity in the SH sample appear very infrequently, which we interpret as indicating that carnivore activity was very sporadic at the site. This is in stark contrast with previous studies. The comparison of bone modification patterns at SH to actualistic carnivore data allows us to suggest that bears were likely to have been the carnivore responsible for the modification observed on both human and bear fossils.

  13. Microscopic and mesoscopic structural features of an activated carbon sample, prepared from sorghum via activation by phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temleitner, László [SPring-8, JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Pusztai, László, E-mail: pusztai.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rubio-Arroyo, Manuel F.; Aguilar-López, Sergio [Instituto de Quimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Klimova, Tatiana [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edif. E, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Pizio, Orest [Instituto de Quimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Preparation of a new activated carbon sample from sorghum. ► Characterization by adsorption/desorption methods. ► Determination of the structure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. ► The sample is amorphous and contains distorted graphene fragments. ► A characteristic nanoscale distance is established from the radial distribution function. -- Abstract: An acidic chemical activation procedure has been used for preparing activated carbon with a surface area exceeding 1000 m{sup 2}/g from sorghum. In order to reveal structural features, synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed. The structure of the material has been characterized by the total scattering structure factor and the radial distribution function describing short-range arrangement of atoms at distances of the order of a few atomic diameters as well as correlations at a longer scale, of the order of nanometers. The atomic arrangement has been found to be consistent with that of amorphous graphite-like carbon. As far as the mesoscopic structure is concerned, the presence of a characteristic distance is suggested on the basis of the clear nanometer scale oscillations of the radial distribution function, which distance may be assigned as the mesopore size in the material. It is suggested that the approach devized here may later be applied routinely for other activated carbon samples, too, for characterizing atomic and nanoscale order simultaneously.

  14. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...... a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples....

  15. Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...... a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples....

  16. Diffusive uptake in passive and active adsorbent sampling using thermal desorption tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Metts, Tricia; Kalliokoski, Pentti

    2002-12-01

    Low flow active sampling techniques collecting vapors and gases using thermally desorbable adsorbents are now feasible and desirable in many applications as they permit long integration times, the potential for miniaturized sampling configurations, and other advantages. At very low air flow rates (estimates of the tortuosity and porosity of the glass wool packing used to retain the adsorbent, parameters needed to estimate diffusive fluxes in passive and active sampling; (4) a demonstration that orifice-equipped low flow active samplers can reduce diffusive uptake and improve precision, and (5) a model predicting the saturated adsorbent layer that helps to account for the gradual decline in uptake rates seen in passive sampling. Diffusive uptake will depend on the tube configuration and diffusion coefficient of the substance of interest, but for conventional sampling tubes (0.4-0.5 cm id, 1.5 cm air gap), sample flow rates should be maintained above 1 to 4 ml min(-1) to keep errors below 5%. Laboratory experiments showed close agreement with theoretical calculations, and the field study using 1 to 4 d sampling periods and 0.3 ml min(-1) flows demonstrated that the orifice-equipped samplers essentially eliminated diffusive uptake. No significant practical difficulties are encountered using orifices, e.g., pressure drop is minimal. Experimental estimates of tortuosity (0.79 +/- 0.02) and porosity (0.92 +/- 0.10) of the glass wool packing (0.3 cm length) represent relatively little resistance to diffusion; however, variation in the packing and adsorbent placement can degrade the precision achievable by passive samplers. Diffusion barriers, consisting most simply of an orifice, may be used to lower the diffusive uptake. A needle-type orifice permits flows below 0.1 ml min(-1) and is suitable for sampling periods as long as several weeks, and it provided greater precision than conventional open-ended sampling tubes (8% compared to 13%). Finally, the gradual decrease in

  17. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, R R; Heath, G W; Dowda, M; Trost, S G

    1996-11-01

    This study examined the associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. In the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 11631 high school students provided information on physical activity; diet; substance use; and other negative health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a subset of 2652 high-active and 1641 low-active students. Low activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater television watching, failure to wear a seat belt, and low perception of academic performance. For consumption of fruit, television watching, and alcohol consumption, significant interactions were found with race/ethnicity or sex, suggesting that sociocultural factors may affect the relationships between physical activity and some health behaviors. Low physical activity was associated with several other negative health behaviors in teenagers. Future studies should examine whether interventions for increasing physical activity in youth can be effective in reducing negative health behaviors.

  18. Instrumental nuclear activation analysis (INAA) characterization of environmental air filter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemón, Ernesto; Herrera, Luis; Ortiz, Elba; Longoria, L C Luis C

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear techniques have been used in quantitations of environmental pollutants, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has turned out to be particularly useful in the analysis of airborne suspended particles. This work describes the INAA characterization of the particulate material in the environmental samples obtained in a monitoring campaign in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area. As the types of the irradiation facilities and gamma-ray detection system impose some limitations on the possibilities of INAA analysis, the actual experimental conditions at Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory, where the analysis was performed, had been assessed. The facilities had been found suitable for the analysis of samples from this campaign, in which 22 elements were determined.

  19. [The activity of Codex Alimentarius Commission FAO/WHO Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejczak, Renata; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Traczyk, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    In the light of issues discussed during 24th Session of Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling that was held in Budapest, 18-22 November 2002, the current activity of this Committee is presented. More detailed information about some of the most advanced or interesting documents is included, i. e. Proposed Draft General Guidelines On Sampling, Harmonized IUPAC Guidelines for Single-Laboratory Validation of Methods of Analysis, Consideration of methods for the detection and identification of food derived from biotechnology.

  20. Long-term stellar activity variations of stars from the HARPS M-dwarf sample: Comparison between activity indices

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, J Gomes; Bonfils, X

    2010-01-01

    We used four known chromospheric activity indicators to measure long-term activity variations in a sample of 23 M-dwarf stars from the HARPS planet search program. We compared the indices using weighted Pearson correlation coefficients and found that in general (i) the correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{Na}{i} is very strong and does not depend on the activity level of the stars, (ii) the correlation between our $S_{CaII}$ and H$\\alpha$ seems to depend on the activity level of the stars, and (iii) there is no strong correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{He}{i} for these type of stars.

  1. In vitro antifungal activities of Actinomyces species isolated from soil samples against Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Keikha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cutaneous infections arise from a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi, known as dermatophytes. Since these pathogenic dermatophytes are eukaryotes in nature, use of chemical antifungal agents for treatment may affect the host tissue cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Actinomyces species against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (abbreviated as T. mentagrophytes. The isolates were obtained from soil samples and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Material and Methods: In total, 100 strains of Actinomyces species were isolated from soil samples in order to determine their antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes in Kerman, Iran. The electron microscopic study of these isolates was performed, based on the physiological properties of these antagonists (e.g., lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase, using relevant protocols. The isolates were identified using gene 16S rDNA via PCR technique. Results: Streptomyces flavogriseus, Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and Streptomyces rochei were isolated and exhibited the most significant antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes. Images were obtained by an electron microscope and some spores, mycelia and morphology of spore chains were identified. Molecular, morphological and biochemical characteristics of these isolates were studied, using the internal 16S rDNA gene. Active isolates of Streptomyces sequence were compared to GenBank sequences. According to nucleotide analysis, isolate D5 had maximum similarity to Streptomyces flavogriseus (99%. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Streptomyces isolates from soil samples could exert antifungal effects on T. mentagrophytes

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of seasonal atmospheric particulate matter sampling in two locations of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Augustin; Poirault, Jean-Jacques; Ausset, Patrick; Schins, Roel; Shi, Tingming; Baralle, Delphine; Dorlhene, Pascal; Meyer, Martine; Lefevre, Roger; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne

    2004-11-15

    Fine particulate matter present in urban areas seems to be incriminated in respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to relate physicochemical characteristics of PM2.5 (particulate matter collected with a 50% efficiency for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm) to their biological activities toward a bronchial epithelial cell line 16-HBE. Two seasonal sampling campaigns of particles were realized, respectively, in a kerbside and an urban background station in Paris. Sampled-PM2.5 mainly consist of particles with a size below 1 microm and are mainly composed of soot as assessed by analytical scanning electron microscopy. The different PM2.5 samples contrasted in their PAH content, which was the highest in the kerbside station in winter, as well as in their metal content. Kerbside station samples were characterized by the highest Fe and Cu content, which appears correlated to their hydroxyl radical generating properties measured by electron paramagnetic resonance. Particles were compared by their capacity to induce cytotoxicity, intracellular ROS production, and proinflammatory cytokine release (GM-CSF and TNF-alpha). At a concentration of 10 microg/cm2, all samples induced peroxide production and cytokine release to the similar extent in the absence of cytotoxicity. In conclusion, whereas the PM2.5 samples differ by their PAH and metal composition, they induce the same biological responses likely either due to components bioavailability and/ or interactions between PM components.

  3. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: hpardo@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-08-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  4. Immobilization of the Enzyme Glucose Oxidase on Both Bulk and Porous SiO2 Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Sinatra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon dioxide surfaces, both bulk and porous, were used to anchor the enzyme glucose oxidase. The immobilization protocol was optimized and the samples characterized using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-rays coupled to scanning electron microscopy and enzymatic activity measurements. We show that a uniform layer was obtained by activating the oxide before immobilization. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements carried out on bulk oxide showed that the silicon substrate signal was fully screened after the enzyme deposition showing the absence of uncovered surface regions. The enzyme presence was detected monitoring both the C 1s and N 1s signals. Finally, enzymatic activity measurements confirmed that the glucose oxidase activity was preserved after immobilization and maintained after three months of shelf life if the sample was properly stored. The importance of using porous silicon oxide to maximize the surface area was also evidenced.

  5. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  6. Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...... degradation of the high potent dioxin and/or the inhibitory effect of the high level of non-DL POPs. Selective bioaccumulation of PCBs in the food chain may contribute to the negative correlation between serum POPs and DL-activity observed in Greenlandic Inuit. Hence the AhR transactivation bioassay provides...... a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples....

  7. Predicting Antitumor Activity of Peptides by Consensus of Regression Models Trained on a Small Data Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Jerić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting antitumor activity of compounds using regression models trained on a small number of compounds with measured biological activity is an ill-posed inverse problem. Yet, it occurs very often within the academic community. To counteract, up to some extent, overfitting problems caused by a small training data, we propose to use consensus of six regression models for prediction of biological activity of virtual library of compounds. The QSAR descriptors of 22 compounds related to the opioid growth factor (OGF, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met with known antitumor activity were used to train regression models: the feed-forward artificial neural network, the k-nearest neighbor, sparseness constrained linear regression, the linear and nonlinear (with polynomial and Gaussian kernel support vector machine. Regression models were applied on a virtual library of 429 compounds that resulted in six lists with candidate compounds ranked by predicted antitumor activity. The highly ranked candidate compounds were synthesized, characterized and tested for an antiproliferative activity. Some of prepared peptides showed more pronounced activity compared with the native OGF; however, they were less active than highly ranked compounds selected previously by the radial basis function support vector machine (RBF SVM regression model. The ill-posedness of the related inverse problem causes unstable behavior of trained regression models on test data. These results point to high complexity of prediction based on the regression models trained on a small data sample.

  8. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  9. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  10. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  11. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  12. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we found that FHH (Frenkel, Halsey and Hill) adsorption activation theory is a far more suitable framework for describing fresh dust CCN activity than Köhler theory. One set of FHH parameters (AFHH ∼ 2.25 ± 0.75, BFHH ∼ 1.20 ± 0.10) can adequately reproduce the measured CCN activity for all species considered, and also explains the large range of hygroscopicities reported in the literature. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, mineral dust aerosols were found to display retarded activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate. Comprehensive simulations of mineral dust activation and growth in the CCN instrument suggest that this retardation is equivalent to a reduction of the water vapor uptake coefficient (relative to that for calibration ammonium sulfate aerosol) by 30-80%. These results suggest that dust particles do not require deliquescent material to act as CCN in the atmosphere.

  13. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  14. A neutron activation analysis procedure for the determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in geologic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruscavage, P. J.; Millard, H.T.

    1972-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis procedure was developed for the determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in basic and ultrabasic rocks. The three elements are determined in the same 0.5-g sample following a 30-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 2??1012 n??cm-2??sec-1. Following radiochemical separation, the nuclides239U (T=23.5 m),233Th (T=22.2 m) and42K (T=12.36 h) are measured by ??-counting. A computer program is used to resolve the decay curves which are complex owing to contamination and the growth of daughter activities. The method was used to determine uranium, throium and potassium in the U. S. Geological Survey standard rocks DTS-1, PCC-1 and BCR-1. For 0.5-g samples the limits of detection for uranium, throium and potassium are 0.7, 1.0 and 10 ppb, respectively. ?? 1972 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  15. Study on immunocapture-chemiluminescence assay of lipase activity in a biological sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichibangase, Tomoko; Hamabe, Chie; Ohba, Yoshihito; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kayamori, Yuzo; Kang, Dongchon; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for the determination of lipase (triacylglycerol lipase, EC.3.1.1.3) activity in a biological sample was investigated by combining an immunocapture technique with a chemiluminescence (CL) assay method in order to eliminate interference with CL detection. The proposed method consists of an immunocapture step to trap lipase and a subsequent step for CL detection of the activity of the captured lipase. The CL detection is based on the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction and utilizes a proenhancer substrate [a lauric acid ester of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole (HDI)] which liberates an active enhancer, HDI, by enzymatic hydrolysis. A polyclonal antibody prepared with porcine pancreas lipase was used for the immunocapture. The proposed immunocapture-CL method effectively eliminated the interference with the CL reaction from biological components and enabled the determination of spiked porcine pancreas lipase activity in serum samples in the range 0.41-1.1 U(HDI) (1 U(HDI) corresponds to the amount which liberates 1 pmol HDI/min at 37 degrees C from the substrate). The method was further applied to the assay of the activity for human pancreas lipase in serum and the results showed good correlation (r = 0.871) with those by the conventional colorimetric method.

  16. Selection and application of ssDNA aptamers to detect active TB from sputum samples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rotherham, LS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available be circum- vented by aptamers. Aptamers, by virtue of their high specificity and high sensitivity, could serve as tools for the early and specific detection of active TB and meet the ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User- friendly, Rapid... with culture-proven tuberculosis. Materials and Methods Ethics Statement Approval for the use of sputum samples for this study was obtained from the University of Cape Town, Health Science Faculty Research Ethics Committee (Ethics number: REC REF: 421...

  17. Geochemical signature of land-based activities in Caribbean coral surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Hughen, K.A.; Carilli, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic threats, such as increased sedimentation, agrochemical run-off, coastal development, tourism, and overfishing, are of great concern to the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef System (MACR). Trace metals in corals can be used to quantify and monitor the impact of these land-based activities. Surface coral samples from the MACR were investigated for trace metal signatures resulting from relative differences in water quality. Samples were analyzed at three spatial scales (colony, reef, and regional) as part of a hierarchical multi-scale survey. A primary goal of the paper is to elucidate the extrapolation of information between fine-scale variation at the colony or reef scale and broad-scale patterns at the regional scale. Of the 18 metals measured, five yielded statistical differences at the colony and/or reef scale, suggesting fine-scale spatial heterogeneity not conducive to regional interpretation. Five metals yielded a statistical difference at the regional scale with an absence of a statistical difference at either the colony or reef scale. These metals are barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and antimony (Sb). The most robust geochemical indicators of land-based activities are coral Ba and Mn concentrations, which are elevated in samples from the southern region of the Gulf of Honduras relative to those from the Turneffe Islands. These findings are consistent with the occurrence of the most significant watersheds in the MACR from southern Belize to Honduras, which contribute sediment-laden freshwater to the coastal zone primarily as a result of human alteration to the landscape (e.g., deforestation and agricultural practices). Elevated levels of Cu and Sb were found in samples from Honduras and may be linked to industrial shipping activities where copper-antimony additives are commonly used in antifouling paints. Results from this study strongly demonstrate the impact of terrestrial runoff and anthropogenic activities on coastal water

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil and sediment samples from Siwa Oasis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Wael M.; Ali, Khaled; El-Samman, Hussein M.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Gundorina, Svetlana F.; Duliu, Octavian G.

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study geochemical peculiarities of the Siwa Oasis in the Western Egyptian Desert. A total of 34 elements were determined in soil and sediment samples (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U). For data interpretation Cluster analysis was applied. Comparison with the available literature data was carried out.

  19. Reação de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite Indirect fluorescent antibody test to detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in samples of bulk milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Camillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a presença de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite, através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI. Para isso, foram coletadas amostras do leite dos tanques refrigerados de 36 rebanhos, das quais foram selecionadas 14 para coletas de amostras individuais de soro sanguíneo e de leite das vacas. Encontrou-se correlação em 12 dos 14 rebanhos selecionados para a amostragem individual dos animais, em comparação à detecção de anticorpos nas amostras coletivas de leite. Foi observada uma concordância de 76% comparando-se o resultado das amostras coletivas com os resultados individuais de leite. Observaram-se baixos títulos de anticorpos (50 no soro sanguíneo dos animais soropositivos, cujos resultados da RIFI no leite coletivo e no sangue foram discordantes. Assim, a partir dos resultados deste estudo, pode-se concluir que a utilização de testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-N. caninum em amostras coletivas de leite através da RIFI pode ser uma opção ao diagnóstico para a triagem de rebanhos positivos bem como para estudos epidemiológicos.The aim of this study was to determine the presence of anti-N. caninum in the bulk milk samples by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. For this, it was collected samples of milk from refrigerated tanks from 36 herds, of which 14 were selected for sampling of individual blood serum and milk of cows. It was found concordance for 12 of the 14 herds selected for samples of individual animals, compared to the detection of antibodies in the bulk milk samples. Concordance was of 76% when comparing the results of the pooled sample with the results of individual milk. It was observed low antibody titers (50 in the serum of animals positive whose results in IFA of bulk milk and blood were discordant. Thus, with the results of this study, it can be concluded that the use of serological tests for detection of

  20. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  1. Sulphate reducing activity detected in soil samples from Antarctica, Ecology Glacier Forefield, King George Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicka, Dorota; Zdanowski, Marek K; Żmuda-Baranowska, Magdalena J; Poszytek, Anna; Grzesiak, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    We determined sulphate-reducing activities in media inoculated with soils and with kettle lake sediments in order to investigate their potential in geomicrobiological processes in low-temperature, terrestrial maritime Antarctic habitats. Soil and sediment samples were collected in a glacier valley abandoned by Ecology Glacier during the last 30 years: from a new formed kettle lake sediment and forefield soil derived from ground moraine. Inoculated with these samples, liquid Postgate C and minimal media supplemented with various carbon sources as electron donors were incubated for 8 weeks at 4°C. High rates of sulphate reduction were observed only in media inoculated with soil. No sulphate reduction was detected in media inoculated with kettle lake sediments. In soil samples culture media calcite and elemental sulphur deposits were observed, demonstrating that sulphate-reducing activity is associated with a potential to mineral formation in cold environments. Cells observed on scanning microscopy (SEM) micrographs of post-culture-soil deposits could be responsible for sulphate-reducing activity.

  2. Efficiency of advanced oxidation processes in lowering bisphenol A toxicity and oestrogenic activity in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahuta, Maja; Tišler, Tatjana; Toman, Mihael Jožef; Pintar, Albin

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor with adverse oestrogen-like effects eliciting adverse effects in humans and wildlife. For this reason it is necessary to set up an efficient removal of BPA from wastewaters, before they are discharged into surface waters. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of BPA removal from aqueous samples with photolytic, photocatalytic, and UV/H₂O₂ oxidation. BPA solutions were illuminated with different bulbs (halogen; 17 W UV, 254 nm; and 150 W UV, 365 nm) with or without the TiO₂ P-25 catalyst or H₂O₂ (to accelerate degradation). Acute toxicity and oestrogenic activity of treated samples were determined using luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), water fleas (Daphnia magna), zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), and Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay with genetically modified yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results confirmed that BPA is toxic and oestrogenically active. Chemical analysis showed a reduction of BPA levels after photolytic treatment and 100 % conversion of BPA by photocatalytic and UV/H₂O₂ oxidation. The toxicity and oestrogenic activity of BPA were largely reduced in photolytically treated samples. Photocatalytic oxidation, however, either did not reduce BPA toxic and oestrogenic effects or even increased them in comparison with the baseline, untreated BPA solution. Our findings suggest that chemical analysis is not sufficient to determine the efficiency of advanced oxidation processes in removing pollutants from water and needs to be complemented with biological tests.

  3. Limited sampling strategy in rats to predict the inhibited activities of hepatic CYP3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Hui; Jiao, Jian-Jie; Zhang, Cai-Li; Lou, Jian-Shi; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2009-07-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate feasibility of a limited sampling strategy (LSS) to predict the systemic clearance of midazolam (MDZ), which is a hepatic CYP3A activity phenotyping probe. Groups of rats pretreated with or without serial doses of ketoconazole, which is a selective inhibitor on CYP3A, were used as training set. Linear regression analysis and a Jack-knife validation procedure were performed based on plasma MDZ concentrations at specific time points after sublingual vein injection of MDZ to establish the most informative LSS equations for accurately estimating the clearance of MDZ. Another group of rats in the same setting was used as the validation set to confirm the individual values of estimated clearance (Clest) that were derived from the predictive equations developed in the training set. LSS that were derived from one, two or three sampling times, namely 90 min, 60-90 min, 30-60-90 min and 30-60-120 min, gave the best correlation and acceptable errors between the values of observed clearance (Clobs) and Clest and were chosen to evaluate hepatic CYP3A activity. Our results supported the hypothesis that using limited plasma sampling is simpler than the usual method of estimating CYP3A phenotyping by predicting the systemic clearance of MDZ when the hepatic activity of CYP3A is reduced in the rat. This experimental design offers opportunities to reduce animal use in the study of drug metabolism.

  4. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment samples from Rio Grande Reservoir, by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Qualidade das Aguas

    2009-07-01

    The Rio Grande Reservoir, Southeast of the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) supplies water for four counties (Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Caetano do Sul, Santo Andre and Diadema). It has been seriously affected by urban expansion, due to chaotic urban occupation and improper use of the surrounding areas. In this study bottom sediment samples were collected, by using a Van Veen sampler, during the dry and rainy seasons. Four sampling points were defined by using GPS and are located at the mouth of the Rio Grande and Ribeirao Pires Rivers, in the middle of the reservoir and near the catchment point of the water supply. The sediment samples were submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the following elements were determined: As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U e Zn and the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb. Short irradiation was also performed for total Hg determination by NAA using {sup 197}Hg radioisotope. This was possible due to the high Hg concentration levels in these sediments. The methodology validation was carried out by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and adopted by CETESB. (author)

  5. Active tactile sampling by an insect in a step-climbing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Frank Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many insects actively explore their near-range environment with their antennae. Stick insects (Carausius morosus rhythmically move their antennae during walking and respond to antennal touch by repetitive tactile sampling of the object. Despite its relevance for spatial orientation, neither the spatial sampling patterns nor the kinematics of antennation behaviour in insects are understood. Here we investigate unrestrained bilateral sampling movements during climbing of steps. The main objectives are: (1 How does the antennal contact pattern relate to particular object features? (2 How are the antennal joints coordinated during bilateral tactile sampling? We conducted motion capture experiments on freely climbing insects, using steps of different height. Tactile sampling was analyzed at the level of antennal joint angles. Moreover, we analysed contact patterns on the surfaces of both the obstacle and the antenna itself.Before the first contact, both antennae move in a broad, mostly elliptical exploratory pattern. After touching the obstacle, the pattern switches to a narrower and faster movement, caused by higher cycle frequencies and lower cycle amplitudes in all joints. Contact events were divided into wall- and edge contacts. Wall contacts occurred mostly with the distal third of the flagellum, which is flexible, whereas edge contacts often occurred proximally, where the flagellum is stiff.The movement of both antennae was found to be coordinated, exhibiting bilateral coupling of functionally analogous joints (e.g., left head-scape joint with right scape-pedicel joint throughout tactile sampling. In comparison, bilateral coupling between homologous joints (e.g., both head-scape joints was significantly weaker. Moreover, inter-joint coupling was significantly weaker during the contact episode than before. In summary, stick insects show contact-induced changes in frequency, amplitude and inter-joint coordination during tactile sampling of

  6. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  7. Synergetic Enhancement of Device Efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl/[6,6]-phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Glycerol Addition in the Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobins Augustine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl(P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM is the widely used active layer for the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Annealing is essential for P3HT:PC60BM active layer, since it facilitates the creation of better network for the transfer of the charge carriers. However, the PC60BM in the active layer can crystallize excessively during annealing treatments and disrupt the favorable morphology by forming crystallites in micrometer ranges, thus reducing device efficiency. In this paper we used glycerol as an additive in the active layer. Due to high boiling point of glycerol, it makes slow drying of the active layer possible during the annealing. It thus gives enough time to both electron donor (P3HT and electron acceptor (PC60BM components of the active layer to self-organize and also restrict the crystal overgrowth of PC60BM. Further, the glycerol additive makes the active layer smoother, which may also improve adhesion between the electrode and the active layer. The devices with the pristine active layer showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of about 2.1% and, with the addition of 30 vol% of glycerol in the active layer, the PCE value increased to 3%.

  8. AMIGA project: Active galaxies in a complete sample of isolated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabater, J; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Lisenfeld, U; Sulentic, J; Verley, S

    2009-01-01

    The project AMIGA (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) provides a statistically significant sample of the most isolated galaxies in the northern sky. Such a control sample is necessary to understand the role of the environment in evolution and galaxy properties like the interstellar medium (ISM), star formation and nuclear activity. The data is publicly released under a VO interface at http://amiga.iaa.es/. One of our main goals is the study of nuclear activity in non-interacting galaxies using different methods. We focus on the well known radiocontinuum-far infrared (FIR) correlation in order to findradio-excess galaxies which are candidates to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and FIR colours to find obscured AGN candidates. We looked for the existing information on nuclear activity in the V\\'eron-Cetty catalogue and in the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). We also used the nuclear spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey which allow us to determine the possible presence of an AG...

  9. Fast and Specific Assessment of the Halogenating Peroxidase Activity in Leukocyte-enriched Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-07-28

    In this paper a protocol for the quick and standardized enrichment of leukocytes from small whole blood samples is described. This procedure is based on the hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes and can be applied to human samples as well as to blood of non-human origin. The small initial sample volume of about 50 to 100 µl makes this method applicable to recurrent blood sampling from small laboratory animals. Moreover, leukocyte enrichment is achieved within minutes and with low material efforts regarding chemicals and instrumentation, making this method applicable in multiple laboratory environments. Standardized purification of leukocytes is combined with a highly selective staining method to evaluate halogenating peroxidase activity of the heme peroxidases, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), i.e., the formation of hypochlorous and hypobromous acid (HOCl and HOBr). While MPO is strongly expressed in neutrophils, the most abundant immune cell type in human blood as well as in monocytes, the related enzyme EPO is exclusively expressed in eosinophils. The halogenating activity of these enzymes is addressed by using the almost HOCl- and HOBr-specific dye aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and the primary peroxidase substrate hydrogen peroxide. Upon subsequent flow cytometry analysis all peroxidase-positive cells (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils) are distinguishable and their halogenating peroxidase activity can be quantified. Since APF staining may be combined with the application of cell surface markers, this protocol can be extended to specifically address leukocyte sub-fractions. The method is applicable to detect HOCl and HOBr production both in human and in rodent leukocytes. Given the widely and diversely discussed immunological role of these enzymatic products in chronic inflammatory diseases, this protocol may contribute to a better understanding of the immunological relevance of leukocyte-derived heme peroxidases.

  10. Sampling artifacts in active air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: Comparing theoretical and measured artifacts and evaluating implications for monitoring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of sampling artifacts are often not fully considered in the design of air monitoring with active air samplers. Semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are particularly vulnerable to a range of sampling artifacts because of their wide range of gas-particle partitioning and degradation rates, and these can lead to erroneous measurements of air concentrations and a lack of comparability between sites with different environmental and sampling conditions. This study used specially adapted filter-sorbent sampling trains in three types of active air samplers to investigate breakthrough of SVOCs, and the possibility of other sampling artifacts. Breakthrough volumes were experimentally determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sampling volumes from 300 to 10,000 m(3), and sampling durations of 1-7 days. In parallel, breakthrough was estimated based on theoretical sorbent-vapor pressure relationships. The comparison of measured and theoretical determinations of breakthrough demonstrated good agreement between experimental and estimated breakthrough volumes, and showed that theoretical breakthrough estimates should be used when developing air monitoring protocols. Significant breakthrough in active air samplers occurred for compounds with vapor pressure >0.5 Pa at volumes Sample volumes between 700 and 10,000 m(3) may lead to breakthrough for compounds with vapor pressures between 0.005 and 0.5 Pa. Breakthrough is largely driven by sample volume and compound volatility (therefore indirectly by temperature) and is independent of sampler type. The presence of significant breakthrough at "typical" sampling conditions is relevant for air monitoring networks, and may lead to under-reporting of more volatile SVOCs.

  11. Informant-Reported Cognitive Decline and Activity Engagement across Four Years in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Diane E; Jiang, Da; Sargent-Cox, Kerry A; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2017-01-01

    Subtle age-related cognitive decline may be associated with the capacity to remain engaged in mental, physical, and social activities. Informant reports of cognitive decline potentially provide additional information to psychometric tests on change in everyday cognitive function relevant to activity engagement. To investigate relations between decline in everyday cognitive function as assessed by informant report and activity engagement in community-dwelling older adults. A sample of cognitively normal older adults was drawn from the 2 latest waves of the PATH Through Life Study (n = 1,391; mean age 74.5 ± 1.5, 48.4% female). PATH is a 16-year longitudinal cohort study set in the Canberra/Queanbeyan district, Australia. Assessments were carried out at baseline, and at 3 subsequent time-points 4 years apart. At wave-4, the IQCODE, an informant measure of 4-year cognitive decline was provided by a spouse, family member, or friend of each participant. Activity engagement was assessed by the abbreviated RIASEC Mental Activity List, self-reported frequency and duration of physical activity (Whitehall Questionnaire) and the Lubben Social Network Scale that assessed interaction with family/friends. Participants provided demographic information, self-reported health status (SF-12), and responses to the Goldberg Depression Scale. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) were used to measure objective 4-year cognitive change. Those with MMSE score of ≤27 were excluded. IQCODE score predicted disengagement from mental activities over 4 years in cognitively healthy adults (β = -0.056, standard error [SE] = 0.019, p = 0.004). This association was robust to covariate control and change on the SDMT which was also significantly related to mental activity disengagement. In models adjusted for change scores on the SDMT and the CVLT, the IQCODE was associated with less physical (β = -0.692, SE = 0.24, p = 0.004) and social engagement (

  12. Extracurricular Activities and Bullying Perpetration: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Alison; Gjelsvik, Annie; Ranney, Megan L

    2015-08-01

    Bullying is a widespread problem for school-aged children and adolescents. Interventions to reduce bullying are not well disseminated. Extracurricular involvement is, however, common. This study aims to examine the relationship between parent-reported participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration. Using the 2011 National Survey of Children's Health, 62,215 interviews with parents of children 6 to 17 were analyzed. Extracurricular categories of sports only, sports + nonsport, nonsport only, and no activities were based on parental response to questions regarding sport teams/lessons, clubs, and organizations. Bullying was derived from report of the child "bullying or being cruel/mean to others." Weighted bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and sex/race/ethnicity/age stratified analyses were conducted. Eighty percent of children participated in extracurricular activities: 8% sports, 48% sports + nonsports, and 24% nonsports. Bullying perpetration was reported in 15% of the sample. Compared with those not participating in extracurricular activities, the odds of bullying were significantly lower for children who participated in sports + nonsports (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.79) and nonsport only (AOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97). Stratified analyses showed attenuated effects of extracurricular activities for boys and for Hispanics. Children who participate in a variety of extracurricular activities exhibit the least frequent bullying perpetration. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  13. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Nkechi C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression.

  14. Fabrication of SERS Active Surface on Polyimide Sample by Excimer Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Csizmadia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible application of excimer laser irradiation for the preparation of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate is demonstrated. A polyimide foil of 125 μm thickness was irradiated by 240 pulses of focused ArF excimer laser beam (λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 20 ns. The applied fluence was varied between 40 and 80 mJ/cm2. After laser processing, the sample was coated with 40 nm silver by PLD in order to create a conducting layer required for the SERS application. The SERS activity of the samples was tested by Raman microscopy. The Raman spectra of Rhodamine 6G aqueous solution (c=10−3 mol/dm3 were collected from the patterned and metalized areas. For areas prepared at 40–60 mJ/cm2 laser fluences, the measured Raman intensities have shown a linear dependence on the applied laser fluence, while above 60 mJ/cm2 saturation was observed. The morphology of the SERS active surface areas was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Finite element modeling was performed in order to simulate the laser-absorption induced heating of the polyimide foil. The simulation resulted in the temporal and spatial distribution of the estimated temperature in the irradiated polyimide sample, which are important for understanding the structure formation process.

  15. Reference values for lysosomal enzymes activities using dried blood spots samples - a Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Ana M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD are inherited disorders caused by deficiency of lysosomal enzymes in which early diagnosis is essential to provide timely treatment. This study reports interval values for the activity of lysosomal enzymes that are deficient in Mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Fabry, Gaucher and Pompe disease, using dried blood spots on filter paper (DBS samples in a Brazilian population. Results Reference activity values were obtained from healthy volunteers samples for alpha-galactosidase A (4.57 ± 1.37 umol/L/h, beta-glucosidase (3.06 ± 0.99 umol/L/h, alpha-glucosidase (ratio: 13.19 ± 4.26; % inhibition: 70.66 ± 7.60, alpha-iduronidase (3.45 ± 1.21 umol/L/h and beta-galactosidase (14.09 ± 4.36 umol/L/h. Conclusion Reference values of five lysosomal enzymes were determined for a Brazilian population sample. However, as our results differ from other laboratories, it highlights the importance of establishing specific reference values for each center.

  16. Molecular evidence of apoptotic pathway activation in semen samples with high DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manente, Lucrezia; Pecoraro, Stefano; Picillo, Esther; Gargiulo, Umberto; Gargiulo, Paolo; De Luca, Antonio; Politano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is diagnosed by semen parameters, such as concentration, motility and morphology; however, these are not sufficient for the prediction of male fertility capacity. In the clinical routine, several other sperm functions have been introduced, including the sperm DNA fragmentation test. The objective of the present study was to evaluate sperm chromatin integrity in semen samples. Sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) was used in ejaculates from men divided into five groups: normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, oligoasthenozoospermic and cryptozoospermic. The data obtained showed that the SCD percentage appeared to be significantly associated with oligozoospermia diagnosis. We also evaluated total testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B serum hormonal levels in all samples examined, in order to assess whether DNA fragmentation increase could correlate with abnormal hormonal values. Finally we selected certain samples with an increasing DNA fragmentation and analyzed the molecular activated apoptotic pathways. A significant relationship was found between caspase-3 activation and increased DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Three Honey Samples in relation with Their Biochemical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Suan Chua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities based on the free radical scavenging, reducing power, and bleaching inhibition were investigated for the three commonly used honeys in Malaysia, namely, tualang, gelam, and acacia honey. The antioxidant capacity of the honey samples was correlated with their biochemical constituents such as total phenol, total flavonoid content, and total water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B1, B2, B3, B9, B12, and vitamin C. The total flavonoid content of honey samples was strongly correlated with the three antioxidative processes (–0.9910. In contrast, the total water-soluble vitamins was found to be well correlated with the free radical scavenging activity (. Vitamin B3 was likely to be in the highest concentration, which covered for 69–80% of the total vitamin content. A number of five phenolic acids, three flavonoids, and two organic acids had also been detected from the honey samples using UPLC-MS/MS, without sugar-removal procedure.

  18. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  19. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO2 as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO3)2.4H2O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO2 NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT's concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10-3, 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO2 NR-P3HT's concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  20. The Sub-Surface Structure of a Large Sample of Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Baldner, Charles S; Basu, Sarbani

    2012-01-01

    We employ ring-diagram analysis to study the sub-surface thermal structure of active regions. We present results using a large number of active regions over the course of Solar Cycle 23. We present both traditional inversions of ring-diagram frequency differences, with a total sample size of 264, and a statistical study using Principal Component Analysis. We confirm earlier results on smaller samples that sound speed and adiabatic index are changed below regions of strong magnetic field. We find that sound speed is decreased in the region between approximately r=0.99R_sun and r=0.995R_sun (depths of 3Mm to 7Mm), and increased in the region between r=0.97R_sun and r=0.985R_sun (depths of 11Mm to 21Mm). The adiabatic index is enhanced in the same deeper layers that sound-speed enhancement is seen. A weak decrease in adiabatic index is seen in the shallower layers in many active regions. We find that the magnitudes of these perturbations depend on the strength of the surface magnetic field, but we find a great d...

  1. International Physical Activity Questionnaire: validation and assessment in an Italian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: A standardized method for the assessment of physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, was developed in the late 1990s as instrument for cross-national assessment. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the IPAQ short and long version questionnaire in a Italian sample.

    Methods: The long and short versions of IPAQ questionnaires were administered twice, with an interval of one day between each administration, to 2 different random samples. Cronbach’s alpha was used as a measure of the internal consistency of the two versions.

    Results: The long version was administered to 60 subjects and the short version to 58. The Cronbach’s alpha on items about physical activity in the long version was 0.73, and 0.60 for the short version. The referred comments on short and long version were not very different both in number and content though they suggest a better understanding of the short version compared to the long one.

    Discussion: IPAQ short and long versions show acceptable reliability properties in the Italian adult setting. The utilization of a questionnaire seems be more influenced by time of administration and number of requested information. In terms of internal consistency and validity they appear to have similar performance.

  2. Antibacterial activity of Argemone mexicana L. against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from clinical samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahesh C Sahu; Nagen K Debata; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the antipseudomonad activity of the weed Argemone mexicana (A.mexicana), with multidrug strains isolated from clinical samples. Methods: Antibiogram of isolated strains were done with disc diffusion method and antipseudomonad activity was monitored with the agar well diffusion method. Results: Twenty seven strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were isolated from clinical samples from a hospital; among them, 22 were resistant to antibiotics (μg/disc): cefotaxime-30, 16 to amoxyclav-30, 15 to ofloxacin-5, 13 to gentamicin-10, 10 to piperacillin-100/tazobactam-10, 8 to amikacin-30, 7 to gatifloxacin-30, 6 to netilmicin-30, 4 to piperacillin100, 3 to imipenem-10 and 3 strains to nitrofurantoin-300. Each strain was resistant to several antibiotics at specified levels. Of these 27 clinical strains, 15 antibiotic-resistant strains and a antibiotic-sensitive standard strain were used in monitoring antimicrobial activity of leaf-extracts using 3 organic solvents (acetone, methanol and ethanol) and water of the weed, prickly poppy (A. mexicana L.). The methanol-extract had the highest level of antipseudomonad activity both with cold and hot extracts, confirmed by separate Kruskal-Wallis H tests. With the Student’s t-test it was ascertained that the hot extraction concentrate yielded promising antipseudomonad activity than the cold extraction with methanol. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts of A. mexicana using acetone, methanol and ethanol as solvents were 10, 8 and 8 mg/mL, respectively; corresponding values of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 32, 28 and 24 mg/mL for these solvents, respectively.Conclusions:This study suggests that A. mexicana leaf can be used as complementary medicinein treating diseases caused by multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa.

  3. Modulation of mutagenic activity in meat samples after deep-frying in vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, C; Lopez de Cerain, A; Bello, J

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have been carried out on the influence of frying fats on the formation of food mutagens, but most of them have been performed on model systems or under cooking conditions that are more frequent in northern countries. The objective of this work was to study the overall mutagenic activity generated in hamburgers and frankfurters deep-fried under cooking conditions that are normal practice in Spain and other Mediterranean countries, in order to determine if there was any modulation of the mutagenic activity with respect to other cooking conditions previously studied. Hamburgers were prepared from beef purchased in a butcher's shop. Frankfurters as well as the oils [olive, marc olive ('orujo'), sunflower and soya bean oil] and butter were purchased in a local supermarket. The samples were fried in a teflon-coated frying pan at 170-180 degrees C for 10, 20 or 30 min. The mutagens were extracted and the mutagenic activity evaluated using the Salmonella mammalian microsome assay with strain TA98. Two independent assays were carried out for each experimental condition. All the hamburgers showed a mutagenic activity that was more than four times higher than that of the controls. Frankfurters showed a lower mutagenic activity than hamburgers (fried under the same conditions) because they have a lower protein content and a higher fat content. Hamburgers fried in olive oil for 10 min showed a significant increase in the number of revertants with respect to the other oils, probably due to the fact that the temperature reached was approximately 10 degrees C higher. Longer frying times significantly increased the number of revertants in samples fried in oils, except in olive oil, probably due to its lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Active Learning to Overcome Sample Selection Bias: Application to Photometric Variable Star Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joseph W; Brink, Henrik; Miller, Adam A; Bloom, Joshua S; Butler, Nathaniel R; James, J Berian; Long, James P; Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Despite the great promise of machine-learning algorithms to classify and predict astrophysical parameters for the vast numbers of astrophysical sources and transients observed in large-scale surveys, the peculiarities of the training data often manifest as strongly biased predictions on the data of interest. Typically, training sets are derived from historical surveys of brighter, more nearby objects than those from more extensive, deeper surveys (testing data). This sample selection bias can cause catastrophic errors in predictions on the testing data because a) standard assumptions for machine-learned model selection procedures break down and b) dense regions of testing space might be completely devoid of training data. We explore possible remedies to sample selection bias, including importance weighting (IW), co-training (CT), and active learning (AL). We argue that AL---where the data whose inclusion in the training set would most improve predictions on the testing set are queried for manual follow-up---i...

  5. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  6. Microcomputer-based pneumatic controller for neutron activation analysis. [For analyzing uranium ore samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Sand, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    A microcomputer-based pneumatic controller for neutron activation analysis was designed and built at the Savannah River Laboratory for analysis of large numbers of geologic samples for locating potential supplies of uranium ore for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. In this system, commercially available microcomputer logic modules are used to transport sample capsules through a network of pressurized air lines. The logic modules are interfaced to pneumatic valves, solenoids, and photo-optical detectors. The system operates from programs stored in firmware (permanent software). It also commands a minicomputer and a hard-wired pulse height analyzer for data collection and bookkeeping tasks. The advantage of the system is that major system changes can be implemented in the firmware with no hardware changes. This report describes the hardware, firmware, and software for the electronics system.

  7. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4x1012 n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-PP-1. Also the pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time.The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  8. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srror, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also the Pneumatic irradiation Rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time. The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  9. COLOUR, PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SLOVAK ALIBERNET RED WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Alibernet wine samples, originated from three most important Slovak vineyard regions, were evaluated spectrophotometrically for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines ranged from 2141 to 4274 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 3057 mg gallic acid/L and total anthocyanin contents ranged from 73.4 to 791.2 mg/L (average content was 403.4 mg/L. Determined values of antioxidant activity were within the interval 54.8 – 86.8% (average value was 74.5% and the values of wine colour density varied between 0.944 and 4.592 (average value was 2.317. The statistical evaluation of the obtained results confirmed only weak linear correlation between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, however strong linear correlations between total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, resp. wine colour density were observed. Our results also confirmed very highly significant linear relationship between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant activity and between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  10. Improving Polymerase Activity with Unnatural Substrates by Sampling Mutations in Homologous Protein Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Matthew R; Otto, Carine; Fenton, Kathryn E; Chaput, John C

    2016-05-20

    The ability to synthesize and propagate genetic information encoded in the framework of xeno-nucleic acid (XNA) polymers would inform a wide range of topics from the origins of life to synthetic biology. While directed evolution has produced examples of engineered polymerases that can accept XNA substrates, these enzymes function with reduced activity relative to their natural counterparts. Here, we describe a biochemical strategy that enables the discovery of engineered polymerases with improved activity for a given unnatural polymerase function. Our approach involves identifying specificity determining residues (SDRs) that control polymerase activity, screening mutations at SDR positions in a model polymerase scaffold, and assaying key gain-of-function mutations in orthologous protein architectures. By transferring beneficial mutations between homologous protein structures, we show that new polymerases can be identified that function with superior activity relative to their starting donor scaffold. This concept, which we call scaffold sampling, was used to generate engineered DNA polymerases that can faithfully synthesize RNA and TNA (threose nucleic acid), respectively, on a DNA template with high primer-extension efficiency and low template sequence bias. We suggest that the ability to combine phenotypes from different donor and recipient scaffolds provides a new paradigm in polymerase engineering where natural structural diversity can be used to refine the catalytic activity of synthetic enzymes.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of chemical impurities in manipulated samples of omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepe, Fernanda Peixoto; Leal, Alexandre Soares; Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br [Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, samples of Omeprazole (C{sub 17}H{sub 19}N{sub 3}O{sub 3}S), a largely used drug in the treatment of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer, were acquired from five different pharmacies of manipulation - or retail pharmacies which prepare personalized drugs under medical recommendation - in Belo Horizonte/Brazil and investigated using the k{sub 0} - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The preliminary results showed the presence of elements not foreseen in the original formula. It confirms the potential risk offered by medicines without suitable inspection. (author)

  12. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar sample from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor Adlin; Yam, Mun Fei; Beh, Hooi Kheng; Abdul Razak, Khairul Niza; Widyawati, Tri; Mahmud, Roziahanim; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2015-08-01

    To study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of nipa palm vinegar (NPV) used in traditional Malay medicine for treating diabetes. NPV was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method and the obtained samples were subjected to antidiabetic studies using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models whereas antidoxidant activities were investigated via in vitro antioxidant tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals scavenging activities and the reducing power assay. Single administration of NPV and its extracts were not effective in both normal and diabetic rats. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, NPV and its aqueous extract showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. In the sub-acute study, compared with the diabetic control, aqueous extract of NPV showed the most notable blood glucose lowering effect (56.6%) and a significant improvement in serum insulin levels (79.8%, P < 0.05). To assess NPV's antioxidant activity, three in vitro antioxidant tests were employed: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radical-scavenging assays, and the reducing power assay. Ethyl acetate extract had the greatest antioxidant potential and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A linear positive correlation between the antioxidant parameters was observed. Chemical profiling analysis of aqueous extract of NPV revealed the presence of acetic acid (35.25%), the main active constituent which significantly contributed to the observed antidiabetic activity. Aqueous extract of NPV possesses antihyperglycaemic activities comparable to the metformin, while the ethyl acetate extract precipitated significant antioxidant effects attributable to its high phenolic content. These findings suggest that antioxidant compounds of NPV do not contribute much towards the overall observed antidiabetic effect. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical

  13. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities ofNypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar sample from Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff; Mun Fei Yam; Hooi Kheng Beh; Khairul Niza Abdul Razak; Tri Widyawati; Roziahanim Mahmud; Mariam Ahmad; Mohd Zaini Asmawi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of nipa palm vinegar (NPV) used in traditional Malay medicine for treating diabetes.Methods:NPV was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method and the obtained samples were subjected to antidiabetic studies using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models whereas antidoxidant activities were investigated viain vitroantioxidant tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals scavenging activities and the reducing power assay.Results:Single administration of NPV and its extracts were not effective in both normal and diabetic rats. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, NPV and its aqueous extract showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. In the sub-acute study, compared with the diabetic control, aqueous extract of NPV showed the most notable blood glucose lowering effect (56.6%) and a significant improvement in serum insulin levels (79.8%, P<0.05). To assess NPV’s antioxidant activity, threein vitro antioxidant tests were employed:2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radical-scavenging assays, and the reducing power assay. Ethyl acetate extract had the greatest antioxidant potential and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A linear positive correlation between the antioxidant parameters was observed. Chemical profiling analysis of aqueous extract of NPV revealed the presence of acetic acid (35.25%), the main active constituent which significantly contributed to the observed antidiabetic activity.Conclusions:Aqueous extract of NPV possesses antihyperglycaemic activities comparable to the metformin, while the ethyl acetate extract precipitated significant antioxidant effects attributable to its high phenolic content. These findings suggest that antioxidant compounds of NPV do not contribute much towards the overall observed antidiabetic effect.

  14. Active Collection of Land Cover Sample Data from Geo-Tagged Web Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sample data plays an important role in land cover (LC map validation. Traditionally, they are collected through field survey or image interpretation, either of which is costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In recent years, massive geo-tagged texts are emerging on the web and they contain valuable information for LC map validation. However, this kind of special textual data has seldom been analyzed and used for supporting LC map validation. This paper examines the potential of geo-tagged web texts as a new cost-free sample data source to assist LC map validation and proposes an active data collection approach. The proposed approach uses a customized deep web crawler to search for geo-tagged web texts based on land cover-related keywords and string-based rules matching. A data transformation based on buffer analysis is then performed to convert the collected web texts into LC sample data. Using three provinces and three municipalities directly under the Central Government in China as study areas, geo-tagged web texts were collected to validate artificial surface class of China’s 30-meter global land cover datasets (GlobeLand30-2010. A total of 6283 geo-tagged web texts were collected at a speed of 0.58 texts per second. The collected texts about built-up areas were transformed into sample data. User’s accuracy of 82.2% was achieved, which is close to that derived from formal expert validation. The preliminary results show that geo-tagged web texts are valuable ancillary data for LC map validation and the proposed approach can improve the efficiency of sample data collection.

  15. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Defru, N.; Delfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Rameau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres, and thus increase the observed flux in the Ca ii H and K doublet. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, these two spectral lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period (Prot) and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca ii emission is traditionally quantified through the -index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M dwarfs - the most numerous stars of the Galaxy - were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H and K emission to an exists to date. Aims: We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low- and very-low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the -index that extends to the realm of M dwarfs, and by evaluating the relationship between and the rotation period. Methods: We calibrated the bolometric and photospheric factors for M dwarfs to properly transform the S-index (which compares the flux in the Ca ii H and K lines to a close spectral continuum) into the . We monitored magnetic activity through the Ca ii H and K emission lines in the HARPS M dwarf sample. Results: The index, like the fractional X-ray luminosity LX/Lbol, shows a saturated correlation with rotation, with saturation setting in around a ten days rotation period. Above that period, slower rotators show weaker Ca ii activity, as expected. Under that period, the index saturates to approximately 10-4. Stellar mass modulates the Ca ii activity, with showing a constant basal activity above 0.6 M⊙ and then decreasing with mass between 0.6 M⊙ and the fully-convective limit of 0.35 M⊙. Short-term variability of the

  16. Brane Couplings from Bulk Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi, Howard; Grant, Aaron K.; Hailu, Girma

    2000-01-01

    We compute loop corrections to the effective action of a field theory on a five-dimensional $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold. We find that the quantum loop effects of interactions in the bulk produce infinite contributions that require renormalization by four-dimensional couplings on the orbifold fixed planes. Thus bulk couplings give rise to renormalization group running of brane couplings.

  17. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-09-15

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of non- relativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk-viscosity effects of a weakly interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles.

  18. Phase separation in La5/8Sr3/8MnO3 (30%)+LuMnO3 (70%) bulk sample studied by scanning microwave microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jino; Park, Jewook; Kim, Ahram; Char, K.; Park, Soonyong; Hur, Namjung; Cheong, S.-W.

    2005-01-01

    Using a scanning microwave microscope (SMM), we have investigated the phase separation in a 30%La5/8Sr3/8MnO3(LSMO)+70%LuMnO3(LMO) polycrystalline pressed powder sample, in which the LSMO phase is a perovskite ferromagnetic metal while the LMO phase is a hexagonal ferroelectric insulator. When the electrical properties of the sample were imaged using our SMM, the sample showed a significant contrast between the metallic LSMO and the insulating LMO grains, indicating a clear phase separation between the two phases. The metallic phase identified by the SMM clearly showed a ferromagnetic signal when investigated by a magnetic force microscope (MFM), providing solid evidence that the metallic phase is indeed the ferromagnetic LSMO. In addition, we have noticed a slight difference between the images generated by SMM and MFM, and we believe that this is due to the different depth scales probed by the two microscopy techniques.

  19. BROAD Hβ EMISSION-LINE VARIABILITY IN A SAMPLE OF 102 LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA 93407 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lazarova, Mariana S. [Department of Physics and Physical Science, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Park, Daeseong, E-mail: jrunco@calpoly.edu, E-mail: mcosens@calpoly.edu, E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu, E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lazarovam2@unk.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: daeseongpark@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses M{sub BH} > 10{sup 7}M{sub ⊙} was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between M{sub BH} and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hβ emission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hβ emission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate M{sub BH}, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hβ line virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  20. Determination of ring correction factors for leaded gloves used in grab sampling activities at Hanford tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RATHBONE, B.A.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of lead lined gloves in reducing extremity dose from two sources specific to tank waste sampling activities: (1) sludge inside glass sample jars and (2) sludge as thin layer contamination on the exterior surface of sample jars. The response of past and present Hanford Extremity Dosimeters (ring) designs under these conditions is also evaluated.

  1. Neutron activation determination of iridium, gold, platinum, and silver in geologic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    Low-level methods for the determination of iridium and other noble metals have become increasingly important in recent years due to interest in locating abundance anomalies associated with the Cretaceous and Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Typical iridium anomalies are in the range of 1 to 100 ??g/kg (ppb). Thus methods with detection limits near 0.1 ??g/kg should be adequate to detect K-T boundary anomalies. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods continue to be required although instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques employing elaborate gamma-counters are under development. In the procedure developed in this study samples irradiated in the epithermal neutron facility of the U. S. Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (Denver, Colorado) are treated with a mini-fire assay technique. The iridium, gold, and silver are collected in a 1-gram metallic lead button. Primary contaminants at this stage are arsenic and antimony. These can be removed by heating the button with a mixture of sodium perioxide and sodium hydroxide. The resulting 0.2-gram lead bead is counted in a Compton suppression spectrometer. Carrier yields are determined by reirradiation of the lead beads. This procedure has been applied to the U.S.G.S. Standard Rock PCC-1 and samples from K-T boundary sites in the Western Interior of North America. ?? 1987 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  2. 230Th/U dating of Last Interglacial brain corals from Bonaire (southern Caribbean) using bulk and theca wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, J. Christina; Scholz, Denis; Felis, Thomas; Brocas, William M.; Jochum, Klaus P.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    We compared the suitability of two skeletal materials of the Atlantic brain coral Diploria strigosa for 230Th/U-dating: the commonly used bulk material comprising all skeletal elements and the denser theca wall material. Eight fossil corals of presumably Last Interglacial age from Bonaire, southern Caribbean Sea, were investigated, and several sub-samples were dated from each coral. For four corals, both the ages and the activity ratios of the bulk material and theca wall agree within uncertainty. Three corals show significantly older ages for their bulk material than for their theca wall material as well as substantially elevated 232Th content and (230Th/238U) ratios. The bulk material samples of another coral show younger ages and lower (230Th/238U) ratios than the corresponding theca wall samples. This coral also contains a considerable amount of 232Th. The application of the available open-system models developed to account for post-depositional diagenetic effects in corals shows that none of the models can successfully be applied to the Bonaire corals. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the assumptions of the models are not fulfilled by our data set. Comparison of the theca wall and bulk material data enables us to obtain information about the open-system processes that affected the corals. The corals showing apparently older ages for their bulk material were probably affected by contamination with a secondary (detrital) phase. The most likely source of the detrital material is carbonate sand. The higher (230Th/232Th) ratio of this material implies that detrital contamination would have a much stronger impact on the ages than a contaminant with a bulk Earth (230Th/232Th) ratio and that the threshold for the commonly applied 232Th reliability criterion would be much lower than the generally used value of 1 ng g-1. The coral showing apparently younger ages for its bulk material was probably influenced by more than one diagenetic process. A

  3. Machine (bulk) harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of machine harvesting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2008. Information is provided for each year about...

  4. MEASURING X-RAY VARIABILITY IN FAINT/SPARSELY SAMPLED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Paolillo, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Papadakis, I. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Pinto, C. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584-CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the normalized excess variance of variability process characterized by a ''red-noise'' power spectral density (PSD), as in the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform Monte Carlo simulations of light curves, assuming both a continuous and a sparse sampling pattern and various signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). We show that the normalized excess variance is a biased estimate of the variance even in the case of continuously sampled light curves. The bias depends on the PSD slope and on the sampling pattern, but not on the S/N. We provide a simple formula to account for the bias, which yields unbiased estimates with an accuracy better than 15%. We show that the normalized excess variance estimates based on single light curves (especially for sparse sampling and S/N < 3) are highly uncertain (even if corrected for bias) and we propose instead the use of an ''ensemble estimate'', based on multiple light curves of the same object, or on the use of light curves of many objects. These estimates have symmetric distributions, known errors, and can also be corrected for biases. We use our results to estimate the ability to measure the intrinsic source variability in current data, and show that they could also be useful in the planning of the observing strategy of future surveys such as those provided by X-ray missions studying distant and/or faint AGN populations and, more in general, in the estimation of the variability amplitude of sources that will result from future surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  5. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  6. POP-ART: thermodynamically correct activated event sampling in complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubynsky, M. V.; Vocks, Henk; Mousseau, Normand; Barkema, G. T.

    2006-03-01

    Dynamics of complex systems with a rugged energy landscape can be represented as a sequence of rare activated events during which the system jumps between different potential energy minima. The activation-relaxation technique (ART) [1] is an efficient method of sampling such events; however, because of an unknown bias in selecting these events it cannot easily provide thermodynamical information. We present a modification of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART) [2]. POP-ART combines short molecular dynamics runs with ART-like activated moves, with an additional accept/reject step designed to satisfy detailed balance and thus reproduce correct thermodynamics. Both correctness and efficiency of the method have been tested using a variety of systems. We mention briefly some ways of extending the approach to obtain correct dynamics as well.[1] G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4358 (1996)[2] H. Vocks, M.V. Chubynsky, G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, J. Chem. Phys., accepted

  7. Antibiotic activity and concentrations in clinical samples from patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Cañas, V; Gutiérrez-Soto, B; Almonte-Fernández, H; Lara-Oya, A; Navarro-Marí, J M; Garrido-Frenich, A; Vázquez-Alonso, F; Gutiérrez-Fernández, J

    2017-06-19

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in patients younger than 50 years, whose long-standing symptoms could be related to an inappropriate therapeutic regimen. The objective was to analyse the sensitivity of microorganisms isolated from patients with CBP and measure the weekly antibiotic concentrations in serum, semen and urine. For the antibiotic sensitivity study, 60 clinical isolates were included between January 2013 and December 2014 from semen samples from patients with microbiologically confirmed CBP. Broth microdilution was performed on the samples. For the antibiotic concentration study from January to May 2014, urine, blood and semen samples were collected weekly, over 4 weeks of treatment from 8 patients with positive cultures for CBP. The concentrations were measured using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The antibiotics fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin had the highest activity (95.2% in both cases). The mean antibiotic concentrations in semen during the 4 weeks studied were as follows: 1.68mg/L, 8.30mg/L, 2.61mg/L, 0.33mg/L and 2.90mg/L, respectively, for patients 1 to 5, who were treated with levofloxacin; 1.625mg/L for patient 6, who was treated with ciprofloxacin; 2.67mg/L for patient 7, who was treated with ampicillin; and 1.05mg/L for patient 8, who was treated with doxycycline. Higher concentrations were obtained in the urine samples than in serum and semen, the latter 2 of which were comparable. Fosfomycin is proposed as the primary alternative to the empiric treatment of CBP due to its high in vitro activity. The antibiotic concentration in semen was higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration against the aetiological agent, although microbiological negativisation was not always correlated with a favourable clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Bulk culture levels of specific cytotoxic T-cell activity against HIV-1 proteins are not associated with risk of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aladdin, H; Ullum, H; Lepri, A Cozzi

    1999-01-01

    The ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to control and influence the outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is not fully understood. The association between HIV-CTL activity and disease progression was evaluated prospectively in 36 HIV-1-infected individuals with a median fo...

  9. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    oligomerization, and leads to a high sugar accumulation in the phloem, even though the phloem is not symplasmically isolated, but well coupled by plasmodesmata (PD). Hence the mode polymer-trap mode is also designated active symplasmic loading. For woody angiosperms and gymnosperms an alternate loading mode...

  10. Bulk production and evaluation of high specific activity (186g)Re for cancer therapy using enriched (186)WO3 targets in a proton beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastren, Tara; Radchenko, Valery; Bach, Hong T; Balkin, Ethan R; Birnbaum, Eva R; Brugh, Mark; Engle, Jonathan W; Gott, Matthew D; Guthrie, James; Hennkens, Heather M; John, Kevin D; Ketring, Alan R; Kuchuk, Marina; Maassen, Joel R; Naranjo, Cleo M; Nortier, F Meiring; Phelps, Tim E; Jurisson, Silvia S; Wilbur, D Scott; Fassbender, Michael E

    2017-06-01

    Rhenium-186g (t1/2 = 3.72 d) is a β(-) emitting isotope suitable for theranostic applications. Current production methods rely on reactor production by way of the reaction (185)Re(n,γ)(186g)Re, which results in low specific activities limiting its use for cancer therapy. Production via charged particle activation of enriched (186)W results in a (186g)Re product with a higher specific activity, allowing it to be used more broadly for targeted radiotherapy applications. This targets the unmet clinical need for more efficient radiotherapeutics. A target consisting of highly enriched, pressed (186)WO3 was irradiated with protons at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Isotope Production Facility (LANL-IPF) to evaluate (186g)Re product yield and quality. LANL-IPF was operated in a dedicated nominal 40 MeV mode. Alkaline dissolution followed by anion exchange chromatography was used to isolate (186g)Re from the target material. Phantom and radiolabeling studies were conducted with the produced (186g)Re activity. A (186g)Re batch yield of 1.38 ± 0.09 MBq/μAh or 384.9 ± 27.3 MBq/C was obtained after 16.5 h in a 205 μA average/230μA maximum current proton beam. The chemical recovery yield was 93% and radiolabeling was achieved with efficiencies ranging from 60-80%. True specific activity of (186g)Re at EOB was determined via ICP-AES and amounted to 0.788 ± 0.089 GBq/μg (0.146 ± 0.017 GBq/nmol), which is approximately seven times higher than the product obtained from neutron capture in a reactor. Phantom studies show similar imaging quality to the gold standard (99m)Tc. We report a preliminary study of the large-scale production and novel anion exchange based chemical recovery of high specific activity (186g)Re from enriched (186)WO3 targets in a high-intensity proton beam with exceptional chemical recovery and radiochemical purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracking human activity and well-being in natural environments using wearable sensors and experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Sean T; Lemieux, Christopher J; Canally, Culum

    2014-04-01

    A growing range of studies have begun to document the health and well-being benefits associated with contact with nature. Most studies rely on generalized self-reports following engagement in the natural environment. The actual in-situ experience during contact with nature, and the environmental features and factors that evoke health benefits have remained relatively unexplored. Smartphones offer a new opportunity to monitor and interact with human subjects during everyday life using techniques such as Experience Sampling Methods (ESM) that involve repeated self-reports of experiences as they occur in-situ. Additionally, embedded sensors in smartphones such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometers can accurately trace human activities. This paper explores how these techniques can be combined to comprehensively explore the perceived health and well-being impacts of contact with nature. Custom software was developed to passively track GPS and accelerometer data, and actively prompt subjects to complete an ESM survey at regular intervals throughout their visit to a provincial park in Ontario, Canada. The ESM survey includes nine scale questions concerning moods and emotions, followed by a series of open-ended experiential questions that subjects provide recorded audio responses to. Pilot test results are used to illustrate the nature, quantity and quality of data obtained. Participant activities were clearly evident from GPS maps, including especially walking, cycling and sedate activities. From the ESM surveys, participants reported an average of 25 words per question, taking an average of 15 s to record them. Further qualitative analysis revealed that participants were willing to provide considerable insights into their experiences and perceived health impacts. The combination of passive and interactive techniques is sure to make larger studies of this type more affordable and less burdensome in the future, further enhancing the ability to understand

  12. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroo, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/cm2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The gamma-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  13. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The {gamma}-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  14. Herschel Far-Infrared Photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope Active Galactic Nuclei Sample of the Local Universe. II. SPIRE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, T Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F; Koss, Michael J; Barger, Amy J; Cowie, Lennox L

    2015-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory's Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) for 313 nearby z<0.05 active galactic nuclei (AGN). We selected AGN from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog, the result of an all-sky survey in the 14-195 keV energy band, allowing for a reduction in AGN selection effects due to obscuration and host galaxy contamination. We find 46% (143/313) of our sample is detected at all three wavebands and combined with our PACS observations represents the most complete FIR spectral energy distributions of local, moderate luminosity AGN. We find no correlation between the 250, 350, and 500 micron luminosities with 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating the bulk of the FIR emission is not related to the AGN. However, Seyfert 1s do show a very weak correlation with X-ray luminosity compared to Seyfert 2s and we discuss possible explanations. We compare the SPIRE colors (F250/F350 and F350/F500) to a sample of n...

  15. Comparison of preparation methods for ceria catalyst and the effect of surface and bulk sulfates on its activity toward NH3-SCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huazhen; Ma, Lei; Yang, Shijian; Li, Junhua; Chen, Liang; Wang, Wei; Hao, Jiming

    2013-11-15

    A series of CeO2 catalysts prepared with sulfate (S) and nitrate (N) precursors by hydrothermal (H) and precipitation (P) methods were investigated in selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 (NH3-SCR). The catalytic activity of CeO2 was significantly affected by the preparation methods and the precursor type. CeO2-SH, which was prepared by hydrothermal method with cerium (IV) sulfate as a precursor, showed excellent SCR activity and high N2 selectivity in the temperature range of 230-450 °C. Based on the results obtained by temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), transmission infrared spectra (IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), the excellent performance of CeO2-SH was correlated with the surface sulfate species formed in the hydrothermal reaction. These results indicated that sulfate species bind with Ce(4+) on the CeO2-SH catalyst, and the specific sulfate species, such as Ce(SO4)2 or CeOSO4, were formed. The adsorption of NH3 was promoted by these sulfate species, and the probability of immediate oxidation of NH3 to N2O on Ce(4+) was reduced. Accordingly, the selective oxidation of NH3 was enhanced, which contributed to the high N2 selectivity in the SCR reaction. However, the location of sulfate on the CeO2-SP catalyst was different. Plenty of sulfate species were likely deposited on CeO2-SP surface, covering the active sites for NO oxidation, which resulted in poor SCR activity in the test temperature range. Moreover, the resistance to alkali metals, such as Na and K, was improved over the CeO2-SH catalyst.

  16. Morphology controlled bulk synthesis of disc-shaped WO3 powder and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Chandrasekaran, S; Hameed, A

    2014-07-15

    The surfactant assisted synthesis of disc-shaped WO3 powder and its photocatalytic performance in sunlight exposure is reported. UV-vis DRS, XRD and FESEM characterized the synthesized WO3. The synthesized powder exhibited a bandgap of ∼2.55eV with cubic lattice and high crystallinity. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized WO3 was examined for the degradation of phenol, resorcinol, 2-chlorophenol and 2-nitrophenol in complete spectrum and visible segment of sunlight. The highly efficient degradation/mineralization of 2-chloro and 2-nitrophenol compared to that of phenol and resorcinol, under identical experimental conditions, suggested the regulatory role of substituents attached to the aromatic ring in degradation/mineralization process. The time-scale HPLC degradation profiles, identification of intermediates by GC-MS and removal of organic carbon during the course of reaction were utilized to approximate the possible route of degradation/mineralization of phenolic substrates. The measurement of the anions released during the photocatalytic process was used to identify the nature of the major oxidants (O2(•-), OH(•)) and the possible interaction sites. A significant decrease in the photocatalytic activity of synthesized WO3, ∼50%, was observed in visible portion of sunlight however, a sustained activity was observed in the repeated exposures.

  17. Geochemical Signature of Land-based Activities in Caribbean Coral Surface Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N. G.; Hughen, K.; Carilli, J.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic threats to the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef Ecoregion, resulting from increased sedimentation, agrochemical run-off, coastal development, tourism and overfishing, are of great concern for future coral reef health and sustainability. Abundances of trace metal in corals can be used to monitor and identify the impact of land-based activities on the reef itself. In this study we demonstrate that surface coral samples from four sites in the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef Ecoregion, Turneffe Atoll, Sapodilla Cayes and Honduras Bay Islands (Utila and Cayos Cochinos), yield statistically different chemical signatures due to their water quality and relative distance from pollution sources. Specifically, samples from the Sapodilla Cayes and the Bay Islands of Honduras yield elevated Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca levels, indicative of greater exposure to sediment-laden runoff form the south. In a similar manner, elevated coral Pb/Ca and Zn/Ca, and Sb/Ca and Cu/Ca values can be linked to mining activities and the use of antifouling paints, respectively. In addition, site heterogeneity was investigated by analyzing replicate cores at a single site from different colonies. We show that regional variability within the Sapodilla Cayes Marine Reserve can be explained by relative location and orientation within the reef and distance from the continental shelf. Our results indicate good reproducibility for the majority of trace metals investigated (not including Sr/Ca or Mg/Ca), suggesting that local environmental changes such as seawater chemistry, and not climate, is the dominant influence on the metal/Ca ratios.

  18. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  19. Magnetic Activity Analysis for a Sample of G-type Main Sequence Kepler Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Ahmad; He, Han; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    The variation of a stellar light curve owing to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on the star’s surface can be used to investigate the magnetic properties of the host star. In this paper, we use the periodicity and magnitude of the light-curve variation as two proxies to study the stellar magnetic properties for a large sample of G-type main sequence Kepler targets, for which the rotation periods were recently determined. By analyzing the correlation between the two magnetic proxies, it is found that: (1) the two proxies are positively correlated for most of the stars in our sample, and the percentages of negative, zero, and positive correlations are 4.27%, 6.81%, and 88.91%, respectively; (2) negative correlation stars cannot have a large magnitude of light-curve variation; and (3) with the increase of rotation period, the relative number of positive correlation stars decreases and the negative correlation one increases. These results indicate that stars with shorter rotation period tend to have positive correlation between the two proxies, and a good portion of the positive correlation stars have a larger magnitude of light-curve variation (and hence more intense magnetic activities) than negative correlation stars.

  20. Enhanced Stability of Blood Matrices Using a Dried Sample Spot Assay to Measure Human Butyrylcholinesterase Activity and Nerve Agent Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jonas W.; Pantazides, Brooke G.; Watson, Caroline M.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2015-01-01

    Dried matrix spots are safer to handle and easier to store than wet blood products, but factors such as intra-spot variability and unknown sample volumes have limited their appeal as a sampling format for quantitative analyses. In this work, we introduce a dried spot activity assay for quantifying butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) specific activity which is BChE activity normalized to the total protein content in a sample spot. The method was demonstrated with blood, serum, and plasma spotted on specimen collection devices (cards) which were extracted to measure total protein and BChE activity using a modified Ellman assay. Activity recovered from dried spots was ∼80% of the initial spotted activity for blood and >90% for plasma and serum. Measuring total protein in the sample and calculating specific activity substantially improved quantification and reduced intra-spot variability. Analyte stability of nerve agent adducts was also evaluated, and the results obtained via BChE-specific activity measurements were confirmed by quantification of BChE adducts using a previously established LC-MS/MS method. The spotted samples were up to 10-times more resistant to degradation compared to unspotted control samples when measuring BChE inhibition by the nerve agents sarin and VX. Using this method, both BChE activity and adducts can be accurately measured from a dried sample spot. This use of a dried sample spot with normalization to total protein is robust, demonstrates decreased intra-spot variability without the need to control for initial sample volume, and enhances analyte stability. PMID:25955132

  1. X-Ray Nanoscopy of a Bulk Heterojunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Patil

    Full Text Available Optimizing the morphology of bulk heterojunctions is known to significantly improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells, but available quantitative imaging techniques are few and have severe limitations. We demonstrate X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging applied to all-organic blends. Specifically, the phase-separated morphology in bulk heterojunction photoactive layers for organic solar cells, prepared from a 50:50 blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM and thermally treated for different annealing times is imaged to high resolution. Moreover, using a fast-scanning calorimetry chip setup, the nano-morphological changes caused by repeated thermal annealing applied to the same sample could be monitored. X-ray ptychography resolves to better than 100 nm the phase-segregated domains of electron donor and electron acceptor materials over a large field of view within the active layers. The quantitative phase contrast images further allow us to estimate the local volume fraction of PCBM across the photovoltaically active layers. The volume fraction gradient for different regions provides insight on the PCBM diffusion across the depletion zone surrounding PCBM aggregates. Phase contrast X-ray microscopy is under rapid development, and the results presented here are promising for future studies of organic-organic blends, also under in situ conditions, e.g., for monitoring the structural stability during UV-Vis irradiation.

  2. X-Ray Nanoscopy of a Bulk Heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nilesh; Torbjørn, Eirik; Skjønsfjell, Bakken; Van den Brande, Niko; Chavez Panduro, Elvia Anabela; Claessens, Raf; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Van Mele, Bruno; Breiby, Dag Werner

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing the morphology of bulk heterojunctions is known to significantly improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells, but available quantitative imaging techniques are few and have severe limitations. We demonstrate X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging applied to all-organic blends. Specifically, the phase-separated morphology in bulk heterojunction photoactive layers for organic solar cells, prepared from a 50:50 blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and thermally treated for different annealing times is imaged to high resolution. Moreover, using a fast-scanning calorimetry chip setup, the nano-morphological changes caused by repeated thermal annealing applied to the same sample could be monitored. X-ray ptychography resolves to better than 100 nm the phase-segregated domains of electron donor and electron acceptor materials over a large field of view within the active layers. The quantitative phase contrast images further allow us to estimate the local volume fraction of PCBM across the photovoltaically active layers. The volume fraction gradient for different regions provides insight on the PCBM diffusion across the depletion zone surrounding PCBM aggregates. Phase contrast X-ray microscopy is under rapid development, and the results presented here are promising for future studies of organic-organic blends, also under in situ conditions, e.g., for monitoring the structural stability during UV-Vis irradiation.

  3. The nature and origin of Narrow Line AGN activity in a sample of isolated SDSS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Coziol, R; Plauchu-Frayn, I; Islas-Islas, J M; Ortega-Minakata, R A; Larios, D M Neri; Andernach, H

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the nature and origin of the nuclear activity observed in a sample of 292 SDSS narrow-emission-line galaxies, considered to have formed and evolved in isolation. All these galaxies are spiral like and show some kind of nuclear activity. The fraction of Narrow Line AGNs (NLAGNs) and Transition type Objects (TOs; a NLAGN with circumnuclear star formation) is relatively high, amounting to 64% of the galaxies. There is a definite trend for the NLAGNs to appear in early-type spirals, while the star forming galaxies and TOs are found in later-type spirals. We verify that the probability for a galaxy to show an AGN characteristic increases with the bulge mass of the galaxy (Torre-Papaqui et al. 2011), and find evidence that this trend is really a by-product of the morphology, suggesting that the AGN phenomenon is intimately connected with the formation process of the galaxies. Consistent with this interpretation, we establish a strong connection between the astration rate--the efficiency with which the ga...

  4. Predictors of body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity in a sample of men with ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, P M; Raposo, C F; Oliveira, L B

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to scrutinize the extent to which aspects of body dissatisfaction and relationship variables predict body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity (BACDSA) in a sample of men diagnosed with ED. A total of 65 heterosexual Portuguese participants with ED completed a survey that included questions on socio-demographic data as well as body-related and relationship measures. We used the Global Body Dissatisfaction (GBD) Subscale of the Body Attitudes Test; a version of the Contour Drawing Rating Scale; a single item on partner's opinion perceived about one's body appearance; the Global Measure of Relationship Satisfaction; and the Inclusion of Other in Self Scale. Open questions assessed focus on specific body parts during sexual activity and relationship length. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that only GBD was a significant predictor of BACDSA, contrary to the relationship measures that showed no significant predictive effect (R(2) =0.47). Our results support the important role of individual factors on explanatory models of sexual dysfunctions, suggesting that interventions addressing individual factors that affect BACDSA may be of preference.

  5. Ice nucleation active particles in continental air samples over Mainz, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles are of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate and public health. Some of these particles possess ice nucleation activity (INA), which is highly relevant for cloud formation and precipitation. In 2010, air filter samples were collected with a high-volume filter sampler separating fine and coarse particles (aerodynamic cut-off diameter 3 μm) in Mainz, Germany. In this study, the INA of the atmospheric particles deposited on these filters was determined. Therefore,they were extracted with ultrapure water, which was then measured in a droplet freezing assay, as described in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2015). The determined concentration of ice nucleators (INs) was between 0.3 and 2per m³ at 266 K, and between5 and 75 per m³ at 260 K. The INs were further characterized by different treatments, like heating (308 K, 371 K), filtration (0.1 μm, 300 kDa), and digestion with papain (10 mg/ml). We further investigated, which atmospheric conditions (e.g. weather) and distinguished events (e.g. dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and pollen peaks) influenced the number and nature of these INs. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Hill, T. C. J., Pummer, B. G., Yordanova, P., Franc, G. D., and Pöschl, U.: Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, Biogeosci., 12, 1057-1071, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1057-2015, 2015.

  6. Anxiety, Gambling Activity, and Neurocognition: A Dimensional Approach to a Non-Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Sampaio, Daniela G; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Previous analyses have highlighted significant associations between gambling disorder (GD)/subsyndromal GD and increased rates of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders relative to the general population. However, less is known about how anxiety symptoms influence the clinical presentation of gambling problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety symptoms, gambling activity, and neurocognition across the spectrum of gambling behavior. Methods The sample consisted of 143 non-treatment-seeking young adults (aged 18-29 years), in which 63 individuals (44.1%) were classified as recreational gamblers, 47 (32.9%) as having subsyndromal GD, and 33 (23.1%) met criteria for GD. Results The main findings were: (a) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and gambling severity measured by the number of DSM-5 GD criteria met; (b) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and attentional impulsiveness; (c) subjects with suicidality presented higher levels of anxiety; and (d) the severity of anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with the quality of life. Discussion and conclusions This study suggests that anxiety may be associated with relevant clinical variables in the broad spectrum of gambling activity. Therefore, proper management of anxiety symptoms might improve the clinical presentation of gamblers in different areas.

  7. Using volatile additives to alter the morphology and performance of active layers in thin-film molecular photovoltaic devices incorporating bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Minh Trung; Wuest, James D

    2013-12-07

    Thin-film photovoltaic devices composed of polymers or small molecules have an exciting future as sources of renewable energy because they can be made in large sizes on flexible surfaces by inexpensive techniques of fabrication. Significant progress in developing new molecular photovoltaic materials and device architectures has been achieved in the last decade. The identity of molecular components in active layers and their individual optoelectronic properties obviously help determine the properties of devices; in addition, however, the behavior of devices depends critically on the nature of the local organization of the components. Recent studies have shown that the morphology of active layers can be tuned by adjusting various parameters, including the solvent used to cast the layer, thermal annealing, and special processing additives. In this review, we summarize the effect of volatile additives on the nanoscale morphology of molecular blends, and we show how these effects can improve the performance of devices. Although we focus on the behavior of mixtures of the type used in current molecular thin-film photovoltaic devices, the subject of our review will interest researchers in all areas of science and technology requiring materials in which separate phases must form intimate long-lived intermixtures with defined structures.

  8. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-04-01

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that, bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of nonrelativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk viscosity effects of a weakly-interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  9. A comparison of scan and focal sampling for the description of wild primate activity, diet and intragroup spatial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R; Van Belle, Sarie; Wilkinson, Brianna

    2013-01-01

    We used data collected during two concurrent studies of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico, to compare systematically three methods of behavioral data collection [group activity scan sampling (group scans), instantaneous focal individual sampling (instantaneous focals) and continuous focal individual sampling (continuous focals)] and three methods of proximity data collection [group proximity scan sampling (group proximity scans), focal individual proximity scan sampling (focal proximity scans) and instantaneous focal individual nearest neighbor sampling (focal nearest neighbor samples)]. We conducted pairwise comparisons of data among methods using Pearson correlations and one-sample t tests. A series of Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to compare the activity and proximity patterns of adult males, adult females and juveniles described by each method. The three behavioral data collection methods generally provided similar information about activity and diet. However, important differences for both activity and proximity data existed among methods. Instantaneous focals overestimated the percentage of time spent in social interactions, while group scans overestimated time spent moving and underestimated time spent feeding. Group proximity scans and focal proximity scans provided similar spatial data, while focal nearest neighbor samples were more appropriate for determining the influence of one individual on another at any given moment. These biases suggest the importance of deliberate method selection during project design and highlight the need for taking methods into account when comparing studies. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Methodological interference of biochar in the determination of extracellular enzyme activities in composting samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochar application has received increasing attention as a means to trap recalcitrant carbon and enhance soil fertility. Hydrolytic enzymatic assays, such as β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, are used for the assessment of soil quality and composting process, which are based on use of p-nitrophenol (PNP derivatives as substrate. However, sorption capacity of biochar can interfere colorimetric determination of the hydrolysed PNP, either by the sorption of the substrate or the reaction-product of hydrolysis into biochar surface. The aim of the present work is to study the biochar sorption capacity for PNP in biochar-blended composting mixtures in order to assess its impact on the estimation of the colorimetric-based enzymatic assays. A retention test was conducted by adding a solution of known amounts of PNP in universal buffer solution (pH = 5, 6.5 and 11, corresponding to the β-glucosidase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity assays, respectively, in samples taken at the initial stage and after maturation stage from 4 different composting piles (two manure composting piles (PM: poultry manure, CM: cow manure and two other similar piles containing 10% of additional biochar (PM + B, CM + B. The results show that biochar blended composts (PM + B, CM + B generally exhibited low enzymatic activities, compared to manure compost without biochar (PM, CM. In terms of the difference between the initial and maturation stage of composting process, the PNP retention in biochar was shown more clearly at maturation stage, caused by an enlarged proportion of biochar inside compost mixture after the selective degradation of easily decomposable organic matter. The retention of PNP was more pronounced at low pH (5 and 6.5 than at high pH (11, 3 reflecting on pH dependency of sorption 49 capacity of biochar and/or PNP 50 solubility.

  11. Methodological interference of biochar in the determination of extracellular enzyme activities in composting samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Matsumoto, K.; García Izquierdo, C.; Sonoki, T.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    Biochar application has received increasing attention as a means to trap recalcitrant carbon and enhance soil fertility. Hydrolytic enzymatic assays, such as β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, are used for the assessment of soil quality and composting process, which are based on use of p-nitrophenol (PNP) derivatives as substrate. However, sorption capacity of biochar can interfere with colorimetric determination of the hydrolysed PNP, either by the sorption of the substrate or the reaction product of hydrolysis into biochar surface. The aim of the present work is to study the biochar sorption capacity for PNP in biochar-blended composting mixtures in order to assess its impact on the estimation of the colorimetric-based enzymatic assays. A retention test was conducted by adding a solution of known amounts of PNP in universal buffer solution (pH = 5, 6.5 and 11, corresponding to the β-glucosidase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity assays, respectively), in samples taken at the initial stage and after maturation stage from four different composting piles (two manure composting piles; PM: poultry manure, CM: cow manure and two other similar piles containing 10% of additional biochar (PM + B, CM + B)). The results show that biochar-blended composts (PM + B, CM + B) generally exhibited low enzymatic activities, compared to manure compost without biochar (PM, CM). In terms of the difference between the initial and maturation stage of composting process, the PNP retention in biochar was shown higher at maturation stage, caused most probably by an enlarged proportion of biochar inside compost mixture after the selective degradation of easily decomposable organic matter. TThe retention of PNP on biochar was influenced by pH dependency of sorption capacity of biochar and/or PNP solubility, since PNP was more efficiently retained by biochar at low pH values (5 and 6.5) than at high pH values (11).

  12. Risk of acute gout among active smokers: data from nationwide inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Dilli Ram; Karmacharya, Paras; Donato, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Smoking has been found to be negatively correlated with serum uric acid levels by virtue of reduced production and increased consumption of endogenous antioxidant uric acid among smokers and has been reported to decrease incidence of gout. To shed further light on the question of association between active smoking and acute gout by examining this association using a large inpatient US database, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2009 to 2011, we identified current smokers based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 305.1 and were assumed to have ceased smoking during hospital stay. Patients who developed acute gout inhospital were identified based on ICD-9 code 274.01 at secondary diagnosis position. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to derive odds ratio for measures of association. Statistical analysis was done using STATA version 13.0 (College Station, TX). A total of 17,847,045 discharge records were used which included 13,932 (0.08 %) inhospital acute gouty arthritis and 2,615,944 (14.66 %) active smokers. Both univariate (OR 0.59, CI 0.54-0.63, p < 0.0001) and multivariate (OR 0.64, CI 0.59-0.68, p < 0.0001) regressions showed statistically significant reduction of acute gout among hospitalized patients who were current smokers but were assumed to have ceased smoking during hospital stay. Active tobacco use was associated with a lower risk of acute inpatient gouty arthritis, even when controlling for conventional risk factors. More study is needed to correlate this finding with uric acid levels, and a better understanding of the mechanisms that explain this finding are necessary.

  13. Accounting for medical variation: the case of prescribing activity in a New Zealand general practice sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P B; Yee, R L; Millar, J

    1994-08-01

    Medical practice variation is extensive and well documented, particularly for surgical interventions, and raises important questions for health policy. To date, however, little work has been carried out on interpractitioner variation in prescribing activity in the primary care setting. An analytical model of medical variation is derived from the literature and relevant indicators are identified from a study of New Zealand general practice. The data are based on nearly 9,500 completed patient encounter records drawn from over a hundred practitioners in the Waikato region of the North Island, New Zealand. The data set represents a 1% sample of all weekday general practice office encounters in the Hamilton Health District recorded over a 12-month period. Overall levels of prescribing, and the distribution of drug mentions across diagnostic groupings, are broadly comparable to results drawn from international benchmark data. A multivariate analysis is carried out on seven measures of activity in the areas of prescribing volume, script detail, and therapeutic choice. The analysis indicates that patient, practitioner and practice attributes exert little systematic influence on the prescribing task. The principal influences are diagnosis, followed by practitioner identity. The pattern of findings suggests also that the prescribing task cannot be viewed as an undifferentiated activity. It is more usefully considered as a process of decision-making in which 'core' judgements--such as the decision to prescribe and the choice of drug--are highly predictable and strongly influenced by diagnosis, while 'peripheral' features of the task--such as choosing a combination drug or prescribing generically--are less determinate and more subject to the exercise of clinical discretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Dissolution of bulk specimens of silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. F.; Merkle, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate chemical characterization of silicon nitride has become important in connection with current efforts to incorporate components of this material into advanced heat engines. However, there are problems concerning a chemical analysis of bulk silicon nitride. Current analytical methods require the pulverization of bulk specimens. A pulverization procedure making use of grinding media, on the other hand, will introduce contaminants. A description is given of a dissolution procedure which overcomes these difficulties. It has been found that up to at least 0.6 g solid pieces of various samples of hot pressed and reaction bonded silicon nitride can be decomposed in a mixture of 3 mL hydrofluoric acid and 1 mL nitric acid overnight at 150 C in a Parr bomb. High-purity silicon nitride is completely soluble in nitric acid after treatment in the bomb. Following decomposition, silicon and hydrofluoric acid are volatilized and insoluble fluorides are converted to a soluble form.

  15. Role of biodegradation in the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds with different bulk organic matter characteristics through managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2011-10-01

    Natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration have been recognized as providing effective barriers in the multi-barrier approach for attenuation of organic micropollutants for safe drinking water supply. In this study, the role of biodegradation in the removal of selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during soil passage was investigated. Batch studies were conducted to investigate the removal of 13 selected PhACs from different water sources with respect to different sources of biodegradable organic matter. Neutral PhACs (phenacetine, paracetamol, and caffeine) and acidic PhACs (ibuprofen, fenoprofen, bezafibrate, and naproxen) were removed with efficiencies greater than 88% from different organic matter water matrices during batch studies (hydraulic retention time (HRT): 60 days). Column experiments were then performed to differentiate between biodegradation and sorption with regard to the removal of selected PhACs. In column studies, removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs (e.g., analgesics) decreased under conditions of limited biodegradable carbon. The removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs were found to be less than 21% under abiotic conditions. These observations were attributed to sorption under abiotic conditions established by a biocide (20 mM sodium azide), which suppresses microbial activity/biodegradation. However, under biotic conditions, the removal efficiencies of these acidic PhACs were found to be greater than 59%. This is mainly attributed to biodegradation. Moreover, the average removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (polar) neutral PhACs (paracetamol, pentoxifylline, and caffeine) with low octanol/water partition coefficients (log K ow less than 1) were low (11%) under abiotic conditions. However, under biotic conditions, removal efficiencies of the neutral PhACs were greater than 98%. In contrast, carbamazepine persisted and was not easily removed under either biotic or abiotic conditions. This study indicates that biodegradation

  16. Sensitive and selective detection of trace copper in standard alloys, food and biological samples using a bulk optode based on N,N'-(4,4'-ethylene biphenyl) bis(3-methoxy salicylidine imine) as neutral carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Lashkari, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, an optical sensing film has been proposed for sensitive determination of copper (ІІ) ion in aqueous solutions. The copper sensing membrane was prepared by incorporating N,N'-(4,4'-ethylene biphenyl) bis(3-methoxy salicylidine imine) as ionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS) as plasticizer. This proposed membrane works on the basis of a cation-exchange mechanism and shows a significant absorbance signal change on exposure to acetate buffer solution of pH 4.0 containing copper ion. The proposed sensing film displays a linear range of 0.01-32.0 μg mL-1 with a limit of detection 0.008 μg mL-1. Moreover, upon the introduction of a negatively charged lipophilic additive (oleic acid) into the membrane, the optode displayed enhanced sensitivity. In addition, satisfactory analytical sensing characteristics for determining copper (II) ion were obtained in terms of the selectivity, stability and reproducibility. The response time of the optode was less than 3 min, depending on the concentration of Cu(ІІ) ions. The optode membrane has been applied to determine Cu(II) in various real samples.

  17. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  18. Sampling and major element chemistry of the recent (A.D. 1631-1944) Vesuvius activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; Kilburn, C.R.J.; de Vivo, B.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed sampling of the Vesuvius lavas erupted in the period A.D. 1631-1944 provides a suite of samples for comprehensive chemical analyses and related studies. Major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fetotal, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K and P), volatile species (Cl, F, S, H2O+, H2O- and CO2), and ferrous iron (Fe2+) were determined for one hundred and forty-nine lavas and five tephra from the A.D. 1631-1944 Vesuvius activity. The lavas represent a relatively homogeneous suite with respect to SiO2, TiO2, FeOtotal, MnO and P2O5, but show systematic variations among MgO, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3 and CaO. The average SiO2 content is 48.0 wt.% and the rocks are classified as tephriphonolites according to their content of alkalis. All of the lavas are silica-undersaturated and are nepheline, leucite, and olivine normative. There is no systematic variation in major-element composition with time, over the period A.D. 1631-1944. The inter-eruption and intra-eruption compositional differences are the same magnitude. The lavas are highly porphyritic with clinopyroxene and leucite as the major phases. Fractionation effects are not reflected in the silica content of the lavas. The variability of MgO, K2O, Na2O, and CaO can be modelled as a relative depletion or accumulation of clinopyroxene. ?? 1993.

  19. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  20. Detecting estrogenic activity in water samples withestrogen-sensitive yeast cells using spectrophotometry and fluorescencemicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozei, E.; Holman, H-Y.N.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Borglin S.

    2006-03-15

    Environmental estrogens are environmental contaminants that can mimic the biological activities of the female hormone estrogen in the endocrine system, i.e. they act as endocrine disrupters. Several substances are reported to have estrogen-like activity or estrogenic activity. These include steroid hormones, synthetic estrogens (xenoestrogens), environmental pollutants and phytoestrogens (plant estrogens). Using the chromogenic substrate ortho-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) we show that an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE, with human estrogen receptor (hER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes the enzyme {beta}-galactosidase, is able to detect estrogenic activity in water samples over a wide range of spiked concentrations of the hormonal estrogen 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Ortho-nitrophenol (ONP), the yellow product of this assay can be detected using spectrophotometry but requires cell lysis to release the enzyme and allow product formation. We improved this aspect in a fluorogenic assay by using fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) as a substrate. The product was visualized using fluorescence microscopy without the need to kill, fix or lyse the cells. We show that in live yeast cells, the uptake of E2 and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximum enzyme-catalyzed fluorescent product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. The fluorogenic assay was applied to a selection of estrogenic compounds and the Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectra of the cells obtained to better understand the yeast whole cell response to the compounds. The fluorogenic assay is most sensitive to E2, but the SR-FTIR spectra suggest that the cells respond to all the estrogenic compounds tested even when no fluorescent response was detected. These findings are promising and may shorten the duration of environmental water screening and monitoring regimes using

  1. Bulk soil and rhizosphere bacterial community PCR-DGGE profiles and beta-galactosidase activity as indicators of biological quality in soils contaminated by heavy metals and cultivated with Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Iñigo, M J; Pérez-Sanz, A; Ortiz, I; Alonso, J; Alarcón, R; García, P; Lobo, M C

    2009-06-01

    The biological quality of two heavy metal contaminated soils (soil C: Typic Calcixerept, pH 8.3 and soil H: Typic Haploxeraf, pH 7.3) was investigated after growing the metal-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke for two vegetative periods. The activity of the enzyme beta-galactosidase, which is sensitive to the presence of contaminants in soil, and the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of 16S rRNA gene fragments of culturable bacteria from bulk soil and rhizosphere were determined. The microbial enzymatic activity was higher in planted soils than in bare soils at the contamination level of 600 mg of total heavy metals kg(-1) soil. After growing S. vulgaris, beta-galactosidase activity was almost recovered in the calcareous soil. In this soil new bands appeared in the PCR-DGGE profiles of the rhizosphere bacterial community as a response to the exposure to heavy metals.

  2. Androgenic activity in surface water samples detected using the AR-LUX assay: Indications for mixture effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Murk, A.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schilt, R.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the screening of 22 extracts from 18 different aquatic environmental samples for androgenic activity, including indirect and interactive effects on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signal transduction, using the AR-LUX bioassay. Four samples, originating from an industrial wastew

  3. Androgenic activity in surface water samples detected using the AR-LUX assay: indications for mixture effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Murk, A.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schilt, R.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the screening of 22 extracts from 18 different aquatic environmental samples for androgenic activity, including indirect and interactive effects on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signal transduction, using the AR-LUX bioassay. Four samples, originating from an industrial

  4. Androgenic activity in surface water samples detected using the AR-LUX assay: Indications for mixture effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Murk, A.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schilt, R.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the screening of 22 extracts from 18 different aquatic environmental samples for androgenic activity, including indirect and interactive effects on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signal transduction, using the AR-LUX bioassay. Four samples, originating from an industrial

  5. Androgenic activity in surface water samples detected using the AR-LUX assay: indications for mixture effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Murk, A.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schilt, R.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the screening of 22 extracts from 18 different aquatic environmental samples for androgenic activity, including indirect and interactive effects on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signal transduction, using the AR-LUX bioassay. Four samples, originating from an industrial wastew

  6. Sampling tritiated water vapor from the atmosphere by an active system using silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N., E-mail: natalia.alegria@ehu.es [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Among the different methods used to collect the tritiated water vapor (HTO) contained in the atmosphere, one of the most worldwide used is its collection using an air pump, which forces the air to pass through a dry silica gel trap. The silica gel is then distilled to remove the water collected, which is measured in a liquid scintillation counting system. In this paper, an analysis of the water collection efficiency of the silica gel has been done as a function of the temperatures involved, the dimensions of the pipe driving the air into the silica gel traps, the air volume passing through the trap and the flow rates used. Among the obtained conclusions, it can be pointed out that placing the traps inside a cooled container, the amount of silica gel needed to collect all the water contained in the air passing through these traps can be estimated using a weather forecast and a psychometric chart. To do this, and as thermal equilibrium between incoming and open air should be established, a suitable design of the sampling system is proposed. - Highlights: > To recollect the atmosphere air tritiated water vapor, an active system was used. > The system is an air pump and three traps with silica gel connected by a rubber pipe. > The silica gel retention depends on the meteorological conditions and the flow rate. > The amount of water collected and the mass of silica gel need were calculated, F.

  7. Computationally efficient algorithm for high sampling-frequency operation of active noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Nirmal Kumar; Das, Debi Prasad; Panda, Ganapati

    2015-05-01

    In high sampling-frequency operation of active noise control (ANC) system the length of the secondary path estimate and the ANC filter are very long. This increases the computational complexity of the conventional filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm. To reduce the computational complexity of long order ANC system using FXLMS algorithm, frequency domain block ANC algorithms have been proposed in past. These full block frequency domain ANC algorithms are associated with some disadvantages such as large block delay, quantization error due to computation of large size transforms and implementation difficulties in existing low-end DSP hardware. To overcome these shortcomings, the partitioned block ANC algorithm is newly proposed where the long length filters in ANC are divided into a number of equal partitions and suitably assembled to perform the FXLMS algorithm in the frequency domain. The complexity of this proposed frequency domain partitioned block FXLMS (FPBFXLMS) algorithm is quite reduced compared to the conventional FXLMS algorithm. It is further reduced by merging one fast Fourier transform (FFT)-inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) combination to derive the reduced structure FPBFXLMS (RFPBFXLMS) algorithm. Computational complexity analysis for different orders of filter and partition size are presented. Systematic computer simulations are carried out for both the proposed partitioned block ANC algorithms to show its accuracy compared to the time domain FXLMS algorithm.

  8. Development of a new catalase activity assay for biological samples using optical CUPRAC sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Alkan, Fulya Üstün; Apak, Reşat

    2014-11-01

    A novel catalase activity assay was developed for biological samples (liver and kidney tissue homogenates) using a rapid and low-cost optical sensor-based ‘cupric reducing antioxidant capacity' (CUPRAC) method. The reagent, copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, was immobilized onto a cation-exchanger film of Nafion, and the absorbance changes associated with the formation of the highly-colored Cu(I)-Nc chelate as a result of reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured at 450 nm. When catalase was absent, H2O2 produced the CUPRAC chromophore, whereas catalase, being an effective H2O2 scavenger, completely annihilated the CUPRAC signal due to H2O2. Thus, the CUPRAC absorbance due to H2O2 oxidation concomitant with Cu(I)-Nc formation decreased proportionally with catalase. The developed sensor gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of H2O2 (0.68-78.6 μM). This optical sensor-based method applicable to tissue homogenates proved to be efficient for low hydrogen peroxide concentrations (physiological and nontoxic levels) to which the widely used UV method is not accurately responsive. Thus, conventional problems of the UV method arising from relatively low sensitivity and selectivity, and absorbance disturbance due to gaseous oxygen evolution were overcome. The catalase findings of the proposed method for tissue homogenates were statistically alike with those of HPLC.

  9. Continuum and Emission Line Strength Relations for a large Active Galactic Nuclei Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Shields, J C; Constantin, A; Junkkarinen, V T; Chaffee, F; Foltz, C B

    2002-01-01

    We report on the analysis of a large sample of 744 type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei, including quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies across the redshift range from 0 < z < 5 and spanning nearly 6 orders of magnitude in continuum luminosity. We discuss correlations of continuum and emission line properties in the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectral ranges. The well established Baldwin Effect is detected for almost all emission lines from OVI1034 to [OIII]5007. Their equivalent widths are significantly anti-correlated with the continuum strength, while they are nearly independent of redshift. This is the well known Baldwin Effect. Its slope beta, measured as log W_lambda ~ beta * log lambda * L_lambda (1450A), shows a tendency to become steeper towards higher luminosity. The slope of the Baldwin Effect also increases with the ionization energy needed to create the individual lines. In contrast to this general trend, the NV1240 equivalent width is nearly independent of continuum luminosity and remains nearly...

  10. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  11. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils.

  12. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...

  13. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  14. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  15. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  16. New optical technique for bulk magnetostriction measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Samata, H; Uchida, T; Abe, S

    2000-01-01

    A new optical technique was applied to the measurement of magnetostriction in bulk samples. This technique utilizes an optical fiber bundle, AC-modulated light and lock-in detection. Deformation of the sample is determined from the ratio of the incident and reflected light intensities. Noise due to the instability of the light source is eliminated by obtaining the ratio of the incident and reflected light intensities, and the noise caused in the detector circuit can be reduced by lock-in detection. The performance of this method was characterized with a series of measurements using a gold film and crystal disks of pure iron and nickel. This technique offers a resolution of 0.5 nm and is sensitive enough to measure magnetostriction as small as 5x10 sup - sup 7 in 1 mm thick samples.

  17. Large loop conformation sampling using the activation relaxation technique, ART-nouveau method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2012-07-01

    We present an adaptation of the ART-nouveau energy surface sampling method to the problem of loop structure prediction. This method, previously used to study protein folding pathways and peptide aggregation, is well suited to the problem of sampling the conformation space of large loops by targeting probable folding pathways instead of sampling exhaustively that space. The number of sampled conformations needed by ART nouveau to find the global energy minimum for a loop was found to scale linearly with the sequence length of the loop for loops between 8 and about 20 amino acids. Considering the linear scaling dependence of the computation cost on the loop sequence length for sampling new conformations, we estimate the total computational cost of sampling larger loops to scale quadratically compared to the exponential scaling of exhaustive search methods.

  18. Influence of socio-demographic factors on physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y K

    2011-12-01

    Given the importance of physical activity to health, this study investigated the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang. Through convenience sampling, a total of 398 adults agreed to answer a prepared questionnaire on their socio-demographic background and physical activity participation. The data were analysed using the binary logit model. Frequent physical activity participation is defined as taking part more than 11 times in leisure-time physical activity such as swimming and jogging, each time lasting more than 15 minutes in a typical month, whereas participation that is less than the frequency and time duration specified above is referred to as infrequent physical activity. Age, male, being Chinese, high educational attainment, self-rated excellent health status and presence of family illnesses are positively associated with the likelihood of frequent participation in physical activity. On the contrary, being married, having low income and residing in rural areas are inversely related with the propensity of frequent physical activity participation. The majority in this sample of adults do not participate in physical activity frequently, and the reasons given include lack of health awareness, limited leisure time, budget constraints, and lack of sports amenities.

  19. Evaluation of the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with metabolic activity in culture-negative human clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, N; Esteban, J; Palenque, E; Rosell, A; Garcia, M J

    2013-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is assumed to remain in a quiescent state during latent infection, being unable to grow in culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of viable but non-cultivable bacilli with metabolic activity in human clinical samples using a procedure that is independent of the immunological status of the patient. The study was performed on 66 human clinical samples, from patients subjected to routine diagnosis to rule out a mycobacterial infection. Specimens from pulmonary and extra-pulmonary origins were verified to contain human DNA before testing for M. tuberculosis DNA, rRNA and transient RNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Clinical records of 55 patients were also reviewed. We were able to detect viable but non-cultivable bacilli with a metabolic activity in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA was detected in the majority of culture-positive samples whereas it was detected in one-third of culture-negative samples, 20% of them showed metabolic activity. Amplifications of the ftsZ gene and particularly of the main promoter of the ribosomal operon rrnA, namely PCL1, seem to be good targets to detect active bacilli putatively involved in latent infection. Moreover, this last target would provide information on the basal metabolic activity of the bacilli detected. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  1. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  2. The Universe With Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Exact solutions for a model with variable G, A and bulk viscosity areobtained. Inflationary solutions with constant (de Sitter-type) and variable energydensity are found. An expanding anisotropic universe is found to isotropize duringits expansion but a static universe cannot isotropize. The gravitational constant isfound to increase with time and the cosmological constant decreases with time asAo∝t-2.

  3. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah [Division of Waste and Environmental Technology, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Nadiah Binti [Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, UiTM Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  4. Sampled-data active disturbance rejection output feedback control for systems with mismatched uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun You

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the sampled-data disturbance rejection control problem for a class of non-integral-chain systems with mismatched uncertainties. Aiming to reject the adverse effects caused by general mismatched uncertainties via digital control strategy, a new generalized discrete-time extended state observer is first proposed to estimate the lumped disturbances in the sampling point. A disturbance rejection control law is then constructed in a sampled-data form, which will lead to easier implementation in practices. By carefully selecting the control gains and a sampling period sufficiently small to restrain the state growth under a zero-order-holder input, the bounded-input bounded-output stability of the hybrid closed-loop system and the disturbance rejection ability are delicately proved even the controller is dormant within two neighbor sampling points. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method.

  5. Evaluation of artificial neural network algorithms for predicting METs and activity type from accelerometer data: validation on an independent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedson, Patty S; Lyden, Kate; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Staudenmayer, John

    2011-12-01

    Previous work from our laboratory provided a "proof of concept" for use of artificial neural networks (nnets) to estimate metabolic equivalents (METs) and identify activity type from accelerometer data (Staudenmayer J, Pober D, Crouter S, Bassett D, Freedson P, J Appl Physiol 107: 1330-1307, 2009). The purpose of this study was to develop new nnets based on a larger, more diverse, training data set and apply these nnet prediction models to an independent sample to evaluate the robustness and flexibility of this machine-learning modeling technique. The nnet training data set (University of Massachusetts) included 277 participants who each completed 11 activities. The independent validation sample (n = 65) (University of Tennessee) completed one of three activity routines. Criterion measures were 1) measured METs assessed using open-circuit indirect calorimetry; and 2) observed activity to identify activity type. The nnet input variables included five accelerometer count distribution features and the lag-1 autocorrelation. The bias and root mean square errors for the nnet MET trained on University of Massachusetts and applied to University of Tennessee were +0.32 and 1.90 METs, respectively. Seventy-seven percent of the activities were correctly classified as sedentary/light, moderate, or vigorous intensity. For activity type, household and locomotion activities were correctly classified by the nnet activity type 98.1 and 89.5% of the time, respectively, and sport was correctly classified 23.7% of the time. Use of this machine-learning technique operates reasonably well when applied to an independent sample. We propose the creation of an open-access activity dictionary, including accelerometer data from a broad array of activities, leading to further improvements in prediction accuracy for METs, activity intensity, and activity type.

  6. Amorphous LiCoO2sbnd Li2SO4 active materials: Potential positive electrodes for bulk-type all-oxide solid-state lithium batteries with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kenji; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Deguchi, Minako; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Mori, Shigeo; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    Newly amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50 (xLiCoO2·(100-x)Li2SO4 (mol%)) positive electrode active materials are synthesized using mechanochemical techniques. SEM observation indicates that average radii of the Li1.2Co0.8S0.2O2.4 (80LiCoO2·20Li2SO4 (mol%)) particles are about 3 μm. HR-TEM images indicate that the particles comprise nano-crystalline and amorphous phases. The crystalline phase is attributable to cubic LiCoO2 phase. These active materials exhibit a high electronic conductivity of around 10-5-10-1 S cm-1 and an ionic conductivity of around 10-7-10-6 S cm-1 at room temperature. Bulk-type all-oxide solid-state cells (Lisbnd In alloy/Li3BO3-based glass-ceramic electrolyte/amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50) are fabricated by pressing at room temperature without high temperature sintering. Although the cell with the milled LiCoO2 shows no capacity, the cell using the Li1.2Co0.8S0.2O2.4 electrode with no conductive components (ca. 150 μm thickness) operates as a secondary battery at 100 °C, with an average discharge potential of 3.3 V (vs. Li+/Li) and discharge capacity of 163 mAh g-1. A positive electrode with large amounts of active materials is suitable for achieving high energy density in all-solid-state batteries. These newly synthesized amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50 electrodes with ionic and electronic conductivities and good processability meet that demand.

  7. Cell bioassays for detection of aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) mediated activity in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilscherova, K. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Machala, M. [Veterinary Research Inst. of Veterinary Medicine, Brno (Czech Republic); Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P. [Dept. of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Inst. for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Blankenship, A.L. [Dept. of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Inst. for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); ENTRIX Inc., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In vitro cell bioassays are useful techniques for the determination of receptor-mediated activities in environmental samples containing complex mixtures of contaminants. The cell bioassays determine contamination by pollutants that act through specific modes of action. This article presents strategies for the evaluation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)- (hereafter referred as dioxin-like) or estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated activities of potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in complex environmental mixtures. Extracts from various types of environmental or food matrices can be tested by this technique to evaluate their 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) or estrogenic equivalents (E{sub 2}-EQs) and to identify contaminated samples that need further investigation using resource-intensive instrumental analyses. Fractionation of sample extracts exhibiting significant activities, and subsequent reanalysis with the bioassays can identify important classes of contaminants that are responsible for the observed activity. Effect-directed chemical analysis is performed only for the active fractions to determine the responsible compounds. Mass-balance estimates of all major compounds contributing to the observed effects can be calculated to determine if all of the activity has been identified, and to assess the potential for interactions such as synergism or antagonism among contaminants present in the complex mixtures. The bioassay approach is an efficient (fast and cost effective) screening system to identify the samples of interest and to provide basic information for further analysis and risk evaluation. (orig.)

  8. Possibility of rapidly reporting 226Ra activity in 226Ra-222Rn samples with unknown equilibrium factor by γ spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qiong; ZHENG Rui; CHEN Yong; CHENG Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the observed changes for equilibrium factors between 226Ra and 222Rn with sealing time of the samples. The samples include soil, raw coal, mineral water, cement, rock, etc. Especially the conceptions of "pre-equilibrium time" and "pre-equilibrium factor" have been put forward and methods of measuring and processing data have been given which can be used for rapidly reporting activity of 226Ra in samples with unknown equilibrium factor. It is definitely concluded that, using methods given in the paper, a test report will be completed in 3~7days, instead of one month, after receiving the sample whose activity is not lower than LLD of the spectrometer.

  9. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  10. Use of alpha spectroscopy for conducting rapid surveys of transuranic activity on air sample filters and smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Robert B; Peña, Adan M; Goff, Thomas E

    2005-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the utility of a portable alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) as a bench top scalar counter for multiple sample types. These include using the CAM to count fixed air sample filters and radiological smears. In counting radiological smears, the CAM is used very much like a gas flow proportional counter (GFPC), albeit with a lower efficiency. Due to the typically low background in this configuration, the minimum detectable activity for a 5-min count should be in the range of about 10 dpm which is acceptably below the 20 dpm limit for transuranic isotopes. When counting fixed air sample filters, the CAM algorithm along with other measurable characteristics can be used to identify and quantify the presence of transuranic isotopes in the samples. When the radiological control technician wants to take some credit from naturally occurring radioactive material contributions due to radon progeny producing higher energy peaks (as in the case with a fixed air sample filter), then more elaborate techniques are required. The techniques presented here will generate a decision level of about 43 dpm for such applications. The calibration for this application should alternatively be done using the default values of channels 92-126 for region of interest 1. This can be done within 10 to 15 min resulting in a method to rapidly evaluate air filters for transuranic activity. When compared to the 1-h count technique described by , the technique presented in the present work demonstrates a technique whereby more than two thirds of samples can be rapidly shown (within 10 to 15 min) to be within regulatory compliant limits. In both cases, however, spectral quality checks are required to insure sample self attenuation is not a significant bias in the activity estimates. This will allow the same level of confidence when using these techniques for activity quantification as is presently available for air monitoring activity quantification using CAMs.

  11. Theoretical expectations for bulk flows in large-scale surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the theoretical expectation for the bulk motion of a large-scale survey of the type recently carried out by Lauer and Postman. Included are the effects of survey geometry, errors in the distance measurements, clustering properties of the sample, and different assumed power spectra. We considered the power spectrum calculated from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS)-QDOT survey, as well as spectra from hot + cold and standard cold dark matter models. We find that measurement uncertainty, sparse sampling, and clustering can lead to a much larger expectation for the bulk motion of a cluster sample than for the volume as a whole. However, our results suggest that the expected bulk motion is still inconsistent with that reported by Lauer and Postman at the 95%-97% confidence level.

  12. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  13. Bulk flow of halos in $\\Lambda$CDM simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming; Gao, Liang; Jing, Yipeng; Yang, Xiaohu; Chi, Xuebin; Feng, Longlong; Kang, Xi; Lin, Weipeng; Shang, Guihua; Wang, Long; Zhao, Donghai; Zhang, Pengjie

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the Pangu N-body simulation validates that bulk flow of halos follows Maxwellian distribution of which variance is consistent with prediction of linear perturbation theory of structure formation. We propose that consistency between observed bulk velocity and theories shall be examined at the effective scale as radius of spherical top-hat window function yielding the same smoothed velocity variance in linear theory as the sample window does. Then we compared some recently estimated bulk flows from observational samples with prediction of the $\\Lambda$CDM model we used, some results deviate the expectation at level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ but the tension is not as severe as previously claimed. We disclose that bulk flow is weakly correlated with dipole of internal mass distribution, alignment angle between mass dipole and bulk flow has broad distribution but is peaked at $\\sim 30-50^\\circ$, meanwhile bulk flow shows little dependence on mass of halos used for estimation. In the simulation of box size $1h^...

  14. Advanced Curation Activities at NASA: Preparing for the Next Waves of Astromaterials Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the current curatorial efforts for NASA's astromaterials collections, as well as efforts that are underway (or need to be undertaken) to prepare for the challenging curation conditions required by future sample return missions.

  15. Pesticide residues and estrogenic activity in fruit and vegetables sampled from major fresh produce markets in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni Thomas; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Korsten, Lise; Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the major pathways through which people are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. With the exception of residual effects, there are concerns that a number of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals exert adverse effects upon endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. The current study reports selected pesticide concentrations and the total estrogenic activity of fruit and vegetables using the recombinant yeast oestrogen screen (YES) and T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays. A total of 53 food samples (27 fruit and 26 vegetables) from Johannesburg and Tshwane fresh produce markets (in South Africa) were analysed. Of these, 17 contained one to three different pesticide residues with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.68 mg kg(-1), whereas in the rest of the samples no residues were detected. All pesticides detected except in one sample were below the maximum residue level (MRL), but others were unauthorised for use in specified fruit and vegetables. Estrogenic activity was detected in 26.4% (14 samples) of the samples tested, and the estradiol equivalents ranged from 0.007 to 2 pg g(-1). Although the estrogenic activity was low, it may contribute to adverse health effects. Continuous monitoring for pesticides in fruit and vegetables is important in view of the unauthorised pesticides detected in produce from South Africa and the endocrine-disrupting chemical activity found.

  16. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  17. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults 60 years and older: New York City residents compared with a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Morland, Kimberly B; Wen, Fang; Scanlin, Kathleen

    2014-10-01

    This study describes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior among New York City (NYC) residents 60 years and older and compared with national United States' estimates. Adults aged 60 or older living in NYC (n = 760) were compared with similar aged adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 2,451 adults). Both groups wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week. The NYC sample recorded 13.2, 23.8, and 37.8 mean min/day of MVPA and the NHANES sample recorded 10.6, 21.1, and 39.3, depending on the definition. Sedentary behavior averaged 9.6 hr/day for the NYC sample and 9.3 hr/day for the NHANES sample. The NYC sample spent a longer proportion of time in sedentary behavior and light activities, but more time in MVPA than the NHANES sample. Urbanicity may explain some of the differences between the two samples.

  18. OptisampleTM: Open web-based application to optimize sampling strategies for active surveillance activities at the herd level illustrated using Porcine Respiratory Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Anna; Morrison, Robert E; Cheeran, Ann; Rovira, Albert; Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection causes a devastating economic impact to the swine industry. Active surveillance is routinely conducted in many swine herds to demonstrate freedom from PRRSv infection. The design of efficient active surveillance sampling schemes is challenging because optimum surveillance strategies may differ depending on infection status, herd structure, management, or resources for conducting sampling. Here, we present an open web-based application, named 'OptisampleTM', designed to optimize herd sampling strategies to substantiate freedom of infection considering also costs of testing. In addition to herd size, expected prevalence, test sensitivity, and desired level of confidence, the model takes into account the presumed risk of pathogen introduction between samples, the structure of the herd, and the process to select the samples over time. We illustrate the functionality and capacity of 'OptisampleTM' through its application to active surveillance of PRRSv in hypothetical swine herds under disparate epidemiological situations. Diverse sampling schemes were simulated and compared for each herd to identify effective strategies at low costs. The model results show that to demonstrate freedom from disease, it is important to consider both the epidemiological situation of the herd and the sample selected. The approach illustrated here for PRRSv may be easily extended to other animal disease surveillance systems using the web-based application available at http://stemma.ahc.umn.edu/optisample.

  19. Learning in later life: participation in formal, non-formal and informal activities in a nationally representative Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the participation of Spanish older people in formal, non-formal and informal learning activities and presents a profile of participants in each kind of learning activity. We used data from a nationally representative sample of Spanish people between 60 and 75 years old (n = 4,703). The data were extracted from the 2007 Encuesta sobre la Participación de la Población Adulta en Actividades de Aprendizaje (EADA, Survey on Adult Population Involvement in Learning Activities). Overall, only 22.8 % of the sample participated in a learning activity. However, there was wide variation in the participation rates for the different types of activity. Informal activities were far more common than formal ones. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that education level and involvement in social and cultural activities were associated with likelihood of participating, regardless of the type of learning activity. When these variables were taken into account, age did not predict decreasing participation, at least in non-formal and informal activities. Implications for further research, future trends and policies to promote older adult education are discussed.

  20. An ion-exchange route for the synthesis of hierarchical In2S3/ZnIn2S4 bulk composite and its photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zongwei; Ouyang, Shuxin; Tang, Dai-Ming; Kako, Tetsuya; Golberg, Dmitri; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-02-28

    In(2)S(3)/ZnIn(2)S(4) bulk composite was successfully synthesized through an ion-exchange route using NaInS(2) as a precursor. Compared with the constituent pure component (In(2)S(3) or ZnIn(2)S(4)), the photocatalytic H(2) evolution of the composite was greatly enhanced because of the efficient separation and migration of photoexcited carriers (electrons and holes) at the interface of the bulk composite.

  1. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...... the generic family of so-called nested structures. Such designs allow keeping the cubic symmetry of the unit cell along with the electric and magnetic responses showed by different parts in separate. For extraction of effective parameters we employ homemade wave propagation retrieving method free from...

  2. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from......%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all...

  3. Similar brain activation during false belief tasks in a large sample of adults with and without autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Dufour

    Full Text Available Reading about another person's beliefs engages 'Theory of Mind' processes and elicits highly reliable brain activation across individuals and experimental paradigms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activation during a story task designed to elicit Theory of Mind processing in a very large sample of neurotypical (N = 462 individuals, and a group of high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (N = 31, using both region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses. This large sample allowed us to investigate group differences in brain activation to Theory of Mind tasks with unusually high sensitivity. There were no differences between neurotypical participants and those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. These results imply that the social cognitive impairments typical of autism spectrum disorder can occur without measurable changes in the size, location or response magnitude of activity during explicit Theory of Mind tasks administered to adults.

  4. Application of activated zeolite to quantitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using commercial laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanto, H.; Utomo, A. P.; Manurung, M.; Suharta, W. G.; Windaryoto

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to figure out an activated zeolite ability to immobilize Pb element in liquid sample. The zeolite was made into powder with size of about 400 μm and was activated by NaOH with different concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 M. Prior to being analyzed by commercial Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, 0.05 gram activated zeolite of each concentration were soaked into 10 ml solution containing 100 ppm of Pb and then heated and stirred until become dry powder. The powder was then made into a pellet. After being analyzed by LIBS, activation by 1.0 M NaOH was the optimum condition for zeolite to immobilize Pb in solution. The minimum concentration of Pb in liquid sample which could be immobilized by this method was about 5.86 ppm.

  5. Determination of ATP-activity as a useful tool for monitoring microbial load in aqueous humidifier samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebers, Verena; Bachmann, Dieter; Franke, Gabriele; Freundt, Susanne; Stubel, Heike; Düser, Maria; Kendzia, Benjamin; Böckler, Margret; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Air humidifier water tanks are potential sources of microbial contaminants. Aerosolization of these contaminants is associated with the development of airway and lung diseases; therefore, implementation of preventive strategies including monitoring of the microbial contamination is recommended. So far, culture-based methods that include measuring colony forming units (CFU) are widely used to monitor microbial load. However, these methods are time consuming and have considerable drawbacks. As a result, alternative methods are needed which provide not only clear and accurate results concerning microbial load in water samples, but are also rapid and easy to use in the field. This paper reports on a rapid test for ATP quantification as an alternative method for microbial monitoring, including its implementation, validation and application in the field. For this purpose, 186 water samples were characterized with different methods, which included ATP analysis, culture-based methods, endotoxin activity (common and rapid test), pyrogenic activity and number of particles. Half of the samples was measured directly in the field and the other half one day later in the laboratory. The results of both tests are highly correlated. Furthermore, to check how representative the result from one sample of a water source is, a second sample of the same water tank were collected and measured. Bioluminescence results of the undiluted samples covered a range between 20 and 25,000 relative light units (RLU) and correlated with the results obtained using the other methods. The highest correlation was found between bioluminescence and endotoxin activity (rs=0.79) as well as pyrogenic activity (rs=0.75). Overall, the results of this study indicate that ATP measurement using bioluminescence is a suitable tool to obtain rapid, reproducible and sensitive information on the microbial load of water samples, and is suitable to use in the field. However, to use ATP measurement as an indicator of

  6. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. Methods The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity and in operational (during surgery. Results The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256 and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7 for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  7. Primary coolant sampling for activated corrosion product studies at Hanford N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1985-01-31

    A special system for sampling primary coolant at N Reactor during operation has been constructed and operated from 1977 to 1983. The basic criteria and design for solving the difficult problem of getting representative samples have been presented; this report details how the instrumentation was configured and sampling was done. Equipment and procedures were put together to allow one person to enter a radiation zone, check on 5 monitoring instruments, operate two batch instruments, gather five partitioned samples, record 26 pieces of information, annotate a strip chart and leave the zone in 30 minutes while expending 10 mRem of exposure. Additionally, the reduction of the samples' analysis, digitization of strip chart information and storage of all data on data management systems is maintained. As built, the system provides 0.3 to 1.0 gpm streams of coolant from upstream and downstream of a steam generator. The streams are cooled to 50 to 60/sup 0/C. The radiation environment averages 20 to 50 mR/hr to the worker. Instruments and special equipment for data gathering at the sampler include pH, conductance, dissolved oxygen, dissolved hydrogen and nitrogen, hot leg and cold leg coolant temperatures, particle sizing, turbidimetry, filtration, and continuous strip chart recording.

  8. Advanced Curation Activities at NASA: Implications for Astrobiological Studies of Future Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Harrington, A. D.; Regberg, A. B.; Snead, C. J.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10F JSC is charged with curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions. The Directive goes on to define Curation as including documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for re-search, education, and public outreach. Here we briefly describe NASA's astromaterials collections and our ongoing efforts related to enhancing the utility of our current collections as well as our efforts to prepare for future sample return missions. We collectively refer to these efforts as advanced curation.

  9. Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Milk Samples Collected from Five Goat Breeds in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Alyaqoubi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different goat breeds (Saanen, Kacang, Jamnapari, Boer and a crossbred of Jamnapari and Saanen were obtained from one farm in Bandar Baru Bangi. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity based on TPC, FRAP and DPPH. Goat milk samples were collected during the same lactation period (middle lactation and were subsequently compared with cow milk. The results of the study showed that goat milk exhibited a significantly higher (p<0.05 antioxidant capacity than cow milk. Jamnapari milk exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity in Total Phenol Content (TPC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays with values of 544.08 mg GA/100 g FW, 481.69 mg TE/100 g FW and 67.44%, respectively. By contrast, the milk samples obtained from the Boer exhibited the lowest corresponding values of 460.00 mg GA/100 g FW, 386.06 mg TE/100 g FW and 59.68%, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical properties were significantly different (p<0.05 among the milk samples, with some samples more superior compared with others in one or more aspects. Jamnapari milk was superior in terms of ash, total soluble solid and protein with values of 0.96%, 13.02 Brix and 5.11%, respectively and this milk also showed the lowest moisture (81.28% among all milk samples. Cow milk exhibited the highest fat (4.43% and Kacang milk had the lowest titratable acidity (0.06% than the other milk samples. Thus, goat milk can be considered as an excellence source of antioxidants.

  10. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  11. Psychometrics of the preschooler physical activity parenting practices instrument among a Latino sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increas...

  12. Mathematics Curriculum Outline and Sample Activities for Gifted Students Grades 2 through 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Alan; And Others

    This document includes a statement of 11 basic considerations for a mathematics curriculum for the gifted in grades two through eight and a series of activities appropriate for such a curriculum. The activities are grouped under five strands: (1) logic; (2) combinations (combinatorics), probability, introduction to statistics; (3) geometry,…

  13. Socializing Agents for Sport and Physical Activities in Teenage Students: Comparative Studies in Samples From Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juan, Francisco; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze a set of socializing agents for sport and physical activities and to establish their relationship with leisure time sport and physical activities behaviors and practice patterns in samples of teenage students with different sociocultural backgrounds. The sample included 2168 students in their first year of secondary education, 423 of them being from Costa Rica, 408 from Mexico, and 1337 from Spain (1052 male students, 1037 female students, and 79 students who did not specify gender) aged 11-16 years old ( M = 12.49; SD = .81). A validated questionnaire with questions about leisure time sport and physical activities and socializing agents was used. Descriptive, inferential, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out with SPSS 17.0 to compare all three countries. Costa Rica had the most active students, best friends' inactivity, and unsupportive parents being the agents predicting inactivity and a low level of sport and physical activities. Mexico has a high dropout rate and inactive students exceed active ones; no agent predicts inactivity or sport and physical activities pattern. Spain has the highest level of sport and physical activities practice, and parents, siblings, and friends are predicting agents of inactivity together with unsupportive parents and friends.

  14. An in vitro model for screening estrogen activity of environmental samples after metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahbane, N.; Schramm, K.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Kettrup, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    For a few years, yeast estrogen assay (YES) was accepted as a reliable and economic model for screening of environmental estrogens. Though the chemicals directly act with estrogen receptor (ER) can be filtered out by this model, there are still chemicals act with ER only after metabolism and some chemicals eliminate their estrogen activities after metabolism. That is to say, their metabolites exert or have stronger estrogen activities than themselves, which can be called bio-activation. In this case, for the lack of the metabolism enzyme system as human and other animals, only the assay with recombinant yeast cells is insufficient. So, it is necessary to combine the YES with metabolism procedure to evaluate the estrogen activities of these chemicals. The most common method used currently for in vitro metabolic activation in mutagenicity testing and also be applied to the estrogen screening field is S-9 mixture. Also, there is an attempt to develop a chemical model for cytochrome P450 as a bio-mimetic metabolic activation system. All these methods can be used as in vitro models for metabolism. Compare with these models, using whole H4II E cells for metabolism is an alternative and with superiorities. It has the excellence of short experiment period as all other in vitro models, but is much more close to the real surroundings as in vivo. Furthermore, the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) can be easily measured during the whole incubation period for us to discuss the metabolic activities in a quantitative foundation, not only in qualitative. Methoxychlor is one of the chemicals with bio-activation ability. When directly used in the YES, it shows weak estrogen activity. But a main metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis (p-hydroxyphenyl) - 1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) is a known estrogen mimic. For the long time using methoxychlor as a pesticide and its clear background, it is an ideal chemical to establish this in vitro system.

  15. Laboratory Sampling Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Polarized Light Microscopy ( PLM ). PLM with dispersion staining is used to analyze bulk samples. PLM is usually very specific, but some nonasbestiform...silicate amphiboles, such as fibrous tremolite, can compromise its specificity. PLM analysis reports an asbestos percentile range due to the subjective...Container Comments Unknown Bulk Material Characterization PLM /MC Wide mouth glass jar Polarized Light Microscopy/Materials Characterization ( PLM /MC

  16. Uranium and radium activities measurements and calculation of effective doses in some drinking water samples in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oum Keltoum Hakam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the activities of uranium and radium isotopes (234U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra for 30 drinking water samples collected from 11 wells, 9 springs (6 hot and 3 cold, 3 commercialised mineral water, and 7 tap water samples. Methods: Activities of the Ra isotopes were measured by ultra-gamma spectrometry using a low background and high efficiency well type germanium detector. The U isotopes were counted in an alpha spectrometer.Results: The measured Uranium and radium activities are similar to those published for other non-polluting regions of the world. Except in one commercialised gaseous water sample, and in two hot spring water samples, the calculated effective doses during one year are inferior to the reference level of 0.1 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Conclusion: These activities don't present any risk for public health in Morocco. The sparkling water of Oulmes is occasionally consumed as table water and waters of warm springs are not used as main sources of drinking water.  

  17. Diet, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Culture in a Sample of Children from the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Gaskin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barbados, a small developing state at the end of the nutrition transition, faces an obesity epidemic. Although there is hope of stemming the epidemic in childhood, no descriptions of children's dietary and physical activity (PA patterns are available for planning purposes. We describe the food and activity preferences and adult encouragement of active and sedentary behaviors for children 9–11 years in relation to weight status and the cultural context. Design. We used data from a pilot study preceding a large-scale ongoing study on the local drivers of the obesity epidemic among preadolescent children. PA, sedentary activity, and dietary intakes were assessed from recalls. Weight and height were measured. Setting. Barbados. Subjects. Sixty-two (62, 9–11-year-old school children. Results. Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of energy consumed. Energy intake significantly explained BMI. Parents selected significantly more of children’s sedentary activities and encouraged mostly homework and chores (59%. Children’s self-selected school-based activity was significantly related to BMI. Conclusions. Childhood obesity prevention recommendations and research should focus on culture-specific practices that promote acquired taste for excess sugar and parent-child interactions regarding PA. Child influenced by school-based activity intervention may an important area for preventive intervention research.

  18. Active learning not associated with student learning in a random sample of college biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T M; Leonard, M J; Colgrove, C A; Kalinowski, S T

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning.

  19. Bulk water phase and biofilm growth in drinking water at low nutrient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    to quantify the effect of retention times at hydraulic conditions similar to those in drinking water distribution networks. Water and pipe wall samples were taken and examined during the experiment. The pipes had been exposed to drinking water at approximately 131C, for at least 385 days to allow......In this study, the bacterial growth dynamics of a drinking water distribution system at low nutrient conditions was studied in order to determine bacterial growth rates by a range of methods, and to compare growth rates in the bulk water phase and the biofilm. A model distribution system was used...... the formation of a mature quasi-stationary biofilm. At retention times of 12 h, total bacterial counts increased equivalent to a net bacterial growth rate of 0.048 day1. The bulk water phase bacteria exhibited a higher activity than the biofilmbacteria in terms of culturability, cell-specific ATP content...

  20. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  1. Chemical profile and anti-leishmanial activity of three Ecuadorian propolis samples from Quito, Guayaquil and Cotacachi regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Campo Fernández, Mercedes; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Jaramillo, Carmita Gladys Jaramillo; González, Victor Hugo; Montes De Oca Porto, Rodny; Marrero Delange, David; Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campone, Luca; Rastrelli, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Three propolis samples were collected from different regions of Ecuador (Quito, Guayaquil and Cotacachi) and their methanolic extracts were prepared. Preliminary information supplied by TLC and NMR data, allowed us to define two main types of propolis: Cotacachi propoli sample (CPS), rich in flavonoids and Quito and Guayaquil samples (QPS and GPS) containing triterpenic alcohols and acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. Two different approaches based on RP-HPLC preparative procedure and NMR structural determination (CPS) and GC-MS analysis (QPS and GPS) were successfully used for the chemical characterization of their major compounds. All three propolis extracts were able to inhibit Leishmania amazonensis growth but propolis sample rich in flavonoids was the most active (IC50=17.1±1.7μg/mL). In the literature this is the first study on propolis from Ecuador. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A method for the determination of residual beta activity in drinking water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.es; Herranz, M.; Abelairas, A.; Legarda, F. [Dpto. Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. T. S. Ingenieria de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n. 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    The determination of residual beta activity in drinking water is usually needed in most monitoring programs. In this work a procedure for its determination is described and expressions for the calculations of detection limits and uncertainties are proposed.

  3. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K;

    2008-01-01

    -energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days......This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual...... and daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity was calculated. Significant relationships (Pfitness (r=0.38), whereas moderate-to-vigorous activity displayed weaker relationships...

  4. Analysis of Some Egyptian Cosmetic Samples by Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Medhat, M E; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2001-01-01

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. In our work, the concentration of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe, were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis.

  5. Evaluation of Activities in Primary Education Programme with The Teachers’ Views (Sample of Sinop Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet AYKAÇ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research, aims to investigate the concept of activity on the basis of learning-teaching duration inaccordance with teachers’ views, teachers guide and class materials in the primary education programme put in to practice in 2005- 2006. The research has two subjects. The first one is the quantitative subject aiming to determine the teachers’ views, the second is theoretical subject aiming to analyze the guide books and class metarials. The quantitative research, aiming to determine the teachers’ ideas is consisted of 184 teachers in total in the center and in the central villages of Sinop. The exemplification in this research is occupied by means of 86 teachers applying the teachers’ views determinating scale. In the research as a tool to collect data, determining teachers’ views scale prepared in 5 likert-type scale with 18 articles has been used. Analyzing with SPSS programme, the data gained from the scale has been stated as frequency and percentage. Theoretical dimension examining teachers’ guide and lesson metarials to put the teachers’ views on a objective base, aims to examine teachers guide books and lesson materials analytically and display the base of teachers’ views. It is stated that most of the teachers present their views in that way: They feel themselves insufficent to applythe activities,the physical opportunities of the schools and the facilities are not enough to apply some activities, the classes are crowded, the activities are not student-centered and active teaching methods are not used in the activities.

  6. Prediction of physical activity intention and behavior in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Viira, Roomet; Hannus, Aave

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate a theory of planned behavior model for the prediction of physical activity in adolescent girls using a 1-yr. longitudinal design. A secondary purpose was to examine the moderating influence of intention stability and past behavior on intention-behavior relationships. Participants were 236 12- to 13-year-old adolescent girls who completed measures of the theory of planned behavior and physical activity participation (3-Day Physical Activity Recall) across a 1-yr. interval. The standard theoretical variables predicted intentions, as intention, past behavior, and perceived behavioral control predicted behavior. The temporal stability of intentions and past behavior moderated relationships between intention and behavior. An autoregressive path model showed that intention and perceived behavioral control predicted changes in physical activity and physical activity predicted changes in intention, affective attitude, and perceived behavioral control. This study supports the use of the theory of planned behavior in gaining an understanding of the physical activity intention and behavior of adolescent girls.

  7. Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy in a Sample of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Ferreira, Margarida; Alves, Odete; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. Objectives This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women’s perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. Patients and Methods A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data. Type, duration and frequency of PA were evaluated using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and intensity levels were calculated. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to determine differences between trimesters, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed when appropriate. Results A decrease in values of self-reported PA (MET.h.wk-1) was found from the first to the second and the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively; total (270.91 vs 220.54 vs 210.35; P pregnancy. Women spent most of their weekly time during the entire pregnancy on household and caregiving activities, occupational activities and leisure, except sport activities. Swimming was the most reported organized PA, reaching its highest proportion (12.7%) in the second trimester. Prenatal exercise classes were reported by 39.8% of women during the 3rd trimester. Pregnant women reported that PA was recommended by health professionals: 53.9% in the 1st trimester, 70.4% in the 2nd trimester and 56.8% in the 3rd trimester. Conclusions Self-reported PA decreased, especially from the first to the second trimester, in total, light and moderate intensity. Women spent most of their weekly time on domestic, occupational and leisure activities, except sport activities. There are some

  8. Theoretical expectations for bulk flows in large scale surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Hume A Feldman; Richard Watkins

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the theoretical expectation for the bulk motion of a large scale survey of the type recently carried out by Lauer and Postman. Included are the effects of survey geometry, errors in the distance measurements, clustering properties of the sample, and different assumed power spectra. We consider the power spectrum calculated from the IRAS-QDOT survey, as well as spectra from hot + cold and standard cold dark matter models. We find that sparse sampling and clustering can lead to an unexpectedly large bulk flow, even in a very deep survey. Our results suggest that the expected bulk motion is inconsistent with that reported by Lauer and Postman at the 90-94% confidence level.

  9. Comparison of within hive sampling and seasonal activity of Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Brenna E; Williams, Matthew R; Fell, Richard D

    2012-02-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, that is found worldwide and in multiple Apis spp.; however, little is known about the effects of N. ceranae on A. mellifera. Previous studies using spore counts suggest that there is no longer a seasonal cycle for N. ceranae and that it is found year round with little variation in infection intensity among months. Our goal was to determine whether infection levels differ in bees collected from different areas of the hive and if there may be seasonal differences in N. ceranae infections. A multiplex species-specific real-time PCR assay was used for the detection and quantification of N. ceranae. Colonies were sampled monthly from September 2009-2010 by collecting workers from honey supers, the fringe of the brood nest, and the brood nest. We found that all bees sampled were infected with N. ceranae and that there was no significant difference in infection levels among the different groups of bees sampled (P=0.74). However, significant differences in colony infection levels were found at different times of the year (Pbeekeepers on N. ceranae management.

  10. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  11. Measuring Antioxidant Activity in Bioorganic Samples by the Differential Oxygen Uptake Apparatus: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Amorati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of O2 consumption during the inhibited autoxidation of an easily oxidizable substrate is one of the most reliable and predictive methods to assess antioxidant activity, especially for structure-activity relationship studies, for food and industrial applications. The differential oxygen uptake apparatus described herein represents a powerful and cost-effective way to obtain antioxidant activity from inhibited autoxidation studies. These experiments provide the rate constant and the stoichiometry of the reaction between antioxidants and peroxyl radicals (ROO∙, which are involved in the propagation of radical damage. We show the operation principles and the utility of this instrumentation in the bioorganic laboratory, with regard to the recent advances in this field, ranging from the study of natural antioxidants in biomimetic system, to the use of substrates generating hydroperoxyl radicals, and to the evaluation of novel nanoantioxidants.

  12. Porous membrane ultrafiltration-A novel method for enrichment of the active compounds from micro-plasma samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Yin, Xiaoying; Sha, Biying; You, Jingjing

    2014-10-01

    To enrich the active compounds from plasma samples, a novel and simple method has been developed using a porous membrane envelope based on the ultrafiltration technique combining with high-performance liquid chromatography. The ultrafiltration device is a sealed porous membrane envelope prepared with a polypropylene sheet to effectively separate the active small molecules and large biomolecules, and a sample carrier is held inside the envelope to load plasma samples. The enrichment of hyperoside and isoquercitrin from rat plasma was used as an example. Significant factors of this method, such as membrane types, the desorption solvent, and the desorption time were optimized for the ultrafiltration method. Under the optimal conditions, correlation coefficients of 0.999 and 0.998 were obtained for hyperoside and isoquercitrin, respectively, with a linear range between 0.5 and 100 μg/mL. The absolute extraction recoveries from 83.2% to 86.8% were achieved. The detection limits of the method for hyperoside and isoquercitrin were 0.22 and 0.20 μg/mL, respectively. Compared with protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction and commercial ultrafiltration membrane methods, our proposed method demonstrates lower detection limits and lower cost for extraction. Also, it consumes less plasma samples and is found to be applicable to biological samples.

  13. Active and passive sampling for the assessment of hydrophilic organic contaminants in a river basin-ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulou, Evangelia; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a complementary approach for the evaluation of water quality in a river basin by employing active and passive sampling. Thirty-eight hydrophilic organic compounds (HpOCs) (organohalogen herbicides, organophosphorous pesticides, carbamate, triazine, urea, pharmaceuticals, phenols, and industrial chemicals) were studied in grab water samples and in passive samplers POCIS collected along Strymonas River, Northern Greece, at three sampling campaigns during the year 2013. Almost all the target compounds were detected at the periods of high rainfall intensity and/or low flow rate. The most frequently detected compounds were aminocarb, carbaryl, chlorfenviphos, chloropropham, 2,4-D, diflubenzuron, diuron, isoproturon, metolachlor, and salicylic acid. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol were also occasionally detected. The use of POCIS allowed the detection of more micropollutants than active sampling. Low discrepancy between the concentrations obtained from both samplings was observed, at least for compounds with >50 % detection frequency; thus, POCIS could be a valuable tool for the selection and monitoring of the most relevant HpOCs in the river basin. Results showed relatively low risk from the presence of HpOCs; however, the potential risk associated with micropollutants such as carbaryl, dinoseb, diuron, fenthion, isoproturon, metolachlor, nonylphenol, and salicylic acid should not be neglected.

  14. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  15. Toughness of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu V. Madge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs have desirable properties like high strength and low modulus, but their toughness can show much variation, depending on the kind of test as well as alloy chemistry. This article reviews the type of toughness tests commonly performed and the factors influencing the data obtained. It appears that even the less-tough metallic glasses are tougher than oxide glasses. The current theories describing the links between toughness and material parameters, including elastic constants and alloy chemistry (ordering in the glass, are discussed. Based on the current literature, a few important issues for further work are identified.

  16. A search of new samples of active galactic nuclei with low-mass black holes from SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Yuan, W.; Zhou, H.; Dong, X.-B.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the progress of our on-going work to search for low-mass black holes (LMBHs) in active galactic nuclei. The masses of black holes are estimated using the broad line width and luminosity obtained from one-epoch optical spectra. As the first step, we fitted the spectra of 1263 objects in the quasar catalog of the SDSS DR10 and obtained accurate measurement of the emission lines. Two AGNs are found to have M BH ~ 106 M⊙. The next step is to analyze the spectra of the DR10 galaxy sample, from which a much larger sample of low-mass AGNs is expected to be obtained.

  17. Comparison between different types of glass and aluminum as containers for irradiation samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; El-Dine, N W; El-Shershaby, A; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2000-01-01

    Three different types of glass and four different kinds of aluminum sheet have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis. The irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1) and a hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for the analysis. Among the 34 identified elements, the isotopes 60Co, 65Zn, 110mAg, 123mTe, 134Cs, 152Eu and 182Ta are of special significance because of their long half-lives, providing a background interference for analyzed samples. A comparison between the different types of containers was made to select the preferred one for sample irradiation.

  18. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  19. What motivates older employees to be physically active at work? Using the Experience Sampling Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Mirka; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Boerema, Simone Theresa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing retirement ages brings the challenge to keep our older employees sufficiently physically fit to perform their work. As a first step in the development of preventive strategies, this study investigates current (physical) activities, satisfaction and energy levels of older

  20. Speaking and Listening Activities in Illinois Schools: Sample Instructional and Assessment Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This guide, intended to assist school districts as they implement classroom activities and assessment procedures related to student learning objectives (for all grades) in the language arts areas of speaking and listening, reflects what students should know and be able to do in language arts as a consequence of their schooling. The guide is in…

  1. From Snuggling and Snogging to Sampling and Scratching: Girls' Nonparticipation in Community-Based Music Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah; Cohen, Bruce M. Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on gendered youth music practices in community-based organizations (CBOs) in Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Drawing on interviews and observational fieldwork from the Playing for Life research project, the authors highlight the absence of young women from many activities, especially in the area…

  2. Fault current limiter using bulk oxides superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmont, O.; Ferracci, P.; Porcar, L.; Barbut, J.M. [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France). Usine A3; Tixador, P.; Noudem, J.G.; Bourgault, D.; Tournier, R

    1998-08-01

    We study the limitation possibilities of bulk Bi high T{sub c} materials. For this we test these materials with AC or DC currents above their critical currents. We study particularly the evolution of the voltage with time or with current. The material, the value of the current and the time duration play important parts. For sintered Bi samples the voltage depends only on the current even for values much larger than the critical current. With textured samples the V(I) curves shows an hysteretic behaviour due to a warming up. The textured materials are more interesting than sintered ones in terms of required volume for the current limitation. In both cases the superconductors are in a dissipative state but not in the normal state. This state is nevertheless reached if the dissipated energy inside the sample is sufficient. We have tried to apply a magnetic field on the samples in order to trigger a more effective limitation. The voltage increases but with a limited effect for currents much higher (3-4 times) than the critical zero field current. We think that the dissipative state is due mainly to the grain boundaries which become resistive above the critical current. (orig.) 11 refs.

  3. Magnetic activity analysis for a sample of G-type main sequence \\emph{Kepler} targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrabi, A; Khosroshahi, H

    2016-01-01

    The variation of a stellar light curve owing to the rotational modulation by the magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on the star's surface can be used to investigate the magnetic properties of the host star. In this paper, we use the periodicity and magnitude of the light-curve variation, as two proxies, suggested by (He et al. 2015), to study the stellar magnetic properties for a large sample of G-type main sequence \\emph{Kepler} targets, for which the rotation periods recently determined by (McQuillan et al. 2014). By analyzing the correlation between the two magnetic proxies, it is found that: (1) The two proxies are positively correlated for most of the stars in our sample, and the percentages of negative, zero, and positive correlation are $4.27\\%$, $6.81\\%$, and $88.91\\%$, respectively; (2) Negative correlation stars cannot have large magnitude of light-curve variation; (3) with the increase of rotation period, the relative number of positive correlation stars decreases and the negative correlatio...

  4. XMM-Newton observations of a sample of gamma-ray loud active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Foschini, L; Raiteri, C M; Tavecchio, F; Villata, M; Maraschi, L; Pian, E; Tagliaferri, G; Cocco, G D; Malaguti, G

    2006-01-01

    (abridged) We performed a homogeneous and systematic analysis of simultaneous X-ray and optical/UV properties of a group of 15 gamma-ray loud AGN, using observations performed with XMM-Newton. The sample is composed of 13 blazars (6 BL Lac and 7 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasar) and 2 radio galaxies, that are associated with detections at energies >100 MeV. The data for 7 of them are analyzed here for the first time, including the first X-ray observation of PKS 1406-706. Then, the spectral characteristics of the sources in the present sample have been compared with those in previous catalogs of blazars and other AGN, in order to search for any difference or long term change. All the selected sources appear to follow the classic "blazar sequence" and the spectral energy distributions (SED) built with the present X-ray and optical/UV data and completed with historical data, confirm the findings of previous studies on this type of sources. Some sources display interesting features worth noting: four of them, namely AO...

  5. Analysis of Cl, Mn, Na, Zn in Food Samples by a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Chung, Yong Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ok Hee [YongIn University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Due to their westernized dietary habit, Korean children are still threatened by the increasing risks of chronic disease such as obesity, hypertension, low immunity, etc. In addition, they are often exposed to a deficiency of Ca, Mg, Fe and micro-minerals which are necessary for their growth, immunity, and prevention of anemia. Nonetheless, the nutritional adequacy of mineral intakes for children is difficult to assess because of a lack of related studies and a nutritional database with respect to Korean children's foods. In this study, ninety kinds of foods consisting of lunch meals from an elementary and a middle school and children's favorite snacks were collected and prepared for an analysis. INAA which has an advantage of a non-destructive technique was employed to determine the elements like Cl, Mn, Na, Cl in the pretreated food samples. Quality control was carried out by using certified reference materials. From the analytical results, elemental concentration range in the collected samples according to the food groups was summarized.

  6. Effects of different bulk curing technologies on polyphenol content and PPO activity in tobacco leaves%密集烘烤工艺对烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松峰; 王爱华; 王先伟; 管恩森; 徐秀红; 王传义; 任杰; 孙福山

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes of polyphenol substance contents and PPO activity during 3 different curing processes were studied using electric-heated flue-curing barn. Results showed that content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, implicit chlorogenic acid, and Rutin increased during all curing processes. After curing, K2 treatment resulted in the highest content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, and implicit chlorogenic acid, while K3 treatment resulted in the highest content of rutin and scopoletin. K2 treatment showed the lowest PPO activity during the sensitive period (45℃-47℃) of the brown reaction while K3 treatment showed the highest. Those indicated that K2 treatment can effectively inhibit enzymatic browning reaction and regulate polyphenol content during bulk curing, and produced higher level of polyphenol substances after curing.%为密集烘烤有针对性地调控多酚含量和优化完善烘烤工艺,采用电热式温湿自控密集烤烟箱,研究了3个密集烘烤工艺烘烤过程中烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的变化。各密集烘烤工艺处理烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸、隐绿原酸、芸香苷含量随着烘烤进程总体呈升高趋势。烤后烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸和隐绿原酸含量以K2工艺处理较高,芸香苷和莨菪亭含量以K3工艺处理较高。棕色化反应的敏感时期(45℃-47℃)的PPO活性以K2工艺处理最低,K3工艺处理最高。研究表明K2工艺处理能很好地抑制酶促棕色化反应的发生,调控密集烘烤过程中多酚类物质的变化,烤后烟叶多酚类物质含量高。

  7. The effects of communication techniques on public relation activities: A sample of hospitality business

    OpenAIRE

    Şirvan Şen Demir

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, firms who give importance to public relations have been increasing rapidly in numbers. All modern firms either found public relations department in their body to deal with public relations operations or outsource this activity to consultants in order to communicate with target populations. Among the firms in tourism sector, hospitality companies are the ones that use public relations the most. The purpose of this study is to investigate the communication techniques in public relatio...

  8. The effects of communication techniques on public relation activities: A sample of hospitality business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şirvan Şen Demir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, firms who give importance to public relations have been increasing rapidly in numbers. All modern firms either found public relations department in their body to deal with public relations operations or outsource this activity to consultants in order to communicate with target populations. Among the firms in tourism sector, hospitality companies are the ones that use public relations the most. The purpose of this study is to investigate the communication techniques in public relation and effects of these techniques on public relation activities. A literature review was conducted for research model and then questionnaire was developed from the studies in the literature. Data were collected by researchers in face-to-face interviews with 145 supervisors who are responsible for public relation activities of the hotel and were analyzed with SPSS statistical programs. Structural and convergent validity of the data have revealed with the explanatory factor analysis. It was tested using a regression analysis to determine the effects of independent variables on dependent variables. As a result, independent variables have positive effects on the dependent variables.

  9. Semiautomatic exchanger of samples for carry out neutron activation analysis; Intercambiador semiautomatico de muestras para realizar analisis por activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Quintana C, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres R, C. E.; Mejia J, J. O., E-mail: fortunato.aguilar@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the design methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic exchanger of samples for the Analysis Laboratory by Neutron Activation of the Reactor department is presented. Taking into account the antecedents, the necessities of improvement are described, as well as the equipment that previously contained the Laboratory. The project of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples was developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, with its own technology to increase independence from commercial equipment. Each element of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples is described both in the design phase as construction. The achieved results are positive and encouraging for the fulfillment of the proposed objective that is to increase the capacity of the Laboratory. (Author)

  10. Linking mutagenic activity to micropollutant concentrations in wastewater samples by partial least square regression and subsequent identification of variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Christine; Sievers, Moritz; Ottermanns, Richard; Hollert, Henner; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2015-11-01

    We deployed multivariate regression to identify compounds co-varying with the mutagenic activity of complex environmental samples. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents with a large share of industrial input of different sampling dates were evaluated for mutagenic activity by the Ames Fluctuation Test and chemically characterized by a screening for suspected pro-mutagens and non-targeted software-based peak detection in full scan data. Areas of automatically detected peaks were used as predictor matrix for partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS) in combination with measured mutagenic activity. Detected peaks were successively reduced by the exclusion of all peaks with lowest variable importance until the best model (high R(2) and Q(2)) was reached. Peaks in the best model co-varying with the observed mutagenicity showed increased chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and nitrogen abundance compared to original peak set indicating a preferential selection of anthropogenic compounds. The PLS regression revealed four tentatively identified compounds, newly identified 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine, and three known micropollutants present in domestic wastewater as co-varying with the mutagenic activity. Co-variance between compounds stemming from industrial wastewater and mutagenic activity supported the application of "virtual" EDA as a statistical tool to separate toxicologically relevant from less relevant compounds.

  11. [A limited sampling strategy of phenotyping probe midazolam to predict inhibited activities of hepatic CYP3A in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-hui; Jiao, Jian-jie; Zhang, Cai-li; Lou, Jian-shi; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2008-09-01

    The present study was to evaluate feasibility of a limited sampling strategy (LSS) in the prediction of inhibited hepatic CYP3A activity with systemic clearance of midazolam (MDZ), a hepatic CYP3A activity phenotyping probe. Rats were pretreated with a serial doses of ketoconazole, a selective inhibitor on CYP3A. Blood samples were collected and detected for MDZ at specified time points after intravenous injection of MDZ. Stepwise regression analysis and a Jack-knife validation procedures were performed in one group of rats as training set to establish the most informative LSS model for accurately estimating the clearance of MDZ. Another group of rats with same treatment was used as validation set to estimate the individual clearance based on predictive equations derived from the training set. Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between the systemic clearance calculated from DAS (CLobs) and corresponding parameter that was derived from three LSS models (CLest). LSS models derived from two or three sampling time points, including 60, 90 min, 30, 60, 90 min and 30, 60, 120 min, exhibited a good accuracy and acceptable error for estimating the CLobs of MDZ to evaluate hepatic CYP3A activity, especially the 60, 90 min LSS model is most accurate and convenient. The results supported that limited plasma sampling to predict the systemic clearance of MDZ is easier than the usual method for estimating CYP3A phenotyping when the hepatic activity of CYP3A is reduced in the rat. The present study provided theoretical basis and laboratory evidence for LSS to clinically evaluate metabolizing function of liver and

  12. A sample study on synectics activities from creative thinking methods: creativity from the perspective of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Öztuna Kaplan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was derived from an action research on the use of synectics in creative thinking methods in science and technology teaching. There were three main application steps in the action research, which was designed to help students in gaining creative thinking skills. In the research, which had lasted for one teaching semester, the teacher firstly fulfilled two different applications to make the students get used to the synectics technique. First of these applications was to redefine the concept of creativity. This was followed by the activity of designing a dynamometer. In the third stage, these students were asked to develop a creative project in three or four-person groups in one semester. The researcher continued synectics activities with the project group one by one in the same period. In the redefinition of the concept of creativity, which was the first stage of the action research, synectics methods were used. The research was made along the moment and action unit, which is the second unit of 7th grade science and technology class, in 2009-2010 teaching year. The population of the research was composed of 43 seventh graders in a public school in Istanbul. In the research, in which the students define the concept of creativity, “making the strange familiar” method (Hummell, 2004, which is one of the two basic implementations and is composed of six stages, was used. The students reached their own definitions of creativity at the end of this process, which started with building direct analogies and ended with creating original end-products. It was seen that the students began to see creativity in a different way and to perceive it as a process at the end of the synectics applications, rather than just an activity aiming at creation of an original product.

  13. Neutron activation of natural zinc samples at kT = 25 keV

    OpenAIRE

    Reifarth, R.; Dababneh, S.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Sonnabend, K.; Uberseder, E.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-capture cross sections of 64Zn, 68Zn, and 70Zn have been measured with the activation technique in a quasistellar neutron spectrum corresponding to a thermal energy of kT = 25 keV. By a series of repeated irradiations with different experimental conditions, an uncertainty of 3% could be achieved for the 64Zn(n,g)65Zn cross section and for the partial cross section 68Zn(n,g)69Zn-m feeding the isomeric state in 69Zn. For the partial cross sections 70Zn(n,g)71Zn-m and 70Zn(n,g)71Zn-g...

  14. Neutron-induced 63Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shinozaki, Kenji; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for 63Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in 63Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in 63Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of 63Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the 63Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  15. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  16. Broad Hbeta Emission-Line Variability in a Sample of 102 Local Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Runco, Jordan N; Bennert, Vardha N; Scott, Bryan; Komossa, S; Malkan, Matthew A; Lazarova, Mariana S; Auger, Matthew W; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 10^7 M_sun was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10-m telescope to study the scaling relations between MBH and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hbeta emission line within the ~3-9 year time-frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hbeta emission line is of particular interest, not only since it is used to estimate MBH, but also since its strength and width is used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (~66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ~38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hbeta line virtually disappears in 3/102 (~3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing-look AGNs. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case ...

  17. Azocasein Substrate for Determination of Proteolytic Activity: Reexamining a Traditional Method Using Bromelain Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Priscila Gava

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of protease's worldwide market, the determination of optimum conditions and the development of a standard protocol are critical during selection of a reliable method to determine its bioactivity. This paper uses quality control theory to validate a modified version of a method proposed by Charney and Tomarelli in 1947. The results obtained showed that using azocasein substrate bromelain had its optimum at 45°C and pH 9 (Glycine-NaOH 100 mM). We also quantified the limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) in the above-mentioned optimum (0.072 and 0.494 mg·mL−1 of azocasein, resp.) and a calibration curve that correlates optical density with the amount of substrate digested. In all analysed samples, we observed a significant decrease in response after storage (around 17%), which suggests its use must be immediately after preparation. Thus, the protocol presented in this paper offers a significant improvement, given that subjective definitions are commonly used in the literature and this simple mathematical approach makes it clear and concise. PMID:26925415

  18. Dissecting Photometric redshift for Active Galactic Nuclei using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS samples

    CERN Document Server

    Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Rau, A; Civano, F; Zamorani, G; Brusa, M; Elvis, M; Vignali, C; Aussel, H; Comastri, A; Fiore, F; Floc'h, E Le; Mainieri, V; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Capak, P; Caputi, K; Cappelluti, N; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Fotopoulou, S; Fruscione, A; Gilli, R; Halliday, C; Kneib, J-P; Kakazu, Y; Kartaltepe, J S; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Ideue, Y; Ikeda, H; Impey, C D; Fevre, O Le; Lamareille, F; Lanzuisi, G; Borgne, J-F Le; Brun, V Le; Lilly, S J; Maier, C; Manohar, S; Masters, D; McCracken, H; Messias, H; Mignoli, M; Mobasher, B; Nagao, T; Pello, R; Puccetti, S; Renzini, E Perez Montero A; Sargent, M; Sanders, D B; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N; Shopbell, P; Silvermann, J; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Trump, J R; Zucca, E

    2011-01-01

    With this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the COSMOS field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redshifts comparable to the highest quality results presently available for normal galaxies. We demonstrate that morphologically extended, faint X-ray sources without optical variability are more accurately described by a library of normal galaxies (corrected for emission lines) than by AGN-dominated templates, even if these sources have AGN-like X-ray luminosities. Preselecting the library on the bases of the source properties allowed us to reach an accuracy sigma_(Delta z/(1+z_spec)) \\sim0.015 with a fraction of outliers of 5.8% for the entire Chandra-COSMOS sample. In addition, we release revised photometric redshifts for the 1735 optical counterparts of the XMM-detected sources over the entire 2 sq. deg.of COSMOS. For 248 sources, our upda...

  19. Effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentration on canine plasma samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The present study was to assess the effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen concentration in blood samples of healthy dogs. Thirty-five dogs of various breeds were included in the study. Citrated blood samples were obtained and plasma was divided into four aliquots to assess selected clotting parameters by means of a coagulometer. The first aliquot was analysed within 1 h after collection, while the remaining 3 were stored at 8℃ for 4, 8 and 24 h, respectively. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance documented a significant decreasing effect on PT at 24 h compared to 8 h and on fibrinogen concentration after 8 and 24 h compared to sampling time and at 4 and 24 h compared to 8 h post sampling. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that only fibrinogen appears prone to significant decrease. In fact, aPTT is not substantially affected by refrigeration for at least 24 h post sampling and PT showed a statistical difference that does not necessary indicate biological significance as the results obtained were within reference intervals for the dog. PMID:20458152

  20. A New Attempt to Obtain Bulk Nanocrystalline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengjie Yao; Linxiu Du; Xianghua Liu; Guodong Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline steel sample was obtained in laboratory through refining of austenite grains and controlled rolling. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that some textures are evolved in the process of the treatment and two typical carbides are classified according to their size and location. The tensile strength of the nanocrystalline sample is obviously lower than conventional consideration, and scanning electron microscopy observation shows that the existence of the first type of carbide is considered as the main reason for the failure.

  1. Sample preparation method for the ER-CALUX bioassay screening of (xeno-)estrogenic activity in sediment extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Leonards, Pim E G; Kapiteijn, Wendy; Bakker, Joop F; Brouwer, Abraham; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette; Klamer, Hans J C

    2007-11-01

    The application of bioassays to assess the occurrence of estrogenic compounds in the environment is increasing in both a scientific and statutory context. The availability of appropriate validated methods for sample pre-treatment and analysis is crucial for the successful implementation of bioassays. Here, we present a sample preparation method for the bioassay screening of estrogenic activity in sediment with the in vitro Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER-CALUX) assay. The method makes use of an Accelerated Solvent (ASE) or Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (3:1, v/v), followed by clean up of the extract by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Recoveries of a panel of 17 pollutants differing largely in physical-chemical properties from spiked sediment were determined and appeared to be on average about 86%. Furthermore, the estrogenic potencies of all test compounds were individually assessed by determination of concentration-response relationships in the ER-CALUX assay. Concentration dependent estrogenic potency was found for 14 of the 17 compounds, with potencies of about 10(5) to 10(7) fold lower than the natural estrogenic hormone 17beta-estradiol. Anti-estrogenic potency was assessed by testing combinations of estradiol and individual test compounds, but was found for none of the compounds. The low estrogenic activity of the test compounds in the spiking mixture was well recovered during GPC treatment of the pure mixture, but did not contribute significantly to the background estrogenic activity present in the spiked sediment. Application of the method to field samples showed that estrogenic activity can be found at different types of locations, and demonstrated that levels between locations may vary considerably over relatively short distances.

  2. Bulk saturable absorption in topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Radha Krishna; Ambast, Deepak K. S.; Singh, Sourabh; Sarkar, Jit; Pal, Bipul; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2017-07-01

    We present nonlinear optical absorption properties of pulsed laser deposited thin films of topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3 on a quartz substrate, using an open aperture z-scan technique. We observed saturable absorption with a low saturation intensity in as deposited thin films. Past results from the literature are inconclusive in establishing whether the saturable absorption in TI is coming from surface states or the bulk. Specifically designed experiments with magnetically doped TI samples allow us to attribute the saturable absorption characteristic of TI to the bulk states. Detailed experimental procedures and possible explanation of observed results have been discussed.

  3. Determination of activity concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in sand samples from mediterranean coast of Antalya in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eke, Canel [Akdeniz Univ., Div. of Physics Education, Antalya (Turkey); Akdeniz Univ., Nuekleer Bilimler Uygulama ve Arastirma Merkezi, Antalya (Turkey); Boztosun, Ismail [Akdeniz Univ., Nuekleer Bilimler Uygulama ve Arastirma Merkezi, Antalya (Turkey); Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Physics, Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we attempt to determine the activity concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in 37 sand samples from the Mediterranean coast of Antalya in Turkey by using a high purity Germanium (HpGe) detector. {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard index of sand samples are determined respectively. The average values are 13.43 ± 0.21 Bq/kg, 6.96 ± 0.06 Bq/kg and, 122.46 ± 18.58 Bq/kg, for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K respectively. Most of the activity concentration values are less than below minimum detection limit for {sup 137}Cs. The average values of the absorbed dose rate D (nGy/h), annual effective dose equivalent AEDE(μSv/y), radium equivalent activity Ra{sub eq} (Bq/kg), external hazard index H{sub ex} and internal hazard index H{sub in} are 15.52 nGy/h, 19.03 μSv/y, 32.81 Bq/kg, 0.09 and 0.12 respectively. It is observed that {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity are in the limit of the published values, external and internal hazard index values are less than unity.

  4. Effect of Follicular Fluid and Platelet-Activating Factor on Lactate Dehydrogenase C Expression in Human Asthenozoospermic Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Esmaeilpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of follicular fluid (FF and platelet-activating factor (PAF in artificial insemination improves sperm motility. Lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C is a key enzyme for sperm motility. In this study, the effects of FF and PAF on the sperm motility index and LDH-C expression were investigated. Moreover, LDH-C expression was compared between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic samples. Methods: The expression of LDH-C was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR and western blotting after it was treated with optimized concentrations of FF and PAF in twenty asthenozoospermic samples. Also, LDH-C expression was evaluated in five normozoospermic samples. Results: Samples with 75% FF and 100 nM of PAF had an increase in their percentages of progressive and slowly motile sperms and a decrease in their percentages of non-progressive and non-motile sperms. Moreover, LDH-C mRNA transcripts were not changed following PAF and FF treatment, and LDH-C protein was detected in highly progressive motile specimens treated with FF in the asthenozoospermic samples. Furthermore, LDH-C expression was more detectable in the normal sperms. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PAF had more beneficial effects than FF on sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic samples (P=0.0001, although the LDH-C expressions of the sperms were not changed significantly in both groups. We found no association between LDH-C expression and sperm motility after FF and PAF actions. This finding, however, requires further investigation. The fact that LDH-C protein was detected in the normozoospermic, but not asthenozoospermic, samples could be cited as a reason for the infertility in these patients.

  5. The BRAVE Program. I. Improved Bulge Stellar Velocity Dispersion Estimates for a Sample of Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Onken, Christopher A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2017-02-01

    We present new bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements for 10 active galaxies with secure MBH determinations from reverberation mapping. These new velocity dispersion measurements are based on spatially resolved kinematics from integral-field (IFU) spectroscopy. In all but one case, the field of view of the IFU extends beyond the effective radius of the galaxy, and in the case of Mrk 79 it extends to almost one half the effective radius. This combination of spatial resolution and field of view allows for secure determinations of stellar velocity dispersion within the effective radius for all 10 target galaxies. Spatially resolved maps of the first (V) and second (σ⋆) moments of the line of sight velocity distribution indicate the presence of kinematic substructure in most cases. In future projects we plan to explore methods of correcting for the effects of kinematic substructure in the derived bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements.

  6. Guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell and bacterial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, B M; Pillai, S R; Sawant, A A; Wolfgang, D R; Hegde, N V

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to establish guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell count and bacterial counts, and to understand the relationship between different bacterial groups that occur in bulk tank milk. One hundred twenty-six dairy farms in 14 counties of Pennsylvania participated, each providing one bulk tank milk sample every 15 d for 2 mo. The 4 bulk tank milk samples from each farm were examined for bulk tank somatic cell count and bacterial counts including standard plate count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, coagulase-negative staphylococcal count, environmental streptococcal count, coliform count, and gram-negative noncoliform count. The milk samples were also examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma. The bacterial counts of 4 bulk tank milk samples examined over an 8-wk period were averaged and expressed as mean bacterial count per milliliter. The study revealed that an increase in the frequency of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly associated with an increased bulk tank somatic cell count. Paired correlation analysis showed that there was low correlation between different bacterial counts. Bulk tank milk with low (standard plate count also had a significantly low level of mean bulk tank somatic cell count (count (count (counts (count (count was less likely to be associated with somatic cell or other bacterial counts. Herd size and farm management practices had considerable influence on somatic cell and bacterial counts in bulk tank milk. Dairy herds that used automatic milking detachers, sand as bedding material, dip cups for teat dipping instead of spraying, and practiced pre-and postdipping had significantly lower bulk tank somatic cell and/or bacterial counts. In conclusion, categorized bulk tank somatic cell and bacterial counts could serve as indicators and facilitate monitoring of herd udder health and milk

  7. New fermions in the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    de Brito, K P S

    2016-01-01

    Spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified, according to the geometric Fierz identities that involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification that generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are, hence, found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density, through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish a realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of 5-dimensional Kerr black holes. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at the spatial infinity, through a current 1-form density, constructed with the derived new spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the f\\"unfbein components, assuming a condensed for...

  8. New fermions in the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, K. P. S.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2016-10-01

    The spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified according to the geometric Fierz identities, which involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification, which generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are hence found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish the realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of a 5-dimensional Kerr black hole. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at spatial infinity through a current 1-form density, constructed with the new derived spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the fünfbein component, assuming a condensed form.

  9. Nanofluidics, from bulk to interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lydéric; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Nanofluidics has emerged recently in the footsteps of microfluidics, following the quest for scale reduction inherent to nanotechnologies. By definition, nanofluidics explores transport phenomena of fluids at nanometer scales. Why is the nanometer scale specific? What fluid properties are probed at nanometric scales? In other words, why does 'nanofluidics' deserve its own brand name? In this critical review, we will explore the vast manifold of length scales emerging for fluid behavior at the nanoscale, as well as the associated mechanisms and corresponding applications. We will in particular explore the interplay between bulk and interface phenomena. The limit of validity of the continuum approaches will be discussed, as well as the numerous surface induced effects occurring at these scales, from hydrodynamic slippage to the various electro-kinetic phenomena originating from the couplings between hydrodynamics and electrostatics. An enlightening analogy between ion transport in nanochannels and transport in doped semi-conductors will be discussed (156 references).

  10. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg-1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg-1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  11. Pre-Fukushima levels of artificial radionuclides activities in maritime samples from King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobiech-Matura, K. [European Commision DG-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, Geel (Belgium); Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, W.E. Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland); Olech, M.A. [Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ustrzycka 10/12, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Different maritime samples were collected at King George Island during Polish scientific expeditions in years 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. They originated mainly from Admiralty Bay region. Activities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238,239+240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am were measured using γ-, β- and α-spectrometry. Our measurements allow estimating the state of radioactive pollution of Antarctic environment directly before the Fukushima accident. Examined samples included different elements of Antarctic marine environment: macro-algae (e.g. Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Ascoseira mirabilis), fishes(e.g. Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus), birds (e.g. Pygoscelis adeliae, P. papua), and crustaceans (e.g. Euphausia superba, Waldeckia obesa). Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs vary from <0.3 to 21.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg d.w. In comparison with results obtained for samples of animals and macro-algae previously [1,2] our results are similar or lower. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu range from <0.2 to 455 ± 56 mBq/kg d.w. and comparing to previous results [1,2] they were similar or lower. For maritime animals from Terra Nova Bay [3] results are also similar or lower than obtained in present project. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}Pu in samples varied from <0.2 to 79 ± 22 mBq/kg d.w. In comparison to results presented in [1,2,3] our values are similar or higher. Activity concentrations obtained for {sup 90}Sr varied from <1.5 to 73 ± 24 Bq/kg d.w. and are similar or lower then values given in [2,3]. Activity concentrations of {sup 241}Am varied from <9.4 to 29.8 ± 9.3 mBq/kg d.w. and they are similar or higher than values obtained in [3] and similar to that from [1]. Obtained results show that levels of radioactive contamination were very low and in many cases lower than the detection limit. Planned further investigation will allow estimating the environmental condition after the Fukushima accident. (authors)

  12. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  13. Neutron activation of natural zinc samples at kT = 25 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, R; Heil, M; Käppeler, F; Plag, R; Sonnabend, K; Uberseder, E

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-capture cross sections of 64Zn, 68Zn, and 70Zn have been measured with the activation technique in a quasistellar neutron spectrum corresponding to a thermal energy of kT = 25 keV. By a series of repeated irradiations with different experimental conditions, an uncertainty of 3% could be achieved for the 64Zn(n,g)65Zn cross section and for the partial cross section 68Zn(n,g)69Zn-m feeding the isomeric state in 69Zn. For the partial cross sections 70Zn(n,g)71Zn-m and 70Zn(n,g)71Zn-g, which had not been measured so far, uncertainties of only 16% and 6% could be reached because of limited counting statistics and decay intensities. Compared to previous measurements on 64,68Zn, the uncertainties could be significantly improved, while the 70Zn cross section was found to be two times smaller than existing model calculations. From these results Maxwellian average cross sections were determined between 5 and 100 keV. Additionally, the beta-decay half-life of 71Zn-m could be determined with significantly imp...

  14. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  15. Studies on antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of crude samples of six different species of puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masilamani Mohan Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality activity of six different species of puffer fishes, including Cyclichthys orbicularis, Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster solandri, Arthron hispidus, A. inermis and Lagocephalua inermis (L. inermis. Methodology: The puffer fishes were collected from Annangkovil Fish Landing Centre (Lattitude 11°30.47' N; Longitude 79°47.02' E, Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India during summer season because of availability. Fresh tissue samples were collected from the clearly washed specimens, extracted with methanol at 37 °C for 3 days and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The solvents such as methanol and ethanol were concentrated by using rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The dark brown gummy mass was stored at 4 °C for further analysis. Prepared crude samples were analysed with human pathogens to assess the antibacterial activity and this was carried out by using standard disc diffusion method. The brine shrimp lethality was calculated as the percentage of mortality which was firstly calculated by dividing the number of dead larvae by the total number and then multiplied to 100%. Results: The antibacterial activity of crude extract of puffer fishes were exhibited against 10 different human bacterial pathogens. Among the ten human pathogens, Arthron hispidus showed maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm against Staphylococcus aureus while L. inermis showed minimum activity (1 mm against Proteus mirabilis and no zone of inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus. Brine shrimp lethality was examined with six puffer fish extracts. Cyclichthys orbicularis showed maximum mortalities as 100% and L. inermis showed minimum mortalities as 70% at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study showed the preliminary investigation of crude extracts of puffer fishes about the prominent activity against human bacterial pathogens. The extracts had

  16. Composite superconducting bulks for efficient heat dissipation during pulse magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskys, A.; Patel, A.; Hopkins, S.; Kenfaui, D.; Chaud, X.; Zhang, M.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed field magnetization is the most practical method of magnetizing a (RE)BCO bulk, however large heat generation limits the trapped field to significantly less than possible using field cooling. Modelling has been used to show that effective heat removal from the bulk interior, using embedded metallic structures, can enhance trapped field by increasing thermal stability. The reported results are for experimental pulsed magnetization of a thin walled YBCO sample with 55 vertical holes embedded with high thermal conductivity wires. A specially designed copper coldhead was used to increase the trapped field and flux of the perforated YBCO by about 12% at 35 K using a multi-pulse magnetization. Moreover, by filling the perforations with copper, the central trapped field was enhanced by 15% after a single-pulse at 35 K. 3D FEM computer model of a perforated YBCO bulk was also developed showing localised heating effects around the perforations during pulse magnetisation.

  17. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  18. Dry bulk freight rates and chartering: players, strategy and the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report focuses on three vital areas of the dry bulk charter market: strategic chartering choices; roles of key players; and market cycles. It gives an overview of the bulk shipping and charter market and discusses the mechanics of bulk chartering methods and options. It goes on to consider the strategic choices available for bulk chartering decisions. The next section identifies market players amongst cargo owners, charterers and bulk shipping operations. This includes the coal, iron ore, foods, petroleum coke, steel, and cement industries. Past trends in the dry bulk market and freight rates are analyzed and the driving forces and potential for change in the bulk charter market are discussed. Appendices include data on seaborne trade, fleet development, chartering activity, freight rates, and time charter fixtures.

  19. Assessing the effect of manual physical activity on proximal hand phalanges using Hellenistic and modern skeletal samples from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostis, F A; Le Quéré, E; Vanna, V; Moraitis, K

    2016-04-01

    In humans, physical activity is an important regulator of bone size. Furthermore, hand bones have been proposed as a potential avenue for assessing patterns of manual activity. However, there are very few studies presenting a metric comparison of proximal hand phalanges among different populations. Moreover, an osteoarchaeological approach to the manual activities performed by an ancient population is yet to be made. In this framework, this study aims at assessing and interpreting the metric variation in these bones between a documented modern Greek sample (20th century) and a Hellenistic sample from Demetrias (3rd-1st century BCE), in terms of size and sexual dimorphism. Ancient males were significantly larger than females for ten phalangeal measurements out of 35. Even though the degree of sexual dimorphism was lower in the Hellenistic material (the maximum sexual dimorphism observed - 12.46%) than in modern sample (the maximum observed - 21.19%), the ranking of rays and bone parts by sexual dimorphism was similar in both populations. No metric difference was observed between modern and ancient males, whereas ancient females were larger than modern females in seven dimensions (the maximum variation observed was 11.58%), which involved the bases and midshafts of phalanges. Given that these dimensions are affected by the degree of muscular recruitment for the formation of various hand grips, it is suggested that ancient females were involved in manual activities of greater grasping variance than modern females. Indeed, the historical and archaeological sources suggest that sexual distribution of labour in the Hellenistic society seems to explain the differences estimated between the sexes and the two populations under study.

  20. Developments in the processing of bulk (RE)BCO superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, N. Hari, E-mail: mtsthbn@brunel.ac.u [Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST), Brunel University, West London UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Shi, Y.-H.; Pathak, S.K.; Dennis, A.R.; Cardwell, D.A. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors containing nano-scale inclusions are fabricated. {yields} Generic seed crystal development enabled batch process for Gd-Ba-Cu-O. {yields} Multi-grains with strongly coupled grain boundaries are fabricated. {yields} We propose recycling concept for bulk superconductors. - Abstract: The development of a practical processing method for the fabrication of high performance large, single grain bulk superconductors is essential for their cost-effective application in a variety of high field engineering devices. We discuss recent developments in the processing of these materials that enable high performance bulk superconductors to be fabricated in a practical way. These include the introduction of nano-scale second phase inclusions to the superconducting phase matrix, the development of a generic seed crystal, the development of practical, batch processing routes for the fabrication of light rare earth superconductors, the processing of complex shaped geometries via controlled multi-seeding and recycling of scrap bulk samples into high performance, single grains.

  1. Critical soil bulk density for soybean growth in Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisuke Sato, Michel; Veras de Lima, Herdjania; Oliveira, Pedro Daniel de; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the critical soil bulk density from the soil penetration resistance measurements for soybean root growth in Brazilian Amazon Oxisols. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using disturbed soil samples collected from the northwest of Para characterized by different texture. The treatments consisted of a range of soil bulk densities for each soil textural class. Three pots were used for soybean growth of and two for the soil penetration resistance curve. From the fitted model, the critical soil bulk density was determined considering the penetration resistance values of 2 and 3 MPa. After sixty days, plants were cut and root length, dry mass of root, and dry mass of shoots were determined. At higher bulk densities, the increase in soil water content decreased the penetration resistance, allowing unrestricted growth of soybean roots. Regardless of soil texture, the penetration resistance of 2 and 3 MPa had a slight effect on root growth in soil moisture at field capacity and a reduction of 50% in the soybean root growth was achieved at critical soil bulk density of 1.82, 1.75, 1.51, and 1.45 Mg m-3 for the sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clayey, and very clayey soil.

  2. Estrogen-, androgen- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activities in passive and composite samples from municipal waste and surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jálová, V; Jarošová, B; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Ocelka, T; Grabic, R; Jurčíková, J; Vrana, B; Hilscherová, K

    2013-09-01

    Passive and composite sampling in combination with in vitro bioassays and identification and quantification of individual chemicals were applied to characterize pollution by compounds with several specific modes of action in urban area in the basin of two rivers, with 400,000 inhabitants and a variety of industrial activities. Two types of passive samplers, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) for hydrophobic contaminants and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) for polar compounds such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, were used to sample wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and effluent as well as rivers upstream and downstream of the urban complex and the WWTP. Compounds with endocrine disruptive potency were detected in river water and WWTP influent and effluent. Year-round, monthly assessment of waste waters by bioassays documented estrogenic, androgenic and dioxin-like potency as well as cytotoxicity in influent waters of the WWTP and allowed characterization of seasonal variability of these biological potentials in waste waters. The WWTP effectively removed cytotoxic compounds, xenoestrogens and xenoandrogens. There was significant variability in treatment efficiency of dioxin-like potency. The study indicates that the WWTP, despite its up-to-date technology, can contribute endocrine disrupting compounds to the river. Riverine samples exhibited dioxin-like, antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic potencies. The study design enabled characterization of effects of the urban complex and the WWTP on the river. Concentrations of PAHs and contaminants and specific biological potencies sampled by POCIS decreased as a function of distance from the city. © 2013.

  3. Optimization of crude enzyme preparation methods for analysis of glutamine synthetase activity in phytoplankton and field samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yujue; WANG Dazhi; HONG Huasheng

    2009-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an important enzyme involved in nitrogen assimilation and metabolism in marine phytoplankton. However, little work has been done in situ due to the limitation of crude enzyme preparation methods. In this study, three enzyme preparation methods, high-speed centrifugation (HC, <10 000 g), ultracentrifugation (UC, 70 000 g), and ultrafiltration (UF) with 100 kμ, molecular weight cutoff, were compared using two diatom species (Asterionellopsis glacialis and Thalassiosira weissflogii), and two dinoflagellate species (Alexandrium catenella and Prorocentrum donghaiense) as experimental materials together with field samples collected from Xiamen Harbor, China. The results showed that HC is the best method to prepare crude enzymes for glutamine synthetase activity (GSA) in diatom species and diatom-dominant samples, while UF is the best method to extract GS from dinoflagellate species and dinoflagellate-dominant samples. For the HC method, the optimal centrifugal speed and time were 10 000 g and 35 min, respectively, and under these conditions, the highest GSA was obtained in all samples. This study indicates that both methods (HC and UF) overcome the limitation of centrifugal speed and could be applied to in situ GSA analysis, especially at sea.

  4. Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population-based Sample of Children and Adolescents in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to explore the barriers to physical activity in a representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: The studywas conducted in 2007 in urban and rural areas of Isfahan district in Iran. In the qualitative part,we used the grounded theory approach, including semi-structured focus group discussionsand in-depth interviews. The quantitative part comprised 600 randomly selected students.Results: The qualitative study included 34 school students (16 girls, 20 parents (11 mothers and 11 school staff. All students disclosed that studying was a priority.They pointed to lack of safe and easy-access place for physical activity and unsupportive family as the main barriers. Lack of self-confidence and low self-worth were the two other concepts developed in this context.Parents pointed to lack of safe and easy-access place for activity followed by the priority of studying. The concepts derived from interviews with school staff included unhealthy modeling of parents, priority of studying, and inadequate public know-ledge about how to integrate physical activity in routine daily life.The quantitative survey comprised 600 students including 286 (47.8% girls. Parents’ education level had inverse association with children’s physical activity level. Significant inverse associations of self-efficacy and physical activity levels were documented.Conclusions: Increasing the public knowledge about adopting physical activity habits in routinedaily life, informing the families and students about the benefits of physical activity to improvelearning, as well as providing safe places such as using the school facilities in non-school hoursshould be considered in planning effective preventive strategies and interventions.

  5. Can Thromboelastography performed on kaolin-activated citrated samples from critically ill patients provide stable and consistent parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H; Zollinger, C; Jones, M; Bird, R

    2010-04-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is a potentially useful tool but analysis within 4-6 min of collection imposes limitations on its use and access. The use of citrate blood tubes potentially increases the time frame for processing specimens. There is, however, limited research on the stability of citrate specimens, timing of processing and the accuracy of TEG results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of early and delayed processing on TEG parameters using kaolin-activated citrated blood samples in the intensive care population. TEG analysis was performed on 61 patients. Blood was collected into two 3.2% sodium citrate (0.105 m) tubes. Kaolin-activated samples were analysed at 15, 30 and 120 min postcollection. TEG parameters analysed included reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), alpha angle (alpha), maximum amplitude, LY30, the coagulation index, time to maximum rate of thrombus generation, maximum rate of thrombus generation and total thrombus generation. Sixty-one critically ill patients were included. The results of the anova showed that time from collection was significantly associated with the TEG((R)) results (P kaolin-activated citrate TEG specimens can begin as early as 15 min postvenipuncture. However, delaying processing by more than 30 min leads to a significant change in results.

  6. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  7. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered.

  8. Comparison between different types of glass and aluminum as containers for irradiation samples by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A.; El-Dine, N. Walley; El-Shershaby, A.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S

    2000-01-01

    Three different types of glass and four different kinds of aluminum sheet have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis. The irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1) and a hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for the analysis. Among the 34 identified elements, the isotopes {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 123m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 182}Ta are of special significance because of their long half-lives, providing a background interference for analyzed samples. A comparison between the different types of containers was made to select the preferred one for sample irradiation.

  9. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  10. Are children like werewolves? Full moon and its association with sleep and activity behaviors in an international sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe eChaput

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33710 24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States. Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference, half moon (±5-9 days and new moon (±10-14 days from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, light-intensity physical activity (LPA and total sedentary time (SED were monitored over 7 consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 hours a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min per night shorter during full moon compared to new moon. Differences in MVPA, LPA and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (<2 min per day difference. There was no difference in the associations between study sites. In conclusion, sleep duration was 1% shorter at full moon compared to new moon while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable.

  11. Are Children Like Werewolves? Full Moon and Its Association with Sleep and Activity Behaviors in an International Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; LeBlanc, Allana G; Hjorth, Mads F; Michaelsen, Kim F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Tremblay, Mark S; Barreira, Tiago V; Broyles, Stephanie T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Sjödin, Anders M

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference), half moon (±5-9 days), and new moon (±10-14 days) from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and total sedentary time (SED) were monitored over seven consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 h a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min/night shorter during full moon compared to new moon). Differences in MVPA, LPA, and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (full moon compared to new moon, while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable.

  12. Evaluation of Ra, Th, K and radium equivalent activity in sand samples from Camburi Beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Camburi beach, in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil, is a naturally high background region in Brazil. The beach sands contain monazite, ilmenite and other accessory minerals rich in {sup 226}Ra, {sup 23}'2Th and {sup 40}K. As these radionuclides are the main natural contributors to external exposure from gamma rays, the knowledge of the sands radioactivity content plays an important role in radiation protection. In this work, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities concentrations, together with the radium equivalent activity, Ra{sub eq.} were determined in some selected sand samples from a single location at Camburi beach, known for the high level of radioactivity. The sand samples collected monthly from January to December 2011, were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 23}'2Th series. Preliminary results, without considering samples self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 12 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 1022 {+-} 30 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 35 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 5731 {+-} 134 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 18 {+-} 4 Bqkg{sup -1} to 430 {+-} 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The Ra{sub eq}, presented values ranging from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 9250 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  13. A flow cytometric technique for quantification and differentiation of bacteria in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C.; Mathiasen, T.; Jespersen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: The present study describes a flow cytometric technique for quantification and differentiation of bacteria in bulk tank milk according to the main cause of elevated counts. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 75 Danish bulk tank milk samples exceeding the grading level of 3.0 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1)...

  14. Effects of subsoil bulk density on root growth and soil enzyme activities during the growth of corn (Zea mays L.)%不同土层容重对玉米根系生长及土壤酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 赵亚丽; 张学林; 张永恩; 李潮海

    2012-01-01

    The two-year pool-culture and barrel-culture experiments were conducted to study the impacts of subsoil bulk/density on root lenght, root dry weight, soil enzyme activities and yield in corn field on a sandy loam soil at the Experimental Farm of Henan Agricultural University. The results showed that the dynamic changes of root length, root dry weight, soil catalase, invertase, protease, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities and yields were single curve during the growth of corn, and the maximum values of these parameters occurred at the corn silking stage. Root length, root dry weight, yield and its components decreased with increaseing soil bulk density. These enzyme activities decreased with the increasing of both soil bulk density and soil depth. The higher the soil bulk density was the less active the soil enzyme activities were all soil enzyme activities were significantly different among soil bulk densities in the same soil layer, and they were also affected by soil bulk density in the adjacent layers. The bigger the soil bulk density of adjacent layers was the more significant the decrease was. The effect of subsoil bulk density on soil enzyme was more apparant from jointing stage to maturity.%采用微区池栽和桶栽试验,研究了下层(20~40 cm,40 ~ 60 cm)土壤容重改变后,玉米根系生长、产量及生育期间土壤过氧化氢酶、转化酶、蛋白酶、脲酶和碱性磷酸酶活性动态变化规律及其与微生物活性的相关性.结果表明,在玉米生育期内,玉米单株根长度和根干重、土壤过氧化氢酶、转化酶、蛋白酶、脲酶和碱性磷酸酶活性呈单峰曲线,最高值均出现在吐丝期;且随着下层土壤容重增加呈递减趋势.各土层酶活性均随着土层的加深和本土层容重的增大而降低,同时也随着相邻土层容重的增大其降幅加剧;玉米穗粒数、粒重和产量也随着土壤容重的增加而降低.玉米生长期间,土壤酶活性变化受下层

  15. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Naman, C. Benjamin; Deng, Ye; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2?8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value ...

  16. Use of depuration compounds in passive air samplers: results from active sampling-supported field deployment, potential uses, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Claudia; Harner, Tom; Nizzetto, Luca; Strandberg, Bo; Lindroth, Anders; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-05-01

    Depuration compounds (DCs) are added to passive air samplers (PAS) prior to deployment to account for the wind-dependency of the sampling rate for gas-phase compounds. This correction is particularly useful for providing comparable data for samplers that are deployed in different environments and subject to different meteorological conditions such as wind speeds. Two types of PAS--the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk sampler and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--were deployed at eight heights on a 100 m tower to test whether the DC approach could yield air concentrations profiles for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides and account for the wind speed gradient with height. Average wind speeds ranged from 0.3 to 4.5 m s(-1) over the 40 da