WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk packaging shipments

  1. 7 CFR 322.8 - Packaging of shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging of shipments. 322.8 Section 322.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Packaging of shipments. (a) Adult honeybees. All shipments of adult honeybees imported into the...

  2. 7 CFR 322.24 - Packaging of transit shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging of transit shipments. 322.24 Section 322.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.24 Packaging of transit shipments. (a)...

  3. 7 CFR 322.16 - Packaging of shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging of shipments. 322.16 Section 322.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Restricted Organisms § 322.16 Packaging of shipments. (a) Restricted organisms must be packed in a...

  4. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  5. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design and shipment of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authorization of packages and shipments of radioactive materials are issued in the form of certificates by the national competent authority of the IAEA Member State in which the package is designed or from which a shipment originates, and may be validated or endorsed by the corresponding authority of other Member States as the need arises. This directory summarizes in tabular form the key information on existing package approval certificates contained in PACKTRAM database. 5 tabs

  6. 7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Print and bulk packaging rooms. 58.313 Section 58.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related...

  7. Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously (Spring, 1995). Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10's or 100's of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis (Spring, 1995) involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship's bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well-characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence. (authors)

  8. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and...

  9. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany So; Albert Wertheimer, Ph.D., MBA

    2012-01-01

    Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit...

  10. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. 10.775 Section 10.775 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.775 Packaging and...

  11. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients.Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.

  12. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  13. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2002 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current edition of the transport Regulations was published in 1996 and is more commonly referred to as 'ST-1'. Earlier Editions were known as Safety Series No. 6. The latest English reprint (2000) is now identified as TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). The transport Regulations elaborate requirements for the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging as well as those for preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt of the packages at final destination. Approval issued in the form of certificates is required for the design or shipment of packages. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1237 Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2001 Edition. It is distributed worldwide to the IAEA Member States' competent authorities for transport, and other entities who have requested copies. Electronic copies of the main data file are provided to registered users of the PACKTRAM database. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of the IAEA Transport Safety Regulations on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6 shows the certificates reported to the Secretariat by each participating Member State

  14. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The format of this report is a result of recommendations made by the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) at its 6th meeting in November 1987. The database was at that time maintained on the main frame and it was felt that adapting it for use on a personal computer would allow more flexibility in data processing and reporting. This document supersedes TECDOC-552 ''Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design and Shipment of Radioactive Material 1990 Edition''. Since publication of TECDOC-552, some modifications affecting the structure of the database and reporting formats were undertaken. These are fully described in ''Working Material: The PACKTRAM Database National Competent Authority Package Approval Certificates, User Guide Rev. 1'', which was released in early 1991. The present report is contained in five tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. This is composed of the issuing Member State's VRI code, followed by a slash, then a three- or four-digit number, another slash and finally a code identifying the type of package involved. ''-85'' is appended to those certificates that were approved on the basis of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expire, dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table. 5

  15. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2003 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourteenth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC). It supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1302 'Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2002 Edition'. Through the database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information provided by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The PACKTRAM database only contains information that has been provided to the IAEA. The data are not complete nor guaranteed to be accurate. If detailed information is required, the original package approval certificates must be consulted. If information is required about package approval certificates that are not contained in the database, the issuing competent authority must be consulted

  16. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  17. 49 CFR 173.206 - Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes. 173.206...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.206 Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes. (a) When § 172.101 of...

  18. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages Erratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-06

    This report refers to or contains Kg values for glasses LAWA44, LAWB45 and LAWC22 affected by calculations errors as identified by Papathanassiu et al. (2011). The corrected Kg values are reported in an erratum included in the revised version of the original report. The revised report can be referenced as follows: Pierce E. M. et al. (2004) Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. PNNL-14805 Rev. 0 Erratum. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.

  19. The PACKTRAM database on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. User's guide for compiled system program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PACKTRAM system program enables Member States to prepare data diskettes on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material, for submission to the IAEA, and facilitates data manipulation and report preparation for the IAEA. The system program is provided as a 424 kbyte executable file, for which this document is the User Guide. The system is fully menu-driven and requires an IBM-compatible personal computer with a minimum of 640 kbyte random access memory, a hard drive and one 3-1/2 inch diskette drive. 3 refs, 6 tabs

  20. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  1. Short optical pulse generation at 40 GHz with a bulk electro-absorption modulator packaged device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Patrick; Moore, Ronald; Prosyk, Kelvin; O'Keefe, Sean; Oosterom, Jill A.; Betty, Ian; Foster, Robert; Greenspan, Jonathan; Singh, Priti

    2003-12-01

    Short optical pulse generation at 40GHz and 1540nm wavelength is achieved using fully packaged bulk quaternary electro-absorption modulator modules. Experimental results obtained with broadband and narrowband optimized packaged modules are presented and compared against empirical model predictions. Pulse duty cycle, extinction ratio and chirp are studied as a function of sinusoidal drive voltage and detuning between operating wavelength and modulator absorption band edge. Design rules and performance trade-offs are discussed. Low-chirp pulses with a FWHM of ~12ps and sub-4ps at a rate of 40GHz are demonstrated. Optical time-domain demultiplexing of a 40GHz to a 10GHz pulse train is also demonstrated with better than 20dB extinction ratio.

  2. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1994 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last two complete calendar years. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material

  3. 49 CFR 173.24b - Additional general requirements for bulk packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... No packages or freight (hazardous or otherwise) may be stacked upon an IBC or a Large Packaging that... be stacked. The superimposed weight placed upon an IBC or a Large Packaging designed to be...

  4. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2004 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PACKTRAM database contains administrative and technical information provided annually by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. This is the fifteenth PACKTRAM annual report to being published by the IAEA. It is distributed worldwide mainly to designated competent authorities, as well as to registered interested parties. The database itself is maintained at www.packtram.org and can be accessed by the general public

  5. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... packagings containing liquid hazardous materials, single packaging fitted with vents, or open cryogenic... displayed on a package containing a liquid hazardous material. (c) The requirements of paragraph (a) of this... subchapter when packed with sufficient absorption material between the inner and outer packagings...

  6. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  7. LABELING OPTIONS FOR POSTAL SHIPMENTS BY PASSIVE RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Maslák

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the topic of labeling postal shipments by passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags. Every delivery company needs to have all necessary information for every single postal shipment package it carries. Shipment package labeling is essential for processing and tracking the postal shipments along its delivery process. Using RFID technology for the process brings advantages in more efficient delivery and data collection along with regular information updates of shipment status across complete delivery chain.In this article, we focused on the problem of logical log of key shipment package information into EPC memory of the RFID smart label. We have taken into account the National postal administrator and its current system of shipment labeling. In the end, we presented a design for conversion of contemporary labeling using bar codes into labeling using RFID tags.

  8. Fall Protection Procedures for Sealing Bulk Waste Shipments by Rail Cars at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Sites - 13509

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rail-cars loaded with radioactive materials must be closed and fastened to comply with United States Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements before they shipped. Securing waste shipments in a manner that meets these regulations typically results in the use of a sealable rail-car liner. Workers accessing the tops of the 2.74 m high rail-cars to seal and inspect liners for compliance prior to shipment may be exposed to a fall hazard. Relatively recent revisions to the Fall Protection requirements in the Safety and Health Requirements Manual (EM385-1-1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) have necessitated modifications to the fall protection systems previously employed for rail-car loading at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In response these projects have developed site-specific procedures to protect workers and maintain compliance with the improved fall protection regulations. (authors)

  9. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  10. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  11. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and non-DOT Specification portable... limitations of this section provided the IBC type is authorized according to the IBC packaging code specified... IBC conforms to the requirements in subpart O of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing...

  12. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... or bitumen are subject to the following requirements: (1) Low stability kettles. Kettles with a ratio... temperature likely to be encountered if the packaging were engulfed in a fire. When pressure control...

  13. Bulk packaging for consumer electronics products as a strategy for eco-efficient transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.B.; Stevels, A.L.N.

    2006-01-01

    By postponing the packing of consumer electronics (CE) products into their final consumer package, until after long-distance transportation, substantial economic savings and environmental improvements can be achieved, due to higher efficiency during transportation. In such a case, long-distance tran

  14. 77 FR 14327 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations; 49 CFR Parts 171-180 IBC Intermediate Bulk... Materials by Vessel'' (55 FR 37406), the Coast Guard allowed the use of Intermodal (IM) 101 and IM 102... describe the types of IBCs the Coast Guard would allow for the carriage of certain hazardous materials...

  15. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Florent; Lyman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is ongoing that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical technique...

  16. Trial intercountry shipment of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of irradiated whole nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) and whole white pepper (Piper nigrum) packaged in locally available material was evaluated. The spice samples were packaged in tin-containers or woven polypropylene (PP) bags, with or without oxygen absorber in the package, irradiated at 5 kGy, and shipped from Jakarta to Wageningen by sea-freight. The shipment was made in small and in commercial-size packages. Irradiation effectively disinfested and decontaminated spices without altering their chemical composition and sensory properties. (PP) bags, particularly those without an inner liner, did not withstand rough handling and did not prevent reinfestation during shipment. Tin containers did withstand rough handling and prevented re-infestation. The oxygen absorber had no effect on microbial count and the other parameters of the spices. (author). 22 refs, 12 tabs

  17. Trial intercountry shipment of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment has been carried out to evaluate the quality of irradiated spices packaged in some indigenous packaging materials. Spices used were whole nutmeg (myristica fragrans) and whole white pepper (piper nigrum). The spice samples were packaged in tin containers with or without oxygen absorber and in woven polypropylene (PP) bags, then irradiated at 5 kGy, and despatched from Jakarta to Wagenigen by sea-freight. The shipment was performed in small and commercial size packages. The results showed that irradiation treatment could effectively disinfest and decontaminate spices without altering their chemical composition and sensory properties. PP bags, particularly the one without inner liner, were unable to withstand rough handling and to prevent reinfestation during shipment. Tin containers were able to withstand rough handling and prevent reinfestation. The oxygen absorber used had no effect on microbial count and other parameters of the spices. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 173.244 - Bulk packaging for certain pyrophoric liquids (Division 4.2), dangerous when wet (Division 4.3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Division 4.2), dangerous when wet (Division 4.3) materials, and poisonous liquids with inhalation hazards (Division 6.1). 173.244 Section 173.244 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.244 Bulk packaging for certain pyrophoric liquids (Division...

  19. 324 Building B-Cell Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Packaging & Shipment RL Readiness Assessment Final Report [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUMPHREYS, D C

    2002-08-01

    A parallel readiness assessment (RA) was conducted by independent Fluor Hanford (FH) and U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) team to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for activities associated with the packaging and shipping of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies from B-Cell in the 324 Building to the interim storage area at the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The RL review was conducted in parallel with the FH review in accordance with the Joint RL/FH Implementation Plan (Appendix B). The RL RA Team members were assigned a FH RA Team counterpart for the review. With this one-on-one approach, the RL RA Team was able to assess the FH Team's performance, competence, and adherence to the implementation plan and evaluate the level of facility readiness. The RL RA Team agrees with the FH determination that startup of the 324 Building B-Cell pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel packaging and shipping operations can safely proceed, pending completion of the identified pre-start items in the FH final report (see Appendix A), completion of the manageable list of open items included in the facility's declaration of readiness, and execution of the startup plan to operations.

  20. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A2s) and is a type B packaging

  1. Shipment summary of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessons learned (major differences from previous shipments): - The use of an experienced carrier (Kozloduy NPP) with experience in shipping nuclear materials to and from the Russian Federation was a great advantage and avoided problems; - Signing road and river carriers and security contracts in advance minimized last-minute delays at shipment time; - Shipping papers that were drafted and reviewed in advance with the help of representatives from Kozloduy NPP and PA 'Mayak' avoided last-minute delays; - Have all permits and licenses in place as far in advance as possible; - Procure nuclear liability, cargo, and personnel insurance in advance of the shipment; - Provide a senior technical person with the authority to resolve issues en-route to accompany the shipment; - Pre-arrange a method for 24-hour monitoring and reporting during shipment to provide 'Need-to-Know' information to the appropriate personnel to provide immediate additional technical support, if needed; - Develop a coded tracking system in advance to allow monitoring reports to DOE without compromising security; - Having communications equipment, a laptop computer and a printer on the barge was very useful for the technical person accompanying the shipment; - Very good cooperation with the Bulgarian nuclear safety authorities helped with planning and implementation; - Very good cooperation with other important partners in Bulgaria - Kozloduy NPP, Bulgarian Police and Gendarme, Bulgarian Fire and Rescue Corps, helped with shipment planning and provided appropriate support during the shipment; - Assure that all interested and involved organizations have a sufficient security level (Secret and Confidential level) for their main points of contact personnel

  2. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  3. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  4. Shipment security update - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 2002 RERTR, NAC reported on the interim measures taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enhance the security afforded to shipments of spent nuclear fuel. Since that time, there have been a number of additional actions focused on shipment security including training programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Electric Power Research Council, investigation by the Government Accounting Office, and individual measures taken by shippers and transportation agents. The paper will present a status update regarding this dynamic set of events and provide an objective assessment of the cost, schedule and technical implications of the changing security landscape. (author)

  5. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172... fuel and nuclear waste. 71.97 Section 71.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  6. Polydopamine-Gelatin as Universal Cell-Interactive Coating for Methacrylate-Based Medical Device Packaging Materials: When Surface Chemistry Overrules Substrate Bulk Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Walle, Elke; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Vanderleyden, Els; Declercq, Heidi; Gellynck, Karolien; Schaubroeck, David; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; De Vos, Winnok H; Cornelissen, Maria; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-01-11

    Despite its widespread application in the fields of ophthalmology, orthopedics, and dentistry and the stringent need for polymer packagings that induce in vivo tissue integration, the full potential of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and its derivatives as medical device packaging material has not been explored yet. We therefore elaborated on the development of a universal coating for methacrylate-based materials that ideally should reveal cell-interactivity irrespective of the polymer substrate bulk properties. Within this perspective, the present work reports on the UV-induced synthesis of PMMA and its more flexible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based derivative (PMMAPEG) and its subsequent surface decoration using polydopamine (PDA) as well as PDA combined with gelatin B (Gel B). Successful application of both layers was confirmed by multiple surface characterization techniques. The cell interactivity of the materials was studied by performing live-dead assays and immunostainings of the cytoskeletal components of fibroblasts. It can be concluded that only the combination of PDA and Gel B yields materials possessing similar cell interactivities, irrespective of the physicochemical properties of the underlying substrate. The proposed coating outperforms both the PDA functionalized and the pristine polymer surfaces. A universal cell-interactive coating for methacrylate-based medical device packaging materials has thus been realized.

  7. 49 CFR 173.474 - Quality control for construction of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality control for construction of packaging. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.474 Quality control for construction of packaging. Prior to the first use of any packaging for the shipment of Class...

  8. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  9. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  10. 49 CFR 173.61 - Mixed packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mixed packaging requirements. 173.61 Section 173... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.61 Mixed packaging requirements. (a) An explosive may not be packed in the same outside packaging with any...

  11. 49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General packaging requirements for explosives. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.60 General packaging requirements for explosives. (a) Unless otherwise provided in this...

  12. ES-3100: A New Generation Shipping Container for Bulk Highly Enriched Uranium and Other Fissile Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbital, J.G.; Byington, G.A.; Tousley, D.R.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is shipping bulk quantities of surplus fissile materials, primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU), over the next 15 to 20 years for disposition purposes. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 6M container is the package of choice for most of these shipments. However, the 6M does not conform to the Type B packaging requirements in the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10CFR71) and, for that reason, is being phased out for use in the secure transportation system of DOE. BWXT Y-12 is currently developing a package to replace the DOT 6M container for HEU disposition shipping campaigns. The new package is based on state-of-the-art, proven, and patented insulation technologies that have been successfully applied in the design of other packages. The new package, designated the ES-3100, will have a 50% greater capacity for HEU than the 6M and will be easier to use. Engineering analysis on the new package includes detailed dynamic impact finite element analysis (FEA). This analysis gives the ES-3100 a high probability of complying with regulatory requirements.

  13. ES-3100: a new generation shipping container for bulk highly enriched uranium and other fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbital, J.G.; Byington, G.A. [BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tousley, D.R. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is shipping bulk quantities of surplus fissile materials, primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU), over the next 15 to 20 years for disposition purposes. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 6M container is the package of choice for most of these shipments. However, the 6M does not conform to the Type B packaging requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR71{sup 1}) and, for that reason, is being phased out for use in the secure transportation system of DOE. BWXT Y-12 is currently developing a package to replace the DOT 6M container for HEU disposition shipping campaigns. The new package is based on state-of-the-art, proven, and patented insulation technologies that have been successfully applied in the design of other packages. The new package, designated the ES-3100, will have a 50% greater capacity for HEU than the 6M and will be easier to use. Engineering analysis on the new package includes detailed dynamic impact finite element analysis (FEA). This analysis gives the ES-3100 a high probability of complying with regulatory requirements.

  14. International shipment of light weight radioisotopic heater units (LWRHU) using the USA/9516/B(U)F Mound 1 kW shipping package in support of the ``Pluto Express'' mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Merten, C. William

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes have provided heat that has been used to maintain specific operating environments within remote satellites and spacecraft. For the ``Pluto Express'' mission the 238PuO2 fueled light weight radioisotopic heater unit (LWRHU) will be used within the spacecraft. Since the current plan for the ``Pluto Express'' mission incorporates the use of a Russian launch platform for the spacecraft, the LWRHUs must be transported in an internationally certified shipping container. An internationally certified shipping package that is versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the LWRHUs that will be required to support the ``Pluto Express'' mission is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F.

  15. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  16. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type A packaging tests. 173.465 Section 173.465 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.465 Type A packaging tests. (a) The...

  17. Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed

  18. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  20. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  1. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permit. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.23, see the List of CFR Sections... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation §...

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  3. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  4. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.304b Section 173.304b Transportation Other Regulations...; Preparation and Packaging § 173.304b Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN... UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in this section and § 173.304. In addition,...

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  6. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 107 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  7. A rationale for maintaining the double containment requirement for plutonium shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channell, James K. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (US); Anastas, George [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (US)

    2003-12-31

    Current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) transportation regulations (10 CFR 71.63 (b)) require that all shipments containing more than 20 curies of plutonium must be transported in packages that provide double containment. On April 30, 2002 the NRC issued a proposed rule that would eliminate §71.63(b) and the double containment requirement. NRC’s reasons for proposing elimination of §71.63(b) are: (1) compatibility with International Atomic Energy Agency Transportation Safety Standards (which do not have the requirement); (2) the current rule is inconsistent with the A1/A2 system since it applies only to plutonium; (3) double containment causes a heavier package and results in higher transportation costs; (4) the separate inner containment results in additional radiation exposure; and (5) while there would be additional protection from a separate inner container in an accident; this type of approach is not “risk informed nor performance based.” The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has been a proponent of the double containment requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipments for twenty years. This requirement affects shipments to WIPP much more than any other current or planned shipping campaign because reactor fuel elements, metal or metal alloy, and vitrified high-level waste are exempt from §71.63(b). EEG submitted comments on the Proposed Rule on July 26, 2002 (Appendix C). This report is an update and expansion of the July 26, 2002 comments. Actual WIPP experience with shipments in the double contained TRUPACT-II package is used to respond to NRC arguments for deletion of §71.63(b) and offers a rationale for maintaining the current requirement.

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  10. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  13. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide available historical data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments that have been completed in the United States between 1964 and 1989. This information includes data on the sources of spent fuel that has been shipped, the types of shipping casks used, the number of fuel assemblies that have been shipped, and the number of shipments that have been made. The data are updated periodically to keep abreast of changes. Information on shipments is provided for planning purposes; to support program decisions of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); and to inform interested members of the public, federal, state, and local government, Indian tribes, and the transportation community. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana;

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  15. Overseas shipments of 48Y cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R.T.; Furlan, A.S. [Cameco Corp., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes experiences with two incidents of overseas shipments of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The first incident involved nine empty UF{sub 6} cylinders in enclosed sea containers. Three UF{sub 6} cylinders broke free from their tie-downs and damaged and contaminated several sea containers. This paper describes briefly how decontamination was carried out. The second incident involved a shipment of 14 full UF{sub 6} cylinders. Although the incident did not cause an accident, the potential hazard was significant. The investigation of the cause of the near accident is recounted. Recommendations to alleviate future similar incidents for both cases are presented.

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  20. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment to manufacturing... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  1. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.8 Illegal shipments. (a) Biological products which are presented for importation without a permit...

  2. 7 CFR 35.6 - Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipment. 35.6 Section 35.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  3. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  4. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  5. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers

  6. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers.

  7. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  8. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  9. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE's cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials

  10. ACCELERATING HANFORD TRANSURANC (TRU) WASTE CERTIFICATION and SHIPMENT FROM 2 PER YEAR TO 12 PER MONTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's site at Hanford has significantly accelerated the characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste and its subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)--from a total of two shipments in fiscal year 2002 to twelve shipments per month. The challenges encountered and experience gained in achieving this acceleration provide valuable lessons that can be used by others in the waste industry. Lessons learned as well as estimates of cost savings and schedule benefits are described. At the start of the acceleration effort, three separate facilities managed by multiple organizations characterized and handled the drums. To consolidate the majority of these activities under one organization and in one facility required RCRA permit and safety basis modifications. and a myriad of construction activities--but all with very visible benefit. Transferring drums between the separate facilities involved multiple organizations, and required meeting a complex set of transportation and safety basis requirements. Consolidating characterization activities into a single facility greatly simplified this process, realizing very significant operational efficiencies. Drums stockpiled in buildings for future processing previously were stored with recognition of physical, chemical, and radiological hazards, but without consideration for future processing. Drums are now stored using a modular approach so that feed for characterization processing takes drums from the accessible module face rather than randomly throughout the storage building. This approach makes drum handling more efficient, minimizes the potential for worker injuries, and supports the principles of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) exposure from the waste. Sampling the headspace gas of the TRU waste packages was a major bottleneck in the characterization process, and hence an obstacle to acceleration. Sampling rates were improved by a combination of insulating and heating a waste

  11. Validation of the effects of a single one second hypochlorite floral dip on Bortytis cinerea incidence following long-term shipment of cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.; Mensink, M.G.J.; Harkema, H.; Macnish, A.J.; Reid, M.S.; Jiang, C.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a pre-shipment hypochlorite treatment on botrytis incidence was evaluated in a large number of rose cultivars and under different long-term storage conditions. Application parameters, stability and sources of hypochlorite were investigated. Irrespective of the type of packaging and shi

  12. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  13. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  14. Denial of shipments - myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global healthcare community depends on shipments of radioisotopes. MDS Nordion manufactures and distributes radioisotopes used in the medical, research and sterilization industries throughout the world. With a growing demand for radiation and radiation technology to prevent, diagnose and treat disease, it is important that the global health care industry have a secure and reliable supply of such important materials. Despite this ever increasing need, shipments of radioisotopes are being increasingly delayed and outright denied. This paper outlines the importance of radioisotopes to global healthcare. It also details examples of shipment denials and how this evolving situation has impeded the efficient transport of radioactive material which risks preventing the delivery of essential radioisotopes to many member states. Denial of shipments was identified as a key issue at the 2003 International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, the 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference and at an IAEA Technical Meeting in January 2004. The outcome is that the IAEA is focused on better documenting the problem and is starting to develop ideas to address it. Moreover, governments, associations and modal organizations are becoming more aware of the matter. As a responsible partner in a unique industry, MDS Nordion encourages all IAEA Member States, commercial carriers, airports and ports to be engaged in this matter and accept the transport of radioactive material without additional requirements. In this respect, the collaboration of all organizations involved in this highly interactive global system of transport is vital to assure the effective transport of radioactive material for global health care

  15. Shipment consolidation by terminals and vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa G. Gonzalez-Ramírez; Ronald G. Askin; Neale R. Smith; René Villalobos

    2009-01-01

    This project designs and implements a new module in a logistics analysis tool called Logistika that was developed by some graduate students in ASU. Initially, Logistika only had available a Plant location module, but this work makes an extension to include a new module that is called Shipments Consolidation module. The objective of the module is to determine the best distribution strategy for products manufactured in Mexico to customers located in US. The tool explores two consolidation strat...

  16. Denial of shipments - myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrette, M.A.; McInnes, D. [MDS Nordion, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The global healthcare community depends on shipments of radioisotopes. MDS Nordion manufactures and distributes radioisotopes used in the medical, research and sterilization industries throughout the world. With a growing demand for radiation and radiation technology to prevent, diagnose and treat disease, it is important that the global health care industry have a secure and reliable supply of such important materials. Despite this ever increasing need, shipments of radioisotopes are being increasingly delayed and outright denied. This paper outlines the importance of radioisotopes to global healthcare. It also details examples of shipment denials and how this evolving situation has impeded the efficient transport of radioactive material which risks preventing the delivery of essential radioisotopes to many member states. Denial of shipments was identified as a key issue at the 2003 International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, the 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference and at an IAEA Technical Meeting in January 2004. The outcome is that the IAEA is focused on better documenting the problem and is starting to develop ideas to address it. Moreover, governments, associations and modal organizations are becoming more aware of the matter. As a responsible partner in a unique industry, MDS Nordion encourages all IAEA Member States, commercial carriers, airports and ports to be engaged in this matter and accept the transport of radioactive material without additional requirements. In this respect, the collaboration of all organizations involved in this highly interactive global system of transport is vital to assure the effective transport of radioactive material for global health care.

  17. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Printing and packaging. 58.340 Section 58.340... Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of butter... packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk butter in a...

  18. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  19. Impact of Electronic Data Interchange Technology on JIT Shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan Srinivasan; Sundar Kekre; Tridas Mukhopadhyay

    1994-01-01

    We investigates the degree to which increasing vertical information integration using Electronic Data Interchange technology enhances shipment performance of suppliers in a Just-in-Time environment. Our analysis of shipment data in the automobile industry suggests that shipment performance degrades substantially due to increases in part variety and trading partners from diverse industries. However, investments in information technology to support both the sharing of JIT schedules and the esta...

  20. Sea shipment of Japanese plutonium under international law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, J.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese government`s shipment of plutonium from France to Japan raises a number of significant questions under international law. The first shipment, which began in November 1992 on the Akatsuki Maru, violated international law in several respects. This article analyzes the international law that governs these shipments, focusing on the rules that govern navigation on the high seas and exclusive economic zones, territorial seas, and international straits, and also addresses the question of liability for damage. 281 refs.

  1. Prevention of smuggling (contraband) during legal shipments of fissionable and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of illicit trafficking of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) across borders can be minimized by the implementation of two tasks: (a) carrying out constant radiation control at customs checkpoints and (b) preventing smuggling (contraband) during legal shipments of radioactive sources and nuclear materials. In practically all countries, the customs control of legal shipments of radioactive sources and nuclear materials has been limited to the following: (a) within the framework of export control, the customs inspector formally verifies the licence for FRM import/export against the information provided in the cargo customs declaration and (b) FRM customs examination is limited to cargo package recalculation and verification of seals. Problems are (1) containers of foreign manufacture are not included in the transport container electronic database of the gamma spectrometers and (2) the format of the IAEA PACTRAM transport container database is not appropriate for Russian customs purposes. In this connection, the Russian Customs Service has addressed the IAEA with the proposal to organize work on the creation of an international transport container database and its maintenance in an up-to-date condition. Such a database will allow the accuracy of parameter measurements and the reliability of FRM identification to be increased in the case of shipments in foreign transport containers. The Russian Customs Service has offered to distribute technology for performing FRM customs examination without opening the container. Such technology should become an instrument for prevention of smuggling (contraband) during legal FRM shipments. The Russian Customs Service has further offered to cooperate with efforts of the IAEA and national organizations on modernization of the PACTRAM international transport container database with the aim of entering into the database information useful for customs purposes. The electronic version of this database should be suited

  2. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, F S; Lyman, G J

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is on-going that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical techniques, the sampling methodologies applied to the shipments must also keep pace to ensure that the uncertainties attached to the sampling procedures do not overwhelm the analytical uncertainties. There is a need to understand and quantify sampling uncertainties under varying conditions of contamination. The analysis required is statistical and is challenging as the nature of the distribution of contaminants within a shipment is not well understood; very limited data exist. Limited work has been undertaken to quantify the variability of the contaminant concentrations in the flow of grain coming from a ship and the impact that this has on the variance of sampling. Relatively recent work by Paoletti et al. in 2006 [Paoletti C, Heissenberger A, Mazzara M, Larcher S, Grazioli E, Corbisier P, Hess N, Berben G, Lübeck PS, De Loose M, et al. 2006. Kernel lot distribution assessment (KeLDA): a study on the distribution of GMO in large soybean shipments. Eur Food Res Tech. 224:129-139] provides some insight into the variation in GMO concentrations in soybeans on cargo out-turn. Paoletti et al. analysed the data using correlogram analysis with the objective of quantifying the sampling uncertainty (variance) that attaches to the final cargo analysis, but this is only one possible means of quantifying sampling uncertainty. It is possible that in many cases the levels of contamination passing the sampler on out-loading are essentially random, negating the value of variographic quantitation of

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-07-14

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area.

  4. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  5. Documentation and verification required for type A packaging use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, J.H.

    1997-07-30

    This document furnishes knowledge and methods for verifying compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging requirements for shipping Type A quantities of radioactive material. The primary emphasis is on the requirements identified in 49 CFR 173.415(a), which states, ``Each offeror of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file for at least one year after the shipment, and shall provide to DOT on request, complete documentation of tests and an engineering evaluation of comparative data showing that the construction methods, packaging design, and materials of construction comply with that specification.`` This guidance document uses a checklist to show compliance.

  6. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), for NRC Approved Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, is applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area

  8. Improvement in Space Food Packaging Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Food Systems Laboratory's (SFSL) current Bulk Overwrap Bag (BOB) package, while simple and effective, leaves room for improvement. Currently, BOBs are...

  9. 9 CFR 104.6 - Products for transit shipment only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.6 Products for transit shipment only. An application for a permit for Transit Shipment Only shall be required when a biological product is being shipped from one foreign country...

  10. 9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipment of experimental biological..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.3 Shipment...

  11. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  12. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...

  13. 19 CFR 123.34 - Certain vehicle and vessel shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain vehicle and vessel shipments. 123.34 Section 123.34 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.34 Certain vehicle and...

  14. 22 CFR 211.4 - Availability and shipment of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability and shipment of commodities. 211.4 Section 211.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD... commodities. (a) Shipment, distribution and use of commodities. Commodities shall be available for...

  15. Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This circular has been prepared to provide information on the shipment of irradiated reactor fuel (spent fuel) subject to regulation by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirements of general interest, a summary of data for 1979--1989 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials. 11 figs., 3 tabs

  16. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  17. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  18. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1999 shipment from 4 European countries, involving the following 4 research reactors was foreseen: ENEA of Italy, ICN of Romania, TRIGA-IJS of Slovenia, and MHH of Germany. The research reactors under consideration are LENA of Italy, IFK and DKFZ of Germany. Unique challenges of this task are: first shipment to the INEEL from the east coast of the United States; Need to identify a transportation route and working with the states, tribes and local governments to ensure that adequate public safety and security planning is done and followed; first shipment to INEEL involving both high-income and less-than-high-income countries in one shipment. There is an opportunity to save a significant amount of money for both DOE and the high-income countries by cooperating and coordinating the shipments together. The First will be the shipment to INEEL of mixed TRIGA SNF and more than one shipping cask type. This shipment will include a mixture of LEU, HEU, aluminum clad, stainless steel clad, and Incoloy clad rods. INEEL will need to prepare the safety documentation, procedures, and make equipment and facility modifications necessary to handle the ifferent fuel and cask types

  19. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  20. Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Czech Republic to the Russian Federation for Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 50 years of operation of the research reactor operated by the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI), a large amount of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Russian origin has been accumulated. In 2005, NRI joined the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) program under the US-Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and started the process of SNF shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). SNF shipment from NRI to the Russian Federation represents a very complex and complicated scope of work, technically, legally and contractually. The SNF shipment has been realized under several specific conditions: 1. High capacity SKODA VPVR/M casks were used for transportation for the first time, which enabled the shipment of both high and low enriched SNF (about 550 fuel assemblies) in one shipment, resulting in substantially reduced risk. 2. For the first time, high enriched uranium SNF from a research reactor has been sent to the RF from a European Union country under the appropriate intergovernmental agreements, legal regulations and conditions. 3. Combined road (ADR) and railway (RID) transport of the dangerous material was used, with several re-loadings of goods. The following topics are described in the paper: - The types of SNF from the LVR-15 reactor and the quantity of particular types. - Experience gained during preparatory work for the SNF shipment. - Experience gained during preparation and fulfillment of the frame contract between the US DOE and NRI, the contract between IAEA, SKODA JS and NRI to supply a transport and packaging system, and negotiations and contracts between NRI and respective subcontracting organizations in the Czech Republic, Russian Federation and transit countries Slovakia and Ukraine, to ensure the goal and schedule of the project were met. - Experience gained during the legislative and legal process to obtain all licenses, permissions and agreements in the Czech Republic, transit countries

  1. 7 CFR 58.444 - Packaging and repackaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging and repackaging. 58.444 Section 58.444... Procedures § 58.444 Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging rindless cheese or cutting and repackaging all styles of bulk cheese shall be conducted under rigid sanitary conditions. The atmosphere of the...

  2. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  4. Temperature/Humidity Conditions in Stacked Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers for Shelled Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelled peanuts are loaded into flexible intermediate bulk containers, or totes. After loading, the 1000-kg totes are placed directly into cold storage at 3ºC and 65% relative humidity until shipment to the customer domestically in the United States or internationally requiring transport overseas. ...

  5. Operational aspects of TRIGA shipment from South Korea to INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dixon; Shelton, Thomas [NAC International, Norcross, GA (United States)]. E-mail: dparker@nacinti.com

    1998-07-01

    A shipment of 299 irradiated TRIGA fuel elements was made from South Korea to the United States in July 1998. The shipment was from two facilities in Korea and was received at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Fuel types shipped included aluminium and stainless steel clad standard fuel elements, instrumented and fuel follower control elements, as well as FLIP elements and failed fuel elements. Modes of transport included truck, rail and ship. (author)

  6. Operational aspects of TRIGA shipment from South Korea to INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, Thomas [NAC International Site and Transportation Services, Norcross, GA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A shipment of 299 irradiated TRIGA fuel elements was made from South Korea to the United States in July 1998. The shipment was from two facilities in Korea and was received at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Fuel types shipped included aluminum and stainless steel clad standard fuel elements, instrumented and fuel follower control elements, as well as FLIP elements and failed fuel elements. Modes of transport included truck, rail and ship. (author)

  7. Packaged optofluidic microbubble resonators for optical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Liying; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-10

    A microbubble resonator (MBR) coupled with a fiber taper is packaged with low-index polymer. The cladding polymer serves as a protective matrix for the coupling system to avoid environmental disturbance. The packaged structure is portable and provides good performance to maintain high Q factors for a long working period. The hollow structure of the MBR makes the packaged system useful for practical chemical and biomedical sensing applications. To evaluate the performance of the packaged MBRs-based sensor, we carry out bulk refractive index and surface-sensing measurements with achieved sensitivities of 18.8 nm/RIU and 31.29 pm/nm, respectively. PMID:26835777

  8. Post-irradiation protection from infestation by insect resistant packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent infestation, but certain requirements must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect tight construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behaviour traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages, and the ability of insects to climb on to various packaging materials. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of package insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect resistant packages for radiation-disinfested foods. The latter factors include the biological and physical environments, the length of storage periods, the stress on packages during shipment, the types of storage facility, the governmental regulations, health requirements, etc. (author). 21 refs

  9. The BG18, a B(U)F type package used for the transport of irradiated fuel rods - return of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen, S.; Herman, S. [Transnubel, Dessel (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the return of experience of Transnubel after a period of nearly 3 years operation of the BG18 package in several nuclear power plants and hot cell facilities. This package has been used mainly for the shipment of full scale as well as samples of irradiated fuel rods - UOX or MOX, PWR or BWR.

  10. Addendum to the Safety Analysis Report for the Steel Waste Packaging. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Steel Waste Package requires additional analyses to support the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste and special-case waste from the 324 building hot cells to PUREX for interim storage. This addendum provides the analyses required to show that this waste can be safely shipped onsite in the configuration shown

  11. Addendum to the Safety Analysis Report for the Steel Waste Packaging. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, S R

    1996-02-15

    The Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Steel Waste Package requires additional analyses to support the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste and special-case waste from the 324 building hot cells to PUREX for interim storage. This addendum provides the analyses required to show that this waste can be safely shipped onsite in the configuration shown.

  12. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. TRU curium shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranium (TRU) Curium Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite shipment of packages containing radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  13. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  14. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  15. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12., it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  16. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 1, Revision 17: Report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  17. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  18. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  19. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  20. 27 CFR 19.396 - Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shipment to Puerto Rico. 19.396 Section 19.396 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... § 19.396 Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico with benefit of drawback or without payment of tax under the provisions of 27 CFR part 28 are subject to...

  1. 27 CFR 28.244a - Shipment to a customs bonded warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment to a customs... Export Consignment § 28.244a Shipment to a customs bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wine withdrawn for shipment to a customs bonded warehouse shall be consigned in care of the customs officer in...

  2. 27 CFR 44.190 - Return of shipment to a manufacturer or customs warehouse proprietor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturer or customs warehouse proprietor. 44.190 Section 44.190 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Consignment of Shipment § 44.190 Return of shipment to a manufacturer or customs...

  3. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  4. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent 235U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 and 178, or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF6 cylinders/overpacks. The generally accepted method for securing the overpack during shipment is to bolt its base to the trailer bed. International shipments typically are not made using dedicated trailers, and numerous trailers have been received at PORTS with improperly and potentially dangerously secured overpacks. Also, many trailers have not been loaded at PORTS for international shipment because of mechanical problems, rotten flooring, bald tires, no brakes or brake lights, or broken springs. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to review UF6 packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4 [Report No. WHC-MR-0233

  5. Criticality Safety Scoping Study for the Transport of Weapons-Grade Mixed-Oxide Fuel Using the MO-1 Shipping Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, M.E.; Fox, P.B.

    1999-05-01

    This report provides the criticality safety information needed for obtaining certification of the shipment of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel using the MO-1 [USA/9069/B()F] shipping package. Specifically, this report addresses the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as certified under Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. The report further addresses the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel using a possible Westinghouse fuel design. Criticality safety analysis information is provided to demonstrate that the requirements of 10 CFR S 71.55 and 71.59 are satisfied for the MO-1 package. Using NUREG/CR-5661 as a guide, a transport index (TI) for criticality control is determined for the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as specified in Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. A TI for criticality control is also determined for the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel. Since the possible weapons-grade fuel design is preliminary in nature, this report is considered to be a scoping evaluation and is not intended as a substitute for the final criticality safety analysis of the MO-1 shipping package. However, the criticality safety evaluation information that is presented in this report does demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining certification for the transport of weapons-grade MOX lead test fuel using the MO-1 shipping package.

  6. Criticality Safety Scoping Study for the Transport of Weapons-Grade Mixed-Oxide Fuel Using the MO-1 Shipping Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the criticality safety information needed for obtaining certification of the shipment of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel using the MO-1 [USA/9069/B()F] shipping package. Specifically, this report addresses the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as certified under Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. The report further addresses the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel using a possible Westinghouse fuel design. Criticality safety analysis information is provided to demonstrate that the requirements of 10 CFR S 71.55 and 71.59 are satisfied for the MO-1 package. Using NUREG/CR-5661 as a guide, a transport index (TI) for criticality control is determined for the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as specified in Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. A TI for criticality control is also determined for the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel. Since the possible weapons-grade fuel design is preliminary in nature, this report is considered to be a scoping evaluation and is not intended as a substitute for the final criticality safety analysis of the MO-1 shipping package. However, the criticality safety evaluation information that is presented in this report does demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining certification for the transport of weapons-grade MOX lead test fuel using the MO-1 shipping package

  7. A Compact, Modular Superconducting Bolometer Array Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a detector package to house a superconducting bolometer array, SQUID multiplexers, bias and integration circuitry, optical filtering, electrical connectors, and thermal/mechanical interfaces. This package has been used successfully in the GISMO 2mm camera, a 128-pixel camera operating at a base temperature of 270mK. Operation at lower temperatures is allowed by providing direct heat sinking to the SQUIDS and bias resistors, which generate the bulk of the dissipation in the package. Standard electrical connectors provide reliable contact while enabling quick installation and removal of the package. Careful design has gone into the compensation for differing thermal expansions, the need for heat sinking of the bolometer array, and the placement of magnetic shielding in critical areas. In this presentation, we detail the design and performance of this detector package and describe its scalability to 1280- pixel arrays in the near future.

  8. 49 CFR 177.801 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 177.801 Section 177.801 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.801 Unacceptable hazardous materials...

  9. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  10. 19 CFR 12.113 - Arrival of shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excess of 30 additional days, as the port director for good cause may specially authorize. An application... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrival of shipment. 12.113 Section 12.113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 7 CFR 924.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... shipments to facilitate the conduct of marketing research and development projects established pursuant to... necessary to prevent prunes handled under the provisions of this section from entering the channels of...

  12. 7 CFR 925.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 925.54 Section 925.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... entering the channels of trade for other than the specific purposes authorized by this section....

  13. 7 CFR 920.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... (including shipments to facilitate the conduct of marketing research and development projects); or, (3) in... prevent kiwifruit handled under the provisions of this section from entering the channels of trade...

  14. Packaging Your Training Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  15. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... the following methods: NRC's Public Document Room (PDR): The public may view on line for free or have... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS... provides text and image files of the NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if...

  16. Ecodesign of hybrid paperboard tray : sustainable and eco- appearance in packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kolppo, Ville

    2009-01-01

    Graduation project for Stora Enso involving ecodesign of hybrid paperboard tray packaging. Main focus is try to find elements of packaging that communicates from its environmental friendliness. How material, form and printing features influence consumers and study consumer behaviourism towards packaging and consumption. Design case is to produce different packaging examples as eco-concepts. The concepts are premium- and bulk-packaging. Focus of this work is at literary part of research. S...

  17. Desarrollo y mejoramiento reciente en el sistema de empaque de peces ornamentales para transporte aéreo = Recent developments and improvements in ornamental fish packaging systems for air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Sorgeloos, P

    2003-01-01

    Current ornamental fish packaging systems are characterized by very high fish loading densities and high metabolic wastes in the transport water after shipment. They focus mainly on management of the quality of transport water. Recent studies using the guppy as a model fish showed that post-shipment mortality could be reduced through enhancement of the stress resistance of the fish, and hence emphases should also be placed on the preparation of the fish for transport and recovery of the fish ...

  18. Development of tritium transport package for ITER SDS supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER is the next generation fusion machine with the fuel of deuterium and tritium. The transport of large amounts of tritium is an important issue from viewpoints of fuel supply and safety. For the shipment of tritium to the ITER site, a transport container needs to be developed and licensed as type B(U) package. It is an ITER requirement to transport tritium as metal tritide, which has been considered to be the safest way for tritium transport. There are not many available licensed packages on the market today. Examples are the WSRC Hydride Transport Vessel (HTV), which can be loaded with up to 18 g tritium in uranium tritide powder and JAERI Type B(U) package with capacity up to 25 g tritium in ZrCo tritide material. JAERI (now JAEA) has proposed a 250 g capacity tritium transport package for future fusion reactors. The design would utilize ZrCo to form the metal tritide to store the tritium. This new package would have a volume of only approximately 50% more than that of the 25 g capacity package and would be capable of repeated use. The tritium will be transported from tritium production sites, mainly the CANDU type reactor sites to ITER tritium plant building. According to the tritium supply plan derived from the operation and experiment plan of ITER, it is necessary to develop a large capacity tritium transport package which is licensed for international transportation. In 2009, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was commissioned the work of developing the tritium transport package from ITER Organization and the first stage of the development has been just finished. The interfaces of the package with related equipment/facilities were identified and the basic design and preliminary safety analyses were successfully performed. This paper describes the design requirements, basic design and the structural and thermal evaluation results of the developed package under the hypothetical accident conditions

  19. Health physics aspects of a research reactor fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1982, 92 irradiated fuel elements were shipped from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor to Westinghouse Hanford Corporation to be used in the Fuel Materials Examination Facility, This paper describes some of the health physics aspects of the planning, preparation and procedures associated with that shipment. In particular, the lessons learned are described in order that the benefits of the experience gained may be readily available to other small institutions. (author)

  20. PORT ELEVATOR CAPACITY AND NATIONAL AND WORLD GRAIN SHIPMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Doug; Binkley, James K.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis is conducted on the port component of the United States grain export system. A transshipment model is utilized which covers both United States internal and foreign shipments of corn, soybeans, and wheat during the four quarters of a year. The model suggests that there will be quarter to quarter constraints on port capacity but that annual capacity is adequate. Through sensitivity analysis a number of key factors were found which influence the adequacy of the current port system. P...

  1. Status and use of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Pipe Overpack Container for TRU waste storage and shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pipe Overpack Container was designed to optimize shipments of high plutonium content transuranic waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The container was approved for use in the TRUPACT-II shipping container by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in February 1997. The container optimizes shipments to WIPP by increasing the TRUPACT-II criticality limit from 325 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) to 2,800 FGE and provides additional shielding for handling wastes with high americium-241 (Am-241) content. The container was subsequently evaluated and approved for storage of highly dispersible TRU wastes and residues at RFETS. Thermal evaluation of the container shows that the container will mitigate the impact of a worst case thermal event from reactive or potentially pyrophoric materials. These materials contain hazards postulated by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for interim storage. Packaging these reactive or potentially pyrophoric residues in the container without stabilizing the materials is under consideration at RFETS. The design, testing, and evaluations used in the approvals, and the current status of the container usage, will be discussed

  2. Inventory Management for Irregular Shipment of Goods in Distribution Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Masatoshi; Usuki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The shipping amount of commodity goods (Foods, confectionery, dairy products, such as public cosmetic pharmaceutical products) changes irregularly at the distribution center dealing with the general consumer goods. Because the shipment time and the amount of the shipment are irregular, the demand forecast becomes very difficult. For this, the inventory control becomes difficult, too. It cannot be applied to the shipment of the commodity by the conventional inventory control methods. This paper proposes the method for inventory control by cumulative flow curve method. It proposed the method of deciding the order quantity of the inventory control by the cumulative flow curve. Here, it proposes three methods. 1) Power method,2) Polynomial method and 3)Revised Holt's linear method that forecasts data with trends that is a kind of exponential smoothing method. This paper compares the economics of the conventional method, which is managed by the experienced and three new proposed methods. And, the effectiveness of the proposal method is verified from the numerical calculations.

  3. Just the ticket [ANDRA barcode labelling for French LLW packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueur, P.; Forest, I. (ANDRA, DSQC/EIA, Fontenay aux Roses (France))

    1992-09-01

    ANDRA, the national radioactive waste management agency of France, uses bar codes to identify waste packages and track their movements. The bar codes are used to manage waste intended for near-surface disposal. This type of waste is received from several generators -Electricite de France, Cogema, Commissariate l'Energie Atomique and other companies and research laboratories - and the bar codes have had to be integrated with the Agency's previous process, which had three steps: waste acceptance, product quality and waste shipment. (Author).

  4. Just the ticket [ANDRA barcode labelling for French LLW packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDRA, the national radioactive waste management agency of France, uses bar codes to identify waste packages and track their movements. The bar codes are used to manage waste intended for near-surface disposal. This type of waste is received from several generators -Electricite de France, Cogema, Commissariate l'Energie Atomique and other companies and research laboratories - and the bar codes have had to be integrated with the Agency's previous process, which had three steps: waste acceptance, product quality and waste shipment. (Author)

  5. Packaging for logistical support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

    Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

  6. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on at... the packaging for transportation that the material is properly described, classed, packaged, marked... of the material. The ORM designation must be placed within a rectangle that is approximately 6.3...

  7. An overview of the waste handling and packaging plant, a major processing facility for remote-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) is a FY 1991 line item project proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the facility is to receive, package, certify and ship remote-handled (RH) and special case (SC) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The scope of the facility includes the mobilization of liquids and sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, transport of these liquids and sludges to the WHPP, solidification to a certifiable waste form, and final packaging and shipment to WIPP. Various solid hot cell wastes will be received at the WHPP from storage at ORNL and from other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The solid wastes will be removed from the storage or shipping container, examined, processed as required, certified and packaged for shipment to WIPP. All packages coming from the processing cell will be in 55 gallon drums, and the facility will have the capability to load these directly into a shielded drum shipping cask, or to load these into the RH TRU canister for remote welding and shipment to WIPP using the RH TRU canister cask. 4 figs

  8. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984

  9. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  10. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  11. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  12. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and Corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Sections 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  13. Review and assessment of package requirements (yellowcake) and emergency response to transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of an accident involving a truck shipment of yellowcake, a joint NRC--DOT study was undertaken to review and assess the regulations and practices related to package integrity and to emergency response to transportation accidents involving low specific activity radioactive materials. Recommendations are made regarding the responsibilities of state and local agencies, carriers, and shippers, and the DOT and NRC regulations

  14. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  15. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  16. Assessment of the radiological risks of road transport accidents involving Type A packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment and evaluation of the potential radiological risks of transport accidents involving Type A package shipments by road have been performed by five EU Member States, France, Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands, and the UK. The analysis involved collection and analysis of information on a national basis related to the type, volume, and characteristics of Type A package consignments, the associated radioactive traffic, and the expected frequency and consequences of potential vehicular road transport accidents. It was found that the majority of Type A packaged radioactive material shipments by road is related to applications of non-special form radioactive material, i.e. radiopharmaceuticals, radiochemicals etc., in medicine, research, and industry and special form material contained in radiography and other radiation sources, e.g. gauging equipment. The annual volumes of Type A package shipments of radiopharmaceuticals and radiochemicals by road differ considerably between the participating EU Member States from about 12,000 Type A packages in Sweden to about 240,000 in the Netherlands. The broad range reflects to a large extent the supply of radioactive material for the national populations and the production and distribution operations prevailing in the participating EU Member States (some are producer countries, others are not!). Very few standard package designs weighing from about 1-25 kg are predominant in Type A package shipments in all participating countries. Type A packages contain typically a range of radioactivity from a few mega becquerels to a few tens of giga becquerels, the average package activity contents is in terms of fractions of A2 about 0.01, i.e. about one hundredth of a Type A package contents limits. Based on a probabilistic risk assessment method it has been concluded that the expected frequencies of occurrence of vehicular road transport accidents with the potential to result in an environmental release - including radiologically

  17. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  18. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  19. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging for 1720-DR sodium-filled tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations are under way to sell the sodium stored in the 1720-DR tank in the 1720-DR building. This will require that the tank, as well as the 1720-DR facility, be moved to the 300 Area, so that the sodium may be melted and transferred into a railroad tanker car. Because the sodium is a hazardous material and is being shipped in a nonspecification packaging, a safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) is required. This SEP approves the sodium-filled tank for a single shipment from the 105-DR area to the 300 Area

  1. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material

  2. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope

  3. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments: FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope

  4. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments - FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope

  5. Recycling glass packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Delia DOMNICA; Leila BARDAªUC

    2015-01-01

    From the specialized literature it follows that glass packaging is not as used as other packages, but in some industries are highly needed. Following, two features of glass packaging will become important until 2017: the shape of the glass packaging and glass recycling prospects in Romania. The recycling of glass is referred to the fact that it saves energy, but also to be in compliance with the provisions indicating the allowable limit values for the quantities of lead and cadmium.

  6. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  7. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  8. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  9. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) transuranic performance demonstration program sample packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Performance Demonstration Program (TPDP) sample packaging is used to transport highway route controlled quantities of weapons grade (WG) plutonium samples from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility and back. The purpose of these shipments is to test the nondestructive assay equipment in the WRAP facility as part of the Nondestructive Waste Assay PDP. The PDP is part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National TRU Program managed by the U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Details of this program are found in CAO-94-1045, Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program (CAO 1994); INEL-96/0129, Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996a); and INEL-96/0245, Design of Phase 1 Radioactive Working Reference Materials for the Nondestructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996b). Other program documentation is maintained by the national TRU program and each DOE site participating in the program. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the TRU PDP sample packaging meets the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for an onsite Transportation Hazard Indicator (THI) 2 packaging. This SARP, however, does not include evaluation of any operations within the PFP or WRAP facilities, including handling, maintenance, storage, or operating requirements, except as they apply directly to transportation between the gate of PFP and the gate of the WRAP facility. All other activities are subject to the requirements of the facility safety analysis reports (FSAR) of the PFP or WRAP facility and requirements of the PDP

  11. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  12. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  13. Biobased packaging catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenveld, K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bos, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the catalogue is to showcase biobased packaging products and provide an overview of commercially available biobased packaging in 2014. This catalogue is a translation of the Dutch version of the biobased packaging catalogue that was launched September 2014. The raw materials, products

  14. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  15. Data package format for certified transuranic waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These instructions have been prepared as a reference guide for those personnel responsible for the transmission of the data package to the WIPP. For those sites having automated data processing systems available for use, it should be understood that the shipper's computer system will be used to place the information into the specified format for transmittal. The method of input will, of course, depend upon the particular system being used. Prior to shipment, the shipper's computer system must retrieve the required information for all the packages in that shipment and write the information to an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer in the data package format. The data package will then be transmitted in ASCII format over the specified communications system to the WIPP Waste Information System (WWIS) using RLINK, which will be furnished by WIPP. Therefore, these instructions are primarily for use by data processing personnel to aid them in programming the system to provide the transmittal information in the data package format. The method to input the data into the shipper's computer system should be determined through a joint effort between the waste generator/shipper and the data processing personnel

  16. 49 CFR 173.301b - Additional general requirements for shipment of UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional general requirements for shipment of UN....301b Additional general requirements for shipment of UN pressure receptacles. (a) General. The... gases in UN pressure receptacles. A UN pressure receptacle, including closures, must conform to...

  17. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products,'' 74 FR 47648). FSIS held two public meetings by teleconference on October 27, 2009, and November 4, 2009, to solicit comments on the proposed regulations (74 FR 54493). The..., and 381 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Product; Final...

  18. 9 CFR 73.3 - Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted. 73.3 Section 73.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.3 Shipment for purposes other than...

  19. 19 CFR 10.602 - Packing materials and containers for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the applicable change in tariff classification even if they are non-originating. (b) Effect on... containers for shipment. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packing materials and containers for shipment, as defined in § 10.593(m) of this subpart, are to be disregarded in determining whether the...

  20. 27 CFR 44.210 - Return of shipment to factory or export warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... factory or export warehouse. 44.210 Section 44.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Miscellaneous Provisions § 44.210 Return of shipment to factory or export warehouse....

  1. First shipment of magnets from CERN to SESAME

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Monday, 19 October, CERN will bid a fond farewell to two containers of magnets. Their destination: SESAME, the synchrotron light source under construction in Jordan.   The SESAME magnets, ready for transport. The containers hold 31 sextupoles, produced in Cyprus and France, and 32 quadrupoles, produced in Spain and Turkey. The magnets will rejoin 8 dipoles (from the UK) that are already at SESAME. The quadrupoles and sextupoles were checked and measured at CERN before this shipment, while the dipoles went via the ALBA synchrotron, near Barcelona, where magnetic measurements were carried out. With this shipment, around 50% of the magnets for the SESAME storage ring will have been delivered. The containers are expected to arrive just in time for the upcoming SESAME Council meeting at the end of November. The rest of the magnets – as well as all the power supplies and related control modules – have been produced and will be delivered to SESAME at th...

  2. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications. PMID:22129343

  3. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  4. Full-Scale Cask Testing and Public Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments - 12254

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Laboratories, the 1980's regulatory and demonstration testing of MAGNOX fuel flasks in the United Kingdom (the CEGB 'Operation Smash Hit' tests), and the 1980's regulatory drop and fire tests conducted on the TRUPACT II containers used for transuranic waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The primary focus of the paper is a detailed evaluation of the cask testing programs proposed by the NRC in its decision implementing staff recommendations based on the Package Performance Study, and by the State of Nevada recommendations based on previous work by Audin, Resnikoff, Dilger, Halstead, and Greiner. The NRC approach is based on demonstration impact testing (locomotive strike) of a large rail cask, either the TAD cask proposed by DOE for spent fuel shipments to Yucca Mountain, or a similar currently licensed dual-purpose cask. The NRC program might also be expanded to include fire testing of a legal-weight truck cask. The Nevada approach calls for a minimum of two tests: regulatory testing (impact, fire, puncture, immersion) of a rail cask, and extra-regulatory fire testing of a legal-weight truck cask, based on the cask performance modeling work by Greiner. The paper concludes with a discussion of key procedural elements - test costs and funding sources, development of testing protocols, selection of testing facilities, and test peer review - and various methods of communicating the test results to a broad range of stakeholder audiences. (authors)

  5. Full-Scale Cask Testing and Public Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments - 12254

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    regulatory and demonstration testing of MAGNOX fuel flasks in the United Kingdom (the CEGB 'Operation Smash Hit' tests), and the 1980's regulatory drop and fire tests conducted on the TRUPACT II containers used for transuranic waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The primary focus of the paper is a detailed evaluation of the cask testing programs proposed by the NRC in its decision implementing staff recommendations based on the Package Performance Study, and by the State of Nevada recommendations based on previous work by Audin, Resnikoff, Dilger, Halstead, and Greiner. The NRC approach is based on demonstration impact testing (locomotive strike) of a large rail cask, either the TAD cask proposed by DOE for spent fuel shipments to Yucca Mountain, or a similar currently licensed dual-purpose cask. The NRC program might also be expanded to include fire testing of a legal-weight truck cask. The Nevada approach calls for a minimum of two tests: regulatory testing (impact, fire, puncture, immersion) of a rail cask, and extra-regulatory fire testing of a legal-weight truck cask, based on the cask performance modeling work by Greiner. The paper concludes with a discussion of key procedural elements - test costs and funding sources, development of testing protocols, selection of testing facilities, and test peer review - and various methods of communicating the test results to a broad range of stakeholder audiences. (authors)

  6. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2, Revision 17: Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  7. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  8. The procedures used to review safety analysis reports for packagings submitted to the US Department of Energy for certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures used at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to review Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs) submitted to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for issuance of a Certificate of Compliance. Prior to certification and shipment of a packaging for the transport of radioactive materials, a SARP must be prepared describing the design, contents, analyses, testing, and safety features of the packaging. The SARP must be reviewed to ensure that the specific packaging meets all DOE orders and federal regulations for safe transport. The ANL SARP review group provides an independent review and evaluation function for the DOE to ensure that the packaging meets all the prescribed requirements. This review involves many disciplines and includes evaluating the general information, drawings, construction details, operating procedures, maintenance and test programs, and the quality assurance plan for compliance with requirements. 14 refs., 6 figs

  9. Smart packaging for photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W. [ed.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  10. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  11. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  12. Packaging for meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Packaging for meat products Summary Packaging is usually integral to production process in meat industry. The packing has mainly influence on shelf life and quality of meat and meat products. It protects the product from adverse effects such as oxidation, especially fats. In addition it affects transport, storage and serves as a means of communication with customers (logo, marketing benefits, legislation). Significant is also the impact of packaging to keep attractive look of the prod...

  13. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: alphabetical lists of domestic and foreign customers;alphabetical lists of isotopes and services;alphabetical lists of states and countries;tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for each isotope and dollars for services divided into domestic, foreign, and DOE project categories. During FY 1987 sales of stable isotope products and services were made to 272 differnt customers, of whom 159 were domestic and 113 were foreign, representing 18 different foreign countries. The total revenue was $3,785,609 of which 12.3% was from sales to DOE project customers, 60.4% was from sales to other domestic customers, and 27.3% was from sales to foreign customers. this represented sales of 189 different stable isotopes plus associated services and was a 16.5% increase over FY 1986

  14. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  15. HIRENASD analysis Information Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updated November 2, 2011 Contains summary information and analysis condition details for the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop Information plotted in this package is...

  16. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations

  17. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  18. Comparative safety assessment of surface versus submarine plutonium shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent shipment of plutonium from France to Japan aboard the freighter Akatsuki Maru touched off protests from environmental and antinuclear organizations. These protests arose from the fear of an accidental sinking of the vessel that would release its cargo to the sea, as well as the threat of a terrorist nation highjacking the ship for its cargo to produce atomic weapons. The sinking of a merchant ship is not uncommon, as illustrated by the famous losses of the tankers Amoco Cadiz and Exxon Valdez. The highjacking of a lightly armed freighter such as the Akatsuki Maru is possible and would not be unduly difficult for a well-equipped terrorist nation. The combined threats of weapons proliferation and environmental damage arising from the diversion or destruction of a sea vessel carrying plutonium will continue to abound as the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel increases. An alternate method for the transportation with reduced risks of both diversion and destruction needs to be developed. The shipment aboard the Akatsuki Maru was originally proposed to be flown from France to Japan over the continental United States. This proposal was rejected by the Reagan administration in 1988. A third alternative to the current ideas of air transport and surface transport is subsurface transport. This research project investigates the transportation of plutonium by submarine and compares it to the current method of transportation by freighter. This analysis involves a study of the military threat to a submarine by a terrorist nation and comparable threat to a surface vessel. To study the nonmilitary aspects of plutonium shipping, a fault-tree evaluation is performed for transportation by submarine and compared with the current risk analysis performed for surface vessels

  19. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-06-12

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  20. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  1. Development of Self-Remediating Packaging for Safe and Secure Transport of Infectious Substances.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilinger, Terry Rae; Gaudioso, Jennifer M; Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Lowe, Kathleen M.; Tucker, Mark D; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2006-11-01

    As George W. Bush recognized in November 2001, "Infectious diseases make no distinctions among people and recognize no borders." By their very nature, infectious diseases of natural or intentional (bioterrorist) origins are capable of threatening regional health systems and economies. The best mechanism for minimizing the spread and impact of infectious disease is rapid disease detection and diagnosis. For rapid diagnosis to occur, infectious substances (IS) must be transported very quickly to appropriate laboratories, sometimes located across the world. Shipment of IS is problematic since many carriers, concerned about leaking packages, refuse to ship this material. The current packaging does not have any ability to neutralize or kill leaking IS. The technology described here was developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide a fail-safe packaging system for shipment of IS that will increase the likelihood that critical material can be shipped to appropriate laboratories following a bioterrorism event or the outbreak of an infectious disease. This safe and secure packaging method contains a novel decontaminating material that will kill or neutralize any leaking infectious organisms; this feature will decrease the risk associated with shipping IS, making transport more efficient. 3 DRAFT4

  2. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  3. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorin, S.N.; Polazau, S.A.; Hryharovich, T.K. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research ' Sosny' , Academik Krasin Street, Minsk (Belarus); Bolshinsky, I. [Idaho National Laboratory, N. Fremont Avenue Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Thomas, J.E. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  4. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  5. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio, is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent 235U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 and 178, or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF6 cylinders/overpacks. International shipments typically are not made using dedicated trailers, and numerous trailers have been received at PORTS with improperly and potentially dangerously secured overpacks. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF6 packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS; and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations

  6. Packaging requirements under the new regulatory changes and their effects on the shippers quality control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published proposed changes to their current radioactive material transportation regulations (10 CFR Part 71) for comment in the Federal Register. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has also developed changes to their Hazardous Material Regulations dealing with radioactive material. These proposed regulations should soon be published for comment, also in the Federal Register. These regulatory changes are designed to bring the US in line with the international regulations published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Assuming that DOT adopts essentially IAEA regulations, a significant impact of these changes falls in the area of packaging used for the shipment of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and the new proper shipping category of Surface Contaminated Objects. Since the majority of the shipments made by nuclear power facilities fall into this category, these changes will directly effect the operations of these facilities

  7. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  8. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  9. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  10. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  11. Consignor's part and multimodality of the packages of RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the essential principles of Safety in transport of RAM as it was carried on, until the present days, is that the safety comes firstly from the packaging, and not from a special consideration of the mode of transport or anything else. A natural consequence was that the packaging remains the same, whatever is the used mode of transport, another that the transport mode does not take part, otherly than by its normal safety in the carriage itself in the protection against the radioactive hazard. Some recent actions, nevertheless, could be considered as putting some doubt on the implementation of this principles in the regulations and sometimes on these principles themselves. However, these latter come from the fact that the safety of the transport lays essentially in the hands of the consignor. He is indeed the only one who knows well enough the material and who is able to assess the adequation of the packaging and to warrant it to the Competent Authority when necessary. Besides, the packaging is the only direct grasp he has on the shipment, outside the special case of exclusive use. This situation is not completely incompatible with a new possible graduation of the packaging according to the transport mode, under the condition that this graduation be unidimensional which means the same in every field of testing. The consignor must, then, select the packaging corresponding to the most demanding of the possible modes. It is certainly much more difficult to adapt the mode of transport to the shipped materials themselves. All the transport has then to be in the hands of the consignor. That perhaps, can be relevant to industrial nuclear transport (eg: irradiated fuels, wastes), but not to the carriage of radioactive materials in general, which is the scope of IAEA regulations. (author)

  12. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel shipment from 'Vinca' Institute to the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main safety aspects were analyzed and possible radiation impact on the personnel, population and environment during spent nuclear fuel preparation for shipment to the Russian Federation was estimated. Basic safety principals in elaborating repackaging technology are specified. (author)

  13. Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L and zeolite (22.7 g/L during shipment (48 h of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34ºC were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.O uso de cloreto de sódio (0,5 g/L e 1 g/L e zeolita (22,7 g/L foram avaliados durante o transporte (48 h de Ancistrus triradiatus em altas temperaturas (entre 24,5 e 34ºC. Os seguintes parâmetros foram monitorados: pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e amônia antes e depois do transporte. Também foi mensurada a concentração de glicose no sangue antes do transporte e 0, 24 e 48 h após o transporte. Foi realizado um teste de resistência a altas concentrações de cloreto de sódio após o transporte, sendo registrada a mortalidade no final do transporte e após 7 dias. As duas substâncias testadas aumentam a sobrevivência de A. triradiatus a altas temperaturas durante o transporte, porém o melhor resultado foi obtido com o uso de 1 g/L cloreto de sódio.

  14. 19 CFR 123.23 - Train sheet for in-transit rail shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Train sheet for in-transit rail shipments. 123.23 Section 123.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.23 Train sheet for...

  15. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Bradley [Savannah River National Laboratory; Koenig, Richard [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  16. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: summary report of NRC approved quality-assurance programs for radioactive-material packages. Volume 3, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  17. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages. Volume 3, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  18. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  19. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies

  20. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  1. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  2. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  3. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  4. 7 CFR 932.155 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 932.55(b), packaged olives to be used in marketing development projects may be handled without regard...; (5) Type of olives used, either black or green ripe; (6) Container sizes; (7) Varieties used,...

  5. The first commercial spent fuel shipment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two and a half years, government regulatory agencies and contractors from three countries worked together to design, license, fabricate, and transport the first commercial spent fuel shipment in China. Their cooperative efforts helped avoid the loss of full core reserve at a nuclear power plant serving two of China's largest cities. In March 2001, Everclean Environmental Engineering Corporation (EEEC) selected NAC International (NAC) to supply two United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensed Storable Transport Casks (NACSTC) and technology support, to ensure that qualified Chinese operators would be ready to load the first cask in late 2003. EEEC is a subsidiary of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), which sets nuclear policy in China. EEEC is responsible for implementing nuclear transportation policy set forth from its parent corporation. Timely implementation of EEEC's ambitious plan would avoid loss of full core reserve at Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (Daya Bay) Unit-1, which supplies power to Hong Kong and Schenzen. The spent fuel would be transported to the Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex (LNFC), a reprocessing facility, approximately 4,000 kilometers Northwest of Daya Bay

  6. Rail tiedown tests with heavy casks for radioactive shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rail tiedown test program was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in July and August 1978. For each test, a 40- or 70-ton cask was secured on a railcar. The railcar was pushed to speeds up to 11 mph and allowed to couple to parked railcars simulating ordinary railyard operations. The test car carrying the cask was heavily instrumented to measure the accelerations and forces generated at strategically selected places. Eighteen test runs were made with different combinations of railcars, couplers, casks, speeds, and tiedown configurations. The major objectives of the test program were to (1) provide test data as a basis to develop a tiedown standard for rail cask shipments of radioactive materials and (2) collect dynamic data to support analytical models of the railcar cask tiedown system. The optimum tiedown configuration demonstrated for heavy casks was a combination of welded, fixed stops to secure the cask longitudinally and flexible cables to restrain vertical and lateral cask movement. Cables alone were inadequate to secure a heavy cask to a standard railcar, and bolting was found disadvantageous in several respects. The use of cushioning coupler mechanisms dramatically reduced the tiedown requirements for the rail coupling operation. The test program and general conclusions are discussed

  7. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  8. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  9. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  10. Battery packaging - Technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiser, Eric [The German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Battery Production Industry Group, Lyoner Str. 18, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  11. Lush Cosmetics packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    Frazer Hudson – Lush Cosmetics Packaging Commissioned by Suzie Hackney for Lush Cosmetics via illustration Agency - Debut Art - February 2014 I was approached in February 2014 via my London based Illustration agency Debut Art to create packaging illustration designs for the high street retailer and International cosmetics brand ‘Lush’. The illustrations would be used on an octagonal gift box set and be positioned amongst other bespoke gift box set designs within Lush Cosme...

  12. Packaging sustainability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Peregrina, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Packaging is an essential part of the majority of products in the actual market. Therefore, packaging design must draw attention to improve its sustainable character in order to satisfy consumers, enhance its environmental performance and keep economic costs to a minimum. Measuring packaging’s sustainability would provide consumers information so as to raise awareness and, moreover, a tool that would help companies to find product weaknesses to be improved. For that purpose, this projec...

  13. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  14. Battery packaging - Technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production

  15. A Compact, Modular Package for Superconducting Bolometer Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, D.

    2008-01-01

    As bolometer arrays grow to ever-larger formats, packaging becomes a more critical engineering issue. We have designed a detector package to house a superconducting bolometer array, SQUID multiplexers, bias and filtering circuitry, and electrical connectors. The package includes an optical filter, magnetic shielding, and has well-defined thermal and mechanical interfaces. An early version of this package has been used successfully in the GISMO 2mm camera, a 128-pixel camera operating at a base temperature of 270mK. A more advanced package permits operation at lower temperatures by providing direct heat sinking to the SQUIDS and bias resistors, which generate the bulk of the dissipation in the package. Standard electrical connectors provide reliable contact while enabling quick installation and removal of the package. We describe how the design compensates for differing thermal expansions, allows heat sinking of the bolometer array, and features magnetic shielding in critical areas. We highlight the performance of this detector package and describe its scalability to 1280-pixel arrays in the near future.

  16. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  17. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  18. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar......Assimilates synthesized in the mesophyll of mature leaves move along the pre-phloem transport pathway to the bundle sheath of the minor veins from which they are loaded into the phloem. The present review discusses the most probable driving force(s) for the pre-phloem pathway, diffusion down...

  19. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  20. Package certification and validation of certificates from an industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the many aspects of the package certification and validation process, from an Industry perspective, to identify ways to further enhance the efficiency of the regulatory function. The challenge is to achieve these enhancements without a conflict of interest or the perception of a conflict of interest whilst ensuring that the regulator remains clearly independent. The Competent Authorities (CAs), responsible for regulating the transport of radioactive materials around the world, have developed procedures for the overview of the package design and shipment approval process that includes Pre-Transport license application activities; package testing programmes; license application guidance and technical reviews of the applications. There is an impressive degree of competence, experience, and knowledge among the Competent Authorities in the provision of the regulatory function. There is a great deal of constructive interaction between team members, the different CAs and the CAs with Industry; considering the quantity of work. In providing its radioactive material transport regulatory programme over recent years, the CA has demonstrated a commendable openness and a strong desire to be transparent with regard to the vital regulatory activities. The manner in which the CAs support Industry is a demonstration of the commitment to an excellent safety culture in its transport regulations. (author)

  1. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  2. Single-serve ice cream packaging: packaging structures enhancing brand

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, August

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on packaging structures and branding; discussing the role packaging plays in brand identity. In today’s crowded marketplaces brands must fight to differentiate themselves from the competition by offering unique product experiences. As most products are packaged in one way or another, packaging has become a valuable element in brand communication and marketing. Packaging is seen as a part of the product experience, adding value and personality to otherwise similar products. ...

  3. Reliability of the fuel identification procedure used by COGEMA during cask loading for shipment to LA HAGUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been carried out to demonstrate the reliability of the system of the spent fuel identification used by COGEMA and NTL prior to shipment to the reprocessing plant of La Hague. This was a prerequisite for the French competent authority to accept the 'burnup credit' assumption in the criticality assessment of spent fuel packages. The probability to load a non-irradiated and non-specified fuel assembly was considered as acceptable if our identification and irradiation status measurement procedures were used. Furthermore, the task analysis enabled us to improve the working conditions at reactor sites, the quality of the working documentation, and consequently to improve the reliability of the system. The NTL experience of transporting to La Hague, as consignor, more than 10,000 fuel assemblies since the date of implementation of our system in 1984 without any non-conformance on fuel identification, validated the formalism of this study as well as our assumptions on basic events probabilities. (J.P.N.)

  4. Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine characteristics and associations among bulk milk quality indicators from a cohort of dairies that used modern milk harvest, storage, and shipment systems and participated in an intensive program of milk quality monitoring. Bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC), coliform count (CC), and laboratory pasteurization count (LPC) were monitored between July 2006 and July 2007. Bulk milk samples were collected 3 times daily (n = 3 farms), twice daily (n = 6 farms), once daily (n = 4 farms), or once every other day (n = 3 farms). Most farms (n = 11) had direct loading of milk into tankers on trucks, but 5 farms had stationary bulk tanks. The average herd size was 924 cows (range = 200 to 2,700), and daily milk produced per herd was 35,220 kg (range = 7,500 to 105,000 kg). Thresholds for increased bacterial counts were defined according to the 75th percentile and were >8,000 cfu/mL for TBC, >160 cfu/mL for CC, and >or=310 cfu/mL for LPC. Means values were 12,500 (n = 7,241 measurements), 242 (n = 7,275 measurements), and 226 cfu/mL (n = 7,220 measurements) for TBC, CC, and LPC, respectively. Increased TBC was 6.3 times more likely for bulk milk loads with increased CC compared with loads containing fewer coliforms. Increased TBC was 1.3 times more likely for bulk milk with increased LPC. The odds of increased TBC increased by 2.4% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC in the same milk load. The odds of increased CC increased by 4.3% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC. The odds of increased CC increased by 1% for every 0.1 degrees C increase in the milk temperature upon arrival at the dairy plant (or at pickup for farms with bulk tank). Laboratory pasteurization count was poorly associated with other milk quality indicators. Seasonal effects on bacterial counts and milk temperature varied substantially among farms. Results of this study can be used to aid the interpretation and analysis of

  5. Feasibility of using hand-held isotope identifiers for attribute testing of radioactive sources in shipment containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Feasibility of using hand-held isotope identifiers for attribute testing of radioactive sources in shipment containers' was being carried out in the framework of IAEA Research Contract no. 12444/Nuclear Security Multi-donors Fund by Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' from March 15, 2003, till May 31, 2006. The scope of work included: 1. Analysis of technical characteristics of hand-held isotope identifiers with respect to the determination of transport index and the verification of shielded sources. 2. Establishing the list of most frequently shipped radioactive sources and nuclear materials. 3. Analysis the design information of standard, approved shipping containers used for the transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive substances 4. Performing test measurements on various containers using hand-held devices. Assessment of performance of the devices with respect to the scope of the project and draw conclusions with respect to the technical feasibility of: - Confirmation of transport index of nuclear and radioactive materials shipped in various shipping packaging containers; - Identification of nuclear and radioactive materials shipped in various shipping packaging containers; - Definition of isotopic composition of gamma nuclides in their various combinations The results of the project execution are as follows: 1. The information on the most frequently shipped radioactive sources and nuclear materials and design of standard shipping containers for the transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive substances was systemized; 2. The spectrometric analysis of most frequently shipped isotopes was carried out; 3. The spectrometer capabilities were verified in terms of the definition of isotopic composition of gamma nuclides in their various combinations; 4. The spectrometer capabilities were verified in terms of the definition of isotopic composition of gamma nuclides when placed in various protective containers. 5. The

  6. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  7. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  8. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  9. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof. The complaint names...

  10. Packaging the MAMA module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2, Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  12. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: certificates of compliance. Volume 2, Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  13. Packaging- and transportation-related occurrence reports. Fiscal year 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through its support to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Transportation, Emergency Management, and Analytical Services (EM-76), retrieves reports and information pertaining to transportation and packaging occurrences from the centralized Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database. These selected reports are analyzed for trends, impact on packaging and transportation operations and safety concerns, and lessons learned (LL) in transportation and packaging safety. Some selected reports are reviewed to evaluate the corrective actions being conducted. This report contains an analysis of 246 occurrences identified as packaging- or transportation-related during fiscal year (FY) 1996, with supporting data from calendar year (CY) 1991 through 1995 which provide the basis for trending. The overall number of packaging- and transportation-related occurrences remains a small percentage of the total occurrences in the DOE system, through it is relatively higher this year (∼6%) than previous years when transportation occurrences were approximately 3% of the total. The decrease in the total number of occurrences may be the result of the rollup provisions of the new DOE Order 232.1, and the comparative increase in packaging- and transportation-related occurrence reports (ORs) is only a reflection of the decrease in the overall total. There does not appear to be a correlation between the total number of offsite hazardous materials shipments and the number of reported occurrences. The offsite occurrences, while few in number, are consistent for the major shippers and contractors

  14. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance. Volume 2. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1). Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volumes 3). The purpose of this directory is make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  15. Yucca Mountain Project waste package design for MRS [Monitored Retrievable Storage] system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared by the Yucca Mountain Project, is the report for Task E of the MRS System Study. A number of assumptions were necessary prior to initiation of this system study. These assumptions have been defined in Section 2 for the packaging scenarios, the waste forms, and the waste package concepts and materials. Existing concepts were utilized because of schedule constraints. Section 3 provides a discussion of sensitivity considerations regarding the impact of different assumptions on the overall result of the system study. With the exception of rod consolidation considerations, the system study should not be sensitive to the parameters assumed for the waste package. The current reference waste package materials and concepts are presented in Section 4. Although stainless steel is assumed for this study, a container material has not yet been selected for Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) from the six candidates currently under study. Section 5 discusses the current thinking for possible alternate waste package materials and concepts. These concepts are being considered in the event that the waste package emplacement environment is more severe than is currently anticipated. Task E also provides a concept in Section 6 for an MRS canister to contain consolidated fuel for storage at the MRS and eventual shipment to the repository. 5 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages. Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  17. Research reactor preparations for the air shipment of highly enriched uranium from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation (RF) for conversion to low enriched uranium (LEU). The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR-S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Ozersk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation for Atomic Energy Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel. (author)

  18. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  19. Analytical formulas for shear and bulk viscosities in relativistic gaseous mixtures with constant cross sections

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz, O.

    2014-01-01

    Using Mathematica package, we derive analytical closed-form expressions for the shear and the bulk viscosity coefficients in multicomponent relativistic gases with constant cross sections, being the relativistic generalization for the hard spheres model. Some of them are cumbersome and require symbolic manipulations in an algebraic package. The constant cross sections are of the elastic processes, while the inelastic (or number-changing) processes (collisions or decays) are considered only pa...

  20. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  1. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  2. Autonomous packaging robot

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Van Thanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the autonomous packaging robot application is to replace manual product packaging in food industry with a fully automatic robot. The objective is achieved by using the combination of machine vision, central computer, sensors, microcontroller and a typical ABB robot. The method is to equip the robot with different sensors: camera as “eyes” of robot, distance sensor and microcontroller as “sense of touch” of the robot, central computer as “brain” of the robot. Because the ro...

  3. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  4. Polymers in Waveguide Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G; Z.; Xiao; C.; P.; Grover

    2003-01-01

    Polymers were successfully used in the packaging of waveguide-based photonic components in the area of fiber-to-waveguide coupling, waveguide die attachment, strain relief, and waveguide encapsulation. The application results of these polymers were described in this paper.

  5. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil;

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  6. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  7. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast Mo

  8. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  9. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  10. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  11. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. Radiographic film package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  13. 31 CFR 358.9 - Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 358.9 Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? The... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? 358.9 Section 358.9 Money and Finance:...

  14. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  15. Plutonium ocean shipment safety between Europe and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; McClure, J.D.; Smith, J.D.; Dukart, R.J.; Koski, J.A.; Braithwate, J.W.; Sorenson, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yamamoto, K.; Kitamura, T.; Shibata, K.; Ouchi, Y.; Ito, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai-mura (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) have conducted an extensive emergency response planning study of the safety of the sea transport of plutonium for JNC. This study was conducted in response to international concerns about the safety of the marine transport of PuO2 powder that began with the sea transport of plutonium powder from France to Japan in 1992 using a purposebuilt ship. This emergency response planning study addressed four topics to better define the accident environment for long-range sea transport of nuclear materials. The first topic is a probabilistic safety analysis that evaluates the technical issues of transporting plutonium between Europe and Japan. An engine-room fire aboard a purposebuilt ship is evaluated as the second topic to determine the vulnerability and safety margin of radioactive material packaging for plutonium designed to meet International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards. The third topic is a corrosion study performed for generic plutonium packaging to estimate the time required to breach the containment boundary in the event of submersion in seawater. The final study topic is a worldwide survey of information on high-value cargo salvage capabilities from sunken ships. The primary purpose of this overall emergency response planning study is to describe and analyze the safety of radioactive material transportation operations for the international transportation of radioactive materials by maritime cargo vessels.

  16. Requirements for the shipment of radioactive substances and radioactive waste in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first steps to regulate radiation protection of population and environment were taken after Lithuania regained its independence. Legislation was developed; governmental institutions responsible for supervision and control of implementation of the requirements of legal documents, were established; necessary legislation, setting requirements for conducting practices with sources of ionizing radiation, including requirements for shipment of radioactive substances and radioactive waste, were established. All above mentioned actions taken served as a basis for implementation of the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency and of the European Union regarding the shipments of radioactive substances in Lithuania. (author)

  17. Determination of production-shipment policy using a two-phase algebraic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Hsin Chang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal production-shipment policy for end products using mathematicalmodeling and a two-phase algebraic approach is investigated. A manufacturing systemwith a random defective rate, a rework process, and multiple deliveries is studied with thepurpose of deriving the optimal replenishment lot size and shipment policy that minimisestotal production-delivery costs. The conventional method uses differential calculus on thesystem cost function to determine the economic lot size and optimal number of shipmentsfor such an integrated vendor-buyer system, whereas the proposed two-phase algebraicapproach is a straightforward method that enables practitioners who may not havesufficient knowledge of calculus to manage real-world systems more effectively.

  18. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  19. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  2. Irradiated Hardware Characterization and Packaging During Decommissioning of the Ford Nuclear Reactor at University of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of all irradiated hardware during decommissioning of experimental and research reactors always presents a host of challenges not normally associated with characterization of irradiated hardware from commercial nuclear reactors. The campaign to characterize all of the irradiated hardware from the Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan was no exception. The Ford Nuclear Reactor was an MTR pool style reactor that was in continual use up to the point of decommissioning. Some of the unique challenges involved with experimental pool reactors are the lack of symmetry around the core for neutron activation analysis calculations, the large inventory of activated components, the high degree of variability within that inventory, and the packaging of the entire inventory into the most efficient liner combinations. The entire high activity inventory was successfully packaged into two (2) steel fuel pool liners and shipped in two (2) cask shipments. (authors)

  3. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  4. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  5. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  6. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  7. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent 235U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF6 cylinders/overpacks (Reference 3). Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF6 packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a tram of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4

  8. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  9. Standard integrated head package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated head package for a standard-type nuclear reactor is described which consolidates many components and subassemblies of the upper reactor structure into a single unit which may be removed from the reactor vessel in a single lift. Included among the consolidated elements are a pressure vessel head, a cooling shroud, control rod drive mechanisms, a missile shield, a lifting rig, a hoist assembly, and a cable tray assembly. (author)

  10. 50 CFR 23.22 - What are the requirements for in-transit shipments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.22 What are the requirements for... intermediary Party to issue CITES documents. To control any illegal trade, Parties are to inspect, to the... by an ATA carnet. (b) Document requirements. An in-transit shipment does not require a CITES...

  11. 76 FR 4001 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ...); Department of Commerce Organization Order No. 35-2A, July 22, 1987, as amended, and No. 35- 2B, December 20... Automated Export System (AES) or through AESDirect for all shipments of used self-propelled vehicles... self-disclosure'' to clarify the use of these terms in the FTR. In Sec. 30.1(c), revise the...

  12. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  13. 48 CFR 47.304-3 - Shipments from CONUS for overseas delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may have export licensing privileges for shipments to foreign destinations. The contracting officer... Government within CONUS, but also flexibility for selection of (1) the port of export and (2) the ocean... equipment to be shipped either directly to a port area for export or to a storage or holding area...

  14. 19 CFR 19.24 - Theoretical transfer without physical shipment of dutiable metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dutiable metal. 19.24 Section 19.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... dutiable metal. (a) Transfer may be made from one port of entry to another by a withdrawal for transportation and rewarehouse executed in regular form without physical shipment of the metal, provided...

  15. 19 CFR 122.79 - Shipments to U.S. possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Declarations shall be filed with the appropriate port director at Puerto Rico. ... Rico. An air cargo manifest shall be filed for aircraft transporting cargo between the U.S. and U.S. possessions. Shipper's Export Declarations are not required for shipments from the U.S. or Puerto Rico to...

  16. 15 CFR 743.2 - High performance computers: Post shipment verification reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High performance computers: Post... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL REPORTING § 743.2 High performance computers: Post shipment verification... certain computers to destinations in Computer Tier 3, see § 740.7(d) for a list of these...

  17. 16 CFR 1610.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.39 Shipments under... in commerce of articles of wearing apparel or textile fabrics for the purpose of finishing or... a statement disclosing such purpose. (b) An article of wearing apparel or textile fabric shall...

  18. Routing of radioactive shipments in networks with time-varying costs and curfews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examines routing of radioactive shipments in highway networks with time-dependent travel times and population densities. A time-dependent least-cost path (TDLCP) algorithm that uses a label-correcting approach is adapted to include curfews and waiting at nodes. A method is developed to estimate time-dependent population densities, which are required to estimate risk associated with the use of a particular highway link at a particular time. The TDLCP algorithm is implemented for example networks and used to examine policy questions related to radioactive shipments. It is observed that when only Interstate highway facilities are used to transport these materials, a shipment must go through many cities and has difficulty avoiding all of them during their rush hour periods. Decreases in risk, increased departure time flexibility, and modest increases in travel times are observed when primary and/or secondary roads are included in the network. Based on the results of the example implementation, the suitability of the TDLCP algorithm for strategic nuclear material and general radioactive material shipments is demonstrated

  19. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ

  20. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.R.

    1995-05-16

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ.

  1. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  2. 10 CFR 40.66 - Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium. 40.66 Section 40.66 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE... natural uranium. (a) Each licensee authorized to export natural uranium, other than in the form of ore...

  3. 48 CFR 242.1403 - Shipping documents covering f.o.b. origin shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping documents... SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1403 Shipping documents covering f.o.b. origin shipments....242-7003, Application for U.S. Government Shipping Documentation/Instructions. (ii) The...

  4. 9 CFR 98.18 - Shipment of embryos to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... written notification of all test results from the Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. (b) Route... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipment of embryos to the United States. 98.18 Section 98.18 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  5. Shipment of Taiwanese research reactor spent nuclear fuel (Phase 2): Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is to transport approximately 1100 spent fuel rods from a foreign research reactor in Taiwan by sea to Hampton Roads, Virginia, and then overland by truck to the receiving basin for offsite fuels at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) for reprocessing to recover uranium and plutonium. The analysis of the impacts of the proposed action have been evaluated and shown to have negligible impact on the local environments. The calculations have been completed using the RADTRAN III code. PWR spent fuel was analyzed as a benchmark to link the calculations in this analysis to those in earlier environmental documentation. Cumulative total, maximum annual, and per shipment risks were calculated. The results indicate that the PWR spent fuel shipment risks are somewhat lower than those previously estimated. The cumulative and maximum annual normal, or incident-free, risks associated with the shipment of Taiwanese research reactor spent fuel is a factor of 10 lower than that for PWR fuel, and the cumulative and maximum annual accident radiological risks are a factor of about 2.2 lower than that for PWR spent fuel. As a result, the port risks are about a factor of 10 larger than the risk of overland transport. All of the risks calculated are small. The PWR risk values are similar to those judged by the NRC to be small enough not to warrant increased stringency in regulations. The Taiwanese research reactor spent fuel shipment risk values are smaller yet. 51 refs., 22 tabs

  6. 7 CFR 993.172 - Reports of holdings, receipts, uses, and shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of holdings, receipts, uses, and shipments. 993.172 Section 993.172 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT...

  7. 7 CFR 993.72 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, and shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, and shipments. 993.72 Section 993.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT...

  8. 19 CFR 123.42 - Truck shipments transiting the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting the United States. 123.42 Section 123.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.42 Truck...

  9. 7 CFR 932.60 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creditable brand advertising. 932.60 Section 932.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising. (a) Each handler shall... shall file such reports of creditable brand advertising as recommended by the committee and approved...

  10. 9 CFR 73.2 - Interstate shipment for immediate slaughter from quarantined or nonquarantined areas; conditions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate shipment for immediate slaughter from quarantined or nonquarantined areas; conditions under which permitted. 73.2 Section 73.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 75 FR 31288 - Plant-Verified Drop Shipment (PVDS)-Nonpostal Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... 111 Plant-Verified Drop Shipment (PVDS)--Nonpostal Documentation AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...; and to require segregation of documentation presented at the time of induction. DATES: Effective Date... other documentation presented at the time of mailing. This measure ensures that postal personnel will...

  12. Shipment of TRIGA spent fuel to DOE's INEEL site - a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE placed its transportation services contract with NAC International in April 1997 and awarded the first task to NAC for return of TRIGA fuel in July 1997. This initial shipment of TRIGA fuel, scheduled for early 1998, is reflective of many of the difficulties faced by DOE and the transportation services contractor in return of the foreign research reactor fuel to the United States: 1) First time use of the INEEL dry storage facility for receipt of research reactor fuel; 2) Safety analysis of the INEEL facility for the NAC-LWT shipping cask; 3) Cask certification for a mixed loading of high enriched and low enriched TRIGA fuels; 4) Cask loading for standard length and extended length rods (instrumented and fuel follower control rods); 5) Design and certification of a canister for degraded TRIGA fuel; 6) Initial port entry through the Naval Weapons Station in Concord, California; 7) Initial approval of the rail route for shipment from Concord to INEEL. In this presentation we describe the overall activities involved in the first TRIGA shipment, discuss the actions required to resolve the difficulties identified above, and provide a status report of the initial shipment from South Korea and Indonesia. Recommendations are presented as to actions that can be taken by the research reactor operator, by DOE, and by the transportation services agent to speed and simplify the transportation process. Actions having the potential to reduce costs to DOE and to reactor operators from high-income economies will be identified. (author)

  13. 75 FR 1235 - Revisions to the Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... the protection of human health and the environment. OECD Member countries are concerned with a host of..., 1996 (61 FR 16289). Since that time, the OECD has made a number of changes to the waste shipment regime... the OECD has assessed as posing a risk to human health or the environment under its risk...

  14. 15 CFR 30.39 - Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services. 30.39 Section 30.39 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  15. 15 CFR 30.35 - Procedure for shipments exempt from filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for shipments exempt from filing requirements. 30.35 Section 30.35 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Exemptions From...

  16. 15 CFR 30.36 - Exemption for shipments destined to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 120-130). (4) Requiring a Department of Commerce, BIS, export license under the EAR (15 CFR 730... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for shipments destined to Canada. 30.36 Section 30.36 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  17. Routing of radioactive shipments in networks with time-varying costs and curfews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, L.A.; Mahmassani, H.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-09-01

    This research examines routing of radioactive shipments in highway networks with time-dependent travel times and population densities. A time-dependent least-cost path (TDLCP) algorithm that uses a label-correcting approach is adapted to include curfews and waiting at nodes. A method is developed to estimate time-dependent population densities, which are required to estimate risk associated with the use of a particular highway link at a particular time. The TDLCP algorithm is implemented for example networks and used to examine policy questions related to radioactive shipments. It is observed that when only Interstate highway facilities are used to transport these materials, a shipment must go through many cities and has difficulty avoiding all of them during their rush hour periods. Decreases in risk, increased departure time flexibility, and modest increases in travel times are observed when primary and/or secondary roads are included in the network. Based on the results of the example implementation, the suitability of the TDLCP algorithm for strategic nuclear material and general radioactive material shipments is demonstrated.

  18. 9 CFR 351.16 - Certificate required for shipments of technical animal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... technical animal fat. 351.16 Section 351.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Transportation and Exportation of Certified Technical Animal Fat § 351.16 Certificate required for shipments...

  19. 75 FR 67636 - Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI64 Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft guidance for... announcing the availability of the draft guidance for public comment. DATES: Submit comments by February...

  20. Shipment of TRIGA spent fuel to DOE's INEEL site - a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, John [DOE Field Office Operations, NAC International, Aiken, SC 29803 (United States); Viebrock, James; Shelton, Tom; Parker, Dixon [Site and Transportation Services, NAC International, Norcross, GA 30092 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    DOE placed its transportation services contract with NAC International in April 1997 and awarded the first task to NAC for return of TRIGA fuel in July 1997. This initial shipment of TRIGA fuel, scheduled for early 1998, is reflective of many of the difficulties faced by DOE and the transportation services contractor in return of the foreign research reactor fuel to the United States: 1) First time use of the INEEL dry storage facility for receipt of research reactor fuel; 2) Safety analysis of the INEEL facility for the NAC-LWT shipping cask; 3) Cask certification for a mixed loading of high enriched and low enriched TRIGA fuels; 4) Cask loading for standard length and extended length rods (instrumented and fuel follower control rods); 5) Design and certification of a canister for degraded TRIGA fuel; 6) Initial port entry through the Naval Weapons Station in Concord, California; 7) Initial approval of the rail route for shipment from Concord to INEEL. In this presentation we describe the overall activities involved in the first TRIGA shipment, discuss the actions required to resolve the difficulties identified above, and provide a status report of the initial shipment from South Korea and Indonesia. Recommendations are presented as to actions that can be taken by the research reactor operator, by DOE, and by the transportation services agent to speed and simplify the transportation process. Actions having the potential to reduce costs to DOE and to reactor operators from high-income economies will be identified. (author)

  1. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  2. Bulk additive system reduces mud costs and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, personnel safety and environmental acceptability are high priorities in oil and gas operations. Many advances have been made, but packaging and handling of drilling mud has not changed in 35 years. In most cases, bulk barite is available, however, drilling muds are typically built from chemicals contained in 50 to 100-lb sacks or 5-gal buckets. Materials must be physically opened by rig personnel and mixed into drilling mud. Chemical exposure liability, and lifting or housekeeping related injuries associated with large quantities of packaging pose serious occupational safety risk. Figures from OSHA (1986) indicate that of 1,492 serious injury cases in Louisiana oil and gas operations, 42% were to back and lower extremities, 3% were eye injuries and 1% were chemical burns. Although exact figures are not available, experience suggests that a significant number of injuries are related to mud product physical handling. Another problem with current mud packaging is generated waste. Mud material lost because of broken sacks, inefficient transfer and as residue is unacceptable. Most mud engineers agree that 5 to 15% of mud products are lost or damaged on typical offshore jobs, depending on weather. When material that is spilled or left in packages, probably 2 to 3%, is added, the total is significant. Reusable containers for drilling mud products and manifold system design effectively eliminate these problems

  3. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  4. 49 CFR 173.197 - Regulated medical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be disinfected by any means effective for neutralizing the infectious substance the packaging... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.197... requirements of Part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group II performance level. A non-bulk...

  5. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  6. 1st Quarter Transportation Report FY 2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 1st quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report include minor volumes of non-radioactive classified waste/material that were approved for disposal (non-radioactive classified or nonradioactive classified hazardous). Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to rounding conventions for volumetric conversions from cubic meters to cubic feet.

  7. 49 CFR 176.74 - On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Packages containing hazardous materials must be secured by enclosing in boxes, cribs or cradles... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  8. The development of ISO freight containers as IP-2 packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design specifications were developed for ISO freight containers to meet the requirements of the transport regulations in the 1985 Edition of IAEA SS6, and to maximize the technical and commercial benefits offered to consignors by this type of container for the transport and handling of bulk LSA/SCO materials. A range of IP-2 ISO freight containers have been designed and built to these specifications and are in use in the UK. This paper discusses the regulatory considerations which had to be reviewed and interpreted in developing freight containers as Industrial Package Type 2 (IP-2) packagings and the development of performance standards to meet the regulatory requirements. Outline details of the packages developed are indicated together with examples of handling equipment developed to facilitate loading and unloading. (J.P.N.)

  9. Packaging's Contribution for the Effectiveness of the Space Station's Food Service Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Storage limitations will have a major effect on space station food service. For example: foods with low bulk density such as ice cream, bread, cake, standard type potato chips and other low density snacks, flaked cereals, etc., will exacerbate the problem of space limitations; package containers are inherently volume consuming and refuse creating; and the useful observation that the optimum package is no package at all leads to the tentative conclusion that the least amount of packaging per unit of food, consistent with storage, aesthetics, preservation, cleanliness, cost and disposal criteria, is the most practical food package for the space station. A series of trade offs may have to be made to arrive at the most appropriate package design for a particular type of food taking all the criteria into account. Some of these trade offs are: single serve vs. bulk; conventional oven vs. microwave oven; nonmetallic aseptically vs. non-aseptically packaged foods; and comparison of aseptic vs. nonaseptic food packages. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  10. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  13. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  14. New package for CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  15. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, providing access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  16. Rock mechanics data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data package provides a summary of available laboratory and in situ stress field test results from site characterization investigations by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project Modeling and Analysis Group. The objective is to furnish rock mechanics information for use by Rockwell Hanford Operations and their subcontractors in performance assessment and engineering studies. This release includes Reference Repository Location (RRL) site specific laboratory and field test data from boreholes RRL-2, RRL-6, and RRL-14 as well as previous Hanford wide data available as of April, 1985. 25 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  17. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, which provides access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  18. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  19. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  20. Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) for Food Packaging: Application and Attempts towards Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are well-established for convenient and safe packaging and distribution of food and feed goods. At present, this special sector of the plastic market displays remarkably increasing quantities of its annual production. Caused by the ongoing limitation and strongly fluctuating prices of fossil feedstocks, classically used for plastic production, there is an evident trend to switch towards so-called “bio-plastics”. Especially for bulk applications such as food packaging, a broad impleme...

  1. Bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear power project, bulk material is often not in an outstanding position, compared to equipment, yet bulk material is one of most difficult part in engineering and procurement management. If the schedule is not in good control, it will seriously hamper the progress of the whole project. The article explores bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS, illustrated with tables and graphs. First, major difficult aspects of bulk material procurement are described. On one hand, bulk material is really bulky in kind. We must have detail information of manufacturers, manufacture duration, and take good control of bidding schedule. On the other hand, when an order is placed, we need to make clear everything in the procurement package, such as material types, delivery batches, quantity of each batch and delivery schedule, which is a tremendous work. Then, a schedule conflict is analyzed: when an order is placed, the detail type and quantity cannot be defined (since the construction design is not finished yet). To settle this conflict, the concept 'Requirement Schedule Curve' is brought forward, along with the calculation method. To get this curve, we need to make use of the technical data of the reference power station, along with the site construction schedule, to produce a site quantity requirement curve varying from time, for each type of material. Last, based on the 'Requirement Schedule Curve', we are able to build a unified database to control the engineering, procurement, manufacturing and delivery schedule, so as to procure precisely, manufacture on time, and optimize the storage. In this way, the accurate control of bulk material engineering and procurement schedule can be achieved. (authors)

  2. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  3. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  4. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  5. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  6. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  7. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  8. Creating R Packages: A Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a practical introduction to creating R packages. We discuss how object oriented programming and S formulas can be used to give R code the usual look and feel, how to start a package from a collection of R functions, and how to test the code once the package has been created. As running example we use functions for standard linear regression analysis which are developed from scratch.

  9. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a keff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  10. Laser Sealed Packaging for Microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneur, Frank; JACOT, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Packaging is the last process of microsystem manufacturing. There are mainly two kinds of packages: plastic or metallic. The two main components of the package (base and cover) may either be glued or soldered. Each of these techniques has its advantages and drawbacks, and the choice should be driven by the functionality of the microsystem. The advantage of gluing is that it is quite an easy production process. The drawback is that glue, like all polymers, is not hermetic on the long te...

  11. First shipment of TRIGA 14MW research reactor highly enriched uranium spent fuel to the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA 14MW Research Reactor has a unique design of core and fuel, with an exceptionally long life. This means long time in-core utilization, leading to a high burnup. The peculiar characteristics of the fuel and reactor facility design made the first shipment dissimilar from the other TRIGA reactors or aluminium plate type shipments. The paper presents the legal framework, regulatory activity, licensing, agreements, contracts, training prior to shipment. The shipment was considered a large coordinated project requiring preparatory activities, resources, national and international cooperation. The overall project time schedule is presented, as well as the diagram of the activities with intervening groups, organization and logistics, the unforeseen events being also mentioned. (author)

  12. Improvement of resource efficiency by efficient waste shipment inspections; Steigerung der Ressourceneffizienz durch effiziente Kontrollen von Abfallverbringungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Stephanie [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Illegal shipment of waste as well as enforcement related to waste shipment have been regularly the centre of attention of public and professional debates and are also a topic of cross-national relations. In addition, the fear persists that by illegal waste shipments waste is treated in plants neither adapted to protect the environment and health nor having sufficient recuperation capabilities for precious raw materials. This project therefore intends to clarify the status quo of waste shipment inspections in the 16 federal states of Germany (Bundeslaender, in the following cited as states or federal states) to identify potential for development regarding the organisation and execution of inspections and to elaborate recommendations to optimise enforcement activities and further development of European and German legislative regulations. In order to optimise the enforcement of the European Waste Shipment Regulation (WSR) and the German Waste Shipment Act (AbfVerbrG), an adequate number of qualified personnel is necessary within all bodies involved into waste shipment inspections. Those bodies are namely the competent waste authorities, customs, police, the Federal Office for Transport of Goods (BAG), the Federal Railway Authority (EBA) and the prosecution offices. An adequate number of qualified personnel is not provided for in all states/authorities. This is also reflected in the number of transport and plant inspections which deviate between zero to a fixed number per year as well as being continuously performed and based occasion-/cause oriented inspections. Tangible means like access to IT-systems and the Internet should be provided for on-site inspections. Besides qualified and experienced personnel also IT-Systems have a relevant impact on the preselection of the entity to be inspected as well as for on-the-spot investigations. Therefore IT-System can increase the efficiency of inspections (inspections per time unit resp. exposure of illegal shipments per time

  13. 49 CFR 173.227 - Materials poisonous by inhalation, Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inner packaging on all sides. (5) Prior to reuse, all authorized inner drums must be leakproofness... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for... a single packaging intended to contain solids or liquids at a mass corresponding to the mass of...

  14. The development of a package for the transport of new mixed oxide fuel assemblies within Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels in commercial reactors has increased significantly over the past 10 years as an effective way of using stocks of plutonium produced from reprocessing uranium fuels. Now, with advances in fuel design MOX can give performance approaching that of enriched uranium fuel. To meet demand from European and Japanese utilities, British Nuclear Fuels are currently building a large scale plant at Sellafield to assemble MOX fuels. This required a new transport package to be developed capable of carrying high specification fuels to customers in Europe whilst complying with the latest 1996 IAEA ST-1 Transport Regulations. This package is known as Euromox and currently under development to enter service in 2003. Relatively few packages exist for the transport of MOX fuels and Euromox is the first designed by BNFL for shipments to Europe. Euromox has provided several technical challenges in its development arguably exceeding those typically encountered during the development of new packages for irradiated fuel transports. (author)

  15. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  16. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  17. Drug packaging in 2015: risky industry choices and lax regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Prescrire examined the packaging quality of 240 drugs in 2015. No new advances were identified, but drug packaging continues to expose patients to a variety of dangers. Some past advances persist: for example, INNs are often more legible, and recent patient leaflets tend to be clearer and more informative. But these measures are not applied to all drugs, and are rarely applied retroactively to older drugs. The overall picture in 2015 is that many drugs are difficult to identify, risky or downright dangerous to prepare, or supplied with patient leaflets that fail to correctly inform patients about their medication. And measures to prevent drug poisoning in children need to be completely rethought. It is high time for regulators and policy makers to take the issue of drug packaging seriously, so blatant are the signs of their failure to do so: the increasing use of bulk bottles for new drugs; failure to implement guidelines on safe drug packaging (unit-dose presentations, appropriate dosing devices, etc.); and expanding umbrella brands which, given the dangers they pose to patients, should be banned instead. All things considered, healthcare professionals and patients must remain vigilant and report any dangers they identify. A major European initiative on drug packaging is becoming increasingly necessary.

  18. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  19. Geometry methods and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address the problem of following the trajectory of a particle in simulations. It is necessary to follow the motion of the particle, and to determine its intersection with different geometric surfaces in the problem, in order to relate the stepping of the particle trajectory into real motion through the physical problem at hand. The distance a particle moves before encountering a surface is needed to compare with the actual transport distance that is about to be used in the simulation. Basic mathematical expressions are developed for the intersections of particle trajectories with plane and conic surfaces. The authors show how these are used in the EGS4 code system, which should be typical of the general problem. They also review geometry packages currently being used in electron-photon Monte Carlo programs

  20. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Kwun Wang; Yu-Yao Hsiao; Ku-Kuang Chang

    2012-01-01

    It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM) and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutio...

  1. Exact Methods for Multi-echelon Inventory Control: Incorporating Shipment Decisions and Detailed Demand Information

    OpenAIRE

    Stenius, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in information technologies and an increased environmental awareness have altered the prerequisites for successful logistics. For companies operating on a global market, inventory control of distribution systems is often an essential part of their logistics planning. In this context, the research objective of this thesis is: To develop exact methods for stochastic inventory control of multi-echelon distribution systems incorporating shipment decisions and/or detailed d...

  2. Analysis of Department of Defense (DOD) overseas shipment operations to Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Jones

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to document, evaluate, and recommend process improvements for transporting fresh produce product lines from the United States to mainland Japan. This thesis will review existing processes and strategies currently in effect for shipping fresh produce to Department of Defense (DoD) installations and other U.S. federal agencies in Japan. The shipment of fresh fruits and vegetables (FF & V) will be examined ...

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters requested this report to verify that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) properly categorized hazardous waste shipped offsite from 1984 to 1991. LLNL categorized the waste shipments by the new guidelines provided on the definition of radioactive waste. For this validation, waste that has had no radioactivity added by DOE operations is nonradioactive. Waste to which DOE operations has added or concentrated any radioactivity is radioactive. This report documents findings from the review of available LLNL hazardous waste shipment information and summarizes the data validation strategy. The report discusses administrative and radiological control procedures in place at LLNL during the data validation period. It also describes sampling and analysis and surface survey procedures used in determining radionuclide concentrations for offsite release of hazardous waste shipments. The evaluation team reviewed individual items on offsite hazardous waste shipments and classified them, using the DOE-HQ waste category definitions. LLNL relied primarily on generator knowledge to classify wastes. Very little radioanalytical information exists on hazardous wastes shipped from LLNL. Slightly greater than one-half of those hazardous waste items for which the documentation included radioanalytical data showed concentrations of radioactivity higher than the LLNL release criteria used from 1989 to 1991. Based on this small amount of available radioanalytical data, very little (less than one percent) of the hazardous waste generated at the LLNL main site can be shown to contain DOE added radioactivity. LLNL based the criteria on the limit of analytical sensitivity for gross alpha and gross beta measurements and the background levels of tritium. Findings in this report are based on information and documentation on the waste handling procedures in place before the start of the hazardous waste shipping moratorium in May 1991.

  4. Packaging effects on shell egg breakage rates during simulated transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydim, A C; Dawson, P L

    1999-01-01

    Shell eggs were packaged in either expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam or molded paper pulp (MPP) one dozen cartons, then were bulk packaged in either polypropylene crates or corrugated boxes. The packages were then subjected to a well-defined computer-simulated vibration test on an electrohydraulic test machine. The percentage and the location on the egg (side, top, bottom) of breakage was determined in the secondary (corrugated box or polypropylene crate) and primary (EPS or MPP carton) package after 15, 75, and 180 min. For each of three trials, 60 dozen Grade A large eggs were randomly assigned to each primary package and cross-stacked in a secondary container that contained three cartons in a row and a total of five layers. When cartons were packed in 15-dozen corrugated boxes, no significant difference was found in total eggshell damage rates between the MPP carton and the EPS carton. However, when eggs were packed in 15-dozen plastic crates, the MPP cartons caused significantly less eggshell damage than the EPS cartons. The EPS cartons packed in corrugated boxes had the lowest breakage (4.63%), whereas the EPS foam cartons packed in plastic crates had the highest breakage (12.59%). When the effect of secondary packaging and vibration time were not considered, no significant difference was found between MPP and EPS cartons. In addition, when the effect of primary packaging was not taken into account, the corrugated boxes had significantly lower breakage rates than the plastic crates. Nearly 55% of the breakage occurred in the bottom section of the eggshell as compared to the side and top. When the test periods were compared, the EPS cartons packed in plastic crates had the highest breakage (16.28%) at 180 min.

  5. Physical protection of shipments of irradiated reactor fuel; Interim guidance. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During May, 1979, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved for issuance in effective form new interim regulations for strengthening the protection of spent fuel shipments against sabotage and diversion. The new regulations were issued without benefit of public comment, but comments from the public were solicited after the effective date. Based upon the public comments received, the interim regulations were amended and reissued in effective form as a final interim rule in May, 1980. The present document supersedes a previously issued interim guidance document, NUREG-0561 (June, 1979) which accompanied the original rule. This report has been revised to conform to the new interim regulations on the physical protection of shipments of irradiated reactor fuel which are likely to remain in effect until the completion of an ongoing research program concerning the response of spent fuel to certain forms of sabotage, at which time the regulations may be rescinded, modified or made permanent, as appropriate. This report discusses the amended regulations and provides a basis on which licensees can develop an acceptable interim program for the protection of spent fuel shipments

  6. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  7. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  8. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  9. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  10. Gentoo package dependencies over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Remco; Amrit, Chintan; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Ordonez-Matamoros, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Open source distributions such as Gentoo need to accurately track dependency relations between software packages in order to install working systems. To do this, Gentoo has a carefully authored database containing those relations. In this paper, we extract the Gentoo package dependency graph and its

  11. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  12. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof by... Investigation: Having considered the complaint, the U.S. International Trade Commission, on March 22,...

  13. Determing Degradation Of Fiberboard In The 9975 Shipping Package By Measuring Axial Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, E. R.; Dougherty, W. L.; Dunn, K. A.; Stefek, T. M

    2013-08-01

    Currently, thousands of model 9975 transportation packages are in use by the US Department of Energy (DOE); the design of which has been certified by DOE for shipment of Type B radioactive and fissile materials in accordance with Part 71, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), or 10 CFR 71, Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material. These transportation packages are also approved for the storage of DOE-STD-3013 containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As such, the 9975 has been continuously exposed to the service environment for a period of time greater than the approved transportation service life. In order to ensure the material integrity as specified in the safety basis, an extensive surveillance program is in place in K-Area Complex (KAC) to monitor the structural and thermal properties of the fiberboard of the 9975 shipping packages. The surveillance approach uses a combination of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) field surveillance and Destructive Examination (DE) lab testing to validate the 9975 performance assumptions. The fiberboard in the 9975 is credited with thermal insulation, criticality control and resistance to crushing. During surveillance monitoring in KAC, an increased axial gap of the fiberboard was discovered on selected items packaged at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Many of these packages were later found to contain excess moisture. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the fiberboard under storage conditions and during transport. In laboratory testing, the higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction of fiberboard material and compaction rate. The fiberboard height is reduced by compression of the layers. This change is observed directly in the axial gap between the flange and the air shield. The axial gap measurement is made during the pre

  14. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO2, plants' response to elevated CO2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  15. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  16. Optimal scheduling of logistical support for medical resources order and shipment in community health service centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to propose an optimal scheduling for medical resources order and shipment in community health service centers (CHSCs.Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents two logistical support models for scheduling medical resources in CHSCs. The first model is a deterministic planning model (DM, which systematically considers the demands for various kinds of medical resources, the lead time of supplier, the storage capacity and other constraints, as well as the integrated shipment planning in the dimensions of time and space. The problem is a multi-commodities flow problem and is formulated as a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. Considering the demand for medical resources is always stochastic in practice, the second model is constructed as a stochastic programming model (SM. A solution procedure is developed to solve the proposed two models and a simulation-based evaluation method is proposed to compare the performances of the proposed models. Findings andFindings: The main contributions of this paper includes the following two aspects: (1 While most research on medical resources optimization studies a static problem taking no consideration of the time evolution and especially the dynamic demand for such resources, the proposed models in our paper integrate time-space network technique, which can find the optimal scheduling of logistical support for medical resources order and shipment in CHSCs effectively. (2 The logistics plans in response to the deterministic demand and the time-varying demand are constructed as 0-1 mixed integer programming model and stochastic integer programming model, respectively. The optimal solutions not only minimize the operation cost of the logistics system, but also can improve the order and shipment operation in practice.Originality/value: Currently, medical resources in CHSCs are purchased by telephone or e-mail. The important parameters in decision making, i.e. order/shipment frequency

  17. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  18. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  19. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  20. The impact of packaging on product competition

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Masoumi; Naser Azad

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in pa...

  1. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  2. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system.

  3. Radioactive waste package acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary acceptance criteria have been developed for packages containing nuclear waste which must be stored or disposed of by the US Department of Energy. Acceptance criteria are necessary to ensure that the waste packages are compatible with all elements of the Waste Management System. The acceptance criteria are subject to revision since many of the constraints that will be imposed on the waste packages by the Waste Management System have either not been defined or are being revised. Delineation of the acceptance criteria will provide bases for handling, transporting and disposing of the commercial waste

  4. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegradable polymer materials will reduce the need for synthetic polymer production (thus reducing pollution at a low cost, thereby producing a positive effect both environmentally and economically.

  5. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  6. Assessing impact of manufacturing and package configurations to photosensitive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Thiago C; Escotet, Megerle L; Lin, Judy; Sprockel, Omar L

    2016-01-01

    Determining liability of photosensitive compounds during manufacturing, packaging, and storage remains a challenge for formulation scientists prior to the confirmatory photostability studies as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Q1B guideline. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of light exposure to bulk process intermediates and drug product in the manufacturing environment as well as to evaluate package configurations for tablets containing Compound A. Samples were analyzed for both photodegradant levels and tablet appearance. Final blend, uncoated tablets, and coated tablets were exposed to fluorescent light relevant to the manufacturing environment. Final blend presented linear photodegradant growth from 6 to 72 h of equivalent light exposure in the manufacturing environment. Change in color of uncoated tablets occurred before quantifiable levels of photodegradant were reached. The film-coated tablets did not show photodegradation above quantifiable levels or a color shift for up to 48 h. Tablets in open conditions and packaged in HPDE bottles and PVC/Aclar (clear and opaque) were exposed to light at 1 × and 3 × the cumulative light exposure as defined in the ICH Q1B using Option 2 as the light source. The results showed that photodegradation is not a concern for all package configurations investigated and that extreme light exposure may cause a slight color shift for tablets in packages made of transparent materials. Most importantly, the study design presented herein provided a framework for an end-to-end evaluation of risks of manufacturing and packaging of tablets containing photolabile compounds prior to performing confirmatory photostability studies. PMID:26460067

  7. Assessing impact of manufacturing and package configurations to photosensitive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Thiago C; Escotet, Megerle L; Lin, Judy; Sprockel, Omar L

    2016-01-01

    Determining liability of photosensitive compounds during manufacturing, packaging, and storage remains a challenge for formulation scientists prior to the confirmatory photostability studies as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Q1B guideline. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of light exposure to bulk process intermediates and drug product in the manufacturing environment as well as to evaluate package configurations for tablets containing Compound A. Samples were analyzed for both photodegradant levels and tablet appearance. Final blend, uncoated tablets, and coated tablets were exposed to fluorescent light relevant to the manufacturing environment. Final blend presented linear photodegradant growth from 6 to 72 h of equivalent light exposure in the manufacturing environment. Change in color of uncoated tablets occurred before quantifiable levels of photodegradant were reached. The film-coated tablets did not show photodegradation above quantifiable levels or a color shift for up to 48 h. Tablets in open conditions and packaged in HPDE bottles and PVC/Aclar (clear and opaque) were exposed to light at 1 × and 3 × the cumulative light exposure as defined in the ICH Q1B using Option 2 as the light source. The results showed that photodegradation is not a concern for all package configurations investigated and that extreme light exposure may cause a slight color shift for tablets in packages made of transparent materials. Most importantly, the study design presented herein provided a framework for an end-to-end evaluation of risks of manufacturing and packaging of tablets containing photolabile compounds prior to performing confirmatory photostability studies.

  8. Packaging the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditionally, when the nuclear industry produces a brochure or video programme, the platform of our arguments is reasoned, factual, abstract, far-sighted and convoluted. It is all about things and processes: energy plants, machinery, numbers and percentages. Yet we know that people are interested only in people, in emotions, in reality, and in basic values about next week or next month. And this is probably the biggest incongruity. Our painstaking, in-depth research backed by technical evidence and statistics is no match for the other side's anecdotal speech making. Our perfectly designed graphics cannot compete against those visual cliches that can give instant life to an abstract idea. In the UK, pioneering work for the British Nuclear Forum's, the Nuclear Industry Education Programme (NIEP) breaks through the traditional approach, allowing passion and feeling to stimulate debate. Material about nuclear power produced for young people often promotes knowledge acquisition about particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle without conceptual or value change. NIEP materials build on the experience of developing packages that fully meet curriculum objectives, follow educational best practice, and place nuclear power in a real energy context. But they also make a positive contribution to the meaning a young person attaches to a concept such as radiation. Essentially, the materials are in tune with the way young people make sense of their experience of the real world and the issues in it. For further information about AEA Technology's public acceptance programmes, contact: Roy Newson or Meriel Lewis on +44 235 433650, fax +44 235 432123. (author)

  9. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  10. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative......) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  11. Packaging trends seen by ITRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Wolf, M.; Reichl, H.; Aschenbrenner, R. [Fraunhofer IZM (Germany); Adams, J. [Skyworks Solutions, Corp. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Faced with the rapid development of IC technology the traditional packaging is merging into a complex system integration technique to satisfy the growing demand in terms of increased functionality, performance and miniaturization of electronic products. This requires the development of new packaging and system integration technologies using complex design tools along with new materials to realize complex systems in a package carrying multiple components such as silicon ICs, MEMS, sensors or optical devices. System integration technologies have increasingly become a vital factor in the economic success of suppliers and users in the areas of consumer electronics, telecommunications, mechanical engineering and automotive industry. The paper discusses major aspects, challenges and requirements of system integration technologies which will be of special interest in the next years. The aspects discussed in the paper are primarily based on the work of the ITRS (International Technology Roadmap of Semiconductors) technical working group Packaging. (orig.)

  12. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  13. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  14. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  15. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  16. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  17. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  18. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  19. Physical Protection of Spent Fuel Shipments: Resolution of Stakeholder Concerns Through Rulemaking - 12284

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects Carson City, NV 89706 (United States); Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In 1999, the State of Nevada brought its concerns about physical protection of current spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments, and future SNF shipments to a federal repository, before the NRC in a 1999 petition for rulemaking (PRM-73-10). In October 2010, the NRC published a rulemaking decision which would significantly strengthen physical protection of SNF in transit. The newest articulation of the rule (10 CFR 73.37) incorporates regulatory clarifications and security enhancements requested in Nevada's 1999 petition for rulemaking, codifies the findings of the Nuclear NRC and DOE consequence analyses into policy guidance documents and brings forward into regulations the agency and licensee experience gained since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although at present DOE SNF shipments would continue to be exempt from these NRC regulations, Nevada considers the rule to constitute a largely satisfactory resolution to stakeholder concerns raised in the original petition and in subsequent comments submitted to the NRC. This paper reviews the process of regulatory changes, assesses the specific improvements contained in the new rules and briefly describes the significance of the new rule in the context of a future national nuclear waste management program. Nevada's petition for rulemaking led to a generally satisfactory resolution of the State's concerns. The decade plus timeframe from petition to rulemaking conclusion saw a sea change in many aspects of the relevant issues - perhaps most importantly the attacks on 9/11 led to the recognition by regulatory bodies that a new threat environment exists wherein shipments of SNF and HLW pose a viable target for human initiated events. The State of Nevada has always considered security a critical concern for the transport of these highly radioactive materials. This was one of the primary reasons for the original rulemaking petition and subsequent advocacy by Nevada on related issues. NRC decisions on

  20. Upgrade of FUMACS code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FUMACS code package (an acronym of FUel MAnagement Code System) was developed at Rudjer Boskovic Institute in year 1991 with the aim to enable in-core fuel management analysis of the NPP Krsko core for nominal (full power) conditions. The modernization and uprating of the NPP Krsko core from 1876 to 1994 MW (th) performed in year 2000 resulted in the change of operating conditions. The old version of the FUMACS code package would not model properly the NPP Krsko core for the new operating conditions. The upgrade of the FUMACS code package to enable the modeling of the NPP Krsko core for uprated conditions and longer cycles required modifications of master files, libraries and codes. In order to make the code package more user friendly, Windows (95/98/NT) compatible version of the code package, with incorporated graphical user interface has been developed. The new version of the code package has been verified and validated for new operating conditions through modeling and comparison of results with referent design of a number of 12-month and 18-month operating cycles.(author)

  1. Overweight truck shipments to nuclear waste repositories: legal, political, administrative and operational considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared for the Chicago Operations Office and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), identifies and analyzes legal, political, administrative, and operational issues that could affect an OCRWM decision to develop an overweight truck cask fleet for the commercial nuclear waste repository program. It also provides information required by DOE on vehicle size-and-weight administration and regulation, pertinent to nuclear waste shipments. Current legal-weight truck casks have a payload of one pressurized-water reactor spent fuel element or two boiling-water reactor spent fuel elements (1 PWR/2 BWR). For the requirements of the 1960s and 1970s, casks were designed with massive shielding to accommodate 6-month-old spent fuel; the gross vehicle weight was limited to 73,280 pounds. Spent fuel to be moved in the 1990s will have aged five years or more. Gross vehicle weight limitation for the Interstate highway system has been increased to 80,000 pounds. These changes allow the design of 25-ton legal-weight truck casks with payloads of 2 PWR/5 BWR. These changes may also allow the development of a 40-ton overweight truck cask with a payload of 4 PWR/10 BWR. Such overweight casks will result in significantly fewer highway shipments compared with legal-weight casks, with potential reductions in transport-related repository risks and costs. These advantages must be weighed against a number of institutional issues surrounding such overweight shipments before a substantial commitment is made to develop an overweight truck cask fleet. This report discusses these issues in detail and provides recommended actions to DOE

  2. Slovenian System for Protecting Against Radioactive Material in Scrap Metal Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slovenian experience shows that the majority of detected orphan sources are associated with imports of scrap metal to Slovenia and transits of that material through Slovenia. Such orphan sources originate from past industrial activities and weak regulatory control in the countries of origin. In order to minimise the number of sources outside regulatory control several regulatory and law enforcement measures have been implemented. To prevent illicit trafficking across the border the 'First line of defence' - customs and police - are equipped with radiation detection devices. Since 2002, the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has provided a 24-hour on-duty officer, who gives advice in case of the discovery of an orphan source. The majority of scrap metal collectors and re-cyclers are equipped with portal monitors and/or hand-held radiation detection equipment. Generally, good cooperation has been established between different organizations within Slovenia, with neighbouring countries and with some international organizations. To regulate the scrap metal activities, a new Decree on checking the radioactivity of shipments of metal scrap has been in force since 1 January 2008. This decree requires that every importer has to present a certificate of radiation measurement before any shipment of scrap metal is brought into Slovenia. Such measurements can be performed only by certified organizations. These organizations can obtain certification from the SNSA providing that they have the prescribed measuring devices, adequate training and procedures, and that their capabilities have been checked by a technical support organization. The experience after one year of application of the decree is positive. Awareness, including the adequacy of response, has increased. The paper discusses the general scheme for protection against illicit radioactive material in scrap metal shipments and the Slovenian experience in the last decade. (author)

  3. Joint state of Colorado-US Department of Energy WIPP Shipment Exercise Program: TRANSAX '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, the United States Secretary of Energy requested the DOE conduct a transportation emergency exercise before the end of CY 1990. The tasking was subsequently directed to the Director of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to plan and conduct an exercise, based on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipment scenario. The state of Colorado was asked to participate. Colorado, in turn, invited the DOE to integrate the exercise into its own series of WIPP-related tabletop and field exercises for which the state had already begun planning. The result was a joint USDOE/Colorado full-scale (orientation) exercise called Transportation Accident Exercise 1990 (TRANSAX '90). The state of Colorado's exercise program was a follow-on to previously conducted classroom training. The program would serve to identify and resolve outstanding issues concerning inspections of the WIPP shipment transporter as it entered and passed through the state on the designated Interstate 25 transportation corridor; criteria for movement under various adverse weather and road conditions; and emergency response to accidents occurring in an urban or rural environment. The USDOE designed its participation in the exercise program to test selected aspects of the DOE Emergency Management System relating to response to and management of DOE off-site transportation emergencies involving assistance to state and local emergency response personnel. While a number of issues remain under study for ultimate resolution, others have been resolved and will become the basis for emergency operations plans, SOPs, mutual aid agreements, and checklist upgrades. Concurrently, the concentrated efforts at local, state, and federal levels in dealing with WIPP- related activities during this exercise program development have given renewed impetus to all parties as the beginning of actual shipments draws nearer. Three tabletop scenarios are discussed in this report

  4. Shipment of spent research reactor fuel to US-operators experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, W. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    To ship 1500 spent fuel elements over more than 30 years to different reprocessing or storage sites a large amount of experience has been gotten. The most important partners for these activities have been US organizations. The development of the US policy for the receipt of foreign spent fuel elements of US origin is described briefly. The experience being made and lessons learned with the on May 13, 1996 renewed receipt program is described in detail, including US organizations, shipment and formal steps. (author)

  5. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kwun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutionary optimization algorithms to determine the optimal parameters. Our results indicate that the combined model using a hybrid algorithm outperforms other methods for the fitting and forecasting processes in terms of mean absolute percentage error.

  6. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments, FY 1985. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope

  7. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. PMID:27372152

  8. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  9. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  10. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  11. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  12. 10 CFR 71.35 - Package evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package evaluation. 71.35 Section 71.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.35 Package evaluation. The application must include the following: (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 71.33 - Package description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package description. 71.33 Section 71.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.33 Package description. The application must include a description of the...

  14. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  15. 78 FR 54775 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... hazardous materials in the event of an emergency, thereby reducing risk to health and environment.'' (77 FR... Register (77 FR 14327), we proposed amendments to the rules covering the transfer of hazardous materials on... expand the types of allowed portable tanks and expand the list of allowed ] hazardous materials...

  16. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2 radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order

  17. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D. H.; Haffner, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  18. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  19. New fermions in the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    de Brito, K P S

    2016-01-01

    Spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified, according to the geometric Fierz identities that involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification that generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are, hence, found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density, through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish a realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of 5-dimensional Kerr black holes. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at the spatial infinity, through a current 1-form density, constructed with the derived new spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the f\\"unfbein components, assuming a condensed for...

  20. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... setup, that autophagy specifically can remove certain subcellular components. We used an unbiased quantitative proteomics approach relying on stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to study global protein dynamics during amino acid starvation-induced autophagy. Looking...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  1. Microwave disinfestation of bulk timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Pedro Jose; Zona, Angela Tatiana; Sanchís, Raul; Balbastre, Juan Vicente; Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz, Eva Maria; Gordillo, Javier; de los Reyes, Elías

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a complete microwave system for bulk timber disinfestation is developed and tested. A commercial FEM simulator has been used to design the applicator, looking for structures providing uniform field distributions, which is a factor of capital relevance for a successful treatment. Special attention has also been given to the reduction of electromagnetic energy leakage. A dual polarized cylindrical applicator with a corrugated flange has been designed. The applicator has also been numerically tested emulating some real-life operating conditions. A prototype has been built using two low-cost magnetrons of 900 W and high power coaxial cables and it has been tested inside a shielded semianechoic chamber. The tests have been carried out in three stages: validation of the applicator design, determination of the lethal dosage as a function of the insect position and the maximum wood temperature allowed and statement of safe operation procedures. PMID:18351001

  2. Multimodal shipments under program on Russian-origin research reactor SFA return to Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes experience in preparation and organization of research reactor nuclear material import under the Program on Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Return to the Russian Federation. It also summarizes evolution of transport equipment, conveyances and routes and describes types of packages, their adaptation and certification, safety issues, peculiarities and prospective use of the packagings and conveyances. (author)

  3. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  4. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 711 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition2. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of energy (DOE) Order 5480.33 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.94 and 7.10.5

  5. Safety analysis report - packages 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B( ), 9968 B( ), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B(), 9968 B(), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.3 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.9 and 7.10

  6. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  7. PACKAGING QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Cholewa-Wójcik; Agnieszka Kawecka

    2014-01-01

    Packaging is a very important element in products quality maintenance that is why quality of packaging has great influence and its quality assurance is necessary. Physical flow in supply chain may deteriorate some of packaging features, so their monitoring and proper conditions of storage, transport and suitable protection are important.The main goal of the paper was to present model of packaging supply chain with elements that are most influencing packaging quality. In the model are consider...

  8. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  9. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  10. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Pollay RW; DiFranza JR; Clark DM

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers de...

  11. Performance Studies of Bulk Micromegas of Different Design Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Majumdar, Nayana; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Sarkar, Sandip; Colas, Paul; Attie, David

    2016-01-01

    The present work involves the comparison of various bulk Micromegas detectors having different design parameters. Six detectors with amplification gaps of $64,~128,~192,~220 ~\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ and mesh hole pitch of $63,~78 ~\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ were tested at room temperature and normal gas pressure. Two setups were built to evaluate the effect of the variation of the amplification gap and mesh hole pitch on different detector characteristics. The gain, energy resolution and electron transmission of these Micromegas detectors were measured in Argon-Isobutane (90:10) gas mixture while the measurements of the ion backflow were carried out in P10 gas. These measured characteristics have been compared in detail to the numerical simulations using the Garfield framework that combines packages such as neBEM, Magboltz and Heed.

  12. Investigation of Ion Backflow in Bulk Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, Sandip; Colas, Paul; Attie, David

    2016-01-01

    The operation of gas detectors is often limited by secondary effects, originating from avalanche-induced photons and ions. Ion backflow is one of the effects limiting the operation of a gas detector at high flux, by giving rise to space charge which disturbs the electric field locally. For the Micromegas detector, a large fraction of the secondary positive ions created in the avalanche can be stopped at the micro-mesh. The present work involves measurements of the ion backflow fraction (using an experimental setup comprising of two drift planes) in bulk Micromegas detectors as a function of detector design parameters. These measured characteristics have also been compared in detail to numerical simulations using the Garfield framework that combines packages such as neBEM, Magboltz and Heed. Further, the effect of using a second micro-mesh on ion backflow and other parameters has been studied numerically.

  13. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste preve

  14. 19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. 7.1 Section 7.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. (a) When spirits and wines are withdrawn from a..., part 18 of this chapter. (c) A regular entry shall be made for all foreign-grown coffee shipped...

  15. 49 CFR 375.705 - If a shipment is transported on more than one vehicle, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle, what charges may I collect at delivery? 375.705 Section 375.705 Transportation Other Regulations...; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Delivery of Shipments § 375.705 If a shipment is transported on more than one vehicle, what charges may I collect at delivery? (a) At your discretion, you may do one of...

  16. Reference waste package environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of ∼2300C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment

  17. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  18. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  19. ENEA TRIGA RC-1 reactor spent fuel elements shipment to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA Mark II reactor of ENEA's Casaccia research Center (in Italy named RC-1) reached first criticality in 1960. In more than thirty years of operation, 1 MW reactor core has been modified many times for fuel elements burn-up optimization. Till now, because of achieved maximum burn-up, 146 fuel elements have been definitively removed from reactor core and transferred to the hot storages in reactor pool (5 racks around reactor vessel) and in the reactor room (pits). The activities planning, the organizing aspect study, the analysis and valuations both nuclear safety and radioprotection have been suitable for the TRIGA RC-1 fuel element shipment. Infact, no operative anomaly is appeared respect the approved procedures. Personnel engagement has been as expectations and the personnel absorbed gamma dose resulted negligible. Finally, the NAC disposable narrow time (only one week at the end of July) has not produced heavy organization problems but it has been a strong goad per all operative structures involved in the TRIGA RC-1 elements shipment

  20. Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Padua, G W

    2010-01-01

    The development of nanocomposites is a new strategy to improve physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. The most promising nanoscale size fillers are montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. Graphite nanoplates are currently under study. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Decreasing water vapor permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nanoscale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties. Several examples are cited. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoplates. Nanocomposites may advance the utilization of biopolymers in food packaging. PMID:20492194

  1. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  2. Radiation sterilization and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beams offers a number of benefits to be consumer and to the food industry. Low doses can delay fruit ripening while higher doses can reduce or eliminate pathrogenic microorganisms and control insect infestation. However, ionizing radiations are known to have an effect on the plastics used for food packaging, especially PVC and polyethylene. This chapter looks at food irradiation generally, including legislation on the irradiation of food packaging materials. The effect on specific polymers (PVC, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamides and flexible laminates) is then considered. It is concluded that few of the plastics used for food packaging are significantly affected by an overall average dose of 10KGy, the maximum likely for the irradiation of prepackaged food in the United Kingdom. (UK)

  3. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( color ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem

  4. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  5. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  6. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  7. A smooth and differentiable bulk-solvent model for macromolecular diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for modeling the bulk solvent in macromolecular diffraction data based on Babinet’s principle is presented. The proposed models offer the advantage of differentiability with respect to atomic coordinates. Inclusion of low-resolution data in macromolecular crystallography requires a model for the bulk solvent. Previous methods have used a binary mask to accomplish this, which has proven to be very effective, but the mask is discontinuous at the solute–solvent boundary (i.e. the mask value jumps from zero to one) and is not differentiable with respect to atomic parameters. Here, two algorithms are introduced for computing bulk-solvent models using either a polynomial switch or a smoothly thresholded product of Gaussians, and both models are shown to be efficient and differentiable with respect to atomic coordinates. These alternative bulk-solvent models offer algorithmic improvements, while showing similar agreement of the model with the observed amplitudes relative to the binary model as monitored using R, Rfree and differences between experimental and model phases. As with the standard solvent models, the alternative models improve the agreement primarily with lower resolution (>6 Å) data versus no bulk solvent. The models are easily implemented into crystallographic software packages and can be used as a general method for bulk-solvent correction in macromolecular crystallography

  8. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  9. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  10. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  11. Diagnosis of Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendy Wu

    2009-01-01

    @@ A sudden severe winter for dry bulk shipping market Since the second half of last year,dry bulk shipping market experienced a sudden and dramatical change which caught everyone off guard in just a few months'time.As the wind vane of dry bulk shipping market,BDI index(Baltic index)has been climbing higher and higher from the middle of 2005.It began to nearly shoot up into the 2007.

  12. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  13. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  14. 9 CFR 325.18 - Diverting of shipments, breaking of seals, and reloading by carrier in emergency; reporting to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seals, and reloading by carrier in emergency; reporting to Regional Director. 325.18 Section 325.18... CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.18 Diverting of shipments, breaking of seals, and reloading by carrier in...) In case of wreck or similar extraordinary emergency, the Department seals on a railroad car or...

  15. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  16. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Foods § 2.35 Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed. (a... State public health agencies have revealed practices whereby food and animal feed stored or shipped...

  17. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.19... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. 72.19 Section 72.19...

  18. 15 CFR 30.40 - Special exemptions for certain shipments to U.S. government agencies and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special exemptions for certain shipments to U.S. government agencies and employees. 30.40 Section 30.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN...

  19. 7 CFR 987.164 - Shipments of product dates and disposition of restricted dates in approved product outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments of product dates and disposition of restricted dates in approved product outlets. 987.164 Section 987.164 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE...

  20. Examining Supply Chain Resilience for the Intermodal Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Steven K [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing and transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and High Level Waste (HLW) in the United States, including shipments entering the country from locations outside U.S borders. In any shipment of SNF/HLW, there are multiple chains; a jurisdictional chain as the material moves between jurisdictions (state, federal, tribal, administrative), a physical supply chain (which mode), as well as a custody chain (which stakeholder is in charge/possession) of the materials being transported. Given these interconnected networks, there lies vulnerabilities, whether in lack of communication between interested stakeholders or physical vulnerabilities such as interdiction. By identifying key links and nodes as well as administrative weaknesses, decisions can be made to harden the physical network and improve communication between stakeholders. This paper examines the parallel chains of oversight and custody as well as the chain of stakeholder interests for the shipments of SNF/HLW and the potential impacts on systemic resiliency. Using the Crystal River shutdown location as well as a hypothetical international shipment brought into the United States, this paper illustrates the parallel chains and maps them out visually.

  1. 27 CFR 478.32 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, possession, or receipt of firearms and ammunition by certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., transportation, possession, or receipt of firearms and ammunition by certain persons. 478.32 Section 478.32... Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.32 Prohibited shipment, transportation, possession, or receipt of firearms and... possession of a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States; (B) An...

  2. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  3. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  4. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  5. The AdMit Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. David (David); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis short note presents the R package AdMit which provides flexible functions to approximate a certain target distribution and it provides an efficient sample of random draws from it, given only a kernel of the target density function. The estimation procedure is fully automatic and thu

  6. Comparison of different LED Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  7. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  8. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  9. Non-destructive automated sampling of mycotoxins in bulk food and feed - A new tool for required harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, M; Stroka, J; Patel, S; Buechler, S; Pittet, A; Barel, S

    2001-06-01

    bulk shipment, an appropriate existing analytical method, i.e. a CEN method, can be used to measure the mycotoxins.The system, routinely in use for explosives detection, was able to screen bulk food and feed for mycotoxins, through non-destructive automated sampling of a whole batch/lot/sublot of commodities. The opportunity to sample a whole bulk would provide more effective tools for inspection at seaports, production facili-ties and distri-bution points. It will advance the current process of myco-toxins check because: (i) Checks will be automated and harmonized, (ii) Checks will be non-destructive, (iii) Checks will be faster and allow a greater amount of bulk commodities to be inspected and (iv) The ability to check, with automated equipment, larger portions of lots of a shipment will increase the probability to detect the heterogeneous mycotoxins contamination in bulk foods. The poster provides some results of feasibility experiments indicating the capability of this technology for inspection of commodities bulks for the detection of mycotoxins, at legal limits, in naturally contaminated food.

  10. The cost and risk impacts of rerouting railroad shipments of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Theodore S; Erkut, Erhan; Zschocke, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    Rail shipments of hazardous materials expose the population near the routes to the possibility of an accident resulting in a spill. Rail routes are determined by economic concerns such as route length and the revenue generated for the originating carrier. In this paper we consider an alternate routing strategy that takes accident risks into account. We employ a model to quantify rail transport risk and then use a weighted combination of cost and risk and generate alternate routes. In some cases the alternate routes achieve significantly lower risk values than the practical routes at a small incremental cost. While there are generally fewer rerouting alternatives for rail than for road transport, considering the possible consequences of a train derailment we argue that risk should be taken into account when selecting rail routes and that the cost-risk tradeoffs should be evaluated.

  11. Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory HEU fuel shipment summary. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1988, OSURR converted from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. As a result they needed to get rid of their HEU fuel by shipping it to Savannah River. The players in the fuel shipping game are: OSURR as the keeper of the fuel; DOE as the owner of fuel and shipper of record; Tri-State Motor Transit Co. for transporting the cask; Muth Brothers as the rigger responsible for getting the cask on and off the truck and in and out of the building; Hoffman LaRoche/Cintichem as the owner of the cask; Savannah River as the receiver of the fuel; and the NRC for approval of the Security Plan, QA Plan, etc. This report gives a chronological history of the events from February 1989 to June 1, 1995, the actual day of shipment. The cask was received at Savannah River on June 2, 1995

  12. Liability coverage under the Price-Anderson Act for high level waste shipments and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Price-Anderson Act provides the basis for a national system of liability protection for accidents arising out of nuclear activities. Private nuclear liability insurance and/or government indemnity is provided to certain Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees (principally operators of nuclear reactors) and certain Department of Energy (DOE) contractors (those whose activities DOE considers involve a risk of public liability for a substantial nuclear incident). As presently envisioned, both the coverage extended by the NRC to its licensees shipping spent fuel from reactors and the indemnity coverage extended by the DOE to its contractors operating a DOE repository under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act will be utilized to provide public liability protection for spent fuel shipments and disposal. Increased attention is being given to assuring a seamless web of protection provided under the Price-Anderson Act to Federal licensees and contractors

  13. Radiation exposures associated with shipments of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the Record of Decision on a Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (ROD) (DOE, 1996a), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a 13-year program under which DOE accepts foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) containing uranium that was enriched in the United States. The ROD required that DOE take several steps to ensure low environmental and health impacts resulting from the implementation of the program. These efforts mainly focus on transportation related activities that the analysis of potential environmental impacts in the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (EIS) (DOE, 1996b) identified as having the potential for exceeding current radiation protection guidelines. Consequently, DOE issued a Mitigation Action Plan to reduce the likelihood of potential adverse environmental impacts associated with the policy established in the ROD. As shown in the EIS, incident-free radiation exposures to members of the ship's crew, port workers, and ground transportation personnel due to shipments of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors are expected to be below the radiation exposure limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) per year established to protect the general public. However, the analysis in the EIS demonstrated that port and transportation workers could conceivably receive a cumulative radiation dose above the limit established for the general public if, for example, they are involved in multiple shipments within one year or if the radiation levels outside the casks are at the maximum allowable regulatory limit (10 mrem/hr [0.1 mSv/h] at 2 meters from the surface of the cask). With the program successfully underway, DOE has collected information from the shipments in accordance with the Mitigation Action Plan. The information to date has demonstrated that the analysis in

  14. Inadvertent shipment of a radiographic source from Korea to Amersham Corporation, Burlington, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amersham Corporation, Burlington, Massachusetts, a licensee of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), authorized to manufacture and distribute iridium-192 and cobalt-60 source assemblies for use in radiography equipment, received a shipment of 14 source changer son March 8, 1990, that were being returned from their product distributor, NDI Corporation in Seoul, Korea. One source changer contained a small sealed source in an unshielded location. Amersham employees retrieved the source, secured it in a hot cell, and notified NRC's Region I. Subsequently, NRC dispatched an Incident Investigation Team to perform a comprehensive review of this incident and determine the potential for exposure to those who handled the source changer and to members of the general public. This report describes the incident and the methodology used in the investigation and presents the Team's findings and conclusions

  15. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  16. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  17. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  18. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nara Medianeira Stefano; Nelson Casarotto Filho

    2012-01-01

    Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it pro...

  19. Recent Advances in Antioxidant Active Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; de Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, T.G.; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Ramos, Fernando; Machado, Ana V.; Costa, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent Advances in Antioxidant Active Food Packaging: Food oxidation; Antioxidants; Food Packaging; Active Packaging; Legislation; Natural antioxidants. This work was supported by the project PTDC/AGRTEC/3366/2012 with the acronym Rose4Pack (Biodegradable active packaging with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to improve food shelf-life) and funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and COMPETE Program (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-028015). Denise Costa is grateful for th...

  20. Active Packaging: application of natural antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; de Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, T.G.; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Ramos, Fernando; Machado, Ana V.; Costa, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antioxidants applied in Active food Packaging: Food oxidation; Antioxidants; Food Packaging; Active Packaging; Legislation; Natural antioxidants. This work was supported by the project PTDC/AGRTEC/3366/2012 with the acronym Rose4Pack (Biodegradable active packaging with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to improve food shelf-life) and funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and COMPETE Program (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-028015).