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Sample records for bulk metallic glasses

  1. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  2. A brief overview of bulk metallic glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingwei Chen

    2011-01-01

      The discovery of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has stimulated widespread research enthusiasm because of their technological promise for practical applications and scientific importance in understanding glass formation and glass phenomena...

  3. Extraordinary plasticity of ductile bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingwei; Inoue, Akihisa; Zhang, Wei; Sakurai, Toshio

    2006-06-23

    Shear bands generally initiate strain softening and result in low ductility of metallic glasses. In this Letter, we report high-resolution electron microscope observations of shear bands in a ductile metallic glass. Strain softening caused by localized shearing was found to be effectively prevented by nanocrystallization that is in situ produced by plastic flow within the shear bands, leading to large plasticity and strain hardening. These atomic-scale observations not only well explain the extraordinary plasticity that was recently observed in some bulk metallic glasses, but also reveal a novel deformation mechanism that can effectively improve the ductility of monolithic metallic glasses.

  4. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  5. How Many Bulk Metallic Glasses Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanglin; Zhao, Shaofan; Liu, Yanhui; Gong, Pan; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-13

    Quantitative prediction of glass forming ability using a priori known parameters is highly desired in metallic glass development; however proven to be challenging because of the complexity of glass formation. Here, we estimate the number of potential metallic glasses (MGs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) forming systems and alloys, from empirically determined alloy design rules based on a priori known parameters. Specifically, we take into account atomic size ratio, heat of mixing, and liquidus temperature, which we quantify on binary glasses and centimeter-sized BMGs. When expanding into higher order systems that can be formed among 32 practical elements, we reduce the composition space for BMG formation using developed criteria by 106 times and estimate ∼3 million binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary BMGs alloys.

  6. "Work-Hardenable" ductile bulk metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta; Tang, Mei Bo; Kim, Ki Buem; Theissmann, Ralf; Baier, Falko; Wang, Wei Hua; Eckert, Jürgen

    2005-05-27

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive "work hardening" and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The "work-hardening" capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  7. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  8. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  9. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the ...

  10. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Joysurya; Ranganathan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Bulk glass-forming alloys have emerged over the past fifteen years with attractive properties and technological promise. A number of alloy systems based on lanthanum, magnesium, zirconium, palladium, iron, cobalt and nickel have been discovered. Glass-forming ability depends on various factors like enthalpy of mixing, atomic size and multicomponent alloying. A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of t...

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Bulk Metallic Glass Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The first major objective of the ‘Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) for Space Applications’ project is to raise the technology readiness level dry lubricated,...

  12. Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Churyumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses demonstrate unique properties, including large elastic limit and high strength, which make them attractive for practical applications. Unlike crystalline alloys, metallic glasses, in general, do not exhibit a strain hardening effect, while plastic deformation at room temperature is localized in narrow shear bands. Room-temperature mechanical properties and deformation behavior of bulk metallic glassy samples and the crystal-glassy composites are reviewed in the present paper.

  13. Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Yu. Churyumov; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Larissa V. Louzguina-Luzgina

    2012-01-01

    Metallic glasses demonstrate unique properties, including large elastic limit and high strength, which make them attractive for practical applications. Unlike crystalline alloys, metallic glasses, in general, do not exhibit a strain hardening effect, while plastic deformation at room temperature is localized in narrow shear bands. Room-temperature mechanical properties and deformation behavior of bulk metallic glassy samples and the crystal-glassy composites are reviewed in the present paper.

  14. Formation of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The glass-forming ability (GFA) of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy alloys was systematically investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques. The results showed that a series of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses (BGMs) with a diameter of 4–8 mm were suc-.

  15. Free standing bulk metallic glass microcomponents: Tooling considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Cormac; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Ohnuma, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses have enormous potential for use in small-scale devices such as MEMS and biomedical components. Thermoplastic forging of free standing components poses challenges unlike those seen when forging crystalline materials. Central to these challenges is the simultaneous advantage/disadvantage...

  16. Design of Cu8Zr5-based bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, L.; Xia, J.H.; Wang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Basic polyhedral clusters have been derived from intermetallic compounds at near-eutectic composition by considering a dense packing and random arrangement of atoms at shell sites. Using such building units, bulk metallic glasses can be formed. This strategy was verified in the Cu-Zr binary system......, where we have demonstrated the existence of Cu8Zr5 icosahedral clusters in Cu61.8Zr38.2, Cu64Zr36, and Cu64.5Zr35.5 amorphous alloys. Furthermore, ternary bulk metallic glasses can be developed by doping the basic Cu-Zr alloy with a minority element. This hypothesis was confirmed in systems (Cu0.618Zr0.......382)(100-x)Nb-x, where x=1.5 and 2.5 at. %, and (Cu0.618Zr0.382)(98)Sn-2. The present results may open a route to prepare amorphous alloys with improved glass forming ability....

  17. Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Structure of Bulk Metallic Glass Forming Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Ralf; Gallino, Isabella

    2017-11-01

    Bulk metallic glass forming melts are viscous liquids compared with pure metals and conventional alloys. They show intermediate kinetic fragility and low thermodynamic driving force for crystallization, leading to sluggish crystallization kinetics, leaving time for good glass forming ability and bulk casting thickness. We relate the kinetics to the thermodynamics of the supercooled liquid using the Adam-Gibbs equation. The kinetic fragility is also connected to the structural changes in the liquid and can be quantitatively linked to the robustness of medium-range order in the supercooled liquid with increasing temperature. Liquid-liquid transitions from fragile behavior at high temperature to strong behavior at low temperature in the supercooled liquid and in the vicinity of the glass transition emerge as a common phenomenon.

  18. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...... glasses will at elevated temperatures behave like a highly viscous liquid, which can easily form even complicated geometries in 1 step. The strengths and limitations of forming the 2 materials are analyzed for a micro 3D component in a silver alloy and an Mg-Cu-Y BMG. ©2007 American Institute of Physics...

  19. A study of cooling process in bulk metallic glasses fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. N.; Shao, Y.; Yao, K. F.; Chen, S. Q.

    2015-11-01

    To study the temperature distribution and evolution during bulk metallic glasses fabrication, finite element method was taken to simulate the cooling process in glassy alloys fabricated by water quenching and copper mold casting. The temperature distribution and evolution in different-sized samples in the two methods were successfully reproduced. The result showed that the temperature distribution in the alloy was strongly affected by fabricating method. Two relations were then proposed to estimate the cooling rate in different-sized samples prepared by these two methods. By comparing the reported data of critical size and critical cooling rate, we showed that the reported critical size and critical cooling rate of metallic glasses didn't follow a heat transfer relation. Those critical-sized glassy alloys actually experienced cooling rates much larger than the critical cooling rates estimated by the classical nucleation theory or experiments on milligram-scaled samples. It results from the increasing degree of heterogeneity with sample size, and therefore a larger sample requires a faster cooling rate to avoid crystallization. This work clearly shows the temperature field evolution in bulk metallic glasses fabrication and reveals that the critical cooling rate of metallic glasses might be size-dependent.

  20. Structural effects of shot-peening in bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mear, F.O., E-mail: francois.mear@univ-lille1.f [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Doisneau, B.; Yavari, A.R. [SIMaP-CNRS UA29, Domaine Universitaire BP 75, Saint Martin d' Heres 38402 (France); Greer, A.L. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-26

    Shot-peening induces surface compressive stresses in bulk metallic glass components, improving their plasticity. Structural changes in the peened surface of fully glassy and partially crystalline Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 5} are studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. An earlier study is extended by examining the effect of sample temperature. While fully glassy samples show no phase change under peening, partially crystalline samples show either amorphization or crystallization depending on temperature. Peening can induce very large stored energy in metallic glasses rendering them susceptible to crystallization below room temperature, a result which may be relevant for improving the plasticity of these materials.

  1. Size effects on the fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Inoue, A.

    2011-12-01

    Size effects on bending fatigue characteristics are investigated on Zr-based bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs). The fatigue lifetimes and endurance limits of the large-size samples are greater than those of the small-size samples. The results suggest that although a BMG exhibits good ductility due to the formation of multiple shear bands when its size decreases, the fatigue resistance of BMGs might degrade when the specimen size becomes smaller. The current study finds that small-size BMG samples under bending fatigue could fail in the flexural or fracture mode.

  2. Review on the Research and Development of Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Gong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ti-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs are very attractive for applications because of their excellent properties such as high specific strength and high corrosion resistance. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of the research and development of Ti-based bulk metallic glasses. Emphasis is laid on glass-forming ability, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.

  3. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Macroscale Compliant Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Agnes, Gregory (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement bulk metallic glass-based macroscale compliant mechanisms. In one embodiment, a bulk metallic glass-based macroscale compliant mechanism includes: a flexible member that is strained during the normal operation of the compliant mechanism; where the flexible member has a thickness of 0.5 mm; where the flexible member comprises a bulk metallic glass-based material; and where the bulk metallic glass-based material can survive a fatigue test that includes 1000 cycles under a bending loading mode at an applied stress to ultimate strength ratio of 0.25.

  4. Bulk metallic glass composite with good tensile ductility, high strength and large elastic strain limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K C; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang

    2014-06-16

    Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19' phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties.

  5. Stability of Bulk Metallic Glass Structure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D. B.

    2003-06-01

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub 80-x}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  6. Role of Alloying Additions in Glass Formation and Properties of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alloying addition, as a means of improving mechanical properties and saving on costs of materials, has been applied to a broad range of uses and products in the metallurgical fields. In the field of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, alloying additions have also proven to play effective and important roles in promoting glass formation, enhancing thermal stability and improving plasticity of the materials. Here, we review the work on the role of alloying additions in glass formation and performance improvement of BMGs, with focus on our recent results of alloying additions in Pd-based BMGs.

  7. Developing and Characterizing Bulk Metallic Glasses for Extreme Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Scott Nolan

    Metallic glasses have typically been treated as a "one size fits all" type of material. Every alloy is considered to have high strength, high hardness, large elastic limits, corrosion resistance, etc. However, similar to traditional crystalline materials, properties are strongly dependent upon the constituent elements, how it was processed, and the conditions under which it will be used. An important distinction which can be made is between metallic glasses and their composites. Charpy impact toughness measurements are performed to determine the effect processing and microstructure have on bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs). Samples are suction cast, machined from commercial plates, and semi-solidly forged (SSF). The SSF specimens have been found to have the highest impact toughness due to the coarsening of the dendrites, which occurs during the semi-solid processing stages. Ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) temperatures are measured for a BMGMC. While at room temperature the BMGMC is highly toughened compared to a fully glassy alloy, it undergoes a DTBT by 250 K. At this point, its impact toughness mirrors that of the constituent glassy matrix. In the following chapter, BMGMCs are shown to have the capability of being capacitively welded to form single, monolithic structures. Shear measurements are performed across welded samples, and, at sufficient weld energies, are found to retain the strength of the parent alloy. Cross-sections are inspected via SEM and no visible crystallization of the matrix occurs. Next, metallic glasses and BMGMCs are formed into sheets and eggbox structures are tested in hypervelocity impacts. Metallic glasses are ideal candidates for protection against micrometeorite orbital debris due to their high hardness and relatively low density. A flat single layer, flat BMG is compared to a BMGMC eggbox and the latter creates a more diffuse projectile cloud after penetration. A three tiered eggbox structure is also tested by firing

  8. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cracks, and occur plastic deformation homogeneously. Keywords. Zr-based bulk metallic glasses; in situ composites; ductile phase; wear behaviours. 1. Introduction. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with special short-range order and long-range disorder microstructure usually exhibit unique physical, chemical and mechanical ...

  9. Bulk Mechanical Properties Testing of Metallic Marginal Glass Formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Q. Phan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a unique three-point bend testing apparatus to measure bulk mechanical properties of a model metallic glass alloy (SAM2X5 with nominal composition Fe49.7Cr17.1Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 prepared by spark plasma sintering. The relatively large sample sizes in the present work allowed for the preparation of test specimens with a macroscale cross section (in the millimeter range with well-controlled sample dimensions closer to standardized tests. Wire saw cutting allowed for a relatively sharp notch radius (3x smaller than previous studies and minimal sample damage. We determined that Young’s modulus and notch fracture toughness measured by our three-point bending apparatus are 230 GPa and 4.9 MPa·m1/2. Also, Vickers indentation and flexure testing provided consistent results for Young’s modulus. Indentation fracture toughness measured by Vickers indentation produced values at least 50% lower than by flexure. The microscale mechanical properties testing technique presented in this work and subsequent analyses are applicable to specimens of other compositions or ones prepared by other methods.

  10. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Inoue

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance.

  11. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Several significant contributions have come from Johnson's group at Caltech, USA. (Johnson 1999), where the pioneering investigations of Duwez gave birth to the field of metallic glasses (Klement et al 1960). While the initial alloys were based on lanthanides, there was a gradual expansion in the elemental basis such that ...

  12. Superior tensile ductility in bulk metallic glass with gradient amorphous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, Y; Jiang, H; Liu, C T; Ruan, H H; Lu, J

    2014-04-23

    Over centuries, structural glasses have been deemed as a strong yet inherently 'brittle' material due to their lack of tensile ductility. However, here we report bulk metallic glasses exhibiting both a high strength of ~2 GPa and an unprecedented tensile elongation of 2-4% at room temperature. Our experiments have demonstrated that intense structural evolution can be triggered in theses glasses by the carefully controlled surface mechanical attrition treatment, leading to the formation of gradient amorphous microstructures across the sample thickness. As a result, the engineered amorphous microstructures effectively promote multiple shear banding while delay cavitation in the bulk metallic glass, thus resulting in superior tensile ductility. The outcome of our research uncovers an unusual work-hardening mechanism in monolithic bulk metallic glasses and demonstrates a promising yet low-cost strategy suitable for producing large-sized, ultra-strong and stretchable structural glasses.

  13. Development of Low Density CaMg-A1-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senkov, O. N; Scott, J. M; Miracle, D. B

    2006-01-01

    Low density Ca-Mg-Al-based bulk metallic glasses containing additionally Cu and Zn, were produced by a copper mold casting method as wedge-shaped samples with thicknesses varying from 0.5 mm to 10 rom...

  14. Welding bulk metallic glass using nanostructured reactive multilayer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkle, Jonathan C.

    We have used Al/Ni reactive foils to weld Zr57Ti 5Cu20Ni8Al10 metallic glasses. The welds are a composite morphology comprised of glass ligaments and intermetallic AlNi (the product of the reactive foil). The presence of the presumably brittle intermetallic (in lieu of the glass) is expected to limit the mechanical properties of the welds. Based on fracture toughness measurements and the crack propagation paths, we conclude that virtually all of the toughness can be ascribed to the presence of the metallic glass ligaments. Increasing the pressure applied during welding increases the fraction of the joint made of these ligaments and so increases the fracture toughness as well. To eliminate the intermetallic from the weld altogether, we attempted to fabricate reactive mulitlayer foils that form an amorphous product by melting and cooling rapidly during a self-propagating reaction. We began with reactive foils with overall composition Zr2Ni but quickly determined that the foils did not fully melt. We then attempted to lower the melting temperature and increase the glass forming ability and the heat of mixing by adding Al and Cu. These foils again did not fully melt. Finally we systematically determined that foils of overall compositions Hf37Ni63, Ni 80P20, and Ni60P40, which are all known binary metallic glasses, will potentially melt during a self-propagating reaction. Knowledge of the phase transformations during a self-propagating reaction is necessary to engineer reactive foils for future applications. Furthermore, reactive foils provide an opportunity to study phase transformations under high heating rates not easily achievable. Characterizing the processes in the reaction zone however is challenging, requiring both temporal resolution better than ˜ 100 mus (the time required for the reaction front to pass a fixed location) and spatial resolution of phase transformations in situ in Al/Ni multilayers. Unlike previous annealing and quenching studies in these

  15. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    CERN Document Server

    Perim, Eric; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting bulk metallic glass formers from known parameters remains a challenge and the search for new systems is still performed by trial and error. It has been speculated that some sort of "confusion" during crystallization of the crystalline phases competing with glass formation could play a key role. Here, we propose a heuristic descriptor quantifying confusion and demonstrate its validity by detailed experiments on two well-known glass forming alloy systems. With the insight provided by these results, we develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the spectral decomposition of geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab-initio in the AFLOW high throughput framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be a much more common phenomenon than currently estimated, with more than ...

  16. Size effect on beta relaxation in a La-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Wu, Jili, E-mail: wujili@msn.com; Zhang, Bo, E-mail: bo.zhang@hfut.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    This work studied the effect of the size of specimens on the β relaxation. Taking La{sub 70}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 15} bulk metallic glass as a model material, via dynamic mechanical analysis, we found that the thickness of specimens can affect the intensity of β relaxation. Specifically, increasing the thickness of specimens can enhance intensity of β relaxation. For this enhancement, we proposed that the involvedly total free volume facilitates the β relaxed process. This finding gives a new insight on the structural relaxation of bulk metallic glasses, especially for understanding of origin of β relaxation.

  17. Wear Behavior of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Containing Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT particles. Changes in glass transition temperature (Tg and crystallization temperature (Tx suggest that deviations in the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix occurred because of a partial dissolution of the CNT species into the amorphous phase. Although the hardness of CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composites is increased with the addition of CNT particles, the wear resistance of such composites is not directly proportional to their hardness, and does not follow the standard wear law. A worn surface under a high applied load shows that the 12 vol. % CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composite suffers severe wear compared with monolithic Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass.

  18. Structural influence on atomic hopping and electronic states of Pd-based bulk metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, X.-P.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Schwarz, R. B.; Johnson, William L.; Wu, Yue

    2005-01-01

    Atomic motion and electronic structures of Pd–Ni–Cu–P bulk metallic glasses were investigated using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The hopping rate of P atoms was determined by the stimulated echo technique. Significant hopping was observed in all alloys well below the glass transition temperature. Increasing the Cu content to above 25 at. % increases P hopping significantly, consistent with the previous finding that the openness of the structure increases with Cu content. In contrast, P h...

  19. Bulk metallic glass for low noise fluxgate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of Prime Photonics, Virginia Tech, and Utron Kinetics propose to demonstrate a method for fabrication of a bulk, amorphous, cobalt-rich material that...

  20. Crystallization of Pd40CU30Ni10P20 bulk metallic glass with and without pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, B.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhuang, Yanxin

    2007-01-01

    The glass-transition behavior of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk metallic glass was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass was studied by in situ high-pressure and high-t...

  1. Deformation-strengthening during rolling Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Hu, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical strength evolutions during rolling the Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass (BMG) at room temperature (RT) and cryogenic temperature (CT) have been investigated by measuring the microhardness. The hardness slightly increases during the initial rolling stage as a result of the gradually...

  2. Compressive behavior of bulk metallic glass under different conditions --- Coupled effect of temperature and strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weihua

    Metallic glass was first reported in 1960 by rapid quenching of Au-Si alloys. But, due to the size limitation, this material did not attract remarkable interest until the development of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with specimen sizes in excess of 1 mm. BMGs are considered to be promising engineering materials because of their ultrahigh strength, high elastic limit and wear resistance. However, they usually suer from a strong tendency for localized plastic deformation with catastrophic failure. Many basic questions, such as the origin of shear softening and the strain rate eect remain unclear. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of the Zr55Al 10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass and a metallic glass composite is investigated. The stress-strain relationship for Zr55Al10Ni 5Cu30 over a wide range of strain rate (5x10 --5 to 2x103 s--1) was investigated in uniaxial compression loading using both MTS servo-hydraulic system (quasi-static) and compression Kolsky bar system (dynamic). The effect of the strain rate on the fracture stress at room temperature was discussed. Based on the experimental results, the strain rate sensitivity of the bulk metallic glass changes from a positive value to a negative value at high strain rate, which is a consequence of the significant adiabatic temperature rise during the dynamic testing. In order to characterize the temperature eect on the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass, a synchronically assembled heating unit was designed to be attached onto the Kolsky bar system to perform high temperature and high strain rate mechanical testing. A transition from inhomogeneous deformation to homogeneous deformation has been observed during the quasi-static compressive experiments at testing temperatures close to the glass transition temperature. However, no transition has been observed at high strain rates at all the testing temperatures. A free volume based model is applied to analyze the stress-strain behavior of the homogeneous

  3. Serrated plastic flow during nanoindentation of a bulk metallic glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovin, YI; Ivolgin, [No Value; Khonik, VA; Kitagawa, K; Tyurin, AI

    2001-01-01

    The results of nanoindentation tests of bulk glassy Pd40CU30Ni10P20 using a specially designed instrument with high time and spatial resolution are presented. Pronounced serrations of the indenter penetration depth are observed. The parameters of serrated flow (the number of serrations, their

  4. Structure, Properties, and Crystallization of Mg-Cu-Y-Zn Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilas, Rafał; Cesarz-Andraczke, Katarzyna; Nowosielski, Ryszard; Burian, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    The Mg60Cu30Y10 and Mg65Cu20Y10Zn5 bulk metallic glasses in the form of a rod 2 mm in diameter were successfully prepared by the conventional Cu-mold casting method. The addition of Zn caused the decrease in the crystallization and melting temperatures in comparison with the Mg60Cu30Y10 alloy. The crystallization and melting temperatures are crucial factors that influence the casting process. An increase in annealing temperature leads to structural changes by the formation of the crystalline phases and lowers the compressive strength. These results obtained for the Mg-based bulk metallic glasses (Mg-BMGs) are important for some practical reasons, in particular, for developing the fabrication process. It has been shown that minor addition of an alloying element can change glass-forming ability and strength of the Mg-BMGs.

  5. Glass transition, crystallization kinetics and pressure effect on crystallization of ZrNbCuNiBe bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, P.F.; Zhuang, Yanxin; Wang, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The glass transition behavior and crystallization kinetics of Zr48Nb8Cu14Ni12Be18 bulk metallic glass have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The activation energies of both glass transition and crystallization events have been obtained using...... the Kissinger method. Results indicate that this glass crystallizes by a three-stage reaction: (1) phase separation and primary crystallization of glass, (2) formation of intermetallic compounds, and (3) decomposition of intermetallic compounds and crystallization of residual amorphous phase. The pressure...... effect on crystallization is studied by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature XRD using synchrotron radiation. Two crystallization temperatures, observed by in-situ XRD, behave differently with varying pressure. The onset crystallization temperature increases with pressure with a slope of 9.5 K...

  6. Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberto, Paola, E-mail: tiberto@inrim.i [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Piccin, Rafael [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lupu, Nicoleta; Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technichal Physics, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Baricco, Marcello [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2009-08-26

    Amorphous [(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 75}B{sub 20}Si{sub 5}]{sub 93}Nb{sub 4}Y{sub 3}(x=0, 0.2 and 0.4) have been produced by water-cooled Cu-mold injection casting technique in cylindrical shape. Amorphous ribbon having the same composition have been produced by rapid quenching technique. The presence of an amorphous structure have been checked by means of X-ray diffraction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Magnetic hysteresis loops have been measured by means of vibrating sample magnetometer at a maximum field of 10 kOe. In addition, to study the frequency dependence of magnetic losses, hysteresis loops have been measured by a digital wattmeter. A critical analysis of the results obtained on both ribbons and bulk cylinder will be presented. The obtained data will be compared with the ones of Fe-based materials conventionally exploited in applications.

  7. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Q., E-mail: qiangzheng616@hotmail.com, E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo, 315016, China and Ningbo Branch of China Academy of Ordnance Science, Ningbo, 315103 (China); Du, J., E-mail: qiangzheng616@hotmail.com, E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, NIMTE, CAS, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2014-01-28

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr{sub 47.67}Cu{sub 40}Ti{sub 3.66}Ni{sub 2.66}Be{sub 6} has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804 MPa, fracture strength of 1938 MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  8. Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites for Optical and Compliant Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Agnes, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms are used widely in engineering applications due to their ability to translate force and movement. They are found in kinematic pairs, gears, cams, linkages, and in flexure mechanisms (also known as compliant mechanisms). Mechanisms and flexures are used widely in spacecraft design, especially in the area of optics, where precise positioning of telescope mirrors requires elastic flexing of elements. A compliant mechanism is generally defined as a flexible mechanism that uses an elastic body deformation to cause a displacement (such as positing a mirror). The mechanisms are usually constructed as a single monolithic piece of material, and contain thin struts to allow for large elastic bending with low input force. This creates the largest problem with developing precise mechanisms; they must be fabricated from a single piece of metal, but are required to have strict accuracy on their dimensions. They are generally required to have high strength, elasticity, and low coefficient of thermal expansion.

  9. Stress-Corrosion Interactions in Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Flaviu Gostin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress-corrosion interactions in materials may lead to early unpredictable catastrophic failure of structural parts, which can have dramatic effects. In Zr-based bulk metallic glasses, such interactions are particularly important as these have very high yield strength, limited ductility, and are relatively susceptible to localized corrosion in halide-containing aqueous environments. Relevant features of the mechanical and corrosion behavior of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are described, and an account of knowledge regarding corrosion-deformation interactions gathered from ex situ experimental procedures is provided. Subsequently the literature on key phenomena including hydrogen damage, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue is reviewed. Critical factors for such phenomena will be highlighted. The review also presents an outlook for the topic.

  10. Fabricating Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Microcomponent by Suction Casting Using Silicon Micromold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A suction casting process for fabricating Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass microcomponent using silicon micromold has been studied. A complicated BMG microgear with 50 μm in module has been cast successfully. Observed by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that the cast microgear duplicates the silicon micromold including the microstructure on the surface. The amorphous state of the microgear is confirmed by transmission election microscopy. The nanoindentation hardness and elasticity modulus of the microgear reach 6.5 GPa and 94.5 GPa. The simulation and experimental results prove that the suction casting process with the silicon micromold is a promising one-step method to fabricate bulk metallic glass microcomponents with high performance for applications in microelectromechanical system.

  11. Roles of Co element in Fe-based bulk metallic glasses utilizing industrial FeB alloy as raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyuan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses were fabricated by a conventional copper mold casting method using a kind of Fe-B industrial raw alloy. It is found that Fe-B-Y-Nb bulk metallic glass with 3 at% of Co addition possesses the best glass forming ability, thermal stability, hardness, magnetic property and anti-corrosion property. The hardness test result indicates a synchronically trend with glass-forming ability parameters. The excellent glass-forming ability and a combination of good mechanical and functional properties suggest that the alloys in this work might be good candidates for commercial use.

  12. Thermal stability and magnetocaloric properties of GdDyAlCo bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hui, X. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: huixd01@hotmail.com; Chen, G.L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-01-25

    Gd{sub 56-x}Dy{sub x}Al{sub 24}Co{sub 20} (x = 16, 20 and 22) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) alloys with a diameter of 2, 3 and 3 mm, respectively, were prepared by using copper mold casting. These alloys exhibit higher values of the glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, and activation energy of the glass transition and crystallization, compared with those of other known rare-earth-based BMGs. A maximum magnetic entropy changes of 15.78 J/(kg K) is obtained in Gd{sub 40}Dy{sub 16}Al{sub 24}Co{sub 20}, which is the maximal among all the bulk metallic glasses, and is much larger than those of the known crystalline magnetic refrigerant compound Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 1.9}Fe{sub 0.1} and pure Gd metal. All the three BMG alloys have a broader temperature range of the entropy change peak, resulting in larger refrigerate capacities (RC) than those of conventional crystalline materials. The excellent magnetocaloric properties combining with high thermal stability make them an attractive candidate for magnetic refrigerants in the temperature range of 20-100 K.

  13. Soft X-ray emission study of Pd-Ni-Cu-P bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S. [Center for Materials Research Using Third-Generation Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan)], E-mail: hosokawa@cc.it-hiroshima.ac.jp; Sato, H. [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Mimura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Happo, N. [Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Tezuka, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Ichitsubo, T.; Matsubara, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nishiyama, N. [R and D Institute of Metals and Composites for Future Industries, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    Soft X-ray emission spectra were measured on Pd{sub 42.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses near the Ni and Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edges to evaluate, respectively, the Ni and Cu 3d partial density of states (DOS) in the valence band. The Pd 4d, and the Ni and Cu 3d partials in the conduction-band were also obtained from X-ray absorption spectra around the Pd 3p{sub 3/2}, Ni, and Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edges, respectively. The partial DOS of each d state was estimated from the spectra, and the feature of the electronic structure in these glasses were discussed in detail. In particular, it was found that the Pd 4d partial DOS near the Fermi energy largely decreases and becomes localized by replacing the Ni atoms with the Cu atoms, which may closely related to the excellent glass-forming ability in the Pd{sub 42.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass.

  14. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Strain Wave Gears and Strain Wave Gear Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass-based strain wave gears and strain wave gear components. In one embodiment, a strain wave gear includes: a wave generator; a flexspline that itself includes a first set of gear teeth; and a circular spline that itself includes a second set of gear teeth; where at least one of the wave generator, the flexspline, and the circular spline, includes a bulk metallic glass-based material.

  15. Elastic properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses; Elastische Eigenschaften von supraleitenden massiven metallischen Glaesern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Marius

    2015-07-01

    Within the framework of this thesis the elastic properties of a superconducting bulk metallic glass between 10 mK and 300 K were first investigated. In order to measure the entire temperature range, in particular the low temperature part, new experimental techniques were developed. Using an inductive readout scheme for a double paddle oscillator it was possible to determine the internal friction and the relative change of sound velocity of bulk metallic glasses with high precision. This allowed for a detailed comparison of the data with different models. The analysis focuses on the low temperature regime where the properties of glassy materials are governed by atomic tunneling systems as described by the tunneling model. The influence of conduction electrons in the normal conducting state and quasiparticles in the superconducting state of the glass were accounted for in the theoretical description, resulting in a good agreement over a large temperature range between measured data and prediction of the tunneling model. This allowed for a direct determination of the coupling constant between electrons and tunneling systems. In the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc the data can only be described if a modified distribution function of the tunneling parameters is applied.

  16. A novel Ho 36Dy 20Al 24Co 20 bulk metallic glass with large magnetocaloric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L.; Hui, X.; Zhang, C. M.; Lu, Z. P.; Chen, G. L.

    2008-04-01

    A new heavy rare-earth-based Ho 36Dy 20Al 24Co 20 bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been prepared by a copper mold casting. A maximum magnetic entropy change of 11.77 J/kg K has been measured in Ho 36Dy 20Al 24Co 20 bulk metallic glass under a magnetic field of 5 Tesla, which is larger than that of the early reported Ho-based bulk metallic glass Ho 30Y 26Al 24Co 20. The half-maximum temperature range of the entropy change peak is as large as 40 K, leading to a superior refrigerant capacity to those of the Gd 5Si 2Ge 2 and Gd 5Si 2Ge 1.9Fe 0.1 crystalline compounds. The excellent magnetocaloric effect together with the unique properties of metallic glass makes this alloy a promising candidate for a magnetic refrigerant in the temperature range below 50 K.

  17. Castable Bulk Metallic Glass Strain Wave Gears: Towards Decreasing the Cost of High-Performance Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Polit-Casillas, Raul; Roberts, Scott N; Borgonia, John-Paul; Dillon, Robert P; Hilgemann, Evan; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Montemayor, Lauren; Suh, Jong-Ook; Hoff, Andrew; Carpenter, Kalind; Parness, Aaron; Johnson, William L; Kennett, Andrew; Wilcox, Brian

    2016-11-24

    The use of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as the flexspline in strain wave gears (SWGs), also known as harmonic drives, is presented. SWGs are unique, ultra-precision gearboxes that function through the elastic flexing of a thin-walled cup, called a flexspline. The current research demonstrates that BMGs can be cast at extremely low cost relative to machining and can be implemented into SWGs as an alternative to steel. This approach may significantly reduce the cost of SWGs, enabling lower-cost robotics. The attractive properties of BMGs, such as hardness, elastic limit and yield strength, may also be suitable for extreme environment applications in spacecraft.

  18. Formation and Mechanical Properties of Pd-Si Binary Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glassy spherical samples in the diameters up to 10 mm were produced in a binary Pd-Si alloy system. These Pd-Si bulk metallic glasses (BMGs combine high strength of about 1600 MPa and superplasticity of over 70% together. In addition to abundant micrometer-scale shear bands, 10–20 nanometer-sized shear bands were also observed on the side surface of the deformed sample. The excellent ductility shown by the Pd-Si BMGs is suggested to arise from the nanoscale structural inhomogeneity.

  19. Surface Crystallization in Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass during Copper Mold Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The localized crystallization of Mg54Cu28Ag7Y11 bulk metallic glass (BMG in the injection casting process using a copper mold was investigated. It has been found that several crystalline phases were formed close to the as-cast surface but did not exist in the internal part of the BMG plate. It is abnormal that the as-cast surface is partially crystallized with higher cooling rate than that of inside. Overheating of the melt and nucleation induced by the surface of copper mold play key roles in the abnormal crystallization. It is suggested that the function of copper mold to trigger heterogeneous nucleation cannot be totally ignored, although it provides the high cooling rate for the glass formation during casting.

  20. Heterogeneities in CuZr-based bulk metallic glasses studied by x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X D; Lou, H B; Gong, Y; Jiang, J Z [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Zhejiang University (China); Vainio, U, E-mail: wangxd@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-02-23

    Inhomogeneities in two CuZr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were studied by using synchrotron radiation x-ray scattering techniques. (Cu{sub 4.5/5.5}Ag{sub 1/5.5}){sub 46}Zr{sub 46}Al{sub 8} BMG was found to be more inhomogeneous than Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 46}Al{sub 8} BMG on the small length scale, where Cu and Ag atoms form enriched zones. Such heterogeneities are locally favorable for forming close-packed icosahedron-like clusters in three-dimensional space, greatly promoting the glass forming ability of this alloy. Upon annealing near the T{sub g} temperature, the heterogeneities were reduced initially at low temperature and short time annealing, then regenerated again for temperature increase and time extension. The average environment around Zr atoms almost does not change. However, the heterogeneity increases for Cu, Zr and Ag atoms once nanocrystallization happens.

  1. Deformation behaviors of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass composite in the dendrite softening region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jing; Li, Jinshan; Wang, Jun, E-mail: nwpuwj@nwpu.edu.cn; Kou, Hongchao

    2016-01-20

    Deformation behaviors of the Ti{sub 50}Zr{sub 20}Nb{sub 12}Cu{sub 5}Be{sub 13} bulk metallic glass composite in the dendrite softening region have been investigated using uniaxial compressive and tensile tests. All the compressive stress–strain curves show work-hardening phenomenon with the same tendency, the tensile stress–strain curves show work-softening phenomenon. The strain rate sensitivity exponent ranges from 0.061 to 0.072 in the compressive tests, and 0.33 to 0.38 in the tensile tests. The activation volume of the Ti{sub 50}Zr{sub 20}Nb{sub 12}Cu{sub 5}Be{sub 13} bulk metallic glass composite at 710 K ranges from 1.6 nm{sup 3} to 2.5 nm{sup 3} under compressive tests and 1.0 nm{sup 3} to 2.7 nm{sup 3} under tensile tests, indicating that there is a migration of atomic group (about 170–180 atoms) during the deformation. The dendrite of the Ti{sub 50}Zr{sub 20}Nb{sub 12}Cu{sub 5}Be{sub 13} BMGC has been well spheroidized and undergoes severe plasticity deformation after the deformation in the dendrite softening region.

  2. Hot Embossing of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Micropart Using Stacked Silicon Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated hot embossing of Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 bulk metallic glass micropart using stacked silicon dies. Finite element simulation was carried out, suggesting that it could reduce the stress below 400 MPa in the silicon dies and enhance the durability of the brittle silicon dies when using varying load mode (100 N for 60 s and then 400 N for 60 s compared with using constant load mode (200 N for 120 s. A micropart with good appearance was fabricated under the varying load, and no silicon die failure was observed, in agreement with the simulation. The amorphous state of the micropart was confirmed by differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction, and the nanohardness and Young’s modulus were validated close to those of the as-cast BMG rods by nanoindentation tests. The results proved that it was feasible to adopt the varying load mode to fabricate three-dimensional Zr-based bulk metallic glass microparts by hot embossing process.

  3. FeSiBP bulk metallic glasses with high magnetization and excellent magnetic softness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Akihiro; Kubota, Takeshi; Chang, Chuntao; Makabe, Masahiro; Inoue, Akihisa

    Fe-based amorphous alloy ribbons are one of the major soft magnetic materials, because of their superior magnetic properties such as the relatively high saturation magnetization ( Js) of 1.5-1.6 T and good magnetic softness. However, the preparation of the ordinary amorphous magnetic alloys requires cooling rates higher than 10 4 K/s due to the low glass-forming ability (GFA) and thus restricts the material outer shape. Recently, Fe-metalloid-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) containing glass-forming elements such as Al, Ga, Nb, Mo, Y and so forth have been developed. These alloys have high GFA, leading to the formation of BMG rod with diameters of mm-order. However, the glass-forming metal elements in BMGs result in a remarkable decrease in magnetization. Basically, Js depends on Fe content; hence, high Js requires high Fe content in the Fe-based amorphous alloys or BMGs. On the other hand, high GFA requires a large amount of glass-forming elements in the alloys, which results in lower Fe content. Therefore, in substances, the coexistence of high Js and high GFA is difficult. Since this matter should be immensely important from academia to industry in the material field, a great deal of effort has been devoted; however, it has remained unsolved for many years. In this paper, we present a novel Fe-rich FeSiBP BMG with high Js of 1.51 T comparable to the ordinary Fe-Si-B amorphous alloy now in practical use as well as with high GFA leading to a rod-shaped specimen of 2.5 mm in diameter, obtained by Cu-mold casting in air.

  4. Glass-Forming Ability and Early Crystallization Kinetics of Novel Cu-Zr-Al-Co Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG composites ductilized by a shape memory B2 CuZr phase have attracted great attention owing to their outstanding mechanical properties. However, the B2 CuZr phase for most CuZr-based glass-forming compositions is only stable at very high temperatures, leading to the uncontrollable formation of B2 crystals during quenching. In this work, by introducing Co (i.e., 4, 5, and 6 at. % and 10 at. % Al into CuZr-based alloys, the relatively good glass-forming ability (GFA of CuZr-based alloys still can be achieved. Meanwhile, the B2 phase can be successfully stabilized to lower temperatures than the final temperatures of crystallization upon heating CuZr-based BMGs. Unlike previous reported CuZr-based BMGs, the primary crystallization products upon heating are mainly B2 CuZr crystals but not CuZr2 and Cu10Zr7 crystals. Furthermore, the primary precipitates during solidification are still dominated by B2 crystals, whose percolation threshold is detected to lie between 10 ± 2 vol. % and 31 ± 2 vol. %. The crystallization kinetics underlying the precipitation of B2 crystals was also investigated. Our results show that the present glass-forming composites are promising candidates for the fabrication of ductile CuZr-based BMG composites.

  5. Bulk Metallic Glasses and Their Composites: A Brief History of Diverging Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Hofmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs and their derivative metal matrix composites (BMGMCs are emerging high-performance engineering materials that are on the precipice of widespread commercialization. This review article discusses the origin of these materials and how their applications and research focus have divided into two distinct fields, one primarily focused on the plastic-like processability of BMGs and the other on the enhanced fracture mechanics of BMGMCs. Although the materials are of similar composition and origin, it is argued that their implementation will be widely varying due to their different processing requirements and intended uses. BMGs will likely find use as plastic-replacement components in cosmetic applications (e.g., watches, cell phones, biomedical implants while BMGMCs will be used in structural applications (e.g., golf clubs, hardware for defense, energy absorbing structures.

  6. Feasibility of using bulk metallic glass for self-expandable stent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, Gideon; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Tavakoli, Rouhollah; Cui, Fangsen

    2017-10-01

    Self-expandable stents are widely used to restore blood flow in a diseased artery segment by keeping the artery open after angioplasty. Despite the prevalent use of conventional crystalline metallic alloys, for example, nitinol, to construct self-expandable stents, new biomaterials such as bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are being actively pursued to improve stent performance. Here, we conducted a series of analyses including finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the feasibility of using a prototypical Zr-based BMG for self-expandable stent applications. We model stent crimping of several designs for different percutaneous applications. Our results indicate that BMG-based stents with diamond-shaped crowns suffer from severe localization of plastic deformation and abrupt failure during crimping. As a possible solution, we further illustrate that such abrupt failure could be avoided in BMG-based stents without diamond shape crowns. This work would open a new horizon for a quest toward exploiting superior mechanical and functional properties of metallic glasses to design future stents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1874-1882, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fabrication and Machining of Bulk Metallic Glass for Airborne Gravity Gradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kevin Mark

    Bulk metallic glass is an intriguing material ideally suited for use as a flexure in an airborne gravity gradiometry. Successful fabrication of Zr56Ni20Al15Cu5Nb4 was achieved using arc melting and suction casting. The effect of oxygen and microalloying Nb into this alloy composition was investigated. It was determined that oxygen in solute form is much more detrimental than as an oxide with respect to glass forming ability. Through microalloying Nb, a high glass forming region was observed between 2 - 4 at.% Nb. Studies on crystallization kinetics revealed that upon heating these amorphous samples, a multi-step phase transformation pathway can be observed. Lastly, electrochemical micromachining (ECMM) and abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) were shown to be effective techniques which can be used to shape BMGs after casting without inducing crystallization. ECMM parameters were investigated to optimize the micron-machining process. AWJM demonstrated that fast cutting could be achieved with smooth surface finishes and good dimensional tolerance.

  8. Influence of tool speeds on dissimilar friction stir spot welding characteristics of bulk metallic glass/Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Jung, Yoon-Chul; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2012-08-01

    A small-scale joining technique of dissimilar friction stir spot welding (FSSW) between bulk metallic glass and Mg alloy sheet has been tried using an apparatus which was devised with a CNC milling machine to give a precise control of tool speeds. The influence of tool speeds on the joining characteristics during FSSW was investigated. As a result, it was found that the rotation speed and plunge speed of a tool during FSSW significantly influenced the welding performance of dissimilar FSSW between bulk metallic glasses and Mg alloy.

  9. Tribological characterisation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass in simulated physiological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Due to their excellent wear resistant properties and high strength, as well as a low Young's modulus, Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are potentially suitable biomaterials for low-friction arthroplasty. The wear characteristics of the Zr60.14Cu22.31Fe4.85Al9.7Ag3 bulk amorphous alloy against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) compared to a CoCrMo/UHMWPE combination were investigated in two different wear screening test devices, reciprocating and unidirectional. Hank's solution and sterile calf bovine serum were selected as the lubricant fluid media. It was found that different fluid media had insignificant effect on polyethylene wear against BMG counterfaces. The wear behaviour obtained on both test devices demonstrated that Zr-based BMG achieved UHMWPE counterface wear rates superior to conventional cast CoCrMo alloy, where the wear rate of UHMWPE is decreased by over 20 times. The tribological performance of these joints is superior to that of conventional metal-on-polymer designs. Contact angle measurements suggested that the advantage of BMG over a CoCrMo alloy counterface is attributed to its highly hydrophilic surfaces.

  10. Method for Manufacturing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Strain Wave Gear Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement bulk metallic glass-based strain wave gears and strain wave gear components. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating a strain wave gear includes: shaping a BMG-based material using a mold in conjunction with one of a thermoplastic forming technique and a casting technique; where the BMG-based material is shaped into one of: a wave generator plug, an inner race, an outer race, a rolling element, a flexspline, a flexspline without a set of gear teeth, a circular spline, a circular spline without a set of gear teeth, a set of gear teeth to be incorporated within a flexspline, and a set of gear teeth to be incorporated within a circular spline.

  11. Production of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Use in Airborne Gravity Gradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Joshua

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are ideal candidates for airborne gravity gradiometer (AGG) flexures due to their unique mechanical properties. In this thesis, the role of processing variables in the production Zr-based BMGs by arc melting and suction casting was investigated and an electrochemical method for determining the degree of crystallization after electric discharge machining (EDM) was examined. Homogenization was most effectively obtained using multiple melting iterations and prolonged melting times. The difference between input and actual Zr concentration was found to be significant in arc melting and suction casting. Superior GFA was obtained using high purity argon purge gas and low purity Zr contrary to the consensus that GFA strictly increases with increasing raw material purities. The use of potentiostatic polarization in 1M NaNO3 for evaluating the degree of crystallization in Zr55Cu 30Al10Ni5 samples after EDM may be feasible due to the dependence of passivation behaviour on the degree of crystallization.

  12. Nanoindentation study of the creep behavior in a Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, G. K.; Long, Z. L.; Zhao, M. S. Z.; Peng, L.; Chai, W.; Xu, X. J.; Ping, Z. H.; Zhang, Y.; Yan, C. P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the creep behavior of a Fe-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by using the nanoindentation testing. According to the microstructural evolution in BMGs, the generalized Kelvin model was employed to describe the creep behavior of this BMG, and a method of separating the viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation from the indentation creep was proposed. The creep behaviors at various loading rates were systematically analyzed. The obtained results indicated that the viscoelastic or viscoplastic characteristics of Fe-based BMG exhibited a strong dependency on the loading rate. Moreover, the volume of shear transformation zone (STZ) during the creep of Fe-based BMG has also been calculated to further explore its creep mechanism.

  13. Tribological studies of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass with different states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Qu, Jun [ORNL; Fan, Guojiang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jiang, Wenhui [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Qiao, Dongchun [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Choo, Hahn [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of a bulk-metallic glass (BMG) Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10.0Ti5.0 (Vit 105) with different states have been studied. Friction and wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding apparatus against AISI E52100 bearing steel under dry condition. The observed wear resistance in an ascending order is deformed, crept, relaxed, and as-cast. Results suggested that the wear process of BMG alloys involved abrasion, adhesion, and oxidation. The differences in hardness, free volume, and embrittlement at different states significantly affected the friction and wear behaviors of the BMG alloys.

  14. Mechanical Testing of Iron based Bulk Metallic Glasses and Their Suitability for Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenc-Sędziak T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties of (Fe-Co-(Zr/Si-Nb-B alloys in the form of rapidly quenched rods of 1.2 mm in diameter were studied. The as-cast alloys with Zr were crystalline, and the alloys with Si were amorphous. Microhardness measured at 50 g load is from 500 to 2000 HV (the less cobalt, the higher, and the compressive strength reaches nearly 4000 MPa for Si doped alloys and 2000 MPa for Zr doped ones. This substantial difference may be attributed to partial crystallinity of the latter alloys. The magnetic hysteresis loops of fully amorphous rods measured under compression, exhibited a clear dependence of permeability vs. stress, proving that iron-based bulk metallic glasses may be promising materials for magnetoelastic force sensors.

  15. The effect of high energy concentration source irradiation on structure and properties of Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Wirginia

    2016-06-01

    Metallic glasses exhibit metastable structure and maintain this relatively stable amorphous state within certain temperature range. High intensity laser beam was used for the surface irradiation of Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb bulk metallic glasses. The variable parameter was laser beam pulse energy. For the analysis of structure and properties of bulk metallic glasses and their surface after laser remelting the X-ray analysis, microscopic observation and test of mechanical properties were carried out. Examination of the nanostructure of amorphous materials obtained by high pressure copper mold casting method and the irradiated with the use of TITAN 80-300 HRTEM was carried out. Nanohardness and reduced Young's modulus of particular amorphous and amorphous-crystalline material zone of the laser beam were examined with the use of Hysitron TI950 Triboindenter nanoindenter and with the use of Berkovich's indenter. The XRD and microscopic analysis showed that the test material is amorphous in its structure before irradiation. Microstructure observation with electron transmission microscopy gave information about alloy crystallization in the irradiated process. Identification of given crystal phases allows to determine the kind of crystal phases created in the first place and also further changes of phase composition of alloy. The main value of the nanohardness of the surface prepared by laser beam has the order of magnitude similar to bulk metallic glasses formed by casting process irrespective of the laser beam energy used. Research results analysis showed that the area between parent material and fusion zone is characterized by extraordinarily interesting structure which is and will be the subject of further analysis in the scope of bulk metallic glasses amorphous structure and high energy concentration source. The main goal of this work is the results' presentation of structure and chosen properties of the selected bulk metallic glasses after casting process and after irradiation

  16. Mechanically driven phase separation and corresponding microhardness change in Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Zhou, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    Rolling deformation of bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass has been performed at cryogenic temperature. The specimens exhibit excellent ductility, and are rolled up to 97% reduction in thickness without fracture. Crystallization is suppressed during the deformation, however, phase separation...

  17. Free-volume evolution and its temperature dependence during rolling of Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Zhou, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    The free-volume evolution during rolling Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass at room and cryogenic temperatures has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. When the specimen is rolled at cryogenic temperature, the free-volume content increases as the rolling proceeds first...

  18. Effect of rolling deformation on the microstructure of bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass and its crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Zhou, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass has been rolled at room temperature (RT) and cryogenic temperature (CIF) up to 97% in thickness reduction, and the dependences of microstructure on the strain and temperature have been investigated. It is revealed that as the deformation proceeds below a critical...

  19. Bulk metallic glass formation in the Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R.B.; He, Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for Materials Science

    1996-12-11

    Bulk metallic glasses were prepared in the Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P systems using a fluxing technique. The formation of bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys was reported here for the first time. For both alloy systems, bulk glass formation requires maintaining the phosphorus content near 20 at.%. In the Pd-Ni-P system, 10-mm diameter amorphous Pd{sub x}Ni{sub 80{minus}x}P{sub 20} rods can be formed for 25 {le} x {le} 60. In the Pd-Cu-P system, 7-mm diameter amorphous Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 80{minus}x}P{sub 20} rods can be produced for 40 {le} x {le} 60. From all the ternary alloys studied, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 25-mm diameter amorphous cylinders, 50 mm in length, can be easily fabricated. The glass stability of the Pd-Ni-P system is wider than that of the Pd-Cu-P system. For most bulk Pd-Ni-P glasses, {Delta}T > 90 K. The {Delta}T values of bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys are considerably smaller, ranging from 27 to 73 K. The elastic constants of bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloys were determined using a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy technique. The Pd-Ni-P glasses are slightly stiffer than the Pd-Cu-P glasses. Within each alloy system, the Young`s modulus and the bulk modulus show little change with alloy composition. Of all the bulk glass forming systems so far investigated, the ternary Pd-Ni-P system has the best glass formability. This alloy was one of the first bulk glasses discovered, yet it still remains the best in terms of glass formability. Upon replacing part of Ni by Cu, the critical cooling rates are expected to be further reduced.

  20. The Evolution of Microstructures and the Properties of Bulk Metallic Glass with Consubstantial Composition Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingjun Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 plate-like bulk metallic glass (BMG was prepared using copper mold suction casting. Additionally, alloy powders with the same nominal composition were synthesized. The alloy powders were welded or melted to the cleaned surface of the BMG with a laser beam acceleration voltage of 60 kV, a beam current range from 60 to 100 mA, a welding speed of 60 mm/s, as well as an impulse width of 3.0 ms. The effect of consubstantial composition welding on the microstructures and properties was investigated. The molten and subsequently solidified metallic mixtures remain an amorphous structure, but the enthalpy of the welded or melted position varies due to the combination of the micro-structural relaxation and nano-crystals precipitated during the energy inputs. The surface layers of the BMG can be significantly intensified after welding processes; however, the heat-affected zones (HAZs exhibit a slight degradation in mechanical properties with respect to the BMG matrix. This study has important reference value for specialists working on the promotion of applications of BMGs.

  1. Biocompatibility study on Ni-free Ti-based and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T H; Wong, P C; Chang, S F; Tsai, P H; Jang, J S C; Huang, J C

    2017-06-01

    Safety and reliability are crucial issues for medical instruments and implants. In the past few decays, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have drawn attentions due to their superior mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance, antibacterial and good biocompatibility. However, most Zr-based and Ti-based BMGs contain Ni as an important element which is prone to human allergy problem. In this study, the Ni-free Ti-based and Zr-based BMGs, Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14, and Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8, were selected for systematical evaluation of their biocompatibility. Several biocompatibility tests, co-cultural with L929 murine fibroblast cell line, were carried out on these two BMGs, as well as the comparison samples of Ti6Al4V and pure Cu. The results in terms of cellular adhesion, cytotoxicity, and metallic ion release affection reveal that the Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14 BMG and Ti6Al4V exhibit the optimum biocompatibility; cells still being attached on the petri dish with good adhesion and exhibiting the spindle shape after direct contact test. Furthermore, the Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14 BMG showed very low Cu ion release level, in agreement with the MTT results. Based on the current findings, it is believed that Ni-free Ti-based BMG can act as an ideal candidate for medical implant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Series of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses with Room Temperature Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Cai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of plastic Zr-Al-Ni-Cu bulk metallic glasses (BMGs with low Zr content was developed and their thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. The results show that these Zr-based BMGs have a single crystallization event for all heating rates in the studied temperature region. The glass transition temperature Tg decreases with increasing Zr content for all heating rates. There are two melting procedures for the BMGs whose Zr content is less than 52 at %, while three melting procedures for the other Zr-based BMGs. The second melting procedure is split into two melting procedures for Zr52.5Al12.2Ni12.6Cu22.7 and Zr53Al11.6Ni11.7Cu23.7 BMGs, while the first melting procedure is split into two melting procedures for the other BMGs. The activation energy decreases with increasing sensitivity index β for the studied Zr-based BMGs. The plastic strain εp is in the region of 0.2%–19.1% for these Zr-based BMGs. Both yield strength σy and fracture strength σf are smallest for Zr55Al8.9Ni7.3Cu28.8 BMG whose εp is largest among all studied Zr-based BMGs and reaches up to 19.1%. In addition, the mechanism for the large difference of the plasticity among the studied Zr-based BMGs is also discussed.

  3. Transformation-mediated ductility in CuZr-based bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, S; Gorantla, S; Wang, G; Kühn, U; Eckert, J

    2010-06-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) generally fail in a brittle manner under uniaxial, quasistatic loading at room temperature. The lack of plastic strain is a consequence of shear softening, a phenomenon that originates from shear-induced dilation that causes plastic strain to be highly localized in shear bands. So far, significant tensile ductility has been reported only for microscopic samples of around 100 nm (ref. 4) as well as for high strain rates, and so far no mechanisms are known, which could lead to work hardening and ductility in quasistatic tension in macroscopic BMG samples. In the present work we developed CuZr-based BMGs, which polymorphically precipitate nanocrystals during tensile deformation and subsequently these nanocrystals undergo twinning. The formation of such structural heterogeneities hampers shear band generation and results in macroscopically detectable plastic strain and work hardening. The precipitation of nanocrystals and their subsequent twinning can be understood in terms of a deformation-induced softening of the instantaneous shear modulus. This unique deformation mechanism is believed to be not just limited to CuZr-based BMGs but also to promote ductility in other BMGs.

  4. Mechanisms of compressive deformation and failure of porous bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouripriya, S.; Tandaiya, Parag

    2017-06-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new class of engineering materials having strengths as high as 10 times that of conventional steels, but show no significant plastic strain at fracture. By introducing pores, their strain to failure has been shown to improve under uniaxial compression. In this work, three-dimensional finite element simulations of uniaxial compression are carried out on Pd-based porous BMGs having a wide range of pore volume fraction (1.9%-60%) with emphasis on understanding the underlying deformation and failure mechanisms. The resulting stress-strain curves agree reasonably well with existing experimental results. The simulations clearly bring out different failure mechanisms in low porosity BMGs and high porosity BMG foams. For low porosity BMGs (below 20%), the deformation and failure involves nucleation of shear bands around the pore diameter, linking of the shear bands with adjacent pores finally leading to initiation of ductile cracking within the shear bands. For high porosity BMG foams, the mechanism of deformation involves reduction in porosity of the material, self-contact of the pores, and their collapse on themselves causing densification of the material leading to apparent hardening in the stress strain behavior. The effect of pore geometry is also studied by considering ellipsoidal pores of volume fraction 3% and 11%. For ellipsoidal pores, the failure mechanisms are found to differ significantly when the orientation of the major axis of the pore vis-a-vis the loading axis is changed.

  5. A Highly Fatigue-Resistant Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naleway, Steven E.; Greene, Rawley B.; Gludovatz, Bernd; Dave, Neil K. N.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Kruzic, Jamie J.

    2013-12-01

    The strength-normalized fatigue endurance strength of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 (Vitreloy 105) has been reported to be the highest for any BMG; however, to date, there has been no explanation of why this material is so much better than other Zr-based compositions. In this study, the fatigue-crack growth behavior of Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 was compared in ambient air vs dry nitrogen environment. The excellent fatigue life behavior is attributed to a relatively high fatigue threshold (Δ K TH ≈ 2 MPa√m) and a lack of sensitivity to environmental effects on fatigue-crack growth in ambient air, as compared to other Zr-based BMGs. Fatigue life experiments conducted in ambient air confirmed the excellent fatigue life properties with a 107-cycle endurance strength of ~0.24 of the ultimate tensile strength; however, it was also found that casting porosity, even in limited amounts, could reduce this endurance strength by as much as ~60 pct. Overall, the BMG Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 appears to have excellent strength and fatigue properties and should be considered as a prime candidate material for future applications where good mechanical fatigue resistance is required.

  6. Thermoplastic deformation of ferromagnetic CoFe-based bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenguang; Hu, Renchao; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2017-12-01

    The superplastic deformation behavior of the ferromagnetic Co31Fe31Nb8B30 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in the supercooled liquid region was investigated. At a given temperature, the BMG exhibits a Newtonian behavior at low strain rates but a non-Newtonian behavior at high strain rates. The high thermal stability of this glassy alloy system offers an enough processing window to thermoplastic forming (TPF), and the strong processing ability was examined by simple micro-replication experiments. It is demonstrated that the TPF formability on length scales ranging down to nanometers can be achieved in the selected experimental condition. Based on the analysis of deformation behavior, the nearly full density sample (i.e. nearly 100%), was produced from water-atomized glassy powders and consolidated by the hot-pressing technique. The sample exhibits good soft-magnetic and mechanical properties, i.e., low coercive force of 0.43 Oe, high initial permeability of 4100 and high Vickers hardness 1398. These results suggest that the hot-pressing process opens up possibilities for the commercial exploitation of BMGs in engineering applications.

  7. Deformation-Induced Martensitic Transformation in Cu-Zr-Zn Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianyu Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures and mechanical properties of (Cu0.5Zr0.5100−xZnx (x = 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, 7, 10, and 14 at. % bulk metallic glass (BMG composites were studied. CuZr martensitic crystals together with minor B2 CuZr and amorphous phases dominate the microstructures of the as-quenched samples with low Zn additions (x = 0, 1.5, and 2.5 at. %, while B2 CuZr and amorphous phases being accompanied with minor martensitic crystals form at a higher Zn content (x = 4.5, 7, 10, and 14 at. %. The fabricated Cu-Zr-Zn BMG composites exhibit macroscopically appreciable compressive plastic strain and obvious work-hardening due to the formation of multiple shear bands and the deformation-induced martensitic transformation (MT within B2 crystals. The present BMG composites could be a good candidate as high-performance structural materials.

  8. Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Douglas C.; Potter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Quality knives are typically fabricated from high-strength steel alloys. Depending on the application, there are different requirements for mechanical and physical properties that cause problems for steel alloys. For example, diver's knives are generally used in salt water, which causes rust in steel knives. Titanium diver's knives are a popular alternative due to their salt water corrosion resistance, but are too soft to maintain a sharp cutting edge. Steel knives are also magnetic, which is undesirable for military applications where the knives are used as a tactical tool for diffusing magnetic mines. Steel is also significantly denser than titanium (8 g/cu cm vs. 4.5 g/cu cm), which results in heavier knives for the same size. Steel is hard and wear-resistant, compared with titanium, and can keep a sharp edge during service. A major drawback of both steel and titanium knives is that they must be ground or machined into the final knife shape from a billet. Since most knives have a mirrored surface and a complex shape, manufacturing them is complex. It would be more desirable if the knife could be cast into a net or near-net shape in a single step. The solution to the deficiencies of titanium, steel, and ceramic knives is to fabricate them using bulk metallic glasses (or composites). These alloys can be cast into net or near-net shaped knives with a combination of properties that exceed both titanium and steel. A commercially viable BMG (bulk metallic glass) or composite knife is one that exhibits one or all of the following properties: It is based on titanium, has a self-sharpening edge, can retain an edge during service, is hard, is non-magnetic, is corrosion-resistant against a variety of corrosive environments, is tough (to allow for prying), can be cast into a net-shape with a mirror finish and a complex shape, has excellent wear resistance, and is low-density. These properties can be achieved in BMG and composites through alloy chemistry and processing. For

  9. Joining and Assembly of Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Through Capacitive Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Kozachkov, Henry; Demetriou, Marios D.; Schramm, Joseph P.; Johnson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a class of amorphous metals defined as having a thickness greater than 1 mm, are being broadly investigated by NASA for use in spacecraft hardware. Their unique properties, attained from their non-crystalline structure, motivate several game-changing aerospace applications. BMGs have low melting temperatures so they can be cheaply and repeatedly cast into complex net shapes, such as mirrors or electronic casings. They are extremely strong and wear-resistant, which motivates their use in gears and bearings. Amorphous metal coatings are hard, corrosion-resistant, and have high reflectivity. BMG composites, reinforced with soft second phases, can be fabricated into energy-absorbing cellular panels for orbital debris shielding. One limitation of BMG materials is their inability to be welded, bonded, brazed, or fastened in a convenient method to form larger structures. Cellular structures (which can be classified as trusses, foams, honeycombs, egg boxes, etc.) are useful for many NASA, commercial, and military aerospace applications, including low-density paneling and shields. Although conventional cellular structures exhibit high specific strength, their porous structures make them challenging to fabricate. In particular, metal cellular structures are extremely difficult to fabricate due to their high processing temperatures. Aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels, for example, are used widely as spacecraft shields due to their low density and ease of fabrication, but suffer from low strength. A desirable metal cellular structure is one with high strength, combined with low density and simple fabrication. The thermoplastic joining process described here allows for the fabrication of monolithic BMG truss-like structures that are 90% porous and have no heat-affected zone, weld, bond, or braze. This is accomplished by welding the nodes of stacked BMG composite panels using a localized capacitor discharge, forming a single monolithic structure

  10. Improvement of corrosion resistance in NaOH solution and glass forming ability of as-cast Mg-based bulk metallic glasses by microalloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The influences of the addition of Ag on the glass forming ability (GFA and corrosion behavior were investigated in the Mg-Ni-based alloy system by X-ray diffraction (XRD and electrochemical polarization in 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Results shows that the GFA of the Mg-Ni-based BMGs can be improved dramatically by the addition of an appropriate amount of Ag; and the addition element Ag can improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Ni-based bulk metallic glass. The large difference in atomic size and large negative mixing enthalpy in alloy system can contribute to the high GFA. The addition element Ag improves the forming speed and the stability of the passive film, which is helpful to decrease the passivation current density and to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Ni-based bulk metallic glass.

  11. Comparative analysis of the structure of palladium-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by treatment of melts with flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Bazlov, A. I.; Churyumov, A. Yu.; Georgarakis, K.; Yavari, A. R.

    2013-10-01

    A comparative analysis has been presented of structural features of palladium-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by argon gas casting into a copper mold after treatment of melts with a flux and studied using X-ray synchrotron radiation. The radial distribution functions have been calculated. The short-range order (in the first and second coordination shells) and the medium-range order (from the third to several subsequent coordination shells) in atomic arrangement have been analyzed.

  12. Exploring Mg-Zn-Ca-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications Based on Thermodynamic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, M.; Sarwat, Syed Ghazi; Udhayabanu, V.; Raj, Baldev; Ravi, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based metallic glasses are considered as possible candidates in orthopedic implant applications. This paper aims to theoretically predict the glass-forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Zn-Ca alloy using a newly proposed thermodynamic model ( P HHS), and the consistency of this model is verified through experimental analysis. P HHS is based on thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of chemical mixing, elastic enthalpy, and configurational entropy, thus incorporating the pivotal effects, i.e., electron transfer effects, effect of atomic size mismatch, and effect of randomness, which aid to high GFA. In essence, P HHS can be visualized as the energy barrier that exists between the transformations of random atomic structure of glass to ordered crystalline structure. When the P HHS value is more negative, the energy barrier will be high, supporting easy glass formation. Various Mg-Zn-Ca metallic glass compositions displayed almost an expected and supporting trend, where the critical diameter of the metallic glass rod increased with a more negative P HHS value. Among the predicted Mg-Zn-Ca systems, the Mg60Zn35Ca5 composition shows deviation from the expected trend. This discrepancy has been clearly elucidated using a eutectic phase diagram. In addition to the consistency of the P HHS parameter to verifying the GFA of various compositions, the unique ability of this model is to predict unexplored Mg-Zn-Ca glass-forming compositions using contour development. Thus, proving P HHS parameter to be used as an efficient tool in predicting new glass-forming compositions.

  13. Highly processable bulk metallic glass-forming alloys in the Pt–Co–Ni–Cu–P system

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Johnson, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Highly processable bulk metallic glass alloys in the Pt–Co–Ni–Cu–P system were discovered. The alloys show low liquidus temperature below 900 K, excellent processability with low critical cooling rate reflecting in maximum casting thicknesses in quartz tubes of up to 20 mm, and a large supercooled liquid region. The Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 composition has a liquidus temperature of 795 K, a glass transition temperature of 508 K with a supercooled liquid region of 98 K. For medical and jewelry a...

  14. A Combinatorial Approach to the Investigation of Metal Systems that Form Both Bulk Metallic Glasses and High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Brian A.; Gibson, Mark A.; Fraser, Hamish L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, compositionally graded specimens were deposited using the laser engineered net-shaping (LENS™) additive manufacturing technique to study the glass-forming ability of two bulk metallic glass (BMG) and high entropy alloy (HEA) composite systems. The first graded specimen varied from Zr57Ti5Al10Cu20Ni8 (BMG) to CoCrFeNiCu0.5 (HEA) and the second graded specimen varied from TiZrCuNb (BMG) to (TiZrCuNb)65Ni35 (HEA). After deposition, laser surface melting experiments were performed parallel to the gradient to remelt and rapidly solidify the specimen. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to determine the morphology and composition variations in the as-deposited and laser surface melted phases. Selected area diffraction of the melt pool regions confirmed an almost fully amorphous region in the first gradient and an amorphous matrix/crystalline dendrite composite structure in the second gradient.

  15. The Self-Organized Critical Behavior in Pd-based Bulk Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs deform irreversibly through shear banding manifested as serrated-flow behavior during compressive tests. The strain-rate-dependent plasticity under uniaxial compression at the strain rates of 2 × 10−2, 2 × 10−3, and 2 × 10−4·s−1 in a Pd-based BMG is investigated. The serrated flow behavior is not observed in the stress-strain curve at the strain rate of 2 × 10−2·s−1. However, the medial state occurs at the strain rates of 2 × 10−3·s−1, and eventually the self-organized critical (SOC behavior appears at the strain rate of 2 × 10−4·s−1. The distribution of the elastic energy density shows a power-law distribution with the power-law exponent of −2.76, suggesting that the SOC behavior appears. In addition, the cumulative probability is well approximated by a power-law distribution function with the power-law exponent of 0.22 at the strain rate of 2 × 10−4·s−1. The values of the goodness of fit are 0.95 and 0.99 at the strain rates of 2 × 10−3 and 2 × 10−4·s−1, respectively. The transition of the dynamic serrated flows of BMGs is from non-serrated flow to an intermediate state and finally to the SOC state with decreasing the strain rates.

  16. Magnetic properties and microstructural homogeneity in NdFeAl bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Zempoalteca, R.; Valenzuela, R.; Betancourt, I. [Depto de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Avenida Universidad (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Bulk metallic glasses of nominal composition Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} were prepared by copper mold casting in the form of rods of 3 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length. Preparation conditions were varied to assess the effects of the injection distance and the injection pressure of the melt. In order to determine their microstructure, disk-shaped samples were obtained from different cut zones along the axis rod. A non-homogeneous phase distribution was observed, which resulted from the heat transfer regime during the cooling of the melt in the copper mold. As expected, the nature, distribution and volumetric fraction of the various phases produced play an important role on the resulting magnetic properties. Among the main observed phases are Fe-rich rod-like crystals, Nd-rich dendritic crystals and a ''like-amorphous'' matrix. The hard magnetic properties of these materials can be associated with this matrix. In these cooling regimes, the coercive field increases as the cooling rate of the amorphous matrix increases. Hysteresis loops showed a high degree of coupling between phases with different magnetic order. Both the coercive field and the magnetization showed a significant variation along the rod axis; a maximum appeared as a function of the axis length. In order to gather more information about the coupling between the observed phases, {delta}M (or Henkel) plots were obtained, showing an exchange character for interactions (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Magnetic properties and power losses in Fe-Co-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccin, R. [Dip. Chim. IFM and NIS, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, Torino 10125 (Italy)], E-mail: rafael.piccin@unito.it; Tiberto, P. [Electromagnetism Division, INRIM, Strade delle Cacce 91, Torino 10135 (Italy); Chiriac, H. [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., Iasi 700050 (Romania); Baricco, M. [Dip. Chim. IFM and NIS, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, Torino 10125 (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based bulk metallic glasses have been experimentally investigated. Samples were prepared by water-cooled Cu-mold injection casting technique. The samples have cylindrical shapes with 0.8 mm diameter and 30 mm length. Amorphous structures were confirmed by the presence of a main halo in X-ray diffraction patterns and by the detection of crystallization signal around 650 deg. C using differential scanning calorimetry. Owing to their amorphous structure, these materials present good soft magnetic properties with coercivity below 100 A/m and magnetic induction around 1.0 T in quasi-static conditions. Hysteresis loops were measured using a digital wattmeter with controlled induction waveform. Power losses were analyzed for the following compositions: [(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 75}B{sub 20}Si{sub 5}]{sub 93}Nb{sub 4}Y{sub 3} (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) over a range of frequencies from 1 to 400 Hz at selected fixed peak inductions. Co addition has shown to improve the soft magnetic properties when x=0.2, 0.4 and 0.5, decreasing coercive fields and power losses, while the magnetic induction is slightly increased (except for x=0.5). Further Co addition (x=0.6) is detrimental for the soft magnetic properties due to the presence of crystalline {alpha}-Fe-(Co) and boride phases. The frequency dependence of power losses was described using a separation theory. It has been observed that an f{sup 1/2} rule is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Magnetic properties and power losses in Fe-Co-based bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccin, R.; Tiberto, P.; Chiriac, H.; Baricco, M.

    Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based bulk metallic glasses have been experimentally investigated. Samples were prepared by water-cooled Cu-mold injection casting technique. The samples have cylindrical shapes with 0.8 mm diameter and 30 mm length. Amorphous structures were confirmed by the presence of a main halo in X-ray diffraction patterns and by the detection of crystallization signal around 650 °C using differential scanning calorimetry. Owing to their amorphous structure, these materials present good soft magnetic properties with coercivity below 100 A/m and magnetic induction around 1.0 T in quasi-static conditions. Hysteresis loops were measured using a digital wattmeter with controlled induction waveform. Power losses were analyzed for the following compositions: [(Fe 1-xCo x) 75B 20Si 5] 93Nb 4Y 3 ( x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) over a range of frequencies from 1 to 400 Hz at selected fixed peak inductions. Co addition has shown to improve the soft magnetic properties when x=0.2, 0.4 and 0.5, decreasing coercive fields and power losses, while the magnetic induction is slightly increased (except for x=0.5). Further Co addition ( x=0.6) is detrimental for the soft magnetic properties due to the presence of crystalline α-Fe-(Co) and boride phases. The frequency dependence of power losses was described using a separation theory. It has been observed that an f1/2 rule is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a phase-separating Mg-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Qiu, K.Q., E-mail: kqqiu@163.com; Ren, Y.L.; Li, R.D.

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • A phase-separated (Mg{sub 0.585}Cu{sub 0.305}Y{sub 0.11}){sub 97}(Zr{sub 0.35}Ti{sub 0.3}Be{sub 0.275}Cu{sub 0.075}){sub 3} was found in this paper. • A fully amorphous structure containing two different glassy phases caused by phase separation was observed. • The improvement of the mechanical properties of the BMG is attributed to the shear-band multiplication and interaction caused by the harder Zr-rich amorphous spherical particle. - Abstract: Samples of the (Mg{sub 0.585}Cu{sub 0.305}Y{sub 0.11}){sub 97}(Zr{sub 0.35}Ti{sub 0.3}Be{sub 0.275}Cu{sub 0.075}){sub 3} bulk metallic glass (BMG) with 3 mm in diameter were successfully fabricated by copper mould casting method. The amorphous nature, thermal stability, microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electronic testing machine. The results show that the alloy presents a fully amorphous structure containing two glassy phases caused by phase separation. The Zr-rich amorphous spherical phase is distributed in the Mg-rich glassy matrix of the as-cast sample. Under uniaxial compressive loading, the compressive fracture strength, elastic strain and plastic strain of the BMG with a diameter of 3 mm are 1026 MPa, 2.2% and 0.3%, respectively. The ridge form vein-like patterns and multiple shear bands are observed in the fracture surface, indicating the improvement of the mechanical properties of the alloy. The formation of phase separation and the corresponding fracture mechanism were discussed.

  20. Defects and Plastic-Deformation Modes of Bulk-Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusenko, Yuri; Bakai, Alexander; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mikhailovskij, Igor; Bakai, Sergij; Liaw, Peter K.; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Tao

    2011-06-01

    Results of the investigation of the point-defect manifestation in the recovery kinetics of Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 and Zr52.5Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10 bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs) irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at 80 K (-193.15 °C) are presented. An observation of the pronounced annealing stages at 155 K and 130 K (-118.15 °C and -143.15 °C), and 225 K (-48.15 °C), shows that irradiation generates stable point defects in BMGs. The ultrasonic vibrations (USVs) of different amplitudes were used to investigate their effects on the cluster boundaries. The Kaiser effect is chosen as a tool for examining the boundary-slip initiation and impact of vibrations on the intercluster-boundary structure. Both the acoustic-emission activity and strength decrease due to the specimen pretreatment by USV. This effect is interpreted as a result of boundary softening under the USV. The inherent tensile strength of a Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 BMG (in atomic percent) in the as-cast state was determined by means of high-field mechanical loading using the field-ion microscopy. It was revealed that the strength is characterized by a strong size effect in a nanometer-scale range as a result of the manifestation of the structural nanoheterogeneities and, in part, the existence of the cluster boundaries.

  1. Microscale Mechanical Deformation Behaviors and Mechanisms in Bulk Metallic Glasses Investigated with Micropillar Compression Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchao

    2011-12-01

    Over the past years of my PhD study, the focused-ion-beam (FIB) based microcompression experiment has been thoroughly investigated with respect to the small-scale deformation in metallic glasses. It was then utilized to explore the elastic and plastic deformation mechanisms in metallic glasses. To this end, micropillars with varying sample sizes and aspect ratios were fabricated by the FIB technique and subsequently compressed on a modified nanoindentation system. An improved formula for the measurement of the Young's modulus was derived by adding a geometrical prefactor to the Sneddon's solution. Through the formula, geometry-independent Young's moduli were extracted from microcompression experiments, which are consistent with nanoindentation results. Furthermore, cyclic microcompression was developed, which revealed reversible inelastic deformation in the apparent elastic regime through high-frequency cyclic loading. The reversible inelastic deformation manifests as hysteric loops in cyclic microcompression and can be captured by the Kelvin-type viscoelastic model. The experimental results indicate that the free-volume zones behave essentially like supercooled liquids with an effective viscosity on the order of 1 x 108 Pas. The microscopic yield strengths were first extracted with a formula derived based on the Mohr-Coulomb law to account for the geometrical effects from the tapered micropillar and the results showed a weak size effect on the yield strengths of a variety of metallic-glass alloys, which can be attributed to Weibull statistics. The nature of the yielding phenomenon was explored with the cyclic micro-compression approach. Through cyclic microcompression of a Zr-based metallic glass, it can be demonstrated that its yielding stress increases at higher applied stress rate but its yielding strain is kept at a constant of ~ 2%. The room-temperature post-yielding deformation behavior of metallic glasses is characterized by flow serrations, which were

  2. The atomic-scale mechanism for the enhanced glass-forming-ability of a Cu-Zr based bulk metallic glass with minor element additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Liu, C T; Yang, Y; Liu, J B; Dong, Y D; Lu, J

    2014-04-11

    It is known that the glass forming-ability (GFA) of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be greatly enhanced via minor element additions. However, direct evidence has been lacking to reveal its structural origin despite different theories hitherto proposed. Through the high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, here we show that the content of local crystal-like orders increases significantly in a Cu-Zr-Al BMG after a 2-at% Y addition. Contrasting the previous studies, our current results indicate that the formation of crystal-like order at the atomic scale plays an important role in enhancing the GFA of the Cu-Zr-Al base BMG.

  3. Microstructure Effects on Spall Strength of Titanium-based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rene; Hofmann, Douglas; Thadhani, Naresh; Georgia Tech Team; GT-JPL Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    The spall strength of Ti-based metallic glass composites is investigated as a function of varying volume fractions (0-80%) of in-situ formed crystalline dendrites. With increasing dendrite content, the topology changes such that neither the harder glass nor the softer dendrites dominate the microstructure. Plate-impact experiments were performed using the 80-mm single-stage gas gun over impact stresses up to 18 GPa. VISAR interferometry was used to obtain rear free-surface velocity profiles revealing the velocity pullback spall failure signals. The spall strengths were higher than for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and remained high up to impact stress. The influence of microstructure on the spall strength is indicated by the constants of the power law fit with the decompression strain rate. Differences in fracture behavior reveal void nucleation as a dominant mechanism affecting the spall strength. The microstructure with neither 100% glass nor with very high crystalline content, provides the most tortuous path for fracture and therefore highest spall strength. The results allow projection of spall strength predictions for design of in-situ formed metallic glass composites. ARO Grant # W911NF-09 ``1-0403 NASA JPL Contract # 1492033 ``Prime # NNN12AA01C; NSF GRFP Grant #DGE-1148903; and NDSE & G.

  4. On a solution to the problem of the poor cyclic fatigue resistance of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-01-09

    The recent development of metallic glass-matrix composites represents a particular milestone in engineering materials for structural applications owing to their remarkable combinations of strength and toughness. However, metallic glasses are highly susceptible to cyclic fatigue damage and previous attempts to solve this problem have been largely disappointing. Here we propose and demonstrate a microstructural design strategy to overcome this limitation by matching the microstructural length scales (of the second phase) to mechanical crack-length scales. Specifically, semi-solid processing is used to optimize the volume fraction, morphology, and size of second phase dendrites to confine any initial deformation (shear banding) to the glassy regions separating dendrite arms having length scales of {approx} 2 {micro}m, i.e., to less than the critical crack size for failure. Confinement of the damage to such interdendritic regions results in enhancement of fatigue lifetimes and increases the fatigue limit by an order of magnitude making these 'designed' composites as resistant to fatigue damage as high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. These design strategies can be universally applied to any other metallic glass systems.

  5. Glass formation and magnetic properties of Fe-C-Si-B-P-(Cr-Al-Co) bulk metallic glasses fabricated using industrial raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. X.; Wang, S. L.; Yi, S.; Jiao, Z. B.; Wu, Y.; Lu, Z. P.

    2009-09-01

    Formation of Fe-C-Si-B-P-(Cr-Al-Co) bulk metallic glasses with enhanced glass-forming ability (GFA) and magnetic properties fabricated using industrial pig-iron and Fe-P alloys as raw materials has been studied. It was found that GFA of the pig-iron (Fe 79.5C 18.0Si 2.3P 0.2, at%) could be improved by proper additions of only metalloids C, Si, P and B, and fully glassy structure was obtained in the Fe 75.5C 7.0Si 3.3B 5.5P 8.7 alloy with a critical diameter of 1 mm. With suitable additions of metallic elements Cr, Co and Al, the GFA is further increased and fully amorphous rods in 4 mm diameter can be prepared for the Fe 68.2C 7.0Si 3.3B 5.5P 8.7Cr 2.3Al 2.0Co 3.0 alloy that shows a unique combination of good soft-magnetic properties ( Ms=1.03 T, Hc=9.39 A/m), high GFA and high fracture strength. These low-cost Fe-based bulk metallic glasses fabricated using industrial raw materials have a potential to be utilized as engineering materials.

  6. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of MgZnCa Bulk Metallic Glass Composites with Ti-Particle Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chun Wong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rod samples of Mg60Zn35Ca5 bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs dispersed with Ti particles have been successfully fabricated via injection casting. The glass forming ability (GFA and the mechanical properties of these Mg-based BMGCs have been systematically investigated as a function of the volume fraction (Vf of Ti particles. The results showed that the compressive ductility increased with Vf. The mechanical performance of these BMGCs, with up to 5.4% compressive failure strain and 1187 MPa fracture strength at room temperature, can be obtained for the Mg-based BMGCs with 50 vol % Ti particles, suggesting that these dispersed Ti particles can absorb the energy of the crack propagations and can induce branches of the primary shear band into multiple secondary shear bands. It follows that further propagation of the shear band is blocked, enhancing the overall plasticity.

  7. Formation, Crystallization Behavior, and Soft Magnetic Properties of FeCSiBP Bulk Metallic Glass Fabricated Using Industrial Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. X.; Gao, J. E.; Wang, S. L.; Yi, S.; Lu, Z. P.

    2012-08-01

    Formation of pseudo-binary Fe-C-Si-B-P bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with good glass-forming ability (GFA) and soft magnetic properties prepared using industrial pig-iron and P-Fe alloys as raw materials was investigated. It was found that the GFA could be enhanced by tuning the content of carbon, and fully glassy rods with a maximum diameter of 2 mm were obtained in the Fe77.3C5.9Si3.3B4.8P8.7 alloy. The crystallization behavior and its effects on the soft magnetic properties of the Fe77.3C5.9Si3.3B4.8P8.7 alloy were analyzed. The superior magnetic properties, coupled with large GFA and low cost of raw materials, make the current Fe-based BMGs promising for potential applications in electric industries.

  8. Large magnetic entropy change of Gd-based ternary bulk metallic glass in liquid-nitrogen temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Yu, H. J.; Teng, B. H.; Zu, X. T.

    2008-01-01

    Gd 60Co 26Al 14 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a diameter of 3 mm was prepared by arc-melting and copper-mold suck-casting. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the as-cast Gd 60Co 26Al 14 rod consists of a wholly amorphous phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements indicated that one glass transition temperature (Tg) and two crystallization temperatures (TX) occur at 570, 602, and 642 K, respectively. Moreover, two Curie temperatures of 82 and 128 K, which correspond to the two amorphous phases in the DSC trace, were determined from the thermo-magnetization curve. The maximal magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) under 0-5 T is about 10.1 J/kg K at 75 K and the refrigerant capacity (RC) is about 556 J/kg, which makes Gd 60Co 26Al 14 BMG a promising candidate for magnetic refrigerant near liquid-nitrogen temperatures.

  9. Effect of Mo on properties of the industrial Fe-B-alloy-derived Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai-rui; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Ji-li; Zhang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    The experimental results concerning the effects of Mo on the glass-forming ability (GFA), thermal stability, and mechanical, anticorrosion, and magnetic properties of an (Fe71.2B24Y4.8)96Nb4 bulk metallic glass (BMG) were presented. An industrial Fe-B alloy was used as the raw material, and a series of Fe-based BMGs were synthesized. In BMGs with the Mo contents of approximately 1at%-2at%, the cast alloy reached a critical diameter of 6 mm. The hardness and fracture strength also reached their maximum values in this alloy system. However, the anticorrosion and magnetic properties of the BMGs were not substantially improved by the addition of Mo. The low cost, good GFA, high hardness, and high fracture strength of the Fe-based BMGs developed in this work suggest that they are potential candidates for commercial applications.

  10. Investigation of crystallization kinetics and deformation behavior in supercooled liquid region of CuZr-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ke; Fan, Xinhui; Li, Bing; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xuanxuan [Xi' an Technological Univ. (China). School of Material and Chemical Engineering

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, a systematic study of crystallization kinetics and deformation behavior is presented for (Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}){sub 94}Al{sub 6} bulk metallic glass in the supercooled liquid region. Crystallization results showed that the activation energy for (Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}){sub 94}Al{sub 6} was calculated using the Arrhenius equation in isothermal mode and the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method in non-isothermal mode. The activation energy was quite high compared with other bulk metallic glasses. Based on isothermal transformation kinetics described by the Johson-Mehl-Avrami model, the average Avrami exponent of about 3.05 implies a mainly diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth with an increasing nucleation rate during the crystallization. For warm deformation, the results showed that deformation behavior, composed of homogeneous and inhomogeneous deformation, is strongly dependent on strain rate and temperature. The homogeneous deformation transformed from non-Newtonian flow to Newtonian flow with a decrease in strain rate and an increase in temperature. It was found that the crystallization during high temperature deformation is induced by heating. The appropriate working temperature/strain rate combination for the alloy forming, without in-situ crystallization, was deduced by constructing an empirical deformation map. The optimum process condition for (Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}){sub 94}Al{sub 6} can be expressed as T∝733 K and ∝ ε 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}.

  11. Metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Arjen Sybren

    1981-01-01

    It is shown in section 7.1. that the influence of topological disorder on the range of magnetic interactions in ferromagnetic transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) glasses, is much less than often assumed. This is demonstrated via a study of the temperature dependence of the average iron hyperfine field

  12. Multi-scale Characterisation of the 3D Microstructure of a Thermally-Shocked Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Bodey, Andrew J; Sui, Tan; Kockelmann, Winfried; Rau, Christoph; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Mi, Jiawei

    2016-01-04

    Bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) are a new class of metal alloys which have significantly increased ductility and impact toughness, resulting from the ductile crystalline phases distributed uniformly within the amorphous matrix. However, the 3D structures and their morphologies of such composite at nano and micrometre scale have never been reported before. We have used high density electric currents to thermally shock a Zr-Ti based BMGMC to different temperatures, and used X-ray microtomography, FIB-SEM nanotomography and neutron diffraction to reveal the morphologies, compositions, volume fractions and thermal stabilities of the nano and microstructures. Understanding of these is essential for optimizing the design of BMGMCs and developing viable manufacturing methods.

  13. Excellent Glass Forming Ability and Refrigeration Capacity of a Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 Bulk Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Wang, Peng; Guan, Quan; Tang, Mei-Bo; Xia, Lei

    2013-09-01

    We investigate an excellent refrigeration capacity Rc of Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 bulk metallic glass (BMG). The Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 glassy rod is subjected to Cu mold suction-casting to prepare bulky metallic glasses, with a diameter of 3mm. The glass forming ability as well as the magnetic properties of the BMG is investigated. The BMG exhibits a rather high glass formation ability with critical diameter of about 5.6mm. The peak value of magnetic entropy change of about 8 J·kg-1 K-1 is obtained in this alloy. This BMG alloy also exhibits excellent magnetic refrigerant capacity of about 880 J·kg-1 under the field of 5T and 35% larger than that of other alloys reported previously, supposed to be closely related to the high effective moment (~7.3μB) of the Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 BMG.

  14. Effect of Hafnium and Zirconium to Glass Forming Ability, Thermal Stability, Plasticity Deformation and Crystallization of Ni-Free Pentabasic Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak J.J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The newly designed Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG in which case of fracture behavior was observed 1990MPa to compressive strength with a wide plastic deformation around 7% after process of elastic deformation. This phenomenon can be compared with those of Ti-based alloys and other Ti-based BMGs and indicates high potential to be applied in use. It was evaluated the Ti-based BMG for thermal stability that the reduced glass parameters, ΔTx, Trg and γ, are 79K, 0.50 and 0.38, respectively. In addition, it reveals high activation energies for crystallization in which are estimated to Ex1 = 291.77 ±9.71 kJ/mol, Ex2 = 588.77 ±28.88 kJ/mol and Ex3 = 330.26 ±3.61 kJ/mol on kissinger plotting in this study.

  15. Development of Fe-B Based Bulk Metallic Glasses: Morphology of Residual Phases in Fe50Ni16Mo6B18Zr10 Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiburce A. Aboki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron-boron based bulk metallic glasses (BMG development has been initiated using Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 as precursor. Addition of zirconium up to 10 atomic % along with the reduction of Ni proportion improves the glass forming ability (GFA, which is optimum when Ni is suppressed in the alloy. However melting instability occurred during the materials fabrication resulting in the formation of residual crystalline phases closely related to the amorphous phase. Microstructure study shows an evolution from amorphous structure to peculiar acicular structure, particularly for Fe50Ni16Mo6B18Zr10, suggesting the amorphous structure as interconnected atomic sheets like “atomic mille feuilles” whose growth affects the alloys’ GFA.

  16. Pronounced Plasticity Caused by Phase Separation and β-relaxation Synergistically in Zr-Cu-Al-Mo Bulk Metallic Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Wang, Lu; Wang, Qinjia; Liu, Yanhui; Hui, Xidong

    2017-04-27

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are known to have extraordinary merits such as ultrahigh strength and dynamic toughness etc. but tied to the detrimental brittleness, which has become a critical issue to the engineering application and understanding the glass nature. In this article, we report a new class of Zr-Cu-Al-Mo BMGs with extraordinary plastic strain above 20%. "Work-hardening" effect after yielding in a wide range of plastic deformation process has been detected for this kind of BMGs. Compositional heterogeneity, which can be classified into ZrMo- and Cu-rich zones, was differentiated in this kind of BMG. Pronounced humps have been observed on the high frequency kinetic spectrum in Mo containing BMGs, which is the indicator of β-relaxation transition. The underlying mechanism for the excellent plastic deforming ability of this class of BMGs is ascribed to the synergistic effects of soft ZrMo-rich glass formed through phase separation and abundant flow units which related to β-relaxation.

  17. Effect of MoSi2 Content on Dry Sliding Tribological Properties of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass and its composites were prepared by suction casting into a copper mold. The effect of MoSi2 content on the tribological behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG was studied by using a high-speed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The results indicate that the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the BMGs can be improved by a certain amount of crystalline phase induced by MoSi2 content from 1 to 3% and deteriorated with MoSi2 content of 4%. The wear mechanism of both the metallic glass and its composite is abrasive wear. The mechanism of crystalline phase-dependent tribological properties of the composite was discussed based on the wear track and mechanical properties in the present work. The wear behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG and its composite indicates that a good combination of the toughness and the hardness can make the composite be well wear resistant.

  18. Corrosion of Biocompatible Mg66+xZn30-xCa4 (x=0.2 Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowosielski R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the corrosion resistance of Mg66Zn30Ca4 and Mg68Zn28Ca4 metallic glasses and evaluate the ability of this amorphous alloy use for medical applications as biodegradable medical implants. Taking into account the amount of Mg, Zn, Ca elements dissolved in multielectrolyte physiological fluid (MPF from Mg66+xZn30-xCa4 (x=0.2 alloys the daily dose of evolved ions from alloys components was determined. Additional goal of the paper was determination of corrosion rate (Vcorr and amount of hydrogen evolved from amorphous magnesium alloys in simulated environment of human body fluids during 24h immersion and during electrochemical tests. Corrosion studies were done in the multielectrolyte physiological fluid (MPF at 37°C. The amount of hydrogen evolved [ml/cm2] and corrosion rate Vcorr [mm/year] of amorphous Mg66Zn30Ca4 and Mg68Zn28Ca4 alloys were compared. The work also presents characterization of Mg-based bulk metallic glasses structure in the form of 2 mm thickness plates. Samples structure was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction. Fracture and surface morphology of magnesium alloy samples were identified using scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Corrosion study of resorbable Ca60Mg15Zn25 bulk metallic glasses in physiological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Babilas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion activity of amorphous plates of Ca60Mg15Zn25 alloy was investigated. The biocompatible elements were selected for the alloy composition. The electrochemical corrosion and immersion tests were carried out in a multi-electrolyte fluid and Ringer's solution. Better corrosion behavior was observed for the samples tested in a multi-electrolyte fluid despite the active dissolution of Ca and Mg in Ringer's solution. The experimental results indicated that reducing concentration of NaCl from 8.6 g/dm3 for Ringer's solution to 5.75 g/dm3 caused the decrease of the corrosion rate. The volume of the hydrogen evolved after 480 min in Ringer's solution (40.1 ml/cm2 was higher in comparison with that obtained in a multi-electrolyte fluid (24.4 ml/cm2. The values of open-circuit potential (EOCP for the Ca60Mg15Zn25 glass after 1 h incubation in Ringer's solution and a multi-electrolyte fluid were determined to be −1553 and −1536 mV vs. a saturated calomel electrode (SCE. The electrochemical measurements indicated a shift of the corrosion current density (jcorr from 1062 μA/cm2 for the sample tested in Ringer's solution to 788 μA/cm2 for the specimen immersed in a multi-electrolyte fluid. The corrosion products analysis was conducted by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The corrosion products were identified to be CaCO3, Mg(OH2, CaO, MgO and ZnO. The mechanism of corrosion process was proposed and described based on the microscopic observations. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR also indicated that Ca(OH2, CaCO3, Zn(OH2 and Ca(Zn(OH32·2H2O mainly formed on the surface of the studied alloy. Keywords: Ca-based metallic glasses, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Corrosion resistance, Hydrogen evaluation

  20. Alloying effect on the room temperature creep characteristics of a Ti-Zr-Be bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pan; Wang, Sibo; Li, Fangwei; Wang, Xinyun

    2018-02-01

    The effect of alloying elements (e.g. Fe, Al, and Ni) on the room temperature creep behavior of a lightweight Ti41Zr25Be34 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was investigated via nanoindentation tests. The generalized Kelvin model was adopted to describe the creep curves. The strain rate sensitivity m has been derived as a measure of the creep resistance. The compliance spectrum and retardation spectrum were also derived. The results show that the creep resistance of Ti41Zr25Be34 alloy can be obviously improved with the addition of alloying elements, and the most effective element is found to be Al. The mechanism for enhancing the creep resistance was discussed in terms of the scale variation of the shear transformation zone induced by alloying.

  1. Relation between calculated Lennard-Jones potential and thermal stability of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Bian, X. F.; Jiang, J.

    2006-05-01

    Two metallic bulk glasses, Cu60Zr30Ti10 and Cu47Ti33Zr11Ni8Si1, with a diameter of 3 mm were prepared by copper mold casting method. Dilatometric measurement was carried out on the two glassy alloys to obtain information about the average nearest-neighbour distance r and the effective depth of pair potential V. By assuming a Lennard-Jones potential, r and V were calculated to be 0.28 nm and 0.16 eV for Cu60Zr30Ti10 and 0.27 nm and 0.13 eV for Cu47Ti33Zr11Ni8Si1, respectively. It was found that the glassy alloy Cu60Zr30Ti10 was more stable than Cu47Ti33Zr11Ni8Si1 against heating from both experiment and calculation.

  2. Noncontact measurement of high-temperature surface tension and viscosity of bulk metallic glass-forming alloys using the drop oscillation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, S.; Johnson, W. L.; Rhim, W. K.

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature surface tension and viscosities for five bulk metallic glass-forming alloys with widely different glass-forming abilities are measured. The measurements are carried out in a high-vacuum electrostatic levitator using the drop oscillation technique. The surface tension follows proportional mathematical addition of pure components' surface tension except when some of the constituent elements have much lower surface tension. In such cases, there is surface segregation of the low ...

  3. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Pauly, S; Tang, M Q; Eckert, J; Zhang, H F

    2016-01-12

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated.

  4. Influence of Cu content on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Mg-Zn-Ca bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-feng; Zhu, Jian; Chang, Li; Song, Jing-guo; Chen, Xiao-hua; Hui, Xi-dong

    2014-05-01

    (Mg66.2Zn28.8Ca5)100- x Cu x (at%, x = 0, 1, 3, and 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of 2 mm in diameter were prepared by the conventional copper mold injection casting method. Besides, the influence of Cu content on the microstructure, thermal stability, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs was investigated. It is found that the addition of Cu decreases the glass-forming ability of Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs. Crystalline phases are precipitated at a higher Cu content, larger than 3at%. The compressive fracture strength of Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs is enhanced by the addition of Cu. With the formation of in-situ composites, the compressive strength of the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy with 3at% Cu reaches 979 MPa, which is the highest strength among the Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. Furthermore, the addition of Cu also results in the increase of corrosion potential and the decrease of corrosion current density in Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs, thereby delaying their biodegradability.

  5. Crystallization in Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhou, T.J.; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of the bulk metallic glass-forming Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 alloy with a wide supercooled liquid region has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation....

  6. On the crystallization kinetics of Zr-(Co,Ni)-Al bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X. M.; Zhang, Q. F.; Duan, X. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Jiang, Y. H.; Zhou, R.; Tan, J.

    2017-07-01

    Zr-based amorphous alloys are promising materials applied in engineering field, due to their strong glass-forming ability, outstanding mechanical properties and relatively low cost. In this work, the crystallization kinetics of Zr56Co18-xNixAl16 (x = 0, 2, 4 and 8; marked as Ni0, Ni2, Ni4 and Ni8, respectively) alloys are investigated in detail. The results show that, due to the addition of Ni, the glass transition of the alloys presents obvious dynamic characteristics, i.e., with the increasing heating rate, all characteristic temperatures are shifted to higher temperature. By fitting the Kissinger equation, the glass transition activation energy of Ni8 is the highest, indicating that Ni8 is much more difficult to crystallize. Therefore, the Ni8 alloy has the strongest anti-crystallization ability in the Zr56Co18-xNixAl16 alloys investigated.

  7. Evaluation of Ni-free Zr–Cu–Fe–Al bulk metallic glass for biomedical implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Kai, Wu [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► A Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass (BMG) with 50 GPa elastic modulus was used. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had lower metal ion release rate than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had better proteins adsorption than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG has a high potential for biomedical implant applications. -- Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the surface characteristics, including the chemical composition, metal ion release, protein adsorption, and cell adhesion, of a Ni-free Zr-based (Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10}) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with low elastic modulus for biomedical implant applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to identify the surface chemical composition and the protein (albumin and fibronectin) adsorption of the specimen. The metal ions released from the specimen in simulated blood plasma and artificial saliva solutions were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The cell adhesion, in terms of the morphology, focal adhesion complex, and skeletal arrangement, of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated using scanning electron microscope observations and immunofluorescent staining. For comparison purposes, the above-mentioned tests were also carried out on the widely used biomedical metal, Ti. The results showed that the main component on the outermost surface of the amorphous Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG was ZrO{sub 2} with small amounts of Cu, Al, and Fe oxides. The released metal ions from Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG were well below the critical concentrations that cause negative biological effects. The Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG had a greater adsorption capacity for albumin and fibronectin than that of commercial biomedical Ti. The Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG surface showed an attached cell number similar

  8. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Improvement of Plasticity of Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses by Addition of Nb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Sheng-Feng; Zhan, Zai-Ji; Fan, Chang-Zeng; Jia, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Bao-Qing; Liu, Ri-Ping; Wang, Wen-Kui

    2008-11-01

    Ti-based bulk metallic glasses (Ti4oZr25Cu9Ni8Be18)100-xNbx with x = 0 to 5at.% are prepared by copper-mold casting. The glass formation ability is almost unchanged by addition of Nb. The compression plasticity is, however, apparently changed, from 3% at x = 0 to 13% at x = 3, about 330% increases at the strain rate of 1 × 10-4s-1. The increment of the plasticity can be attributed to the segregation of Nb in the area of shear bands during the compression processing. An effective way to increase the plasticity of Ti-based bulk metallic glasses is thus proposed.

  9. Formation of zirconium metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng

    2004-07-15

    Bulk metallic glasses are commonly produced by the rapid cooling of liquid alloys. They have emerged over the past decade as a novel class of materials, with attractive properties and technological promise. The bulk metallic glasses so far produced contain three or more component elements. These complex compositions are necessary to frustrate the crystallization of the liquid melt on cooling, but can also lead to phase separation, which is detrimental to the thermal and mechanical properties of metallic glasses. Here we report, using X-ray diffraction measurements, the formation of a bulk metallic glass from elemental zirconium at high static pressures and low temperatures (relative to its melting temperature at atmospheric pressure). Amorphous zirconium can be recovered at ambient conditions and demonstrates a superior thermal stability compared to amorphous alloys, which could lead to new high-temperature applications of amorphous metals.

  10. Preparation and characterization of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses in plate form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorato, G. C.; Fiore, G.; Castellero, A.; Baricco, M.; Moya, J. A.

    2012-08-01

    Amorphous alloys with composition (at%) Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Gd2 (alloy A) and Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 (alloy B) were prepared either using pure elements (A and B1) and a commercial AISI430 steel as a base material (B2). When prepared from pure elements both alloys (A and B1) could be cast in plate form with a fixed thickness of 2 mm and variable lengths between 10 and 20 mm by means of copper-mold injection in air atmosphere. In the case of alloy B2, prepared using commercial grade raw materials, rods of 2 mm diameter were obtained. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy observations confirmed that an amorphous structure was obtained in all the as-cast samples. A minor fraction of crystalline phases (oxides and carbides) was detected on the as-cast surface. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed a glass transition temperature at 856 K for alloy A and 841 K for alloy B1, and an onset crystallization temperature of 887 K for alloy A and 885 K for alloy B1. In the case of alloy B2 a slightly different crystallization sequence was observed. Values of hardness (∼13 GPa) and the Young modulus (∼180 GPa) were measured by nanoindentation for both the alloys. The effects of adverse casting conditions (such as air atmosphere, non-conventional injection copper mold casting and partial replacement of pure elements with commercial grade raw materials) on the glass formation and properties of the alloy are discussed.

  11. Pressure effect of glass transition temperature in Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Roseker, W.; Sikorski, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pressure effects on glass transition temperature and supercooled liquid region of a Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass have been investigated by performing in situ high-temperature and high-pressure x-ray powder diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. The glass transition was det...... range of 0-2.2 GPa. This method opens a possibility to study the pressure effect of glass transition process in glassy systems under high pressures (>1 GPa). (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  12. Effect of stress states on the deformation behavior of Cu-based bulk metallic glass in the supercooled liquid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E.S., E-mail: espark@ameslab.gov [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kim, H.J.; Bae, J.C. [Liquid Processing and Casting Technology R and D Department, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Inchon 406-130 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, M.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The effect of stress states on the deformation behavior in the SLR was studied in the Cu{sub 54}Ni{sub 6}Zr{sub 22}Ti{sub 18} BMG alloy. • The present BMG alloy displayed different plastic stress–strain curves under tensile and compressive plastic strain states. • The calculation of the diffusivity of Cu atoms indicated that the diffusion of Cu atoms is retarded by compressive stress and accelerated by tensile stress. • The fast diffusion of Cu atoms under tensile stress caused faster crystallization leading to a fast strain-hardening during the tensile plastic deformation. -- Abstract: The effect of stress states on the deformation behavior of the Cu{sub 54}Zr{sub 22}Ti{sub 18}Ni{sub 6} bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloy was studied in the supercooled liquid region. At 723 K, Newtonian plastic flow governed the deformation during the compression test, whereas strain-hardening occurred during the tensile test. At 733 K, a fast failure was observed during tensile test. The diffusion rate of Cu atoms in the BMG alloy plays an important role in the deformation behavior. The fast diffusion of Cu atoms under the tensile stress state caused faster crystallization leading to a fast strain-hardening during the tensile plastic deformation.

  13. Effect of Copper and Zirconium Addition on Properties of Fe-Co-Si-B-Nb Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Haris; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Akmal, Muhammad; Abbas, Zameer

    2017-07-01

    In this research work, iron-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have been fabricated, characterized and compared with Fe-Si alloy. BMG alloys of composition ((Fe0.6Co0.4)0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4) were synthesized by suction casting technique using chilled copper die. Effect of copper and zirconium addition on magnetic, mechanical, thermal and electrochemical behavior of ((Fe0.6Co0.4)0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4 BMGs was investigated. Furthermore, effect of annealing on nano-crystallization and subsequently on magnetic and mechanical behavior was also analyzed. Amorphousness of structure was evidenced by XRD analysis and microscopic visualization, whereas nano-crystallization behavior was identified by peak broadening of XRD patterns. Magnetic properties, measured by vibrating sample magnetometer, were found to be improved for as-cast BMG alloys by copper addition and further enhanced by nano-crystallization after annealing. Mechanical properties were observed to be increased by zirconium addition while slightly declined by copper addition. Potentiodynamic polarization analysis manifested the positive role of zirconium in enhancing corrosion resistance of BMGs in acidic, basic and brine mediums. Moreover, mechanical properties and corrosion analysis results affirmed the superiority of BMG alloys over Fe-Si alloy.

  14. Studies of Shear Band Velocity Using Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Strain During Quasistatic Compression of Bulk Metallic Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W J; Samale, M; Hufnagel, T; LeBlanc, M; Florando, J

    2009-06-15

    We have made measurements of the temporal and spatial features of the evolution of strain during the serrated flow of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass tested under quasistatic, room temperature, uniaxial compression. Strain and load data were acquired at rates of up to 400 kHz using strain gages affixed to all four sides of the specimen and a piezoelectric load cell located near the specimen. Calculation of the displacement rate requires an assumption about the nature of the shear displacement. If one assumes that the entire shear plane displaces simultaneously, the displacement rate is approximately 0.002 m/s. If instead one assumes that the displacement occurs as a localized propagating front, the velocity of the front is approximately 2.8 m/s. In either case, the velocity is orders of magnitude less than the shear wave speed ({approx}2000 m/s). The significance of these measurements for estimates of heating in shear bands is discussed.

  15. Magnetic small-angle neutron scattering on bulk metallic glasses: A feasibility study for imaging displacement fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettus, Denis; Deckarm, Michael; Leibner, Andreas; Birringer, Rainer; Stolpe, Moritz; Busch, Ralf; Honecker, Dirk; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Hautle, Patrick; Niketic, Nemanja; Fernández, Jesús Rodríguez; Barquín, Luis Fernández; Michels, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been utilized to study the magnetic microstructure of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In particular, the magnetic scattering from soft magnetic Fe70Mo5Ni5P12.5B2.5C5 and hard magnetic (Nd60Fe30Al10) 92Ni8 alloys in the as-prepared, aged, and mechanically deformed state is compared. While the soft magnetic BMGs exhibit a large field-dependent SANS response with perturbations originating predominantly from spatially varying magnetic anisotropy fields, the SANS cross sections of the hard magnetic BMGs are only weakly dependent on the field, and their angular anisotropy indicates the presence of scattering contributions due to spatially dependent saturation magnetization. Moreover, we observe an unusual increase in the magnetization of the rare-earth-based alloy after deformation. Analysis of the SANS cross sections in terms of the correlation function of the spin misalignment reveals the existence of field-dependent anisotropic long-wavelength magnetization fluctuations on a scale of a few tens of nanometers. We also give a detailed account of how the SANS technique relates to unraveling displacement fields on a mesoscopic length scale in disordered magnetic materials.

  16. Effect of Industrial Raw Materials on the Glass-Forming Ability, Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongqian; Ling, Haibo; Jiang, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-ternary Fe78P13C9 (the real composition is Fe77.6Si1.4P12.7C8.3) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with the maximum diameter of 1.5 mm based on industrial raw materials has been prepared by J-quenching technique using the master alloys with fluxing treatment, whereas fully amorphous alloy rod with the diameter of 1.0 mm cannot be obtained by the same preparation method using the master alloy without fluxing treatment. It is indicated that the glass formation ability (GFA) of the present Fe-based alloys based on industrial raw materials can be greatly enhanced through fluxing treatment. For comparison, the amorphous alloy rod with the same composition based on the pure raw materials has also been prepared by the same preparation technique and the critical diameter for fully glass formation gets to 2.0 mm. The DSC result indicates that the present Fe-based BMG based on industrial raw materials reveals higher thermal stability compared with the BMG based on pure raw materials. The magnetic tests show that the saturation magnetizations of the present Fe-based BMGs prepared by pure raw materials and industrial raw material are around 1.40 T, and have no significant difference. Compressive tests show that the present Fe-based BMG based on industrial raw materials exhibits higher compressive fracture strength (3.11 GPa) and slightly less plastic strain (0.8 pct) compared with the BMG based on pure raw materials with the same composition.

  17. The Duality of Fracture Behavior in a Ca-Based Bulk-Metallic Glass (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Structural Materials Division ______________________________________ ROBERT T. MARSHALL, Deputy Chief Structural Materials...G.Y. Wang, P.K.. Liaw, O.N. Senkov, and D.B. Miracle: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2010, vol. 41A, pp. 1775 79. 17. J.J. Lewandowski and A.L. Greer: Nat...X.K. Xi, D.Q. Zhao, M.X. Pan, W.H. Wang, Y. Wu, and J.J. Lewandowski : Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, vol. 94, pp. 125510 4. 28. J.J. Lewandowski , W.H. Wang

  18. Calculations of potential functions and thermophysical behaviors for La62Al14Ni12Cu12 and Cu46Zr44Al7Y3 bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Guoliang; Zhang, Xingchao; Liu, Lei

    2008-06-01

    Bulk metallic glasses La62Al14Ni12Cu12 and Cu46Zr44Al7Y3 were prepared by copper mold suction casting. The thermal-physical behaviors of bulk metallic glasses were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, ultrasonic techniques, and dilatometry. By calculating the Mie potential function from experimental data, the values of potential function powers (m and n) and related physical parameters such as the mean binding energy, etc., are obtained. Thus, unlike what some people have done by assuming values of m -n (7-14), the values of average nearest-neighbor separation r0 and effective depth of pair potential ϕ0 can be obtained from calculated values of m and n from Mie potential functions and they agree very well with the results in the literature. The calculations can be well consistent with the thermophysical behaviors by comparing the two amorphous alloys. In addition, it was enhanced that the effective depth of pair potential correlated with the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glass.

  19. Synthesis and properties of bulk metallic glasses in Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    Bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloy rods with diameters 7-25 mm were synthesized over a wide composition range using a fluxing technique. For most bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P alloys, the difference {Delta}T=T{sub x}-T{sub g} between the crystallization temperature T{sub x} and the glass transition temperature T{sub g} is larger than 90 K, while for bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys, {Delta}T varies from 27 to 73 K. Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 300-g bulk amorphous cylinders, 25mm dia and 50mm long, can be easily produced. This size is not an upper limit. The paper presents the glass formation ranges for both ternary alloy systems and data on the thermal stability of the amorphous alloys, as well as their specific heat, density, and elastic properties.

  20. Mapping strain fields induced in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses during in-situ nanoindentation by X-ray nanodiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamcová, J.; Bednarčík, J.; Franz, H. [DESY, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg 22547 (Germany); Mohanty, G.; Wehrs, J.; Michler, J. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstraße 39, Thun 3602 (Switzerland); Michalik, Š. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, Praha 18221 (Czech Republic); Krywka, C. [HZG, Institut für Werkstoffforschung, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg 22547 (Germany); Breguet, J. M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstraße 39, Thun 3602 (Switzerland); Alemnis GmbH, Feuerwerkerstraße 39, Thun 3602 (Switzerland)

    2016-01-18

    A pioneer in-situ synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction approach for characterization and visualization of strain fields induced by nanoindentation in amorphous materials is introduced. In-situ nanoindentation experiments were performed in transmission mode using a monochromatic and highly focused sub-micron X-ray beam on 40 μm thick Zr-based bulk metallic glass under two loading conditions. Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction scans in the deformed volume of Zr-based bulk metallic glass covering an area of 40 × 40 μm{sup 2} beneath the pyramidal indenter revealed two-dimensional map of elastic strains. The largest value of compressive elastic strain calculated from diffraction data at 1 N load was −0.65%. The region of high elastic compressive strains (<−0.3%) is located beneath the indenter tip and has radius of 7 μm.

  1. Crack initiation and fracture features of Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb bulk metallic glass during compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lesz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was investigation crack initiation and fracture features developed during compression of Fe-based bulk metallic glass (BMG. These Fe-based BMG has received great attention as a new class of structural material due to an excellent properties (e.g. high strength and high elasticity and low costs. However, the poor ductility and brittle fracture exhibited in BMGs limit their structural application. At room temperature, BMGs fails catastrophically without appreciable plastic deformation under tension and only very limited plastic deformation is observed under compression or bending. Hence a well understanding of the crack initiation and fracture morphology of Fe-based BMGs after compression is of much importance for designing high performance BMGs. The raw materials used in this experiment for the production of BMGs were pure Fe, Co, Nb metals and nonmetallic elements: Si, B. The Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb alloy was cast as rods with three different diameters. The structure of the investigated BMGs rod is amorphous. The measurement of mechanical properties (Young modulus - E, compressive stress - σc, elastic strain - ε, unitary elastic strain energy – Uu were made in compression test. Compression test indicates the rods of Fe-based alloy to exhibit high mechanical strength. The development of crack initiation and fracture morphology after compression of Fe-based BMG were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Fracture morphology of rods has been different on the cross section. Two characteristic features of the compressive fracture morphologies of BMGs were observed. One is the smooth region. Another typical feature of the compressive fracture morphology of BMGs is the vein pattern. The veins on the compressive fracture surface have an obvious direction as result of initial displace of sample along shear bands. This direction follows the direction of the displacement of a material. The formation of veins on the

  2. The influence of Sc addition on the welding microstructure of Zr-based bulk metallic glass: The stability of the amorphous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shing Hoa; Kuo, Pei Hung; Tsang, Hsiao Tsung; Jeng, Rong Ruey; Lin, Yu Lon

    2007-10-01

    Pulsed direct current autogeneous tungsten inert gas arc welding was conducted on rods of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 and (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 under two different cooling conditions. The crystalline precipitates in the fusion zone of BMG Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 were confirmed by microfocused x-ray diffraction pattern analysis as Zr2Ni and Zr2(Cu,Al) intermetallic compounds. In contrast, BMG with Sc addition (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 shows an excellent stable glass forming ability. The fusion zone of BMG (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 remains in the same amorphous state as that of the amorphous base metal when the weld is cooled with accelerated cooling.

  3. Influence of the irradiation temperature on the surface structure and physical/chemical properties of Ar ion-irradiated bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menéndez, E., E-mail: Enric.MenendezDalmau@fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Hynowska, A.; Fornell, J.; Suriñach, S. [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Montserrat, J. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, Campus Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Temst, K.; Vantomme, A. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baró, M.D. [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); García-Lecina, E. [Surfaces Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, E-20009 Donostia (Spain); Pellicer, E., E-mail: Eva.Pellicer@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, J., E-mail: Jordi.Sort@uab.cat [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Ion irradiation is performed on bulk metallic glasses at 300 K and close to T{sub g}. • Nanocrystallization is observed after high-temperature irradiation. • The mechanical properties are enhanced after the irradiation procedures. • Corrosion resistance is improved after irradiation close to T{sub g}. - Abstract: Surface treatments using multiple Ar ion irradiation processes with a maximum energy and fluence of 200 keV and 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively, have been performed on two different metallic glasses: Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 28}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 7} and Ti{sub 40}Zr{sub 10}Cu{sub 38}Pd{sub 12}. Analogous irradiation procedures have been carried out at room temperature (RT) and at T = 620 K (≈0.9 T{sub g}, where T{sub g} denotes the glass transition). The structure, mechanical behavior, wettability and corrosion resistance of the irradiated alloys have been compared with the properties of the as-cast and annealed (T = 620 K) non-irradiated specimens. While ion irradiation at RT does not significantly alter the amorphous structure of the alloys, ion irradiation close to T{sub g} promotes decomposition/nanocrystallization. Consequently, the hardness (H) and reduced Young’s modulus (E{sub r}) decrease after irradiation at RT but they both increase after irradiation at 620 K. While annealing close to T{sub g} increases the hydrophobicity of the samples, irradiation induces virtually no changes in the contact angle when comparing with the as-cast state. Concerning the corrosion resistance, although not much effect is found after irradiation at RT, an improvement is observed after irradiation at 620 K, particularly for the Ti-based alloy. These results are of practical interest in order to engineer appropriate surface treatments based on ion irradiation, aimed at specific functional applications of bulk metallic glasses.

  4. A combined arc-melting and tilt-casting furnace for the manufacture of high-purity bulk metallic glass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soinila, E.; Pihlajamäki, T.; Bossuyt, S.; Hänninen, H.

    2011-07-01

    An arc-melting furnace which includes a tilt-casting facility was designed and built, for the purpose of producing bulk metallic glass specimens. Tilt-casting was chosen because reportedly, in combination with high-purity processing, it produces the best fatigue endurance in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Incorporating the alloying and casting facilities in a single piece of equipment reduces the amount of laboratory space and capital investment needed. Eliminating the sample transfer step from the production process also saves time and reduces sample contamination. This is important because the glass forming ability in many alloy systems, such as Zr-based glass-forming alloys, deteriorates rapidly with increasing oxygen content of the specimen. The challenge was to create a versatile instrument, in which high purity conditions can be maintained throughout the process, even when melting alloys with high affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the design provides a high-vacuum chamber to be filled with a low-oxygen inert atmosphere, and takes special care to keep the system hermetically sealed throughout the process. In particular, movements of the arc-melting electrode and sample manipulator arm are accommodated by deformable metal bellows, rather than sliding O-ring seals, and the whole furnace is tilted for tilt-casting. This performance of the furnace is demonstrated by alloying and casting Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 directly into rods up to ø 10 mm which are verified to be amorphous by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and to exhibit locally ductile fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  5. Fabrication and Mechanical Behavior of Ex Situ Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite Reinforced with Electroless Cu-Coated SiC Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs have better plasticity than the corresponding bulk metallic glasses (BMGs; however, their strength and density are often compromised due to the fact that the effective reinforcement phase is mostly plastic heavy metal. For lightweight SiC-particle reinforced BMGMCs, interface wettability and the sharpness of the particles often reduce the strengthening effect. In this work, SiC particles were coated with a thin Cu coating by electroless plating, and added to Mg54Cu26.5Ag8.5Gd11 melt in an amount of 5 wt % to prepare a BMGMC. The microstructure of the interface, mechanical behavior and fracture morphology of the BMGMC were studied by scanning electron microscopy and quasi-static compression testing. The results showed that the Cu coating improved the wettability between SiC and the matrix alloy without obvious interfacial reactions, leading to the dispersion of SiC particles in the matrix. The addition of Cu-coated SiC particles improved the plastic deformation ability of Mg54Cu26.5Ag8.5Gd11 BMG, proving that electroless plating was an effective method for controlling the interface microstructure and mechanical behavior of BMGMCs.

  6. Hardening of shear band in metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.G.; Hu, Y. C.; Guan, P. F.; K. K. Song; Wang, L.; Wang, G.; Pan, Y; Sarac, B.; Eckert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Strain hardening, originating from defects such as the dislocation, avails conventional metals of high engineering reliability in applications. However, the hardenability of metallic glass is a long-standing concern due to the lack of similar defects. In this work, we carefully examine the stress-strain relationship in three bulk monolithic metallic glasses. The results show that hardening is surely available in metallic glasses if the effective load-bearing area is considered instantly. The ...

  7. Effect of Ni-substitution on glass forming ability, mechanical, and magnetic properties of FeBNbY bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Ansar; Ström, V.; Belova, L.; Rao, K. V.; Ågren, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to identify bulk glass forming ability by partial substitution of Fe by Ni in FeBNbY based amorphous alloy ribbons and as a consequence obtain enhanced mechanical and soft magnetic properties of bulk glassy rods of diameter as large as 4.5 mm. A detailed investigation of thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of (Fe0.72-x NixB0.24Nb0.04)95.5Y4.5 alloys (with x ˜ 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) was carried out. The supercooled regime (ΔTx) and other glass forming parameters, e.g., reduced glass transition temperature (Trg), the gamma (γ) parameter, etc., were found to be enhanced due to the Ni substitution resulting in improvement of glass forming ability (GFA). The maximum values of such parameters (ΔTx ˜ 94 K, Trg ˜ 0.644, and γ ˜ 0.435) were obtained for the alloy with x ˜ 0.06, making it possible to cast cylindrical rods with 4.5 mm diameter for this composition. Nanoindentation studies on glassy rods also point out that (Fe0.66Ni0.06B0.24Nb0.04)95.5Y4.5 alloy exhibit the maximum value of hardness (H ˜ 12 GPa) as well as elastic modulus (E ˜ 193 GPa) among all of these samples. In addition to these, that particular sample shows the lowest room temperature coercivity (Hc ˜ 210 mOe). By annealing at 823 K, Hc can be further reduced to 60 mOe due to its structural relaxation. We attribute the improved soft magnetic and mechanical properties of as-quenched (Fe0.66Ni0.06B0.24Nb0.04)95.5Y4.5 alloy to higher packing density attained due to its large glass forming ability.

  8. Effect of vanadium substitution for zirconium on the glass forming ability and mechanical properties of a Zr{sub 65}Cu{sub 17.5}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 7.5} bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khademian, Nima, E-mail: nkhademian@gmail.com [Department of Mechanics, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamipour, Reza [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahri, Farzad; Tamizifar, Morteza [Faculty of Engineering and High-Tech., Iran University of Industries and Mines (IUIM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of V is effective for a decrease in GFA of Zr-based BMGs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical properties of Zr-based BMGs are enhanced largely due to V addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlations among the elastic moduli, fracture strength, Vicker's hardness and glass transition for Zr-based BMGs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical resolved shear stress ({tau}) of the Zr{sub 65-x}Cu{sub 17.5}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 7.5}V{sub x} alloys decreases with the increase of V content. - Abstract: Effect of vanadium on the thermal and mechanical properties of the Zr{sub 65}Cu{sub 17.5}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 7.5} bulk metallic glass has been studied. The vanadium substitution for zirconium in the bulk metallic glass leads to the decrease of the glass forming ability in constant cooling rate; as well as co-precipitation of Zr{sub 2}Ni and Zr{sub 2}Cu crystalline phases in amorphous matrix. The size of the crystallites are about 20-50 nm in amorphous matrix and they act as a barrier against of rapid propagation of shear bands. In fact, the nanocrystalline phases in amorphous matrix cause the increase of the strain and the quasi-static compression strength about 58% and 20%, respectively.

  9. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  10. Thermal stability and magnetic properties of Fe–Co–M–Zr–Nb–Ge–B (M=Mo, Cr bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fe62Co8−xMxZr6Nb4Ge1B19 (M=Mo, Cr bulk metallic glasses were synthesized in the diameter range up to 2 mm by copper mold casting, which exhibit high thermal stability and large glass-forming ability. The super-cooled liquid region diminishes by the dissolution of Mo. The addition of 2 at% Cr leads to the broading of the liquid region remarkably, resulting in the improvement of thermal stability. The crystallization takes place through a single exothermic reaction, accompanying the precipitation of more than three kinds of crystallized phases such as α-Fe, Fe2Zr and ZrB2. The Fe-based alloys show soft ferromagnetic properties. The saturation magnetization (σs decreases with increasing Mo or Cr content while the saturated magnetostriction increases with raising Mo or Cr content. There is no evident change in the σs and coercive force (Hc with annealing temperature below the crystallization temperature, which suggests a more relaxed atomic configuration the glasses have. The crystallization causes a substantial enhancement in both σs and Hc. Each soft magnetic property of the glasses containing Cr with higher thermal stability is superior to that of the alloys containing Mo.

  11. On the Potential of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Dental Implantology: Case Study on Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethea Liens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG appears very attractive for future biomedical applications thanks to its high glass forming ability, the absence of toxic elements such as Ni, Al or Be and its good mechanical properties. For the first time, a complete and exhaustive characterization of a unique batch of this glassy alloy was performed, together with ISO standard mechanical tests on machined implant-abutment assemblies. The results were compared to the benchmark Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra-Low-Interstitial to assess its potential in dental implantology. The thermal stability, corrosion and sterilization resistance, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties were measured on samples with a simple geometry, but also on implant-abutment assemblies’ prototypes. Results show that the glassy alloy exhibits a quite high thermal stability, with a temperature range of 38 °C between the glass transition and crystallization, a compressive strength of 2 GPa, a certain plastic deformation (0.7%, a hardness of 5.5 GPa and a toughness of 56 MPa.√m. Moreover, the alloy shows a relatively lower Young’s modulus (96 GPa than the Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110–115 GPa, which is beneficial to limit bone stress shielding. The BMG shows a satisfactory cytocompatibility, a high resistance to sterilization and a good corrosion resistance (corrosion potential of −0.07 V/SCE and corrosion current density of 6.0 nA/cm2, which may ensure its use as a biomaterial. Tests on dental implants reveal a load to failure 1.5-times higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V and a comparable fatigue limit. Moreover, implants could be machined and sandblasted by methods usually conducted for titanium implants, without significant degradation of their amorphous nature. All these properties place this metallic glass among a promising class of materials for mechanically-challenging applications such as dental implants.

  12. Influence of friction on the residual morphology, the penetration load and the residual stress distribution of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, friction between the Cube-Corner indenter and the sample surface of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG was analyzed and discussed by the experimental method, the theoretical method and the finite element simulation. Linear residua are observed on the surface of the indenter for the first time, which gives the direct evidence that strong interaction processes exist between the indenter surface and the sample surface because of strong friction and local high contact press. A simplified model was developed to correct the penetration load with the consideration of friction. Effects of friction on the penetration load-depth curves, plastic flow, surface deformation and residual stress distribution of the sample with different friction coefficients were investigated by the finite element simulation.

  13. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Zr58.5Ti8.2Cu14.2Ni11.4Al7.7 Bulk Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Eckert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stability, structure and mechanical properties of the multi-component Zr58.5Ti8.2Cu14.2Ni11.4Al7.7 bulk metallic glass have been studied in detail. The glassy material displays good thermal stability against crystallization and a fairly large supercooled liquid region of 52 K. During heating, the alloy transforms into a metastable icosahedral quasicrystalline phase in the first stage of crystallization. At high temperatures, the quasicrystalline phase undergoes a transformation to form tetragonal and cubic NiZr2-type phases. Room-temperature compression tests of the as-cast sample show good mechanical properties, namely, high compressive strength of about 1,630 MPa and fracture strain of 3.3%. This is combined with a density of 6.32 g/cm3 and values of Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus of 0.377 and 77 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the glass can be further improved by cold rolling. The compressive strength rises to 1,780 MPa and the fracture strain increases to 8.3% for the material cold-rolled to a diameter reduction of 10%.

  14. Volume and enthalpy relaxation in Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 5}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, O., E-mail: haruyama@ph.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Nakayama, Y.; Wada, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Tokunaga, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ube National College of Technology, Ube 755-8555 (Japan); Okada, J.; Ishikawa, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace, Exploration Agency, Tsukuba 305-8505 (Japan); Yokoyama, Y. [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    The structural relaxation in a Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 5}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass was investigated by volume and enthalpy relaxation at various temperatures. The relaxation kinetics was well described by a stretched exponential relaxation function, {Phi}(t)=exp[-(t/{tau}){sup {beta}}]. The Kohlrausch index, {beta}, ranged from 0.35 to 0.69, while the temperature dependence of relaxation time, {tau} was best fitted by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tanmmann formula, {tau}(T)={tau}{sub 0}exp[D{sup *}T{sub 0}/(T-T{sub 0})], with {tau}{sub 0} = 1.1 x 10{sup -14} s, D{sup *} = 44.2 and T{sub 0} = 311 K. Atomic volumes in the equilibrium liquid region were measured by the electrostatic levitation method and these volumes, together with volumes of relaxed glasses, were better described by the Cohen-Grest model than by the Cohen-Turnbull model.

  15. Processing metallic glasses by selective laser melting

    OpenAIRE

    Pauly, Simon; Löber, Lukas; Petters, Romy; Stoica, Mihai; Scudino, Sergio; Kühn, Uta; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Metallic glasses and their descendants, the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), can be regarded as frozen liquids with a high resistance to crystallization. The lack of a conventional structure turns them into a material exhibiting near-theoretical strength, low Young's modulus and large elasticity. These unique mechanical properties can be only obtained when the metallic melts are rapidly cooled to bypass the nucleation and growth of crystals. Most of the commonly known and used processi...

  16. A Zr-based bulk metallic glass for future stent applications: Materials properties, finite element modeling, and in vitro human vascular cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Pu, Chao; Fisher, Richard K; Mountain, Deidra J H; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K; Zhang, Wei; He, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Despite the prevalent use of crystalline alloys in current vascular stent technology, new biomaterials are being actively sought after to improve stent performance. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of a Zr-Al-Fe-Cu bulk metallic glass (BMG) to serve as a candidate stent material. The mechanical properties of the Zr-based BMG, determined under both static and cyclic loadings, were characterized by high strength, which would allow for the design of thinner stent struts to improve stent biocompatibility. Finite element analysis further complemented the experimental results and revealed that a stent made of the Zr-based BMG was more compliant with the beats of a blood vessel, compared with medical 316L stainless steel. The Zr-based BMG was found to be corrosion resistant in a simulated body environment, owing to the presence of a highly stable ZrO2-rich surface passive film. Application-specific biocompatibility studies were conducted using human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The Zr-Al-Fe-Cu BMG was found to support stronger adhesion and faster coverage of endothelial cells and slower growth of smooth muscle cells than 316L stainless steel. These results suggest that the Zr-based BMG could promote re-endothelialization and potentially lower the risk of restenosis, which are critical to improve vascular stent implantation integration. In general, findings in this study raised the curtain for the potential application of BMGs as future candidates for stent applications. Vascular stents are medical devices typically used to restore the lumen of narrowed or clogged blood vessel. Despite the clinical success of metallic materials in stent-assisted angioplasty, post-surgery complications persist due to the mechanical failures, corrosion, and in-stent restenosis of current stents. To overcome these hurdles, strategies including new designs and surface functionalization have been exercised. In addition, the development of new materials with

  17. Hardening of shear band in metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J G; Hu, Y C; Guan, P F; Song, K K; Wang, L; Wang, G; Pan, Y; Sarac, B; Eckert, J

    2017-08-01

    Strain hardening, originating from defects such as the dislocation, avails conventional metals of high engineering reliability in applications. However, the hardenability of metallic glass is a long-standing concern due to the lack of similar defects. In this work, we carefully examine the stress-strain relationship in three bulk monolithic metallic glasses. The results show that hardening is surely available in metallic glasses if the effective load-bearing area is considered instantly. The hardening is proposed to result from the remelting and ensuing solidification of the shear-band material under a hydrostatic pressure imposed by the normal stress during the shear banding event. This applied-pressure quenching densifies the metallic glass by discharging the free volume. On the other hand, as validated by molecular dynamics simulations, the pressure promotes the icosahedral short-range order. The densification and icosahedral clusters both contribute to the increase of the shear strength and therefore the hardening in metallic glasses.

  18. The Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to shed some insights on the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties for glass-forming alloys. A crystalline gradient was observed in the microstructure of 12 mm diameter Zr51Al9.96Ni14.34Cu24.9 (Zr51 alloy sample from the edge to center due to uneven cooling rates. Microhardness results indicate that the lower the cooling rate, the higher the hardness for the studied alloy.

  19. Strong work-hardening behavior induced by the solid solution strengthening of dendrites in TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, D.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jiao, W.T. [College of Education, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Vocational and Technical College of Building Materials, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, B.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Hardness of dendrite of TiZr-based BMGMCs increases. • Strong work-hardening behavior is obtained after solid solution strengthening. • Lattice distortions of dendrite suffering from rapid cooling are detected. - Abstract: A series of TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) with distinguished mechanical properties are successfully fabricated by adding different volume fractions of Ta (Ti{sub 38.8}Zr{sub 28.8}Cu{sub 6.2}Be{sub 16.2}Nb{sub 10} as the basic composition, denoted as Ta{sub 0.0}–Ta{sub 8.0}). Along with the growth of precipitated phase, typical dendritic morphology is fully developed in the TiZr-based BMGMCs of Ta{sub 8.0}. Energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis of the dendrites and glass matrix indicates that the metallic elements of Nb and Ta should preferentially form solid solution into dendrites. The chaotic structure of high-temperature precipitate phase is trapped down by the rapid cooling of the copper-mould. The detected lattice distortions in the dendrites are attributed to the strong solid solution strengthening of the metallic elements of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta. These lattice distortions increase the resistance of the dislocation motion and pin the dislocations, thus the strength and hardness of dendrite increase. Dendrites create a strong barrier for the shear band propagation and generate multiple shear bands after solid solution strengthening, thereby providing the TiZr-based BMGMCs with greatly improved capacity to sustain plastic deformation and resistance to brittle fracture. Thus, the TiZr-based BMGMCs possess distinguished work-hardening capability. Among these TiZr-based BMGMCs, the sample Ta{sub 0.5} possesses the largest plastic strain (ε{sub p}) at 20.3% and ultimate strength (σ{sub max}) of 2613 MPa during compressive loading. In addition, the sample of Ta{sub 0.5} exhibits work-hardening up to an ultrahigh tensile strength of 1680 MPa during the tensile process, and then progressively

  20. Localized atomic segregation in the spalled area of a Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk metallic glasses induced by laser-shock experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, B.; Loison, D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Lescoute, E.; Nivard, M.; Berthe, L.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-shock experiments were performed on a ternary {Zr50{Cu}40{Al}10} bulk metallic glass. A spalling process was studied through post-mortem analyses conducted on a recovered sample and spall. Scanning electron microscopy magnification of fracture surfaces revealed the presence of a peculiar feature known as cup-cone. Cups are found on sample fracture surface while cones are observed on spall. Two distinct regions can be observed on cups and cones: a smooth viscous-like region in the center and a flat one with large vein-pattern in the periphery. Energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements conducted on these features emphasized atomic distribution discrepancies both on the sample and spall. We propose a mechanism for the initiation and the growth of these features but also a process for atomic segregation during spallation. Cup and cones would originate from cracks arising from shear bands formation (softened paths). These shear bands result from a quadrupolar-shaped atomic disorder engendered around an initiation site by shock wave propagation. This disorder turns into a shear band when tensile front reaches spallation plane. During the separation process, temperature gain induced by shock waves and shear bands generation decreases material viscosity leading to higher atomic mobility. Once in a liquid-like form, atomic clusters migrate and segregate due to inertial effects originating from particle velocity variation (interaction of release waves). As a result, a high rate of copper is found in sample cups and high zirconium concentration is found on spall cones.

  1. Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huei-Sen, E-mail: huei@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Dong-Yih [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gu, Jhen-Wang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: • An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. • The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. • The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. • Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

  2. The Effect of Thermal Cycling Treatments on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range of −196 °C (cryogenic temperature, CT to 25 °C (room temperature, RT or annealing time at CT has not induced obvious changes of thermal stability and then it decreases slightly over critical thermal parameters. In addition, the dendritic second phases with a bcc structure are homogeneously embedded in the amorphous matrix; no visible changes are detected, which shows structural stability. Excellent mechanical properties as high as 1599 MPa yield strength and 34% plastic strain are obtained, and the yield strength and elastic modulus also increase gradually. The effect on the stability is analyzed quantitatively by crystallization kinetics and plastic-flow models, and indicates that the reduction of structural relaxation enthalpy, which is related to the degradation of spatial heterogeneity, reduces thermal stability but does not imperatively deteriorate the plasticity.

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Fe41Co7Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 Bulk Metallic Glass in Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H. B.; Zheng, W.; Wang, G. Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Shen, J.

    2011-06-01

    An Fe41Co7Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 bulk metallic glass with a diameter of 5 mm was prepared with the copper-mold-casting method. The corrosion resistance of this amorphous steel in sulfuric-acid solutions was determined by electrochemical measurements. The passive film formed on the surface of the alloy after immersion in the 0.5-mol/l H2SO4 solution for 1 week was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion resistance of the amorphous steel in the 1 mol/l-H2SO4 solution is superior to a stainless steel (SUS 321), and is almost the same as Ti6Al4V, which shows that the amorphous steel has an excellent corrosion resistance in sulfuric-acid solutions. As the concentration of the sulfuric-acid solutions increases from 0.5 mol/l to 4 mol/l, the corrosion resistance of the amorphous steel decreases. The XPS result reveals that a bilayer structure of protective film formed on the surface of the amorphous steel in a H2SO4 solution. The compositions of the inner part of the film are MoO2, Cr2O3, CoO, and FeO, and those of the outer film are MoO3, Cr(OH)3, Co(OH)2, and Fe(OH)3.

  4. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  5. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pan; Zhao, Shaofan; Wang, Xin; Yao, Kefu

    2015-07-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 glassy alloy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated by Kissinger and Ozawa equations. Based on Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall models, it has been found that the local activation energy is higher at the beginning of the crystallization process for the first exothermic peak. The local Avrami exponent indicates that the first-step crystallization is mainly a high-dimensional nucleation and growth with an increasing nucleation rate. According to the calculated fragility index, Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 alloy can be classified as "strong glass former." The studied alloy also possesses a critical size up to centimeter order, and the high glass-forming ability is probably related to the relatively low Gibbs energy difference between the liquid and crystalline states. The critical cooling rate of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 glassy alloy has also been determined using Barandiaran-Colmenero's method.

  6. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and fragility of (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Man, E-mail: zhuman0428@126.com [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Li, Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Yao, Lijuan; Jian, Zengyun; Chang, Fang’e [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Yang, Gencang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2013-08-10

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} BMGs was studied. • Two-stage of crystallization process is confirmed by DSC. • The nucleation process is difficult than growth process during crystallization. • The second crystallization process is the most sensitive to heating rate. • Kinetic fragility index is evaluated suggesting it is an intermediate glass. - Abstract: In this paper, bulk metallic glasses with the composition of (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} were prepared by copper mold casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to investigate its structure and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics. DSC traces revealed that it undergoes two-stage crystallization. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated, and the results reveal that the as-cast alloys have a good thermal stability in thermodynamics. Based on Kissinger equation, the activation energies for glass transition, the first and second crystallization processes were obtained as 485 ± 16 kJ/mol, 331 ± 7 kJ/mol and 210 ± 3 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that the nucleation process is more difficult than the grain growth process. The fitting curves using Lasocka's empirical relation show that the influence of the heating rate for crystallization is larger than glass transition. Furthermore, the kinetic fragility for (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} bulk metallic glasses is evaluated. Depending on the fragility index, (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} bulk metallic glasses should be considered as “intermediate glasses”.

  7. FeCoSiBNbCu bulk metallic glass with large compressive deformability studied by time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, Mihai, E-mail: m.stoica@ifw-dresden.de; Scudino, Sergio [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Bednarčik, Jozef [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), FS-PE Group, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, Jürgen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-07

    By adding 0.5 at. % Cu to the strong but brittle [(Fe{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}){sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.05}B{sub 0.20}]{sub 96}Nb{sub 4} bulk metallic glass, fully amorphous rods with diameters up to 2 mm were obtained. The monolithic samples with 1 mm diameter revealed a fracture strain of 3.80% and a maximum stress of 4143 MPa upon compression, together with a slight work-hardening behavior. SEM micrographs of fractured samples did neither reveal any shear bands on the lateral surface nor the typical vein patterns which characterize ductile fracture. However, some layers appear to have flowed and this phenomenon took place before the brittle final fracture. An estimate of the temperature rise ΔT in the shear plane gives 1039 K, which is large enough to melt a layer of 120 nm. The overall performance and the macroscopic plastic strain depend on the interaction between cleavage-like and viscous flow-like features. Mechanical tests performed in-situ under synchrotron radiation allowed the calculation of the strain tensor components, using the reciprocal-space data and analyzing the shift of the first (the main) and the second broad peak positions in the X-ray diffraction patterns. The results revealed that each atomic shell may have a different stiffness, which may explain the macroscopic compressive plastic deformation. Also, there were no signs of (nano) crystallization induced by the applied stress, but the samples preserve a monolithic amorphous structure until catastrophic failure occurs.

  8. Effects of minor Cu and Si additions on glass forming ability and mechanical properties of Co-Fe-Ta-B Bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Ziya Ozgur; Hitit, Aytekin; Yalcin, Yilmaz; Ozgul, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Effect of Cu and Si substitutions for Co and B on the glass forming ability (GFA) of Co(43-x)CuxFe20Ta5.5B(31.5-x)Siy (x=0-1.5 and y=5-10) were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In order to evaluate the contribution of copper and silicon, appropriate amounts of copper and silicon were individually introduced to the base alloy composition. By using the effects of copper and silicon together, significant enhancement was obtained and the critical casting thickness (CCT) of the base alloy was increased three times from 2 mm to 6 mm. Moreover, mechanical properties of the alloys were examined by compression tests and Vickers hardness measurements. The compression test results revealed that the glassy alloys having enhanced GFA shows high strength of about 3500-4000 MPa. In addition, existence of (Co,Fe)2B and (Co,Fe)20.82Ta2.18B6 crystalline phases in glassy matrix influences the hardnesses of the alloys compared to monolitic glassy structure having hardness of about 1200 Hv.

  9. Pressure dependence of the elastic constants and vibrational anharmonicity of Pd sub 3 sub 9 Ni sub 1 sub 0 Cu sub 3 sub 0 P sub 2 sub 1 bulk metallic glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Li; Sun, L L; Wang, W H; Wang, W K

    2003-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the acoustic velocities of a Pd sub 3 sub 9 Ni sub 1 sub 0 Cu sub 3 sub 0 P sub 2 sub 1 bulk metallic glass have been investigated up to 0.5 GPa at room temperature with the pulse echo overlap method. Two independent second-order elastic coefficients C sub 1 sub 1 and C sub 4 sub 4 and their pressure derivatives are yielded. The vibrational anharmonicity is shown by calculating both the acoustic mode Grueneisen parameters in the long-wavelength limit and the thermal Grueneisen parameter, and this result is compared with that for the Pd sub 4 sub 0 Ni sub 4 sub 0 P sub 2 sub 0 bulk glass.

  10. Improvement of soft magnetic properties of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.20Si0.05]96Nb4 bulk metallic glass by B2O3 flux melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoh, T.; Shibata, D.

    2008-04-01

    The effect of the B2O3 flux melting, which improves the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), on the soft magnetic properties of the cast [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.20Si0.05]96Nb4 BMG has been investigated. The ring-shaped bulk specimens prepared by the B2O3 flux melting and copper mold casting exhibit the better soft magnetic properties than those of the ones prepared by the conventional copper mold casting. It probably originates for eliminating the nonmetallic inclusions which behave the pinning sites of magnetic domain walls by the B2O3 flux melting. The B2O3 flux melting is effective for improvement of the soft magnetic properties of BMGs.

  11. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr48Cu48 - x Al4M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr48Cu48Al4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Co0.5 and 6.2% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Fe0.5) is considerably larger than for Zr48Cu48Al4 or the alloys with x = 1. Slight variations in the Young’s modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  12. Improvement of the thermoplastic formability of Zr{sub 65}Cu{sub 17.5}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 7.5} bulk metallic glass by minor addition of Erbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q. [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zeng, X.R., E-mail: zengxier@szu.edu.cn [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); JANUS Precision Components Co., LTD., Dongguan 523000 (China); Fu, M.W., E-mail: mmmwfu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, S.S. [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Jiang, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The softness of Zr{sub 65}Cu{sub 17.5}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 7.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG) in the super-cooled liquid range (SCLR) is obviously improved by minor addition of 2% Er, which makes (Zr{sub 65}Cu{sub 17.5}Ni{sub 10}Al{sub 7.5}){sub 98}Er{sub 2} (Zr65Er2) to be a very formable Be-free Zr-based BMG. It is found the lower glass transition temperature of Zr65Er2 has an important contribution to the improvement of formability, which is contrary to the general understanding that the larger fragility and wider super-cooled liquid region (SCLR) are the major reasons for better thermoplastic formability. This finding is well explained by using the linear simplification of the SCLR in Angell plot. Zr65Er2 also has lower crystallization temperature and melting temperature, which is believed to be related to the formation of short-range ordering with lower transition energy rather than the composition shift to near eutectic. The above results help understand the effect of minor addition of rare-earth to the formability of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses.

  13. Magnetic power losses in [(Fe1-xCox)75B20Si5]93Nb4Y3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccin, R.; Tiberto, P.; Chiriac, H.; Baricco, M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic power losses of [(Fe1-xCox)75B20Si5]93Nb4Y3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) metallic glasses have been investigated. Bulk samples were prepared by water-cooled Cu-mold injection casting technique with shapes of cylinders (0.8 mm diameter and 30 mm length) and toroids (10 mm external diameter and 0.5 mm thickness). Ribbons prepared by the melt- spinning technique were also analyzed. Glassy structures were confirmed by the presence of a main halo in XRD and by crystallization signal in DSC. Power losses were studied with a digital wattmeter over a range of frequencies from 1 to 400 Hz at selected peak inductions. Ribbons show smaller losses than bulk samples, presenting 24.5 J/m3 at 50 Hz and 0.65 T peak induction. It was observed that the Co addition reduces significantly the power losses. A separation theory was applied in order to explain the square root behavior of the measured power losses as a function of frequency and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The magnetic data were used to identify the presence of crystalline inclusions in the magnetic bulk metallic glasses. The effect of sample shape and composition on magnetic properties will be discussed.

  14. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  15. Constant permeability of (Fe0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4 bulk metallic glass prepared by B2O3 flux melting and Cu-mold casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoh, T.; Shibata, D.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of B2O3 flux melting on the soft magnetic properties of (Fe0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4 bulk metallic glass prepared by casting has been investigated. Ring-shaped bulk specimens that were prepared by B2O3 flux melting and Cu-mold casting (fluxed specimens) show a flat hysteresis curve, indicating a good linear relationship between the magnetic induction and the applied magnetic field. Although the permeability of the fluxed specimens is lower than that of the specimens prepared by conventional Cu-mold casting by one order of magnitude, their coercivities are almost same. These results show that it is possible to develop a new soft magnetic material that exhibits constant permeability with low core loss.

  16. Atomic structure of Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} bulk metallic glass alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, X. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: huixd01@hotmail.com; Fang, H.Z.; Chen, G.L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shang, S.L.; Wang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Qin, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University - Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu, Z.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations were performed on the atomic configuration of Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} bulk metallic glass. The local structures were characterized in terms of structure factors (SF), pair correlation functions (PCF), coordinate numbers, bond pairs and Voronoi polyhedra. The glass transition temperature, generalized PCF and SF predicated by AIMD are in good agreement with the experimental data. Icosahedral short-range orders (ISRO) are found to be the most dominant, in view of the presence of the majority of bond pairs with 1551, 1541 and 1431, and Voronoi polyhedra with <0,3,6,1>, <0,2,8,1>, <0,0,12,0> and <0,2,8,4>. Icosahedral medium range orders (IMROs) are formed from icosahedra via the linkage of vertex-, edge-, face- and intercross-shared atoms. The glass structure on the nanometer scale is accumulated by polyhedra through an efficient packing mode. It is suggested that the extraordinary glass-forming ability of this alloy is essentially attributable to the formation of ISRO and IMRO, and the dense packing of atoms.

  17. Relaxation Pathways in Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    At temperatures below the glass transition temperature, physical properties of metallic glasses, such as density, viscosity, electrical resistivity or enthalpy, slowly evolve with time. This is the process of physical aging that occurs among all types of glasses and leads to structural changes at the microscopic level. Even though the relaxation pathways are ruled by thermodynamics as the glass attempts to re-attain thermodynamic equilibrium, they are steered by sluggish kinetics at the microscopic level. Understanding the structural and dynamic pathways of the relaxing glassy state is still one of the grand challenges in materials physics. We review some of the recent experimental advances made in understanding the nature of the relaxation phenomenon in metallic glasses and its implications to the macroscopic and microscopic properties changes of the relaxing glass.

  18. Cryogenic treatment induced hardening of Cu{sub 45}Zr{sub 45}Ag{sub 7}Al{sub 3} bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.K.; Chen, Z.H.; Chen, D., E-mail: ma97chen@hotmail.com; Zheng, Q.

    2014-01-15

    Little is known about the mechanical properties of bulk metallic glassy alloys (BMGs) after cryogenic treatment (CT). Cu{sub 45}Zr{sub 45}Ag{sub 7}Al{sub 3} BMGs were treated in cryogenic temperatures for four chosen holding times. Compared with the as-cast sample, the compressive fracture strength of this BMG increased with increasing CT time. Furthermore, the CT changes the fracture mode from the ductile to the brittle. And CT brought about the precipitation of the AlCu{sub 2}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Zr phases which were accompanying with the morphology modification and contributed to the mechanical properties improvement of this BMG.

  19. Using thermoforming capacity of metallic glasses to produce multimaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragani, J., E-mail: jennifer.ragani@simap.grenoble-inp.f [Grenoble University/CNRS, Grenoble-INP/UJF, SIMAP Laboratory, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Volland, A., E-mail: antoine.volland@simap.grenoble-inp.f [Grenoble University/CNRS, Grenoble-INP/UJF, SIMAP Laboratory, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Valque, S.; Liu, Y. [Grenoble University/CNRS, Grenoble-INP/UJF, SIMAP Laboratory, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Gravier, S., E-mail: sebastien.gravier@simap.grenoble-inp.f [Grenoble University/CNRS, Grenoble-INP/UJF, SIMAP Laboratory, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Blandin, J.J., E-mail: jean-jacques.blandin@simap.grenoble-inp.f [Grenoble University/CNRS, Grenoble-INP/UJF, SIMAP Laboratory, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Suery, M., E-mail: michel.suery@simap.grenoble-inp.f [Grenoble University/CNRS, Grenoble-INP/UJF, SIMAP Laboratory, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-08-15

    In addition to casting, thermoforming is a particularly interesting way to produce components in bulk metallic glasses since large strains can be achieved when the BMGs are deformed in their supercooled liquid region. The experimental window (temperature, time) in which high temperature forming can be carried out is directly related to the crystallization resistance of the glass. Such forming windows have been identified for zirconium based bulk metallic glasses thanks to thermal analysis and compression tests in the supercooled liquid region. Based on this identification, the thermoforming capacity of the studied glasses was used to produce multimaterials associating metallic glasses with conventional metallic alloys. Two processes have been preferentially investigated (co-extrusion and co-pressing) and the interface quality of the elaborated multi materials was studied.

  20. Microstructure evolution of Zr{sub 65}Al{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Ag{sub 5} bulk metallic glass due to rolling and its influence on the thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.J., E-mail: yanzhijie74@sohu.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yan, J.; Hu, Y.; Hao, W.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2012-02-05

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are employed to investigate the microstructure evolution of Zr{sub 65}Al{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Ag{sub 5} bulk metallic glass subjected to rolling at room temperature. The strain rates are controlled to be 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. The results show that the plastic deformation during rolling behaves as an inhomogeneous mode with the characteristic of shear bands, which results in the two-state characteristic of atomic movement from competition between the ordering and disordering processes. The icosahedron-like clusters precipitate in the transition regions between the shear bands and the amorphous matrix, and they tend to aggregate into nano-sized orders. The results of DSC indicate that the onset precipitation temperature of I-phase during heating of the metallic glass obviously decreases due to rolling. However, the time window for the completion of amorphous-to-icosahedral phase transformation is evidently lengthened. The microstructure evolution during rolling and its influence on the thermal stability are discussed.

  1. Phase evolution and its effect on magnetic properties of Nd sub 6 sub 0 Al sub 1 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 Co sub 1 sub 0 bulk metallic glass

    CERN Document Server

    Lei Xia; Pan, M X; Zhao, D Q; Wang, W H; Dong, Y D

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stability of nanocrystalline clusters, the phase evolution, and their effects on magnetic properties were studied for as-cast Nd sub 6 sub 0 Al sub 1 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 Co sub 1 sub 0 alloy using differential scanning calorimetry curves, x-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transition electron microscopy. Thermomagnetic curves and hysteresis loops of the bulk metallic glass were measured during the annealing process. The high thermostability of the hard magnetic properties of the samples observed is attributed to the stability of the nanocrystalline clusters upon annealing, while the slight enhancement in the magnetization is due to the precipitation of some Nd-rich metastable phases. The mechanism of thermostability of the nanocrystalline clusters and the formation of the metastable phases are discussed.

  2. Bulk amorphous metallic alloys: Synthesis by fluxing techniques and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi; Shen, Tongde; Schwarz, R.B.

    1997-05-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys having dimensions of at least 1 cm diameter have been prepared in the Pd-Ni-P, Pd-Cu-P, Pd-Cu-Ni-P, and Pd-Ni-Fe-P systems using a fluxing and water quenching technique. The compositions for bulk glass formation have been determined in these systems. For these bulk metallic glasses, the difference between the crystallization temperature T{sub x}, and the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g}, ranges from 60 to 1 10 K. These large values of {Delta}T open the possibility for the fabrication of amorphous near net-shape components using techniques such as injection molding. The thermal, elastic, and magnetic properties of these alloys have been studied, and we have found that bulk amorphous Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 17.5}P{sub 20} has spin glass behavior for temperatures below 30 K. 65 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The dynamic bulk modulus of three glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Kristine; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present dynamic adiabatic bulk modulus data for three organic glass-forming liquids: two van der Waal's liquids, trimethyl-pentaphenyl-trisiloxane (DC705) and dibuthyl phtalate (DBP), and one hydrogen-bonded liquid, 1,2-propanediol (PD). All three liquids are found to obey time-temperature sup......We present dynamic adiabatic bulk modulus data for three organic glass-forming liquids: two van der Waal's liquids, trimethyl-pentaphenyl-trisiloxane (DC705) and dibuthyl phtalate (DBP), and one hydrogen-bonded liquid, 1,2-propanediol (PD). All three liquids are found to obey time...

  4. Iron phosphate glasses: Bulk properties and atomic scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Asuvathraman, R.; Dube, Charu L.; Gandy, Amy S.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Jolley, Kenny; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.; Smith, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Bulk properties such as glass transition temperature, density and thermal expansion of iron phosphate glass compositions, with replacement of Cs by Ba, are investigated as a surrogate for the transmutation of 137Cs to 137Ba, relevant to the immobilisation of Cs in glass. These studies are required to establish the appropriate incorporation rate of 137Cs in iron phosphate glass. Density and glass transition temperature increases with the addition of BaO indicating the shrinkage and reticulation of the iron phosphate glass network. The average thermal expansion coefficient reduces from 19.8 × 10-6 K-1 to 13.4 × 10-6 K-1, when 25 wt. % of Cs2O was replaced by 25 wt. % of BaO in caesium loaded iron phosphate glass. In addition to the above bulk properties, the role of Ba as a network modifier in the structure of iron phosphate glass is examined using various spectroscopic techniques. The FeII content and average coordination number of iron in the glass network was estimated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The FeII content in the un-doped iron phosphate glass and barium doped iron phosphate glasses was 20, 21 and 22 ± 1% respectively and the average Fe coordination varied from 5.3 ± 0.2 to 5.7 ± 0.2 with increasing Ba content. The atomic scale structure was further probed by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The average coordination number provided by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure was in good agreement with that given by the Mössbauer data.

  5. Glass forming ability and magnetic properties of Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) bulk metallic glasses produced by suction casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarlar, Kagan [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Physics Department, Kamil Ozdag Faculty of Sciences, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, YunusEmre Campus, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Kucuk, Ilker, E-mail: ikucuk@uludag.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    The effect of Fe concentration on the glass forming ability (GFA) and magnetic properties in Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) bulk metallic glasses were investigated. By suction casting method, the bulk metallic glasses with diameters up to 2 mm were produced. We try to find out which Fe concentration makes an influence on Co based system's magnetic properties and glass forming ability. The curves of thermal analysis, obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), show that the Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) have a supercooled liquid region (∆T{sub x}) of about 44 K. The saturation magnetizations (J{sub s}) for as-cast BMG alloys were in the range of 0.62 T−0.81 T. - Highlights: • The effect of Fe concentration on the glass forming ability. • The substitution of an appropriate amount of Fe can enhance the GFA. • The substitution of Fe for Co also improves soft magnetic properties of the BMGs. • The high of J{sub s} 0.62−0.81 T with a low H{sub c} of 2−289 A/m of the alloys.

  6. Approaching the ideal elastic limit of metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Cheng, Yong-Qiang; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju; Wang, Cheng-Cai; Han, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Jun; Ma, Evan

    2012-01-03

    The ideal elastic limit is the upper bound to the stress and elastic strain a material can withstand. This intrinsic property has been widely studied for crystalline metals, both theoretically and experimentally. For metallic glasses, however, the ideal elastic limit remains poorly characterized and understood. Here we show that the elastic strain limit and the corresponding strength of submicron-sized metallic glass specimens are about twice as high as the already impressive elastic limit observed in bulk metallic glass samples, in line with model predictions of the ideal elastic limit of metallic glasses. We achieve this by employing an in situ transmission electron microscope tensile deformation technique. Furthermore, we propose an alternative mechanism for the apparent 'work hardening' behaviour observed in the tensile stress-strain curves.

  7. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane shear...

  8. Absorbability of bulk sol-gel bioactive glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadouche, M.; Meunier, A.; Blanchat, C.; Sedel, L. [Paris-7 Univ. (France). Lab. de Recherches Orthopediques; Greenspan, D.C.; Zhong, J.P.; Torre, G.P. la [US Biomaterials Corp., Alachua, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Melt-derived bioactive glasses have been used with success in various clinical applications for over 10 years. Recently, particles of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses with an initial high specific area have exhibited high osteoconductive properties, but also a significant degradability. In this work, we explored the in-vivo bioactivity and degradability of bulk sol-gel derived glasses. Two sol-gel compositions (58S and 77S Bioglass) were used. Bulk 45S5 were used as a control. Both sol-gel derived demonstrated similar osteoconductive properties to 45S% Bioglass. In addition, absorbability was observed for sol-gel derived glasses after 12 weeks of implantation. Total absorption reached 40% after 52 weeks. No degradation could be measured in the case of 45S5 melt derived Bioglass. The degradation process was highly time dependent as demonstrated by regression analysis. New bone formation was found to fill in areas that had been resorbed similar to bone remodeling. New bone was found to fill in areas that had been absorbed, similar to natural bone remodeling. This absorbability can be assumed to be at least partially related to an osteoclastic resorption, as viable osteoclasts-like cells were found directly in contact with the glass surfaces. (orig.)

  9. Polyamorphism in Yb-based metallic glass induced by pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Luo, Qiang; Li, Renfeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Wang, Luhong; Liu, Haozhe

    2017-04-01

    The Yb62.5Zn15Mg17.5Cu5 metallic glass is investigated using synchrotron x-ray total scattering method up to 38.4 GPa. The polyamorphic transformation from low density to high density with a transition region between 14.1 and 25.2 GPa is observed, accompanying with a volume collapse reflected by a discontinuousness of isothermal bulk modulus. This collapse is caused by that distortional icosahedron short range order precedes to perfect icosahedron, which might link to Yb 4f electron delocalization upon compression, and match the result of in situ electrical resistance measurement under high pressure conditions. This discovery in Yb-based metallic glass, combined with the previous reports on other metallic glass systems, demonstrates that pressure induced polyamorphism is the general behavior for typical lanthanide based metallic glasses.

  10. Structure and Properties of Mg-Cu-(Y,Ca Bulk Metallic Glasses / Struktura I Własności Masywnych Szkieł Metalicznych Mg-Cu-(Y,Ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babilas R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presents preparation methods, structure characterization and mechanical properties analysis of Mg-based bulk metallic glasses in as-cast state and after crystallization process. The studies were performed on Mg60Cu30Y10 and Mg37Cu36Ca27 glassy alloys in the form of plates and rods. The X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the tested samples with different thicknesses and shapes were amorphous. The characteristics of the fractured surfaces showed mixed fractures with the “river” and “mirror” patterns, which are characteristic for the glassy materials and some “smooth” areas. The samples of Mg37Cu36Ca27 alloy presented a two-stage crystallization process, but addition of Y caused a single stage crystallization behavior. Qualitative phase analysis from the X-ray data of examined alloys annealed at 473 K enabled the identification of Mg, Mg2Cu, Cu2Mg and CaCu crystalline phases. The changes of compressive strength as a function of annealing temperature for studied rods were stated. The best mechanical properties including microhardness and compressive strength were obtained for the alloy with the addition of Y in as-cast state.

  11. Effects of the Cooling Rate on the Plasticity of Pd40.5Ni40.5P19 Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Qiu, Sheng-Bao; Shao, Yang; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2011-11-01

    We prepare Pd40.5Ni40.5P19 glassy samples with purified ingots by copper mold casting at a high cooling rate and by water quenching at a low cooling rate. Both of them exhibit different supercooled liquid regions and multiple glass transition characteristics in their differential scanning calorimetric curves. The plasticity of the glassy sample prepared by copper mold casting is about 5% while that prepared by water quenching is almost zero (0.2%), indicating that cooling rate has influenced the plasticity of glassy alloys. By using high resolution TEM image analysis, it is revealed that there exist characteristic regions with different contrasts in the full glassy samples. The characteristic size is about 20-40 nm for the glassy sample prepared by water quenching and 2-4 nm for the one prepared by copper mold casting. The large difference in the plasticity of the glassy samples prepared by different cooling rates is believed to be related to the difference in the size of the characteristic nanoscale structures. The results indicate that adjusting cooling rate in preparation of glassy samples could modify the thermal and mechanical properties of the glassy alloys.

  12. Mapping strain fields induced in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses during in-situ nanoindentation by X-ray nanodiffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gamcová, J.; Mohanty, G.; Michalik, Štefan; Wehrs, J.; Bednarčík, J.; Krywka, C.; Breguet, J.M.; Michler, J.; Franz, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2016), 1-4, č. článku 031907. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057; AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray diffraction * hardness * elasticity * nanotechnology * amorphous metals Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  13. Thermomechanical Behavior of Molded Metallic Glass Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagnosc, Daniel J.; Chen, Wen; Kumar, Golden; Schroers, Jan; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses are disordered materials that offer the unique ability to perform thermoplastic forming operations at low thermal budget while preserving excellent mechanical properties such as high strength, large elastic strain limits, and wear resistance owing to the metallic nature of bonding and lack of internal defects. Interest in molding micro- and nanoscale metallic glass objects is driven by the promise of robust and high performance micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems and miniature energy conversion devices. Yet accurate and efficient processing of these materials hinges on a robust understanding of their thermomechanical behavior. Here, we combine large-scale thermoplastic tensile deformation of collections of Pt-based amorphous nanowires with quantitative thermomechanical studies of individual nanowires in creep-like conditions to demonstrate that superplastic-like flow persists to small length scales. Systematic studies as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and applied stress reveal the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow to be ubiquitous across the investigated length scales. However, we provide evidence that nanoscale specimens sustain greater free volume generation at elevated temperatures resulting in a flow transition at higher strain-rates than their bulk counterparts. Our results provide guidance for the design of thermoplastic processing methods and methods for verifying the flow response at the nanoscale.

  14. Internal shear cracking in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an uncoupled ductile damage criterion for modelling the opening and propagation of internal shear cracks in bulk metal forming. The criterion is built upon the original work on the motion of a hole subjected to shear with superimposed tensile stress triaxiality and its overall...... performance is evaluated by means of side-pressing formability tests in Aluminium AA2007-T6 subjected to different levels of pre-strain. Results show that the new proposed criterionis able to combine simplicity with efficiency for predicting the onset of fracture and the crack propagation path for the entire...... cracking to internal cracks formed undert hree-dimensional states of stress that are typical of bulk metal forming....

  15. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L

    2016-01-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material...

  16. Forming of bulk metallic glass microcomponents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wert, John A.; Thomsen, Christian; Jensen, Rune Debel

    2009-01-01

    with crystallization kinetics to formulate a generally applicable method that can guide selection of optimal forming parameters. Finally, the use of particulate-based lubricants for BMG forming is shown to result in individual lubricant particles becoming mechanically locked into the BMG surface. (C) 2008 Elsevier B...

  17. Diffusion and viscous flow in bulk glass forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, A.; Zoellmer, V.; Raetzke, K. [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde, Technische Fakultaet, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Meyer, A. [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 51170 Koeln (Germany); Faupel, F., E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde, Technische Fakultaet, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > We measured radiotracer diffusivities of all components in a Pd{sub 43}Cu{sub 27}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} melt. > We see a vast decoupling between the diffusivity of Pd and of the smaller components at T{sub g}. > We see no decoupling between Pd diffusion and viscous flow. > The Stokes-Einstein equations holds for Pd in the hole supercooled range. > Pd forms a slow subsystem. - Abstract: We review radiotracer diffusion and isotope measurements in bulk glass forming alloys from the glassy state to the equilibrium melt and compare diffusion and viscous flow. In the glassy as well as in the deeply supercooled state below the critical temperature T{sub c}, where the mode coupling theory predicts a freezing-in of liquid-like motion, very small isotope effects indicate a highly collective hopping mechanism. Not only in the glassy state but also in the supercooled state below T{sub c} the temperature dependence of diffusion is Arrhenius-like with an effective activation enthalpy. A clear decoupling takes place between the diffusivities of the individual components of the alloys and between time scales related to diffusive transport and viscous flow. While the component decoupling is small for the smaller components a vast decoupling of more than 4 orders of magnitude is observed in Pd-Cu-Ni-P alloys between the diffusivity of the large majority component Pd and of the smaller components at the glass transition temperature T{sub g}. The diffusivities of all components merge close to the critical temperature T{sub c} of mode coupling theory. Above T{sub c}, the onset of liquid-like motion is directly evidenced by a gradual drop of the effective activation energy. This strongly supports the mode coupling scenario. The isotope effect measurements show atomic transport up to the equilibrium melt to be far away from the regime of uncorrelated binary collisions. For Pd, in contrast to the behavior of single component molecular glass formers, the Stokes

  18. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Pan; Zhao, Shaofan; Yao, Kefu [Tsinghua University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing (China); Wang, Xin [Hebei University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin (China)

    2015-07-15

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} glassy alloy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated by Kissinger and Ozawa equations. Based on Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall models, it has been found that the local activation energy is higher at the beginning of the crystallization process for the first exothermic peak. The local Avrami exponent indicates that the first-step crystallization is mainly a high-dimensional nucleation and growth with an increasing nucleation rate. According to the calculated fragility index, Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} alloy can be classified as ''strong glass former.'' The studied alloy also possesses a critical size up to centimeter order, and the high glass-forming ability is probably related to the relatively low Gibbs energy difference between the liquid and crystalline states. The critical cooling rate of Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} glassy alloy has also been determined using Barandiaran-Colmenero's method. (orig.)

  19. A Study of Structure and Magnetic Properties of Low Purity Fe-Co-Based Metallic Glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabina Lesz

    2017-01-01

    ...) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as well as determining their magnetic properties. The structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based CMGs and BMGs prepared from ferroalloys and pure elements, were studied...

  20. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Geometric frustration of icosahedron in metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, A; Kang, L J; Fujita, T; Klumov, B; Matsue, K; Kotani, M; Yavari, A R; Chen, M W

    2013-07-26

    Icosahedral order has been suggested as the prevalent atomic motif of supercooled liquids and metallic glasses for more than half a century, because the icosahedron is highly close-packed but is difficult to grow, owing to structure frustration and the lack of translational periodicity. By means of angstrom-beam electron diffraction of single icosahedra, we report experimental observation of local icosahedral order in metallic glasses. All the detected icosahedra were found to be distorted with partially face-centered cubic symmetry, presenting compelling evidence on geometric frustration of local icosahedral order in metallic glasses.

  2. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  3. Magnetic power losses in [(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 75}B{sub 20}Si{sub 5}]{sub 93}Nb{sub 4}Y{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccin, R; Baricco, M [Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS, Universita di Torino, Via P.Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tiberto, P [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Chiriac, H, E-mail: rafael.piccin@unito.i [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd, Iasi 700050 (Romania)

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic power losses of [(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 75}B{sub 20}Si{sub 5}]{sub 93}Nb{sub 4}Y{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) metallic glasses have been investigated. Bulk samples were prepared by water-cooled Cu-mold injection casting technique with shapes of cylinders (0.8 mm diameter and 30 mm length) and toroids (10 mm external diameter and 0.5 mm thickness). Ribbons prepared by the melt- spinning technique were also analyzed. Glassy structures were confirmed by the presence of a main halo in XRD and by crystallization signal in DSC. Power losses were studied with a digital wattmeter over a range of frequencies from 1 to 400 Hz at selected peak inductions. Ribbons show smaller losses than bulk samples, presenting 24.5 J/m{sup 3} at 50 Hz and 0.65 T peak induction. It was observed that the Co addition reduces significantly the power losses. A separation theory was applied in order to explain the square root behavior of the measured power losses as a function of frequency and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The magnetic data were used to identify the presence of crystalline inclusions in the magnetic bulk metallic glasses. The effect of sample shape and composition on magnetic properties will be discussed.

  4. Metal glasses in microscopic scale: NMR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompa, K.; Bakonyi, I.; Varga, L. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1984-01-01

    A variety of amorphous metallic glasses was prepared by electrolysis, chemical reduction or fast cooling. Local orders, structural symmetry and topology were studied by means of NMR. Dipole-dipole and quadrupole interactions were analysed in Ni-P, Ni-Cu-P and Ni-B metallic glasses containing sup(31)P or sup(11)B nuclei. Experimentally determined signal widths were compared with the calculated values of model structures. The good agreement indicates structural identities of the nickel-containing glasses and the assumed models.

  5. (abstract) Undercooling Studies of the Bulk Metallic Glass Forming Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) Alloy During Containerless Electrostatic Levitation Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. J.; Busch, R.; Johnson, W. L.; Rulison, A. J.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    Bulk glass forming metallic alloys have long been desired for technological applications and for investigation into liquid undercooling, solidification processes, and thermophysical properties. A glass forming alloy Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) was used to investigate the thermal treatments affecting undercooling and vitrification. The experiments were performed using the high temperature high vacuum electrostatic levitator at JPL. A sample approximately 3 mm in diameter was melted, superheated, undercooled, and solidified while levitated in high vacuum. The results show that when the sample was held above its melting temperature for a sufficient period of time to dissolve oxides and then cooled faster than a critical cooling rate, it undercooled to the glass transition temperature, T(sub g), and formed a glassy alloy. The required critical cooling rate for metallic glass formation was obtained to be between 0.9 K per second and 1.2 K per second for the 42.4 mg sample.

  6. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb

    2000-01-01

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines...

  7. Effect of fluxing treatment on the properties of Fe66Co15Mo1P7.5C5.5B2Si3 bulk metallic glass by water quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2018-01-01

    The effect of fluxing treatment on the properties of Fe66Co15Mo1P7.5C5.5B2Si3bulk amorphous alloy (BAA) has been investigated. Prepared by a combination method of flux treatment and water quenching, the Fe66Co15Mo1P7.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA exhibits better glass-forming ability, thermal stability, soft magnetic properties and ductility than those of the one prepared by direct water quenching. This indicates that fluxing treatment can play a potential role in improving the properties of Fe-based BAA due to the effective elimination of the impurities within the alloy.

  8. Plastic Deformation of Pressured Metallic Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun; Peng, Chuanxiao; Zhang, Zhenting; Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Shengzhong; Wang, Li

    2017-11-27

    Although pressured metallic glass (MG) has been reported in the literature; there are few studies focusing on pressure effects on the structure; dynamics and its plastic deformation. In this paper; we report on and characterize; via molecular dynamics simulation, the structure and dynamics heterogeneity of pressured MGs, and explore a causal link between local structures and plastic deformation mechanism of pressured glass. The results exhibit that the dynamical heterogeneity of metallic liquid is more pronounced at high pressure, while the MGs were less fragile after the release of external pressure, reflected by the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP). High pressure glass shows better plastic deformation; and the local strain zone distributed more uniformly than of in normal glass. Further research indicates that although the number of icosahedrons in pressured glass was much larger than that in normal glass, while the interpenetrating connections of icosahedra (ICOI) exhibited spatial correlations were rather poor; In addition, the number of 'fast' atoms indexed by the atoms' moving distance is larger than that in normal glass; leading to the sharp decreasing in number of icosahedrons during deformation. An uniform distribution of 'fast' atoms also contributed to better plastic deformation ability in the pressured glass. These findings may suggest a link between the deformation and destruction of icosahedra with short-range order.

  9. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  10. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  11. Rapid screening of potential metallic glasses for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.H. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.H. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chuang, J.F. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, J.C., E-mail: jacobc@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jang, J.S.C. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, C.H. [Department of Orthopedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Orthopedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a rapid screening process to select potential titanium and zirconium based metallic glasses (MGs) for bio-material applications. Electrochemical activity of 7 MGs including 6 bulk metallic glasses and 1 thin-film deposited MG in simulation body and human serum is first inspected. A low-voltage potential state test is also developed to simulate the cell membrane potential that the implant MGs will suffer. Results show that the MGs composed of Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} and Ta{sub 57}Zr{sub 23}Cu{sub 12}Ti{sub 8} exhibit excellent electrochemical stability in both simulation body fluid and human serum. In addition, the copper content in the MGs plays an important role on the electrochemical activity. MGs with the copper content higher than 17.5% show significant electrochemical responses. The cytotoxicity of the solid MG samples and the corrosion released ions are also evaluated by an in-vitro MTT test utilizing the murine bone marrow stem cells. Results indicate that all the solid MG samples show no acute cytotoxicity yet the corrosion released ions show significant toxicity for murine bone marrow stem cells. The rapid screening process developed in the present study suggests that the Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} metallic glass has high potential for biomedical applications due to its good electrochemical stability and very low cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • A rapid electrochemical cycle screening process is proposed. • This process can select potential metallic glasses for bio-material applications. • The Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} metallic glass exhibits the best response and high potential.

  12. Multiscale structures of Zr-based binary metallic glasses and the correlation with glass forming ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors and structures of three Zr-based binary glass formers, Zr50Cu50, Zr64Cu36 and Zr64Ni36, were investigated and compared using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high energy X-ray diffraction (XRD and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. The high energy XRD results show that the bulk glass former Zr50Cu50 has a denser atomic packing efficiency and reduced medium-range order than those of marginal glass formers Zr64Cu36 and Zr64Ni36. Based on TEM observations for the samples after heat treatment at 10 K above their crystallization onset temperatures, the number density of crystals for Zr50Cu50 was estimated to be 1023–1024 m−3, which was four-orders higher than that in Zr64Cu36 and Zr64Ni36 metallic glasses. SAXS results indicate that Zr50Cu50 has higher degree of nanoscale inhomogeneities than those in Zr64Cu36 and Zr64Ni36 at as-cast state. The observed multiscale structures are discussed in terms of the phase stability and glass-forming ability of Zr-based binary glass formers.

  13. Bulk modulus of metals according to structureless pseudopotential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structureless pseudopotential model was fully developed. The developed method was used to calculate the bulk modulus and kinetic energy contribution to the bulk modulus of 46 elemental metals. The results obtained were compared with experimental values and their variation with electron density parameter was studied ...

  14. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    pseudopotential to ternary metallic glasses involves the assumption of pseudoions with average properties, which are assumed to replace three types of ions in the ternary systems, and a gas of free electrons is assumed to perme- ate through them. The electron–pseudoion is accounted by the pseudopotential, and the ...

  15. Structural relaxation in a heavily cold-worked metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mear, F.O. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk; Lenk, B.; Zhang, Y.; Greer, A.L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Differential scanning calorimetry heating runs on as-cast and shot-peened bulk metallic glass Pd{sub 40}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} show a broad temperature range of heat release (relaxation spectrum) with two peaks. The higher-temperature peak is reduced by shot-peening, suggesting uniform deformation and partial relaxation of the glassy structure. Peening of pre-annealed samples shows the stored energy of cold work to be a few per cent of the work done. Peening increases atomic mobility, revealed by a downward temperature shift of the relaxation spectrum.

  16. Plastic Deformation in Zirconium Based Metallic Glasses via Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo-Pinto, Zenon Humberto

    Since the discovery in 1960 of Au-Si amorphous alloy by rapidly quenching with cooling rates up to 106 K/s metallic glasses became as an important research topic in the materials science community because of their intriguing processing routes, structure and properties. Recently, new multicomponent glassy- alloy systems, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), appeared with lower critical cooling rates (103 to 1 K/s) and superlative properties, such as corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and high strength/modulus ratio. Nevertheless, low temperature brittleness remains a concern. This brittleness comes from the tendency of plastic deformation to concentrate into extremely narrow shear bands. The present research pursues a better understanding of plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) by studying, via nanoindentation, the effect of thermal history, composition, and loading paths on the mechanical behavior of Zr-based MGs. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis helps to assess structural relaxation near glass transition temperature (T g). Broadband nanoindentation creep (BNC) and load transient nanoindentation experiments contribute to characterize the hardness-strain rate behavior and indentation size effects, respectively. As-cast Zr 50Cu45Al5 (at. %) metallic glasses evidenced hardness-strain rate loading path dependence, which gradually disappears by effect of the annealing treatments. Back-stresses effect is theorized as the cause of load path dependence behavior. Relaxation effect at low and high strain rates in BNC traces and load ramps "overshoots" in transient experiments enabled to confirm structural changes during mechanical deformation, which is not considered by thermal activation models of deformation. Most of the Zr-based metallic glasses exhibited measurable overshoot indentation size effect. Nonetheless, creep fraction size effect was observed just in as-cast Zr50Cu45Al5 alloys. Rheological mechanical model helps to both characterize the

  17. Glass-to-metal seals comprising relatively high expansion metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A glass suitable for glass-to-metal seals that has a resistance to attack by moisture and a high coefficient of linear thermal expansion is introduced. Linear expansion covers the range from 12 to 14 x 10 to the minus 6 C between room temperature and 500 C. The glass is essentially composed of, by molar percent, about 9% of K2O, about 10% of Na2O, about 70% of SiO2, about 6% Al2O3, and about 5% of MgO.

  18. Effective temperature dynamics of shear bands in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, Eric G.; Klaumünzer, David; Löffler, Jörg F.

    2014-12-01

    We study the plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses with shear transformation zone (STZ) theory, a physical model for plasticity in amorphous systems, and compare it with experimental data. In STZ theory, plastic deformation occurs when localized regions rearrange due to applied stress and the density of these regions is determined by a dynamically evolving effective disorder temperature. We compare the predictions of STZ theory to experiments that explore the low-temperature deformation of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses via shear bands at various thermal temperatures and strain rates. By following the evolution of effective temperature with time, strain rate, and temperature through a series of approximate and numerical solutions to the STZ equations, we successfully model a suite of experimentally observed phenomena, including shear-band aging as apparent from slide-hold-slide tests, a temperature-dependent steady-state flow stress, and a strain-rate- and temperature-dependent transition from stick-slip (serrated flow) to steady-sliding (nonserrated flow). We find that STZ theory quantitatively matches the observed experimental data and provides a framework for relating the experimentally measured energy scales to different types of atomic rearrangements.

  19. Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental input for the design of metallic glass/crystalline composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Nicholas Willis

    Bulk metallic glasses often exhibit exceptional strength and large elastic strains, but the structural applications of bulk metallic glasses are limited by their extremely low tensile ductility. Below the glass transition temperature of the alloy, plastic deformation occurs primarily in narrow shear bands, which propagate unimpeded through the monolithic glass structure, resulting in catastrophic failure under tensile loading. A number of studies have added crystalline reinforcements to the glassy matrix in an effort to block shear band propagation and increase ductility. The reinforcements in these bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMC's) can be added as ex situ particles or fibers infiltrated by the glass-forming liquid [1], or can be formed in situ, either via devitrification of the glass during post-processing [2] or as a second phase that precipitates from the melt during solidification [3]. The size, distribution, and mechanical properties of the reinforcement phase have significant impact on the ductility of the composite. However, surprisingly little quantitative microstructural information is available for BMGMC's, particularly those formed by precipitation from the melt. In this work, we examine two in situ BMGMC's in which a ductile crystalline phase precipitates during solidification of the melt, resulting in a complex dendritic structure embedded in a continuous glass matrix. A 3D serial sectioning process was used to image the microstructure at regular intervals by removing slices of material using a dual beam focused ion-scanning electron microscope (FIB). Due to the complex nature of the microstructure, measurements of key features were conducted using a 3D measurement method that was developed for this purpose. Experiments were also conducted to provide experimental input for the development and tuning of finite element models. Changes in the elastic modulus of the composite were evaluated over a range of stresses that encompassed the yield

  1. On the liquid-state fragility of PdNiCuP metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yaofeng, E-mail: guoye@minatec.inpg.fr [SIMAP-CNRS, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, St Martin d' Heres, 38402 (France); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, 100191 (China); Yavari, Alain R. [SIMAP-CNRS, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, St Martin d' Heres, 38402 (France); Zhang Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A fragile-to-strong liquid transition in Pd-Ni-Cu-P metallic glass is suggested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excess entropy-temperature curve shows this MG is fragile near melting temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small thermodynamic fragility and expansion on cooling indicate strong around T{sub g}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large T{sub g}/T{sub k} ratio and tetrahedral-like cluster also suggest a strong liquid near T{sub g}. - Abstract: It has been widely known that Pd-Ni-Cu-P alloy system possesses the largest glass forming ability among the bulk metallic glasses. But its fragility exhibits relatively low index, lower than other good metallic glass formers. Intensive research has been done on glass forming ability, and it has been suggested that the sluggish diffusive motion and small driving force for nucleation are responsible for this unusual phenomena. However, this apparent contradiction between glass forming ability and fragility is not unique among vitreous materials. Considering the same details of vitrification of water and thermodynamic fragility, as well as unusual expansion during solidification of PdNiCuP metallic glass, it is suggested tentatively that there might be a fragile-to-strong transition during the vitrification of PdNiCuP metallic glass.

  2. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-11

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  3. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  4. Phonon thermal transport in metallic glasses below 100 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matey, James Regis [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the phonon thermal conductivity of a variety of metallic glasses were made. In each case, the temperature dependence and magnitude of the phonon thermal conductivity of the glassy metal was very similar to that characteristic of nonmetallic glasses. Variation of sound velocity measurements were made on a glassy palladium silicon alloy and a qualitative similarity was found between its behavior and the behavior of nonmetallic glasses. These findings and results from other laboratories have led to the conclusion that the localized excitations responsible for the anomalous behavior of nonmetallic glasses are also present in the metallic glasses.

  5. The soft magnetic properties of ring-shaped (Co0.6Fe0.3Ni0.1)68(B0.811Si0.189)27Nb5 bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaqiang; Man, Qikui; Zhang, Zhidong; Shen, Baolong

    2013-05-01

    Ring-shaped (Co0.6Fe0.3Ni0.1)68(B0.811Si0.189)27Nb5 bulk samples with an outer diameter of 10 mm, an inner diameter of 6 mm, and a thickness of 1 mm were successfully prepared by copper mold casting. The effects of annealing treatments on magnetic properties of the ring-shaped bulk sample were investigated. After the optimum annealing treatment, the resulting ring-shaped bulk sample exhibits good magnetic properties, i.e., low coercive force of 0.55 A/m, high maximum permeability of 433 000, and high permeability of 19 400 at 50 Hz under an AC field amplitude of 1.2 A/m, respectively. In addition, the ring-shaped bulk sample also shows low core loss of 0.09 W/kg at 50 Hz under induction of 0.5 T. The synthesis of ring-shaped bulk samples with good magnetic properties is encouraging for their potential applications as functional materials in the future.

  6. Slip avalanche in nanoscratching of metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. X.; Wang, G.; Ren, J. L.; Song, S. X.; Li, J.; Yi, J.; Jia, Y. D.; Xu, H.; Chan, K. C.; Liaw, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    Slip avalanches, similar to discrete earthquake events, of Zr-, Co-, and Ce-based metallic glasses during nanoscratching were investigated. Differing from the conventional continuum approach, mean-field theory, which is an inherently-discrete model, was applied to analytically compute intermittent slip avalanches. Mean-field theory was first connected with the potential energy barrier and concentration of free volume in order to study the stick-slip behavior. The results suggest that the motion behavior of free volume affects the critical slip avalanche size.

  7. Composition Effect on Intrinsic Plasticity or Brittleness in Metallic Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Yun Zhao; Akihisa Inoue; Chuntao Chang; Jian Liu; Baolong Shen; Xinmin Wang; Run-Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We ha...

  8. In-situ atomic force microscopy observation revealing gel-like plasticity on a metallic glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y. M.; Zeng, J. F.; Huang, J. C.; Kuan, S. Y.; Nieh, T. G.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2017-03-01

    It has been decade-long and enduring efforts to decipher the structural mechanism of plasticity in metallic glasses; however, it still remains a challenge to directly reveal the structural change, if any, that precedes; and dominant plastics flow in them. Here, by using the dynamic atomic force microscope as an "imaging" as well as a "forcing" tool, we unfold a real-time sequence of structural evolution occurring on the surface of an Au-Si thin film metallic glass. In sharp contrast to the common notion that plasticity comes along with mechanical softening in bulk metallic glasses, our experimental results directly reveal three types of nano-sized surface regions, which undergo plasticity but exhibit different characters of structural evolution following the local plasticity events, including stochastic structural rearrangement, unusual local relaxation and rejuvenation. As such, yielding on the metallic-glass surface manifests as a dynamic equilibrium between local relaxation and rejuvenation as opposed to shear instability in bulk metallic-glasses. Our finding demonstrates that plasticity on the metallic glass surface of Au-Si metallic glass bears much resemblance to that of the colloidal gels, of which nonlinear rheology rather than shear instability governs the constitutive behavior of plasticity.

  9. Pressure-induced polyamorphism in lanthanide-solute metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liangliang; Li, Renfeng; Liu, Haozhe [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Center for High Pressure Science Technology Advanced Research, Changchun (China); Wang, Luhong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Qu, Dongdong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Zhao, Haiyan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The electronic structure inheritance of lanthanide-solvent atoms in lanthanide-based metallic glasses has been proposed. Is a polyamorphism possible in lanthanide-solute metallic glasses? So far, polyamorphic phase transitions in metallic glass containing lanthanide have been observed only in lanthanide-solvent metallic glasses. Here, a pressure-induced transition between two distinct amorphous states, accompanied by a 7% volume collapse at ambient pressure, was observed in La{sub 43.4}Pr{sub 18.6}Al{sub 14}Cu{sub 24} metallic glass, with low lanthanide content, by using in situ X-ray total scattering method. The transformation also indicated by changes in short range and medium range order. Thus, it is proposed that the lanthanide-solute metallic glasses also inherit 4f electronic transition from pure lanthanide element in polyamorphic transition. This discovery offers a supplement to research on lanthanide-based metallic glasses, which further provides a new perspective of the polyamorphic transformation in metallic glasses containing lanthanide element. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Modification of magnetic anisotropy in metallic glasses using high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Heavy ion irradiation in the electronic stopping power region induces macroscopic di- mensional change in metallic glasses and introduces magnetic anisotropy in some magnetic mate- rials. The present work is on the irradiation study of ferromagnetic metallic glasses, where both dimensional change and ...

  11. Preparation and luminescence of bulk oxyfluoride glasses doped with Ag nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V K; Rodríguez, V D; Kuznetsov, A; Kirilenko, D; Van Tendeloo, G; Moshchalkov, V V

    2010-10-11

    Bulk oxyfluoride glasses doped with Ag nanoclusters have been prepared using the melt quenching technique. When pumped in the absorption band of Ag nanoclusters between 300 to 500 nm, these glasses emit a very broad luminescence band covering all the visible range with a weak tail extending into the near infrared. The maximum of the luminescence band and its color shifts to the blue with a shortening of the excitation wavelength and an increasing ratio of oxide to fluoride components, resulting in white color luminescence at a particular ratio of oxide to fluoride; with a quantum yield above 20%.

  12. Sheet-bulk metal forming – forming of functional components from sheet metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  13. Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation of bulk As2S3 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, D. G.; Boolchand, P.; Jackson, K. A.

    2003-09-01

    Raman scattering on bulk AsxS1-x glasses shows that vibrational modes of As4S4 monomer first appear near x = 0.38, and their concentration increases precipitously with increasing x, suggesting that the stoichiometric glass (x = 0.40) is intrinsically phase separated into small As-rich (As4S4) and large S-rich clusters. Support for the Raman-active vibrational modes of the orpiment-like and realgar-like nanophases is provided by ab-initio density functional theory calculations on appropriate clusters. Nanoscale phase separation provides a basis for understanding the global maximum in the glass transition temperature Tg near x = 0.40, and the departure from Arrhenius temperature activation of As2S3 melt viscosities.

  14. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. Z., E-mail: dzchen@caltech.edu [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Gu, X. W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); An, Q.; Goddard, W. A. [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Greer, J. R. [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); The Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  15. Advanced Wear Simulation for Bulk Metal Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrens Bernd-Arno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades the finite element method has become an essential tool for the cost-efficient virtual process design in the metal forming sector in order to counter the constantly increasing quality standards, particularly from the automotive industry as well as intensified international competition in the forging industry. An optimized process design taking precise tool wear prediction into account is a way to increase the cost-efficiency of the bulk metal forming processes. The main objective of the work presented in this paper is a modelling algorithm, which allows predicting die wear with respect to a geometry update during the forming simulation. Changes in the contact area caused by geometry update lead to the different die wear distribution. It primarily concerns the die areas, which undergo high thermal and mechanical loads.

  16. Ultra-short pulsed laser engineered metal-glass nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Stalmashonak, Andrei; Abdolvand, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Glasses containing metallic nanoparticles exhibit very promising linear and nonlinear optical properties, mainly due to the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of the nanoparticles. The spectral position in the visible and near-infrared range and polarization dependence of the SPR are characteristically determined by the nanoparticles’ shapes. The focus of Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites is the interaction of intense ultra-short laser pulses with glass containing silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass, and nanostructural modifications in metal-glass nanocomposites induced by such laser pulses. In order to provide a comprehensive physical picture of the processes leading to laser-induced persistent shape transformation of the nanoparticles, series of experimental results investigating the dependences of laser assisted shape modifications of nanoparticles with laser pulse intensity, excitation wavelength, temperature are considered. In addition, the resulting local opti...

  17. Measurement of mechanical properties of metallic glass at elevated temperature using sonic resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Zhang, Haifeng; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are fully amorphous multi-component alloys with homogeneous and isotropic structure down to the atomic scale. Some attractive attributes of bulk metallic glasses include high strength and hardness as well as excellent corrosion and wear resistance. However, there are few reports and limited understanding of their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. We used a nondestructive sonic resonance method to measure the Young's modulus and Shear modulus of a bulk metallic glass, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, at elevated temperatures. The measurement system was designed using a laser displacement sensor to detect the sonic vibration produced by a speaker on the specimen in high-temperature furnace. The OMICRON Bode-100 Vector Network Analyzer was used to sweep the frequency and its output was connected to the speaker which vibrated the material in its flexural mode and torsional modes. A Polytec OFV-505 laser vibrometer sensor was used to capture the vibration of the material at various frequencies. The flexural and torsional mode frequency shift due to the temperature variation was used to determine the Young's modulus and Shear modulus. The temperature range of measurement was from 50°C to 350°C. The Young's modulus was found to reduce from 100GPa to 94GPa for the 300°C temperature span. Similarly, the Shear modulus decreased from 38.5GPa at 50°C to 36GPa at 350°C.

  18. Nacre-mimetic bulk lamellar composites reinforced with high aspect ratio glass flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Selen N Gurbuz; Dericioglu, Arcan F

    2016-12-05

    Nacre-mimetic epoxy matrix composites reinforced with readily available micron-sized high aspect ratio C-glass flakes were fabricated by a relatively simple, single-step, scalable, time, cost and man-power effective processing strategy: hot-press assisted slip casting (HASC). HASC enables the fabrication of preferentially oriented two-dimensional inorganic reinforcement-polymer matrix bulk lamellar composites with a micro-scale structure resembling the brick-and-mortar architecture of nacre. By applying the micro-scale design guideline found in nacre and optimizing the relative volume fractions of the reinforcement and the matrix as well as by anchoring the brick-and-mortar architecture, and tailoring the interface between reinforcements and the matrix via silane coupling agents, strong, stiff and tough bio-inspired nacre-mimetic bulk composites were fabricated. As a result of high shear stress transfer lengths and effective stress transfer at the interface achieved through surface functionalization of the reinforcements, fabricated bulk composites exhibited enhanced mechanical performance as compared to neat epoxy. Furthermore, governed flake pull-out mode along with a highly torturous crack path, which resulted from extensive deflection and meandering of the advancing crack around well-aligned high aspect ratio C-glass flakes, have led to high work-of-fracture values similar to nacre.

  19. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  20. Scattering mechanical performances for brittle bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Qiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Scattering mechanical performances of brittle La- and Mg-based BMGs are found in the present study. Upon dynamic loading, there exist largely scattered fracture strengths even if the strain rates are under the same order, and the BMG systems are the same. The negative strain rate dependence for La- and Mg-based BMGs is obtained, i.e., a decreased fracture strength is dominating from quasi-static to dynamic compression. At cryogenic temperatures, distinguishingly low fracture strengths are available for these two brittle BMGs, and decreased tolerance to accommodate strains makes BMGs more and more brittle. It is concluded that the scattering mechanical performances of brittle BMGs should be carefully evaluated before actual applications.

  1. Bulk metallic glass for low noise fluxgate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of Prime Photonics, Virginia Tech, and Utron Kinetics propose to develop a fabrication technology that will result in drop-in replacements for a diminishing...

  2. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  3. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  4. Metal nanoparticle-doped coloured films on glass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a program on the development of metal (e.g. Au, Ag, Cu and their alloy) nanoparticles in sol{gel derived films, attempts were made to synthesize different coloured coatings on glasses and plastics. The absorption position of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band arising from the embedded metal nanoparticles was ...

  5. Metal nanoparticle-doped coloured films on glass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In a program on the development of metal (e.g. Au, Ag, Cu and their alloy) nanoparticles in sol–gel derived films, attempts were made to synthesize different coloured coatings on glasses and plastics. The absorption position of surface plasmon resonance. (SPR) band arising from the embedded metal ...

  6. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dapeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on the nucleation and growth of metal thin films on multimetallic surfaces. First, we have investigated the Ag film growth on a bulk metallic glass surface. Next, we have examined the coarsening and decay of bilayer Ag islands on NiAl(110) surface. Third, we have investigated the Ag film growth on NiAl(110) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). At last, we have reported our investigation on the epitaxial growth of Ni on NiAl(110) surface. Some general conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, Ag, a bulk-crystalline material, initially forms a disordered wetting layer up to 4-5 monolayers on Zr-Ni-Cu-Al metallic glass. Above this coverage, crystalline 3D clusters grow, in parallel with the flatter regions. The cluster density increases with decreasing temperature, indicating that the conditions of island nucleation are far-from-equilibrium. Within a simple model where clusters nucleate whenever two mobile Ag adatoms meet, the temperature-dependence of cluster density yields a (reasonable) upper limit for the value of the Ag diffusion barrier on top of the Ag wetting layer of 0.32 eV. Overall, this prototypical study suggests that it is possible to grow films of a bulk-crystalline metal that adopt the amorphous character of a glassy metal substrate, if film thickness is sufficiently low. Next, the first study of coarsening and decay of bilayer islands has been presented. The system was Ag on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 185 K to 250 K. The coarsening behavior, has some similarities to that seen in the Ag(110) homoepitaxial system studied by Morgenstern and co-workers. At 185 K and 205 K, coarsening of Ag islands follows a Smoluchowski ripening pathway. At 205 K and 250 K, the terrace diffusion limited Ostwald ripening dominants. The experimental observed temperature for the transition from SR to OR is 205 K. The SR exhibits anisotropic island diffusion and the OR exhibits 1D decay of island

  7. Crystallization of heavy metal fluoride glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Bruce, Allan J.; Doremus, R. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of crystallization of a number of fluorozirconate glasses were studied using isothermal and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The addition of the fluorides LiF, NaF, AlF3, LaF3 to a base glass composition of ZrF4-BaF2 reduced the tendency to crystallize, probably by modifying the viscosity-temperature relation. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF glass was the most stable against devitrification and perhaps is the best composition for optical fibers with low scattering loss. Some glasses first crystallize out into metastable beta-BaZr2F10 and beta-BaZrF6 phases, which transform into the most stable alpha-phases when heated to higher temperatures. The size of the crystallites was estimated to be about 600 A from X-ray diffraction.

  8. High-throughput drawing and testing of metallic glass nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Molla; Kumar, Golden

    2017-03-02

    Thermoplastic embossing of metallic glasses promises direct imprinting of metal nanostructures using templates. However, embossing high-aspect-ratio nanostructures faces unworkable flow resistance due to friction and non-wetting conditions at the template interface. Herein, we show that these inherent challenges of embossing can be reversed by thermoplastic drawing using templates. The flow resistance not only remains independent of wetting but also decreases with increasing feature aspect-ratio. Arrays of assembled nanotips, nanowires, and nanotubes with aspect-ratios exceeding 1000 can be produced through controlled elongation and fracture of metallic glass structures. In contrast to embossing, the drawing approach generates two sets of nanostructures upon final fracture; one set remains anchored to the metallic glass substrate while the second set is assembled on the template. This method can be readily adapted for high-throughput fabrication and testing of nanoscale tensile specimens, enabling rapid screening of size-effects in mechanical behavior.

  9. Expanded-core waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in bulk optical glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Wenfu; Zhao, Wei; Stoian, Razvan; Cheng, Guanghua

    2014-11-17

    Expanded-core structures based on layered increased index (type I) waveguiding traces are fabricated by ultrafast laser photoinscription in bulk optical glasses, with examples for fused silica and chalcogenide glasses. The expanded-core waveguides can serve for large-mode-area guiding concepts and their feasibility is experimentally investigated. A parametric study of the geometry, number of traces and index contrast indicates the possibility to design guided modes characteristics as exemplified in fused silica. A specific arrangement consisting of 8 traces of guiding layers with 6µm separation exhibit single-mode transport properties with mode field area of ~805µm². The condition of single mode operation is also discussed in the frame of the dispersion relation of light guiding in periodical dielectric structures. The supported supermode of expanded-core structures can be controlled by careful design of the refractive index change, the number of guiding layers and the thickness of the interlayers. Inspection of the propagation characteristics shows equally low loss features. A Y-branching splitter based on expanded-core concept conserving single mode characteristics is fabricated. The optical design is equally successfully tested in chalcogenide Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide glass. Ultrafast laser inscribed expanded-core waveguiding provides therefore an interesting path of fabricating large mode area waveguides usable in near infrared and mid-infrared region beneficial for applications requiring high power or large mode dimensions.

  10. In situ growth of luminescent silver nanoclusters inside bulk sol-gel silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Capoen, Bruno; Razdobreev, Igor; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanocluster-doped glasses are attractive materials for various photonic applications. In this paper, bulk silica glasses doped with luminescent silver nanoclusters have been prepared using the sol-gel technique. As a first step, dense silica glasses doped with ionic silver have been loaded with hydrogen. Thereafter, a heat-treatment in air atmosphere was performed to enable the growth of silver nanoclusters at different temperatures in the range 100-600 °C. The optical properties of the obtained nanocomposites have been studied, as a function of the post-annealing temperature, using optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. It has been shown that, under UV photoexcitation, the hydrogenated samples, heat-treated between 200 and 500 °C present visible luminescence due to cationic and neutral molecular-like silver clusters, consisting of a small number of Ag atoms or ions. After annealing at 600 °C, further Ag aggregation led to 2 nm-size silver nanoparticles, resulting in a quenching of the visible luminescence.

  11. Size effect on dynamics and glass transition in metallic liquids and glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Z.; Sun, Y. T.; Lu, Z.; Li, M. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-06-01

    The relaxation dynamics and glass transition in finite-sized metallic liquid droplets were investigated via molecular dynamic simulations in model monoatomic Ta and binary Cu50Zr50 metallic liquids. We find that the droplet size has a significant impact on liquid dynamics and glass transition. Glass transition temperature and structural relaxation time exhibit strong size dependence and decrease drastically as the droplet is smaller than a certain size. It is revealed that this results from a liquid-like surface layer (˜1 nm thick) of droplets, in which the dynamics is much faster than the interior of droplets. A proposed scaling relationship can well describe the size dependent behavior of the glass transition temperature in metallic liquid droplets. These findings provide insight into the dynamics of metallic liquid droplets and plausible understanding of recent novel experimental observations. Apart from temperature and pressure, size may be another important parameter for potentially tuning the properties of metallic liquids and glasses in nanometer scale.

  12. Simulation of Cu-Mg metallic glass: Thermodynamics and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2004-01-01

    and the amorphous alloys of similar composition. We have also investigated the diffusivity in the supercooled regime. Its temperature dependence indicates fragile-liquid behavior, typical of binary metallic glasses. On the other hand, the relatively low specific-heat jump of around 1.5k(B)/atom indicates apparent......We have obtained effective medium theory interatomic potential parameters suitable for studying Cu-Mg metallic glasses. We present thermodynamic and structural results from simulations of such glasses over a range of compositions. We have produced low-temperature configurations by cooling from...... the melt at as slow a rate as practical, using constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics. During the cooling process we have carried out thermodynamic analyses based on the temperature dependence of the enthalpy and its derivative, the specific heat, from which the glass transition temperature...

  13. Structural evolution and strength change of a metallic glass at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X.; Wang, G.; Stachurski, Z. H.; Bednarčík, J.; Mattern, N.; Zhai, Q. J.; Eckert, J.

    2016-08-01

    The structural evolution of a Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 metallic glass is investigated in-situ by high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation upon heating up to crystallization. The structural rearrangements on the atomic scale during the heating process are analysed as a function of temperature, focusing on shift of the peaks of the structure factor in reciprocal space and the pair distribution function and radial distribution function in real space which are correlated with atomic rearrangements and progressing nanocrystallization. Thermal expansion and contraction of the coordination shells is measured and correlated with the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion. The characteristics of the microstructure and the yield strength of the metallic glass at high temperature are discussed aiming to elucidate the correlation between the atomic arrangement and the mechanical properties.

  14. Fracture-resistant thin-film metallic glass: Ultra-high plasticity at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first example of room-temperature rubber-like deformation in thin-film metallic glasses (TFMGs, 260-nm-thick Zr60Cu24Al11Ni5 layers, under ultra-high shear strain. The TFMGs were deposited, with no external heating, on Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG and Si(001 substrates by rf magnetron sputtering in a 3 mTorr Ar plasma. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM analyses and nanoindentation results reveal that the TFMGs undergo an incredibly large shear strain, estimated to be ∼4000%, during fatigue tests, and thickness reductions of up to 61.5%, with no shear-banding or cracking, during extreme nanoindentation experiments extending through the film and into the substrate. TFMG/BMG samples also exhibit film/substrate diffusion bonding during deformation as shown by high-resolution XTEM.

  15. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  16. Melt-Quenched Hybrid Glasses from Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Haizheng; Bennett, Thomas D; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-05-01

    While glasses formed by quenching the molten states of inorganic non-metallic, organic, and metallic species are known, those containing both inorganic and organic moieties are far less prevalent. Network materials consisting of inorganic nodes linked by organic ligands do however exist in the crystalline or amorphous domain. This large family of open framework compounds, called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or coordination polymers, has been investigated intensively in the past two decades for a variety of applications, almost all of which stem from their high internal surface areas and chemical versatility. Recently, a selection of MOFs has been demonstrated to undergo melting and vitrification upon cooling. Here, these recent discoveries and the connections between the fields of MOF chemistry and glass science are summarized. Possible advantages and applications for MOF glasses produced by utilizing the tunable chemistry of the crystalline state are also highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of fr...

  18. GENERATION OF A COMPOSITE GLASS-METAL ROD: PRACTICAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridasova Ekaterina Alexandrovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Glass has a high compressive strength and low impact strength. The strength of glass in compression is a lot higher than the strength of glass in tension, and it varies within the range of 500-1,250 MPa. Whenever the glass is in compression, it can compete with the properties of metal in terms of its strength. The tensile strength of glass under tension is 30-50 MPa. The reason for that is the fact that the strength of glass is strongly dependent on the state of its surface. Methods of increasing the strength of glass have been the subject of research projects implemented at Far Eastern Federal University. The objective is to apply compressive stresses that would prevent any defects in the surface layer and harden the surface to improve the glass resistance to mechanical stresses and isolate it from the environment. Creation of a composite rod made of glass grade C49-1 (3С5Na and steel E235C (ISO standard manufactured through the employment of diffusion bonding represents a practical result of the research. Its analysis has proven the presence of full contact, absence of cracks and poor penetration alongside the welding zone. Microscopy methods of analysis have demonstrated the presence of the transition zone in the points of interface of materials. The results of the spectral analysis prove the penetration of Fe-cations into the glass down to the depth of 30 microns. The chemical analysis of the zone of diffusion proves that the crystalline structure, or fayalite (Fe2SiO4, is formed in the glass. The rod strength analysis has demonstrated its high compressive

  19. Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2001-01-01

    In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...

  20. Glass transition of polymers in bulk, confined geometries, and near interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Simone; Glynos, Emmanouil; Tito, Nicholas B.

    2017-03-01

    When cooled or pressurized, polymer melts exhibit a tremendous reduction in molecular mobility. If the process is performed at a constant rate, the structural relaxation time of the liquid eventually exceeds the time allowed for equilibration. This brings the system out of equilibrium, and the liquid is operationally defined as a glass—a solid lacking long-range order. Despite almost 100 years of research on the (liquid/)glass transition, it is not yet clear which molecular mechanisms are responsible for the unique slow-down in molecular dynamics. In this review, we first introduce the reader to experimental methodologies, theories, and simulations of glassy polymer dynamics and vitrification. We then analyse the impact of connectivity, structure, and chain environment on molecular motion at the length scale of a few monomers, as well as how macromolecular architecture affects the glass transition of non-linear polymers. We then discuss a revised picture of nanoconfinement, going beyond a simple picture based on interfacial interactions and surface/volume ratio. Analysis of a large body of experimental evidence, results from molecular simulations, and predictions from theory supports, instead, a more complex framework where other parameters are relevant. We focus discussion specifically on local order, free volume, irreversible chain adsorption, the Debye-Waller factor of confined and confining media, chain rigidity, and the absolute value of the vitrification temperature. We end by highlighting the molecular origin of distributions in relaxation times and glass transition temperatures which exceed, by far, the size of a chain. Fast relaxation modes, almost universally present at the free surface between polymer and air, are also remarked upon. These modes relax at rates far larger than those characteristic of glassy dynamics in bulk. We speculate on how these may be a signature of unique relaxation processes occurring in confined or heterogeneous polymeric

  1. Formation of nanostructured metallic glass thin films upon sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Ketov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology evolution of the multicomponent metallic glass film obtained by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering was investigated in the present work. Two modes of metallic glass sputtering were distinguished: smooth film mode and clustered film mode. The sputtering parameters, which have the most influence on the sputtering modes, were determined. As a result, amorphous Ni-Nb thin films with a smooth surface and nanoglassy structure were deposited on silica float glass and Si substrates. The phase composition of the target appeared to have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the deposited amorphous thin film. The differences in charge transport and nanomechanical properties between the smooth and nanoglassy Ni-Nb film were also determined.

  2. Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

    1999-03-31

    The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

  3. Investigations on the Broadband Shielding Effectiveness of Metallized Glass Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, William

    1998-01-01

    ...) is an E-glass fiber metallized with Al and processed into a nonwoven mat. When formed into a mat, the MGFs lead to an effective sample conductivity, sigma eff, which is the parameter of interest for electromagnetic shielding in the RF region...

  4. Nucleation and growth of a multicomponent metallic glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Nucleation and growth of a multicomponent metallic glass. @. ARUN PRATAP*, K G RAVAL†, AJAY GUPTA‡ and S K KULKARNI#. Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M S University of Baroda, Baroda 390 001, India. †Electronics Department, Narmada College of Science and ...

  5. Size effects and ductility of Al-based metallic glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, O.V.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.T.M. De

    This paper reports the results of compression tests conducted in situ in a transmission electron microscope of taper-free nanosized pillars of Al86Ni9Y5 metallic glass with diameters ranging between 110 and 900 nm. A critical size was found, below which the deformation mode changes from intermittent

  6. Low temperature mechanical properties of metallic glasses - Connection with structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengus, VZ; Tabachnikova, ED; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    Available data on plasticity and strength of metallic glasses below the room temperature (down to 0.5 K) are considered and explained on the basis of the polycluster model of amorphous solids especially with taking into consideration possible atomic structure of clusters and defects of intercluster

  7. STRUCTURAL INTERACTIONS OF HYDROGEN WITH BULK AMORPHOUS MICROSTRUCTURES IN METALLIC SYSTEMS UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF PARTIAL CRYSTALLINITY ON PERMEATION AND EMBRITTLEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Elise; Korinko, Paul; Adams, Thad

    2010-05-10

    The development of metallic glasses in bulk form has led to a resurgence of interest into the utilization of these materials for a variety of applications. A potentially exciting application for these bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials is their use as composite membranes to replace high cost Pd/Pd-alloy membranes for enhanced gas separation processes. One of the major drawbacks to the industrial use of Pd/Pd-alloy membranes is that during cycling above and below a critical temperature an irreversible change takes place in the palladium lattice structure which can result in significant damage to the membrane. Furthermore, the cost associated with Pd-based membranes is a potential detractor for their continued use and BMG alloys offer a potentially attractive alternative. Several BMG alloys have been shown to possess high permeation rates, comparable to those measured for pure Pd metal. In addition, high strength and toughness when either in-situ or ex-situ second phase dispersoids are present. Both of these properties, high permeation and high strength/toughness, potentially make these materials attractive for gas separation membranes that could resist hydrogen 'embrittlement'. However, a fundamental understanding of the relationship between partially crystalline 'structure'/devitrification and permeation/embrittlement in these BMG materials is required in order to determine the operating window for separation membranes and provide additional input to the material synthesis community for improved alloy design. This project aims to fill the knowledge gap regarding the impact of crystallization on the permeation properties of metallic glass materials. The objectives of this study are to (i) determine the crystallization behavior in different gas environments of Fe and Zr based commercially available bulk metallic glass and (ii) quantify the effects of partial crystallinity on the hydrogen permeation properties of these metallic glass membranes.

  8. Photo-induced-heat localization on nanostructured metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ceren; Kahler, Niloofar; Grave de Peralta, Luis; Kumar, Golden; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2017-09-01

    Materials with large photo-thermal energy conversion efficiency are essential for renewable energy applications. Photo-excitation is an effective approach to generate controlled and localized heat at relatively low excitation optical powers. However, lateral heat diffusion to the surrounding illuminated areas accompanied by low photo-thermal energy conversion efficiency remains a challenge for metallic surfaces. Surface nanoengineering has proven to be a successful approach to further absorption and heat generation. Here, we show that pronounced spatial heat localization and high temperatures can be achieved with arrays of amorphous metallic glass nanorods under infrared optical illumination. Thermography measurements revealed marked temperature contrast between illuminated and non-illuminated areas even under low optical power excitation conditions. This attribute allowed for generating legible photo-induced thermal patterns on textured metallic glass surfaces.

  9. Innovative approaches for controlling the material flow in sheet-bulk metal forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using sheet-bulk metal forming processes the application of bulk forming operations on sheet metals enables the manufacturing of functional components with local wall thickness variations. As these processes come along with a two- and three-dimensional material flow, the control of the material flow is crucial for ensuring a proper filling of functional elements and thus ensuring the components quality. Controlling the material flow can be achieved by different solutions: the local adaption of tribological conditions and the application of process adapted semi-finished parts. In this paper, both solutions as well as their general qualification in two sheet-bulk metal forming processes are presented.

  10. Significantly enhanced memory effect in metallic glass by multistep training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. X.; Luo, P.; Sun, Y. T.; Wen, P.; Bai, H. Y.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-11-01

    The state of metastable equilibrium glass can carry an imprint of the past and exhibit memory effect. As a hallmark of glassy dynamics, memory effect can affect glassy behavior as it evolves further upon time. Even though the physical picture of the memory effect has been well studied, it is unclear whether a glass can recall as many pieces of information as possible, and if so, how the glass will accordingly behave. We report that by fractionizing temperature interval, inserting multistep aging protocols, and optimizing the time of each temperature step, i.e., by imposing a multistep "training" on a prototypical P d40N i10C u30P20 metallic glass, the memory of the trained glass can be significantly strengthened, marked by a pronounced augment in potential energy. These findings provide a new guide for regulating the energy state of glass by enhancing the nonequilibrium behaviors of the memory effect and offer an opportunity to develop a clearer physical picture of glassy dynamics.

  11. Melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Xin, R.C.; Liu, Y.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Several high-temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to support these processes. This research project involves an experimental investigation of the melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal and the development of an efficient separation technology. The ultimate goal of this project is to find an efficient way to separate the slag phase from the metal phase in the molten state. This two-year project commenced in October 1995 (FY96). In the first fiscal year, the following tasks were accomplished: (1) A literature review and an assessment of the baseline glass and metal separation technologies were performed. The results indicated that the baseline technology yields a high percentage of glass in the metal phase, requiring further separation. (2) The main melting and solidification system setup was established. A number of melting and solidification tests were conducted. (3) Temperature distribution, solidification patterns, and flow field in the molten metal pool were simulated numerically for the solidification processes of molten aluminum and iron steel. (4) Initial designs of the laboratory-scale DCS and CS technologies were also completed. The principal demonstration separation units were constructed. (5) An application for a patent for an innovative liquid-liquid separation technology was submitted and is pending.

  12. Structure and properties of transition metal-metalloid glasses based on refractory metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.L.; Williams, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The structure and properties of several new transition metal-metalloid (TM/sub 1-x/M/sub x/) metallic glasses based on refractory transition metals (e.g. Mo, W, Ru etc.) have been systemically investigated as a function of composition. The structure of the alloys has been investigated by x-ray diffraction methods and measurements of superconducting properties, electrical resistivity, density, hardness, and mechanical behavior were made. These data are used in developing a novel description of the structure of TM/sub 1-x/M/sub x/ glasses. The experimental evidence suggests that an ideal amorphous phase forms at a specific composition x/sub c/ and that this phase has a well defined atomic short range order. For metallic glasses having x < x/sub c/ (metalloid poor glasses) vacancy-like defects form, which are characterized by the excess volume which they contribute to the glass. Another, as yet unspecified defect appears to form in glasses with x > x/sub c/. This novel picture can explain the variation of many properties of these glasses with metalloid concentration.

  13. New Alloy for Glass-to-Metal Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Coefficient of thermal expansion approximates that of glass more closely. Alloy composed of about 60 percent iron, 40 percent nickel, and traces of six other elements. Developed as replacement for Kovar Fe/Ni/Co alloy in ferrule-and-tube assembly, new alloy has same strength, solderability, and compatibility with fuel as does Kovar. Used in glass-to-metal seals without excessive residual stresses. Potential for other applications in which low thermal expansion important; mechanical measuring devices and precise sliding parts that must function over wide temperature ranges.

  14. Optical response of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchianti, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Bogi, A; Marmugi, L; Giomi, S; Maccari, M; Veronesi, S; Moi, L [CNISM and DSFTA, University of Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2014-03-28

    We study the influence of optical radiation on adsorption and desorption processes of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass matrices. Exposure of the sample to near-IR or visible light changes the atomic distribution inside the glass nanopores, forcing the entire system to evolve towards a different state. This effect, due to both atomic photodesorption and confinement, causes the growth and evaporation of metastable nanoparticles. It is shown that, by a proper choice of light characteristics and pore size, these processes can be controlled and tailored, thus opening new perspectives for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces. (nanoobjects)

  15. Topical Review: Relaxation processes and physical aging in metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Beatrice; Pineda, Eloi; Evenson, Zach

    2017-11-09

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, metallic glasses have continuously attracted much interest across the physics and materials science communities. In the forefront are their unique properties, which hold the alluring promise of broad application in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental science and engineering. However, a major obstacle to their wide-spread commercial use is their inherent temporal instability arising from underlying relaxation processes that can dramatically alter their physical properties. The result is a physical aging process, which can bring about degradation of mechanical properties, namely through embrittlement and catastrophic mechanical failure. Understanding and controlling the effects of aging will play a decisive role in our on-going endeavor to advance the use of metallic glasses as structural materials, as well as in the more general comprehension of out-of-equilibrium dynamics in complex systems. This review presents an overview of the current state of the art in the experimental advances probing physical aging and relaxation processes in metallic glasses. Similarities and differences between other hard and soft matter glasses are highlighted. The topic is discussed in a multiscale approach, first presenting the key features obtained in macroscopic studies, then connecting them to recent novel microscopic investigations. Particular emphasis is put on the occurrence of distinct relaxation processes beyond the main structural process in viscous metallic melts and their fate upon entering the glassy state, trying to disentangle results and formalisms employed by the different groups of the glass-science community. A microscopic viewpoint is presented, in which physical aging manifests itself in irreversible atomic-scale processes such as avalanches and intermittent dynamics, ascribed to the existence of a plethora of metastable glassy states across a complex energy landscape. Future experimental challenges and the comparison

  16. Relaxation processes and physical aging in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B.; Pineda, E.; Evenson, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, metallic glasses have continuously attracted much interest across the physics and materials science communities. In the forefront are their unique properties, which hold the alluring promise of broad application in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental science and engineering. However, a major obstacle to their wide-spread commercial use is their inherent temporal instability arising from underlying relaxation processes that can dramatically alter their physical properties. The result is a physical aging process which can bring about degradation of mechanical properties, namely through embrittlement and catastrophic mechanical failure. Understanding and controlling the effects of aging will play a decisive role in our on-going endeavor to advance the use of metallic glasses as structural materials, as well as in the more general comprehension of out-of-equilibrium dynamics in complex systems. This review presents an overview of the current state of the art in the experimental advances probing physical aging and relaxation processes in metallic glasses. Similarities and differences between other hard and soft matter glasses are highlighted. The topic is discussed in a multiscale approach, first presenting the key features obtained in macroscopic studies, then connecting them to recent novel microscopic investigations. Particular emphasis is put on the occurrence of distinct relaxation processes beyond the main structural process in viscous metallic melts and their fate upon entering the glassy state, trying to disentangle results and formalisms employed by the different groups of the glass-science community. A microscopic viewpoint is presented, in which physical aging manifests itself in irreversible atomic-scale processes such as avalanches and intermittent dynamics, ascribed to the existence of a plethora of metastable glassy states across a complex energy landscape. Future experimental challenges and the comparison with

  17. Comparison of metal concentrations in three species of mosses and metal freights in bulk precipitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöni, L; Schnyder, N; Krieg, F

    1996-03-01

    Concentration of 25 trace metals in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme) are compared with bulk deposition freights (Bergerhoff method) at 3 sites in Switzerland, one on the plateau, a second in the northern prealps and a third in the southern alps. The three moss species are interchangeable and the atmospheric background deposition can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, La, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Y, Zn. For Hg this study does not give definite results. No seasonal differences in moss concentrations from spring to autumn can be shown.

  18. Preparation of glasses and glass ceramics of heavy metal oxides containing silver: optical, structural and electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna A. Bregadiolli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver containing heavy metal oxide glasses and glass ceramics of the system WO3-SbPO4-PbO-AgCl with different AgCl contents have been prepared and their thermal, structural and optical properties characterized. Glass ceramics containing metallic silver nanoparticles have been prepared by annealing glass samples at temperatures above the glass transition and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The presence of the metallic clusters has been also confirmed by the observation of a surface plasmon resonance band in the visible range. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated the presence of metallic silver into the glasses, even before to perform the thermal treatment.

  19. Glass ceramics for sealing to high-thermal-expansion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Jr., J. A.

    1980-10-01

    Glass ceramics were studied, formulated in the Na/sub 2/O CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.BaOP/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems to establish their suitability for sealing to high thermal expansion metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, and 300 series stainless steels. Glass ceramics in Na/sub 2/O.CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Na/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion in the range 140 x 10/sup -1/ per /sup 0/C less than or equal to ..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 225 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C and fracture toughness values generally greater than those of phosphate glasses; they are suitable for fabricating seals to high thermal expansion metals. Crystal phases include NaPo/sub 3/, (NaPO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, NaBa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, and NaCa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. Glass ceramics formed in the Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion greater than 240 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C, but they have extensive microcracking. Due to their low thermal expansion values (..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 120 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C), glass ceramics in the Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ system are unsuitable for sealing to high thermal expansion metals.

  20. Self-propagating waves of crystallization in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogachev, A. S.; Vadchenko, S. G.; Aronin, A. S.; Rouvimov, S.; Nepapushev, A. A.; Kovalev, I. D.; Baras, F.; Politano, O.; Rogachev, S. A.; Mukasyan, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    Self-propagating thermal waves of the amorphous-crystalline transformation in Fe-based metallic glasses, obtained by melt spinning, were observed using a high-speed infrared camera and reported here. Some experimental results are also reported concerning oscillating waves in the CuTi glassy foils. The thermal characteristics and wave propagating velocities, as well as the microstructure and atomic structure transformations, were studied. A comparison of the results with exothermic reaction waves and explosive crystallization shows that the self-propagating waves in metallic glasses are slower and less violent than classical explosive crystallization in deposited films; thus, we suggest naming this phenomenon "soft explosive crystallization." The experimental data were confirmed by molecular dynamics simulation of the crystallization phenomenon.

  1. Melt-quenched glasses of metal-organic frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Yue, Yuanzheng; Li, P.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline solids dominate the field of metal−organic frameworks (MOFs), with access to the liquid and glass states of matter usually prohibited by relatively low temperatures of thermal decomposition. In this work, we give due consideration to framework chemistry and topology to expand the phen......Crystalline solids dominate the field of metal−organic frameworks (MOFs), with access to the liquid and glass states of matter usually prohibited by relatively low temperatures of thermal decomposition. In this work, we give due consideration to framework chemistry and topology to expand...... the phenomenon of the melting of 3D MOFs, linking crystal chemistry to framework melting temperature and kinetic fragility of the glass-forming liquids. Here we show that melting temperatures can be lowered by altering the chemistry of the crystalline MOF state, which provides a route to facilitate the melting...... of other MOFs. The glasses formed upon vitrification are chemically and structurally distinct from the three other existing categories of melt-quenched glasses (inorganic nonmetallic, organic, and metallic), and retain the basic metal−ligand connectivity of crystalline MOFs, which connects their mechanical...

  2. Lasing effects in new Nd3+-doped TeO2-Nb2O5-WO3 bulk glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreaud, J.; Labruyère, A.; Dardar, H.; Moisy, F.; Duclère, J.-R.; Couderc, V.; Bertrand, A.; Dutreilh-Colas, M.; Delaizir, G.; Hayakawa, T.; Crunteanu, A.; Thomas, P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper demonstrates for the first time continuous wave (cw) and pulsed lasing effects in a 75TeO2-20NbO2.5-5WO3 glass doped with 1 mol.% in Nd3+. It is divided into two parts: The first part treats all the aspects related to the elaboration and the characterization of the materials. Thus, glasses elaborated within the TeO2-Nb2O5-WO3 ternary system show a rather high glass transition temperature Tg ∼ 375 °C, with an excellent thermal stability of ∼160 °C. Compared to glasses synthesized in either TeO2-Nb2O5 or TeO2-WO3 binary systems, glasses fabricated within such system show improved mechanical performances, with larger Young's modulus values. The structural characteristics of the samples, studied by Raman spectroscopy, are also presented. Linear optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient) are accessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. As well, the optical transmission of the various bulk glasses is measured, in the case of both uncoated and coated glasses. In particular, specific anti-reflective coatings at 808 nm (laser diode pump wavelength) and 1064 nm (laser emission wavelength) are respectively deposited on the two surfaces of the sample in order to minimize the losses due to Fresnel reflections at the two glass/air interfaces. In addition, another specific surface treatment (Rmax at 1064 nm) was employed to serve as the back mirror of the laser cavity. The optical transmission data testified to the real efficiency of all these coatings. Finally, the photoluminescence properties (emission and excitation spectra, and luminescence decay curve) of the Nd3+-doped glasses, measured at room temperature for bulk samples, and as a function of temperature for powder glasses, are discussed. The second part is focused on evidencing (cw) and pulsed lasing effects in such coated bulk lasers. Cylindric samples of only a few millimeters in height and in diameter were tested and led to a laser emission around 1064 nm, characterized by a very low

  3. Process, structure, property and applications of metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    B. Geetha Priyadarshini; Bindusri Nair

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are gaining immense technological significance due to their unique structure-property relationship with renewed interest in diverse field of applications including biomedical implants, commercial products, machinery parts, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Various processing routes have been adopted to fabricate MGs with short-range ordering which is believed to be the genesis of unique structure. Understanding the structure of these unique materials is a lon...

  4. Relaxations in metallic glasses investigated by a broad frequency and temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedorf, Dennis; Koeppe, Thomas; Hachenberg, Joerg; Samwer, Konrad [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Kahl, Annelen [Keck Laboratories MS 138-78 Caltech, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Richert, Ranko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-1604 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    We are interested in glassy dynamics and the atomistic processes leading to different relaxations in amorphous materials. To measure the complex elastic constants, two mechanical spectroscopy techniques were employed. The use of a double-paddle-oscillator (DPO) provides sufficient sensitivity to investigate the loss of even thin films. A DPO is driven in eigenfrequency mode at 5.4 kHz and an amorphous metallic film (PdCuSi) is evaporated onto it and measured under UHV conditions. Cooling and heating enables measurements in a broad temperature range with different heating rates. To survey the elastic constants at higher frequencies, an ultrasonic spectroscopy technique in the MHz regime is used. The pulse-echo method is applied to a bulk metallic glass in order to obtain the shear modulus and attenuation by monitoring shear wave propagation. The results are discussed in the framework of the Cooperative Shear Model.

  5. Devitrification kinetics and phase selection mechanisms in Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalay, Ilkay [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Metallic glasses have been a promising class of materials since their discovery in the 1960s. Indeed, remarkable chemical, mechanical and physical properties have attracted considerable attention, and several excellent reviews are available. Moreover, the special group of glass forming alloys known as the bulk metallic glasses (BMG) become amorphous solids even at relatively low cooling rates, allowing them to be cast in large cross sections, opening the scope of potential applications to include bulk forms and net shape structural applications. Recent studies have been reported for new bulk metallic glasses produced with lower cooling rates, from 0.1 to several hundred K/s. Some of the application products of BMGs include sporting goods, high performance springs and medical devices. Several rapid solidification techniques, including melt-spinning, atomization and surface melting have been developed to produce amorphous alloys. The aim of all these methods is to solidify the liquid phase rapidly enough to suppress the nucleation and growth of crystalline phases. Furthermore, the production of amorphous/crystalline composite (ACC) materials by partial crystallization of amorphous precursor has recently given rise to materials that provide better mechanical and magnetic properties than the monolithic amorphous or crystalline alloys. In addition, these advances illustrate the broad untapped potential of using the glassy state as an intermediate stage in the processing of new materials and nanostructures. These advances underlie the necessity of investigations on prediction and control of phase stability and microstructural dynamics during both solidification and devitrification processes. This research presented in this dissertation is mainly focused on Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al alloy systems. The Cu-Zr binary system has high glass forming ability in a wide compositional range (35-70 at.% Cu). Thereby, Cu-Zr based alloys have attracted much attention according to fundamental

  6. Effects of minor Sn addition on the glass formation and properties of Fe-metalloid metallic glasses with high magnetization and high glass forming ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Minjie; Liu, Zengqian; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Effects of minor Sn addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA) as well as thermal, magnetic, and mechanical properties of Fe-P-C-B-Si bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with compositions of Fe80-xSnxP9C8B2Si1 (x=0, 1, 2 and 3 at%) were investigated. The minor Sn substitution for Fe effectively enhances the GFA. The fully glassy rods can be produced up to 3 and 3.5 mm in diameter for the alloys with 1 and 2 at% Sn addition, respectively. Moreover, these Sn-containing BMGs exhibit good soft magnetic properties including high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.46-1.51 T, low coercivity (Hc) of 3.8-5.0 A/m and good mechanical properties, i.e., high fracture strength (σf) above 3.2 GPa and limited plastic strain (εp) above 0.4%. The combination of large GFA, good soft magnetic and mechanical properties as well as low cost makes the Fe-Sn-P-C-B-Si BMGs promising as soft magnetic materials for industrial applications.

  7. glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    several applications. Some of the possible applications are optical amplifiers in telecommunication,7 phosphorescence materials and electrochemical batteries.8 Rare earth metal ions when added to borate act as network modifiers and change the properties of glasses .... where R is the universal gas constant. 3.3 Electrical ...

  8. Comparison of metal concentrations in three species of mosses and metal freights in bulk precipitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeni, L. [Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltbeobachtung (FUB), Forchstrasse 100, CH-8132 Egg/ZH (Switzerland); Schnyder, N. [Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltbeobachtung (FUB), Forchstrasse 100, CH-8132 Egg/ZH (Switzerland); Krieg, F. [Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltbeobachtung (FUB), Forchstrasse 100, CH-8132 Egg/ZH (Switzerland)

    1996-03-01

    Concentration of 25 trace metals in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme) are compared with bulk deposition freights (Bergerhoff method) at 3 sites in Switzerland, one on the plateau, a second in the northern prealps and a third in the southern alps. The three moss species are interchangeable and the atmospheric background deposition can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, La, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Y, Zn. For Hg this study does not give definite results. No seasonal differences in moss concentrations from spring to autumn can be shown. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Glass-ceramic hermetic seals to high thermal expansion metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1987-04-28

    A process for forming glass-ceramic materials from an alkaline silica-lithia glass composition comprising 60-72 mole-% SiO/sub 2/, 18-27 mole-% Li/sub 2/O, 0-5 mole-% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0-6 mole-% K/sub 2/O, 0-3 mole-% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0.5-2.5 mole-% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which comprises heating said glass composition at a first temperature within the 950-1050/degree/C range for 5-60 minutes, and then at a devitrification temperature within the 700-900/degree/C range for about 5-300 minutes to obtain a glass-ceramic having a thermal expansion coefficient of up to 210 x 10/sup /minus/7///degree/C. These ceramics form strong, hermetic seals with high expansion metals such as stainless steel alloys. An intermediate nucleation heating step conducted at a temperature within the range of 675-750/degree/C for 10-120 minutes may be employed between the first stage and the devitrification stage. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Co Oxidation Properties Of Selective Dissoluted Metallic Glass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.-Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous metallic materials have been widely used in many fields including aerospace, atomic energy, electro chemistry and environmental protection. Their unique structures make them very useful as lightweight structural materials, fluid filters, porous electrodes and catalyst supports. In this study, we fabricated Ni-based porous metallic glasses having uniformly dispersed micro meter pores by the sequential processes of ball-milling and chemical dissolution method. We investigated the application of our porous metal supported for Pt catalyst. The oxidation test was performed in an atmosphere of 1% CO and 3% O2. Microstructure observation was performed by using a scanning electron microscope. Oxidation properties and BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller were analyzed to understand porous structure developments. The results indicated that CO Oxidation reaction was dependent on the specific surface area.

  11. Metal oxide films on glass and steel substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Sohi, A M

    1987-01-01

    in the pH8 electrolyte supports the view that the rate limiting reduction reaction is possibly oxygen (or water) reduction although some contribution from an organic 'impurity' cannot be ruled out. Coatings of Fe sub 3 O sub 4 on mild steel have been prepared by CVD using pneumatic spraying techniques and the corrosion behaviour of coated electrodes in organic-phosphate electrolyte (pH8) has been examined. A variety of thin (10-1000nm) metal oxide films have been deposited on flat glass substrates by the pyrolysis of an aerosol of metal acetylacetonates in a suitable carrier. The optical characteristics and thickness of the films have been measured and particular interest has centered on the use of a novel pin on disc apparatus to measure the physical durability of such thin films. Characteristic friction/penetration force traces have been established for 1st Series transition metal oxide films and some ranking in terms of 'hardness' established. The use of SnO sub 2 - coated glass for electrodes in a light m...

  12. Controlled Shrinkage of Expanded Glass Particles in Metal Syntactic Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sahlani, Kadhim; Taherishargh, Mehdi; Kisi, Erich; Fiedler, Thomas

    2017-09-13

    Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG) with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles' strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF). The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20-0.26 g/cm³), the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1.03-1.19 g/cm³) that increases slightly due to particle shrinkage. Chemical and physical analyses of EG particles and the resulting foams were conducted. Furthermore, metal syntactic foam samples were tested in uni-axial compression tests. The stress-strain curves obtained exhibit three distinct regions: elastic deformation followed by a stress plateau and densification commencing at 70-80% macroscopic strain. Particle shrinkage increased the mechanical strength of the foam samples and their average plateau stress increased from 15.5 MPa to 26.7 MPa.

  13. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Ignition and Combustion of Bulk Metals in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.; Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    1999-01-01

    Results of a study of heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion of metals in reduced gravity are presented. Cylindrical titanium and magnesium samples are radiatively ignited in pure-oxygen at 1 atm. Qualitative observations, propagation rates, and burning times are extracted from high-speed cinematography. Time-resolved emission spectra of gas-phase reactions are acquired with an imaging spectrograph. Lower propagation rates of the reacting mass on titanium and of ignition waves on magnesium are obtained at reduced gravity. These rates are compared to theoretical results from fire-spread analyses with a diffusion/convection controlled reaction. The close agreement found between experimental and theoretical propagation rates indicates the strong influence of natural-convection-enhanced oxygen transp6rt on burning rates. Lower oxygen flux and lack of condensed product removal appear to be responsible for longer burning times of magnesium gas-phase diffusion flames in reduced gravity. Spherically symmetric explosions in magnesium flames at reduced gravity (termed radiation-induced metal explosions, or RIME) may be driven by increased radiation heat transfer from accumulated condensed products to an evaporating metal core covered by a porous, flexible oxide coating. In titanium specimens, predominantly heterogeneous burning characterizes the initial steady propagation of the molten mass, while homogeneous gas-phase reactions are detected around particles ejected from the molten mixture. In magnesium specimens, band and line reversal of all the UV spectral systems of Mg and MgO are attributed to the interaction between small oxide particles and the principal gaseous emitters.

  15. Correlation between the Arrhenius crossover and the glass forming ability in metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tongqi; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Nan

    2017-10-13

    The distinctive characteristic of the metallic glass-forming system is that the variation in viscosity with temperature obeys Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) relationship in the undercooled state and Arrhenius relationship in the high temperature region. A dimensionless index has thus been proposed based on the Arrhenius-VFT crossover and the classical nucleation rate and growth rate theory to evaluate the glass-forming ability (GFA). The indicator G(a) is expressed with the combination of T g , the glass transition temperature, T x , the onset crystallization temperature, T l , the liquidus temperature, T 0, the VFT temperature, and a a constant that could be determined according to the best correlation between G(a) and the critical cooling rate (R c ). Compared with other GFA indexes, G(a) shows the best fit with R c , with the square of the correlation coefficient (R (2)) being 0.9238 when a = 0.15 for the 23 various alloy systems concerned about. Our results indicate the crossover in the viscosity variation has key effect on GFA and one can use the index G(a) to predict R c and GFA for different alloys effectively.

  16. Annealing-induced shape recovery in thin film metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negussie, Alemu Tesfaye; Diyatmika, Wahyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chu, J.P., E-mail: jpchu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Shen, Y.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Jang, J.S.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Annealing-induced shape recovery of thin film metallic glass is examined. • Shape recovery becomes obvious with increasing temperature and holding time. • Minimum roughness is obtained when annealed within supercooled liquid region. • The amount of free volume in the film plays a role for the shape recovery. • The numerical simulation confirms the shape recovery upon annealing. - Abstract: The shape recovery property of a sputtered Zr{sub 50.3}Cu{sub 28.1}Al{sub 14}Ni{sub 7.6} (in at.%) thin film metallic glass upon heating is examined. Due to the surface tension-driven viscous flow, the shape of indentation appears to recover to different extents at various temperatures and holding times. It is found that a maximum of 59.8% indentation depth recovery is achieved after annealing within the supercooled liquid region (SCLR). The amount of free volume in the film is found to play a role in the recovery. Atomic force microscopy results reveal a decrease in film roughness to a minimum value within SCLR. To elucidate the experimentally observed shape recovery, a numerical modeling has been employed. It is evident that the depressed region caused by indentation is elevated after annealing.

  17. Hybrid Glasses from Strong and Fragile Metal-Organic Framework Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Tan, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid glasses connect the emerging field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the glass formation, amorphization and melting processes of these chemically versatile systems. Though inorganic zeolites collapse around the glass transition and melt at higher temperatures, the relationship betwee...

  18. Densification and strain hardening of a metallic glass under tension at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z T; Pan, J; Li, Y; Schuh, C A

    2013-09-27

    The deformation of metallic glasses involves two competing processes: a disordering process involving dilatation, free volume accumulation, and softening, and a relaxation process involving diffusional ordering and densification. For metallic glasses at room temperature and under uniaxial loading, disordering usually dominates, and the glass can fail catastrophically as the softening process runs away in a localized mode. Here we demonstrate conditions where the opposite, unexpected, situation occurs: the densifying process dominates, resulting in stable plastic deformation and work hardening at room temperature. We report densification and hardening during deformation in a Zr-based glass under multiaxial loading, in a notched tensile geometry. The effect is driven by stress-enhanced diffusional relaxation, and is attended by a reduction in exothermic heat and hardening signatures similar to those observed in the classical thermal relaxation of glasses. The result is significant, stable, plastic, extensional flow in metallic glasses, which suggest a possibility of designing tough glasses based on their flow properties.

  19. Validation Assessment of a Glass-to-Metal Seal Finite-Element Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Emery, John M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sealing glasses are ubiquitous in high pressure and temperature engineering applications, such as hermetic feed-through electrical connectors. A common connector technology are glass-to-metal seals where a metal shell compresses a sealing glass to create a hermetic seal. Though finite-element analysis has been used to understand and design glass-to-metal seals for many years, there has been little validation of these models. An indentation technique was employed to measure the residual stress on the surface of a simple glass-to-metal seal. Recently developed rate- dependent material models of both Schott 8061 and 304L VAR stainless steel have been applied to a finite-element model of the simple glass-to-metal seal. Model predictions of residual stress based on the evolution of material models are shown. These model predictions are compared to measured data. Validity of the finite- element predictions is discussed. It will be shown that the finite-element model of the glass-to-metal seal accurately predicts the mean residual stress in the glass near the glass-to-metal interface and is valid for this quantity of interest.

  20. Modification of magnetic anisotropy in metallic glasses using high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heavy ion irradiation in the electronic stopping power region induces macroscopic dimensional change in metallic glasses and introduces magnetic anisotropy in some magnetic materials. The present work is on the irradiation study of ferromagnetic metallic glasses, where both dimensional change and modification of ...

  1. Cyclic Hardening of Metallic Glasses under Hertzian Contacts: Experiments and STZ Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Packard, Corinne E.; Homer, Eric R.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    A combined program of experiments and simulations is used to study the problem of cyclic indentation loading on metallic glasses. The experiments use a spherical nanoindenter tip to study shear band formation in three glasses (two based on Pd and one on Fe), after subjecting the glass to cycles of load in the nominal elastic range. In all three glasses, such elastic cycles lead to significant increases in the load required to subsequently trigger the first shear band. This cyclic hardening oc...

  2. Increased stability of CuZrAl metallic glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Bokas, G. B.; L. Zhao; Morgan, D.; Szlufarska, I.

    2017-01-01

    We carried out molecular dynamics simulations (MD) using realistic empirical potentials for the vapor deposition (VD) of CuZrAl glasses. VD glasses have higher densities and lower potential and inherent structure energies than the melt-quenched glasses for the same alloys. The optimal substrate temperature for the deposition process is 0.625$\\times T_\\mathrm{g}$. In VD metallic glasses (MGs), the total number of icosahedral like clusters is higher than in the melt-quenched MGs. Surprisingly, ...

  3. Evaluation of metal biouptake from the analysis of bulk metal depletion kinetics at various cell concentrations: theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Elise; Billard, Patrick; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2015-01-20

    Bioavailability of trace metals is a key parameter for assessment of toxicity on living organisms. Proper evaluation of metal bioavailability requires monitoring the various interfacial processes that control metal partitioning dynamics at the biointerface, which includes metal transport from solution to cell membrane, adsorption at the biosurface, internalization, and possible excretion. In this work, a methodology is proposed to quantitatively describe the dynamics of Cd(II) uptake by Pseudomonas putida. The analysis is based on the kinetic measurement of Cd(II) depletion from bulk solution at various initial cell concentrations using electroanalytical probes. On the basis of a recent formalism on the dynamics of metal uptake by complex biointerphases, the cell concentration-dependent depletion time scales and plateau values reached by metal concentrations at long exposure times (>3 h) are successfully rationalized in terms of limiting metal uptake flux, rate of excretion, and metal affinity to internalization sites. The analysis shows the limits of approximate depletion models valid in the extremes of high and weak metal affinities. The contribution of conductive diffusion transfer of metals from the solution to the cell membrane in governing the rate of Cd(II) uptake is further discussed on the basis of estimated resistances for metal membrane transfer and extracellular mass transport.

  4. Fabrication of metallic glass micro grooves by thermoplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyan; Zhang, Hong; Liang, Xiong; Gong, Feng; Ma, Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are considered as ideal materials for miniature fabrication because of their excellent thermoplastic forming ability in the supercooled liquid region. We show that Pd-based MG micro grooves, which are essential for microdluidic devices, can be prepared by a highly efficient and precise fabrication method. The scanning electron microscope observation and surface profiler measurement show that the MG micro grooves have superior dimensional accuracy. The excellent corrosion resistance of MGs compared with silicon, which is the conventional microfluidic device material, is also proved by the weight-loss corrosion method. Our results indicate that MG can be a promising candidate material for the fabrication of microfluidic devices and may have broad applications in the biomedical areas.

  5. Reconfigurable opto-thermal graded-index waveguiding in bulk chalcogenide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabahang, Soroush; Nye, Nicholas S.; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of suitable deposition processes, the fabrication of graded-index chalcogenide waveguides or fibers remains an outstanding challenge. Here, by exploiting the strong thermo-optic effect present in chalcogenide glasses, we experimentally demonstrate non-permanent optically-induced wa......In the absence of suitable deposition processes, the fabrication of graded-index chalcogenide waveguides or fibers remains an outstanding challenge. Here, by exploiting the strong thermo-optic effect present in chalcogenide glasses, we experimentally demonstrate non-permanent optically...

  6. Examining metallic glass formation in LaCe:Nb by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisson Richard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to combine niobium (Nb with lanthanum (La and cerium (Ce, Nb ions were deposited within a thin film of these two elements. According to the Hume-Rothery rules, these elements cannot be combined into a traditional crystalline metallic solid. The creation of an amorphous metallic glass consisting of Nb, La, and Ce is then investigated. Amorphous metallic glasses are traditionally made using fast cooling of a solution of molten metals. In this paper, we show the results of an experiment carried out to form a metallic glass by implanting 9 MeV Nb 3+ atoms into a thin film of La and Ce. Prior to implantation, the ion volume distribution is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using the SRIM tool suite. Using multiple methods of electron microscopy and material characterization, small quantities of amorphous metallic glass are indeed identified.

  7. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Bulk Metallic Glass Sheets and Fiber Metal Laminates Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquidmetal Technologies (LMT) and the University of Southern California (USC)'s M.C. Gill Composites Center team up to develop manufacturing processes for...

  10. Glass surface metal deposition with high-power femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Deng, Cheng; Bai, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Using femtosecond fiber laser-based additive manufacturing (AM), metal powder is deposited on glass surface for the first time to change its surface reflection and diffuse its transmission beam. The challenge, due to mismatch between metal and glass on melting temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, brittleness, is resolved by controlling AM parameters such as power, scan speed, hatching, and powder thickness. Metal powder such as iron is successfully deposited and demonstrated functions such as diffusion of light and blackening effects.

  11. Structure Analyses of Fe-based Metallic Glasses by Electron Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Hirata

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale structural information of amorphous structures has become obtainable by using nanobeam electron diffraction in combination with high resolution imaging. In addition, accurate radial distribution function analysis using energy filter has also become available to know averaged amorphous structures. In this paper, we introduce some applications of these techniques, especially to several Fe-based metallic glasses. On the basis of these results, we discuss a relationship between the glass structure and the glass stability in Fe-based metallic glasses

  12. Nonlinear response and avalanche behavior in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, B.; Samwer, K.

    2017-08-01

    The response to different stress amplitudes at temperatures below the glass transition temperature is analyzed by mechanical oscillatory excitation of Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass samples in single cantilever bending geometry. While low amplitude oscillatory excitations are commonly used in mechanical spectroscopy to probe the relaxation spectrum, in this work the response to comparably high amplitudes is investigated. The strain response of the material is well below the critical yield stress even for highest stress amplitudes, implying the expectation of a linear relation between stress and strain according to Hooke's Law. However, a deviation from the linear behavior is evident, which is analyzed in terms of temperature dependence and influence of the applied stress amplitude by two different approaches of evaluation. The nonlinear approach is based on a nonlinear expansion of the stress-strain-relation, assuming an intrinsic nonlinear character of the shear or elastic modulus. The degree of nonlinearity is extracted by a period-by-period Fourier-analysis and connected to nonlinear coefficients, describing the intensity of nonlinearity at the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. The characteristic timescale to adapt to a significant change in stress amplitude in terms of a recovery timescale to a steady state value is connected to the structural relaxation time of the material, suggesting a connection between the observed nonlinearity and primary relaxation processes. The second approach of evaluation is termed the incremental analysis and relates the observed response behavior to avalanches, which occur due to the activation and correlation of local microstructural rearrangements. These rearrangements are connected with shear transformation zones and correspond to localized plastic events, which are superimposed on the linear response behavior of the material.

  13. Siderophile element fractionation in meteor crater impact glasses and metallic spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; See, T. H.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Meteor Crater, Arizona provides an opportunity to study, in detail, elemental fractionation processes occurring during impacts through the study of target rocks, meteorite projectile and several types of impact products. We have performed EMPA and INAA on target rocks, two types of impact glass and metallic spherules from Meteor Crater. Using literature data for the well studied Canyon Diablo iron we can show that different siderophite element fractionations affected the impact glasses than affected the metallic spherules. The impact glasses primarily lost Au, while the metallic spherules lost Fe relative to other siderophile elements.

  14. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Ultrasonic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Roberts, Scott N. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using ultrasonic welding. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: ultrasonically welding at least one ribbon to a surface; where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface has a thickness of less than approximately 150.mu.m; and where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface includes a metallic glass-based material.

  15. Stokes-Einstein relation in computer simulated bulk glass forming Cu33Zr67 melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiujun; Schober, Herbert [IFF, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The validity of Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation in glass forming Cu33Zr67 melts is checked by studying the relationship between viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient with molecular dynamics simulation. The atomic interaction of Cu-Zr is modeled by modified-embedded-atomic method (MEAM). The self-diffusion coefficient is calculated from mean squared displacements (MSD) and the viscosity is evaluated from Green-Kubo equation. It was found that at temperatures higher than 1500K, SE relation is valid. When the temperature is further decreased, SE relation breaks down, which is an indication of dynamical heterogeneity in the melts.

  16. Specification and tolerancing of bulk glass material imperfections with ISO standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisiloff, Allen J.

    2017-08-01

    Standards for the specification of tolerances for glass material imperfections have been evolving over the past 40 years. Today, several individual ISO Standards for drawings and drawing notation - ISO 10110-2, ISO-10110-3, and ISO- 10110-4, which were last revised in 1996 and 1997 - are being merged and re-written to incorporate technical improvements and enhance the clarity of presentation. The new standard, tentatively numbered ISO 10110-18, is on schedule for release in 2018. It will also provide notation to directly utilize concepts and quality classes defined in ISO 12123, the newly revised standard for raw glass material. New ways to specify striae and a way to specify raw material specifications on a finished part drawing are two additional highlights of the revised versions of this set of ISO standards. This paper will discuss the old shortcomings, their corrections, and the new features incorporated into the set of standards currently under final development and whose publication is expected next year.

  17. Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, G; Mishchik, K; Mauclair, C; Audouard, E; Stoian, R

    2009-06-08

    Ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation of bulk fused silica may result under specific energetic conditions in the self-organization of subwavelength material redistribution regions within the laser trace. The modulated structures have birefringent properties and show unusual anisotropic light scattering and reflection characteristics. We report here on the formation of waveguiding structures with remarkable polarization effects for infrared light. The photoinscription process using 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses is accompanied by third harmonic generation and polarization dependent anisotropic scattering of UV photons. The photowritten structures can be arranged in three-dimensional patterns generating complex propagation and polarization effects due to the anisotropic optical properties.

  18. Dynamics of metal uptake by charged biointerphases: bioavailability and bulk depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L

    2013-05-28

    A theory is proposed for the dynamics of metal uptake by a spherical microorganism whose peripheral structure consists of a charged bioactive surface surrounded by a soft (ion-permeable) charged layer. The formalism explicitly considers the concomitant steady-state conductive diffusion transport of metals from bulk medium to the bioactive surface and the kinetics of intracellular metal internalisation described by a Michaelis-Menten mechanism. The spatial distribution of metals at the microorganism/solution interphase is derived from an explicit solution of the Nernst-Planck equation with differentiated metal diffusion coefficients inside and outside the microorganism soft surface layer. The metal concentration profile involves the interphasial electrostatic potential distribution governed by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation accounting for the dielectric permittivity gradient across the soft layer/solution interface. The resulting metal uptake flux is rationalized in terms of dimensionless metal-biosurface affinity and the ratio between limiting uptake flux and limiting conductive diffusion flux. Both parameters depend on background electrolyte concentration, microorganism soft surface composition and geometry via their connection to a Boltzmann surface term and a factor expressing the electrostatically-driven retardation or acceleration of metal diffusion. Illustrations demonstrate how metal transport dynamics impacts biouptake depending on electrolyte concentration and on the key bio-physico-chemical properties of the biointerphase. The mathematical framework is then applied to practical situations where a swarm of charged microorganisms deplete metals under steady-state transport conditions. Several depletion kinetic regimes are evaluated as a function of medium salinity and microorganism electrostatic features. Expressions of their characteristic timescales are derived and analogies with equivalent electrochemical circuits are formulated.

  19. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    whereby above the glass transition temperature they may be formed like plastics or regular ceramic glasses, hence these materials can be produced in...and its alloys are one of the most largely produced and recycled metals (second only to iron/steel). It is low cost, exceptionally light-weight and

  20. Universal fractional noncubic power law for density of metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Kono, Yoshio; Lin, Yu; Zeng, Zhidan; Wang, Junyue; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V; Park, Changyong; Meng, Yue; Yang, Wenge; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Mao, Wendy L

    2014-05-09

    As a fundamental property of a material, density is controlled by the interatomic distances and the packing of microscopic constituents. The most prominent atomistic feature in a metallic glass (MG) that can be measured is its principal diffraction peak position (q1) observable by x-ray, electron, or neutron diffraction, which is closely associated with the average interatomic distance in the first shell. Density (and volume) would naturally be expected to vary under compression in proportion to the cube of the one-dimensional interatomic distance. However, by using high pressure as a clean tuning parameter and high-resolution in situ techniques developed specifically for probing the density of amorphous materials, we surprisingly found that the density of a MG varies with the 5/2 power of q1, instead of the expected cubic relationship. Further studies of MGs of different compositions repeatedly produced the same fractional power law of 5/2 in all three MGs we investigated, suggesting a universal feature in MG.

  1. Strain gradient drives shear banding in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Li; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Chen, Yan; Dai, Lan-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Shear banding is a nucleation-controlled process in metallic glasses (MGs) involving multiple temporal-spatial scales, which hinders a concrete understanding of its structural origin down to the atomic scale. Here, inspired by the morphology of composite materials, we propose a different perspective of MGs as a hard particle-reinforced material based on atomic-scale structural heterogeneity. The local stable structures indicated by a high level of local fivefold symmetry (L5FS) act as hard "particles" which are embedded in the relatively soft matrix. We demonstrate this concept by performing atomistic simulations of shear banding in CuZr MG. A shear band is prone to form in a sample with a high degree of L5FS which is slowly quenched from the liquid. An atomic-scale analysis on strain and the structural evolution reveals that it is the strain gradient effect that has originated from structural heterogeneity that facilitates shear transformation zones (STZs) to mature shear bands. An artificial composite model with a high degree of strain gradient, generated by inserting hard MG strips into a soft MG matrix, demonstrates a great propensity for shear banding. It therefore confirms the critical role strain gradient plays in shear banding. The strain gradient effect on shear banding is further quantified with a continuum model and a mechanical instability analysis. These physical insights might highlight the strain gradient as the hidden driving force in transforming STZs into shear bands in MGs.

  2. Properties of polyamorphous Ce75Al25 metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Q.-S.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Fang, Y. Z.; Gao, C. X.; Luo, H. B.; Wang, X. D.; Lathe, C.; Mao, Wendy L.; Wu, F. M.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Jiang, J. Z.

    2010-08-17

    The thermal stability and electronic transport properties of polyamorphous Ce{sub 75} Al{sub 25} metallic glass (MG) have been investigated using in situ high-pressure, high-temperature, energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction and in situ high-pressure and low-temperature, four-probe resistance measurements. The results are compared with the properties of La{sub 75} Al{sub 25} MG. The pressure dependence of the crystallization temperature and resistance of the Ce{sub 75} Al{sub 25} MG exhibited turning points at the polyamorphic transition pressure, 1.5 GPa, and they clearly presented different behaviors below and above 1.5 GPa. In contrast, no turning points were observed in the La{sub 75} Al{sub 25} MG (La has no 4f electron). Additionally, the pressure-tuned temperature coefficient of resistance of the Ce{sub 75} Al{sub 25} MG was observed. These results revealed switchable properties in the polyamorphous Ce{sub 75} Al{sub 25} MG that are linked with 4f electron delocalization.

  3. Cerium doped heavy metal fluoride glasses, a possible alternative for electromagnetic calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Dafinei, I; Fay, J; Lecoq, P; Mares, J A; Martini, M; Mazé, G; Meinardi, F; Moine, B; Nikl, M; Pédrini, C; Poulain, M; Schneegans, M; Tavernier, Stefaan; Vedda, A

    1996-01-01

    The article is an overview of the research activity performed in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration to produce scintillating glasses. The manufacturing of heavy metal fluoride glasses doped with Ce3+ is discussed. The luminescence and scintillation characteristics as well as the radiation hardness properties are extensively studied in the case of Ce doped fluorohafnate , found to be the most convenient glass scintillator for high energy physics applications.

  4. Etchant wettability in bulk micromachining of Si by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Soo; Lee, Yeong Bahl; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2016-05-01

    Wet bulk micromachining of Si by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) has successfully been demonstrated. Based on the mechanism of defective etching results from Ag and Au metal catalyst experiments, the wettability of etchant solution, in addition to metal type, has been found to have profound effect on the etching process. Addition of low surface tension co-solvent, ethanol in this work, into conventional etchant formulation has enabled complete wetting of etchant on surface, which prevents hydrogen bubble attachment on sample surface during the etching. The complete elimination of bubble attachment guarantees very uniform etch rate on all over the sample surface, and thus prevents premature fragmentation/rupture of catalyst metal layer. Under the optimized etching conditions, the MaCE could be done for up to 12 h without any noticeable film rupture and thus etching defects. Thanks to very smooth surface of the etched patterns, conformal contact and direct bonding of elastomer on such surface has been easily accomplished. The method demonstrated here can pave the way for application of simple, low-cost MaCE process in the bulk micromachining of Si for various applications.

  5. Co-based soft magnetic bulk glassy alloys optimized for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diameter of 5 mm by conventional copper mould casting method. It reveals that the substitution of a small amount of Mo for Nb makes the composition to approach a eutectic point and effectively enhances the GFA of alloy. In addition to high GFA .... often reflect the local viscous flow of amorphous metals and only occur in ...

  6. Microfabrication with femtosecond laser processing : (A) laser ablation of ferrous alloys, (B) direct-write embedded optical waveguides and integrated optics in bulk glasses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Junpeng; McDaniel, Karen Lynn; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Yang, Pin; Griffith, Michelle Lynn; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Harris, Marc F.; Tallant, David Robert; Luk, Ting Shan; Burns, George Robert

    2004-11-01

    -write optical waveguides and integrated optics in bulk glass. The effects of laser and environmental parameters on such aspects as removal rate, feature size, feature definition, and ablation angle during the ablation process of metals were studied. In addition, the manufacturing requirements for component fabrication including precision and reproducibility were investigated. The effect of laser processing conditions on the optical properties of direct-written waveguides and an unusual laser-induced birefringence in an optically isotropic glass are reported. Several integrated optical devices, including a Y coupler, directional coupler, and Mach-Zehnder interferometer, were made to demonstrate the simplicity and flexibility of this technique in comparison to the conventional waveguide fabrication processes.

  7. Anelastic deformation processes in metallic glasses and activation energy spectrum model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, [No Value; Csach, K; Kasardova, A; Bengus, VZ; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics of anelastic deformation below the glass transition temperature (so-called 'stress induced ordering' or 'creep recovery' deformation) was investigated in Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The relaxation time spectrum model and two recently developed methods for its calculation from the

  8. Pressure effect on crystallization temperature in Zr70Pd30 metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Jeppesen, S; Saida, J.

    2004-01-01

    The pressure effect on amorphous-to-quasicrystalline-to-intermetallic phase transformations in a Zr70Pd30 metallic glass has been investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. It is found that the glass crystallizes in two steps: (1) amorphous-to-icosahedral ...

  9. Formation of a metallic glass by thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wonterghem, Jacques van; Mørup, Steen; Charles, Stuart W.

    1985-01-01

    Iron pentacarbonyl has been thermally decomposed in an organic liquid. Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies show that the sample contains small particles of a metallic glass. Annealing of the particles at 523 K results in crystallization of the particles into a mixture of α-Fe and......-Fe5C2. The mechanism of glass formation is discussed....

  10. Excellent capability in degrading azo dyes by MgZn-based metallic glass powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Hui; Chen, Ming-Wei; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V; Inoue, Akihisa; Perepezko, John H

    2012-01-01

    The lack of new functional applications for metallic glasses hampers further development of these fascinating materials. In this letter, we report for the first time that the MgZn-based metallic glass powders have excellent functional ability in degrading azo dyes which are typical organic water pollutants. Their azo dye degradation efficiency is about 1000 times higher than that of commercial crystalline Fe powders, and 20 times higher than the Mg-Zn alloy crystalline counterparts. The high Zn content in the amorphous Mg-based alloy enables a greater corrosion resistance in water and higher reaction efficiency with azo dye compared to crystalline Mg. Even under complex environmental conditions, the MgZn-based metallic glass powders retain high reaction efficiency. Our work opens up a new opportunity for functional applications of metallic glasses.

  11. Creep recovery of metallic glass Fe-Ni-B after longtime stress-annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurikova, A; Csach, K; Miskuf, J; Ocelik, Vaclav

    2004-01-01

    The creep strain recovery of magnetic soft material - amorphous metallic glass Fe-Ni-B after a longtime stress-annealing at different temperatures below the crystallization temperature was described using differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometry. Several deformation energy accumulations

  12. A New Approach for Handling of Micro Parts in Bulk Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arentoft, M.

    2012-01-01

    systems are critical elements to complete micro forming technology for transferring knowledge to industries and toward miniature manufacturing systems (micro factory) [2]. Since most metal forming processes are multi stage, making a new handling system with high reliability on accuracy and speed...... of production [1]. This can fulfill the demands for mass production and miniaturization in industries and academic communities. According to the recent studies, topics related to materials, process and simulation have been investigated intensively and well documented. Machines, forming tools and handling...... have been optimized or handling systems based on new concepts for gripping and releasing micro parts have been proposed. Making a handling system for micro parts made by sheet metals or foils is easier than those in bulk metal forming because parts are attached to the sheet during the forming process...

  13. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. I. Low-frequency bulk and shear moduli of DC704 and 5-PPE measured by piezoceramic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Nelson, Keith Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present dynamic shear and bulk modulus measurements of supercooled tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane (DC704) and 5-phenyl-4-ether over a range of temperatures close to their glass transition. The data are analyzed and compared in terms of time-temperature superposition (TTS), the relaxation...... time, and the spectral shape parameters. We conclude that TTS is obeyed to a good approximation for both the bulk and shear moduli. The loss-peak shapes are nearly identical, while the shear modulus relaxes faster than the bulk modulus. The temperature dependence of this decoupling of time scales...

  14. Evolution of the Valley Position in Bulk Transition-Metal Chalcogenides and Their Monolayer Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongtao; Liu, Zhongkai; Xu, Gang; Zhou, Bo; Wu, Sanfeng; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Yan, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Dudin, Pavel; Kandyba, Victor; Yablonskikh, Mikhail; Barinov, Alexei; Shen, Zhixun; Zhang, Shoucheng; Huang, Yingsheng; Xu, Xiaodong; Hussain, Zahid; Hwang, Harold Y; Cui, Yi; Chen, Yulin

    2016-08-10

    Layered transition metal chalcogenides with large spin orbit coupling have recently sparked much interest due to their potential applications for electronic, optoelectronic, spintronics, and valleytronics. However, most current understanding of the electronic structure near band valleys in momentum space is based on either theoretical investigations or optical measurements, leaving the detailed band structure elusive. For example, the exact position of the conduction band valley of bulk MoS2 remains controversial. Here, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with submicron spatial resolution (micro-ARPES), we systematically imaged the conduction/valence band structure evolution across representative chalcogenides MoS2, WS2, and WSe2, as well as the thickness dependent electronic structure from bulk to the monolayer limit. These results establish a solid basis to understand the underlying valley physics of these materials, and also provide a link between chalcogenide electronic band structure and their physical properties for potential valleytronics applications.

  15. Pressure effect on crystallization kinetics in Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Xu, Y.S.

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of a Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass in the supercooled liquid region have been investigated by performing in situ high-temperature and high-pressure x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. A pressure-time-temperature-transformation diagram, desc...

  16. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products.

  17. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hao, Shaogang; Kramer, Matthew; Yao, Yongxin; Mendelev, Mikhail; Napolitano, Ralph; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2011-12-23

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe 'Bergman triacontahedron' packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  18. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X W; Wang, C Z; Hao, S G; Kramer, M J; Yao, Y X; Mendelev, M I; Ding, Z J; Napolitano, R E; Ho, K M

    2011-01-01

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu(64.5)Zr(35.5) alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe "Bergman triacontahedron" packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  19. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbotteau, Y. E-mail: yves.barbotteau@qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Irigaray, J.L.; Moretto, Ph

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone.

  20. Bulk synthesis of metal-organic hybrid dimers and their propulsion under electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Ma, Fuduo; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Ning

    2014-03-26

    Metal-organic hybrid particles have great potential in applications such as colloidal assembly, autonomous microrobots, targeted drug delivery, and colloidal emulsifiers. Existing fabrication methods, however, typically suffer from low throughput, high operation cost, and imprecise property control. Here, we report a facile and bulk synthesis platform that makes a wide range of metal-organic colloidal dimers. Both geometric and interfacial anisotropy on the particles can be tuned independently and conveniently, which represents a key advantage of this method. We further investigate the self-propulsion of platinum-polystyrene dimers under perpendicularly applied electric fields. In 1 × 10(-4) M KCl solution, the dimers exhibit both linear and circular motion with the polystyrene lobes facing toward the moving direction, due to the induced-charge electroosmotic flow surrounding the metal-coated lobes. Surprisingly, in deionized water, the same dimers move in an opposite direction, i.e., the metallic lobes face the forward direction. This is because of the impact of another type of electrokinetic flow: the electrohydrodynamic flow arising from the induced charges on the conducting substrate. The competition between the electrohydrodynamic flow along the substrate and the induced-charge electroosmotic flow along the metallic lobe dictates the propulsion direction of hybrid dimers under electric fields. Our synthetic approach will provide potential opportunities to study the combined impacts of the geometric and interfacial anisotropy on the propulsion, assembly, and other applications of anisotropic particles.

  1. On the induction of homogeneous bulk crystallization in Eu-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass by applying simultaneous high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, R. F., E-mail: robsonfmuniz@yahoo.com.br [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 CNRS-Université Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 87020900, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Ligny, D. de [Department of Materials Science, Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen Nürnberg, Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Le Floch, S.; Martinet, C.; Guyot, Y. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 CNRS-Université Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Rohling, J. H.; Medina, A. N.; Sandrini, M.; Baesso, M. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 87020900, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Andrade, L. H. C.; Lima, S. M. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, C.P. 351, Dourados, MS (Brazil)

    2016-06-28

    From initial calcium aluminosilicate glass, transparent glass-ceramics have been successfully synthesized under simultaneous high pressure and temperature (SHPT). Possible homogeneous volumetric crystallization of this glassy system, which was not achieved previously by means of conventional heat treatment, has been put in evidence with a SHPT procedure. Structural, mechanical, and optical properties of glass and glass-ceramic obtained were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction allowed to identify two main crystalline phases: merwinite [Ca{sub 3}Mg(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}] and diopside [CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}]. A Raman scanning profile showed that the formation of merwinite is quite homogeneous over the bulk sample. However, the sample surface also contains significant diopside crystals. Instrumented Berkovich nanoindentation was applied to determine the effect of SHPT on hardness from glass to glass-ceramic. For Eu-doped samples, the broadband emission due to 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} → 4f{sup 7} transition of Eu{sup 2+} was studied in both host systems. Additionally, the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub J} transition of Eu{sup 3+} was used as an environment probe in the pristine glass and the glass-ceramic.

  2. A Study of Structure and Magnetic Properties of Low Purity Fe-Co-Based Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lesz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to the evaluation of the possibility of using ferroalloys for the production of conventional (CMGs and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs as well as determining their magnetic properties. The structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based CMGs and BMGs prepared from ferroalloys and pure elements, were studied. The CMGs and BMGs were in the form of ribbons and rods, respectively. The thickness of the ribbons were 0.07, 0.12, and 0.27 mm and the diameters of the rods were 1.5 and 2.5 mm. The investigations of the structure of the test specimens were carried out using the X-ray diffraction (XRD method and electron microscopy methods (HRTEM—high-resolution transmission electron microscope, SEM—scanning electron microscope. The relationship between the structure and magnetic properties of the Fe36.00Co36.00B19.00Si5Nb4 and Fe35.75Co35.75B18.90Si5Nb4Cu0.6 CMGs and BMGs was determined. The possibility of using new materials, i.e., CMGs and BMGs, prepared on the basis of ferroalloys, lies in the scope of the presently conducted research and allows us to obtain the utility properties, while avoiding high costs associated with the purchase of raw materials.

  3. Communication: Enthalpy relaxation in a metal-organic zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-4) glass-former

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Liu, Yingdan; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min

    2017-03-01

    Amorphization in metal-organic framework materials initiated by the collapsed crystal offers new access to glasses; however, the understanding of such glasses remains to be clarified. Here, we studied the glass transition thermodynamics and kinetics in a zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 utilizing enthalpy relaxation measurements. The calorimetric glass transition profile and relaxation behaviors in ZIF-4 are found to reproduce the basic features and correlations manifested by conventional melt-quenched glasses. A comparison with various melt-quenched glasses suggests that the low fragility of ZIF-4 is ascribed to the low thermal-pressure coefficient due to the directional tetrahedral bond, partly leading to the low vibrational entropy in the melt-crystal entropy difference.

  4. Thermodynamic prediction of glass formation tendency, cluster-in-jellium model for metallic glasses, ab initio tight-binding calculations, and new density functional theory development for systems with strong electron correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Solidification of liquid is a very rich and complicated field, although there is always a famous homogeneous nucleation theory in a standard physics or materials science text book. Depending on the material and processing condition, liquid may solidify to single crystalline, polycrystalline with different texture, quasi-crystalline, amorphous solid or glass (Glass is a kind of amorphous solid in general, which has short-range and medium-range order). Traditional oxide glass may easily be formed since the covalent directional bonded network is apt to be disturbed. In other words, the energy landcape of the oxide glass is so complicated that system need extremely long time to explore the whole configuration space. On the other hand, metallic liquid usually crystalize upon cooling because of the metallic bonding nature. However, Klement et.al., (1960) reported that Au-Si liquid underwent an amorphous or “glassy” phase transformation with rapid quenching. In recent two decades, bulk metallic glasses have also been found in several multicomponent alloys[Inoue et al., (2002)]. Both thermodynamic factors (e.g., free energy of various competitive phase, interfacial free energy, free energy of local clusters, etc.) and kinetic factors (e.g., long range mass transport, local atomic position rearrangement, etc.) play important roles in the metallic glass formation process. Metallic glass is fundamentally different from nanocrystalline alloys. Metallic glasses have to undergo a nucleation process upon heating in order to crystallize. Thus the short-range and medium-range order of metallic glasses have to be completely different from crystal. Hence a method to calculate the energetics of different local clusters in the undercooled liquid or glasses become important to set up a statistic model to describe metalllic glass formation. Scattering techniques like x-ray and neutron have widely been used to study the structues of metallic glasses. Meanwhile, computer simulation

  5. Electron-phonon interaction and transport properties of metallic bulk and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Sommer Thygesen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as promising two-dimensional materials with intriguing electronic properties. Existing calculations of intrinsic phonon-limited electronic transport so far have concentrated on the semicondcucting members of this family. In this paper we extend these studies by investigating the influence of electron-phonon coupling on the electronic transport properties and band renormalization of prototype inherent metallic bulk and monolayer TaS2. Based on density functional perturbation theory and semi-classical Boltzmann transport calculations, promising room temperature mobilities and sheet conductances are found, which can compete with other established 2D materials, leaving TaS2 as promising material candidate for transparent conductors or as atomically thin interconnects. Throughout the paper, the electronic and transport properties of TaS2 are compared to those of its isoelectronic counterpart TaSe2 and additional informations to the latter are given. We furthermore comment on the conventional superconductivity in TaS2, where no phonon-mediated enhancement of T C in the monolayer compared to the bulk state was found.

  6. Simulation of the Continuous Casting and Cooling Behavior of Metallic Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhipu; Ju, Dongying

    2017-04-17

    The development of melt spinning technique for preparation of metallic glasses was summarized. The limitations as well as restrictions of the melt spinning embodiments were also analyzed. As an improvement and variation of the melt spinning method, the vertical-type twin-roll casting (VTRC) process was discussed. As the thermal history experienced by the casting metals to a great extent determines the qualities of final products, cooling rate in the quenching process is believed to have a significant effect on glass formation. In order to estimate the ability to produce metallic glasses by VTRC method, temperature and flow phenomena of the melt in molten pool were computed, and cooling rates under different casting conditions were calculated with the simulation results. Considering the fluid character during casting process, the material derivative method based on continuum theory was adopted in the cooling rate calculation. Results show that the VTRC process has a good ability in continuous casting metallic glassy ribbons.

  7. Electrofluidics fabricated by space-selective metallization in glass microfluidic structures using femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Dong; Hanada, Yasutaka; Chen, Chi; Wu, Sizhu; Cheng, Ya; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2013-12-07

    Space-selective metallization of the inside of glass microfluidic structures using femtosecond laser direct-write ablation followed by electroless plating is demonstrated. Femtosecond laser direct writing followed by thermal treatment and successive chemical etching allows us to fabricate three-dimensional microfluidic structures inside photosensitive glass. Then, femtosecond laser ablation followed by electroless metal plating enables flexible deposition of patterned metal films on desired locations of not only the top and bottom walls but also the sidewalls of fabricated microfluidic structures. A volume writing scheme for femtosecond laser irradiation inducing homogeneous ablation on the sidewalls of microfluidic structures is proposed for sidewall metallization. The developed technique is used to fabricate electrofluidics in which microelectric components are integrated into glass microchannels. The fabricated electrofluidics are applied to control the temperature of liquid samples in the microchannels for the enhancement of chemical reactions and to manipulate the movement of biological samples in the microscale space.

  8. Flexible strain sensors with high performance based on metallic glass thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, H. J.; Cao, C. R.; Shi, J. A.; Zhu, X. S.; Hu, Y. C.; Huang, Y. F.; Meng, S.; Gu, L.; Liu, Y. H.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-09-01

    Searching strain sensitive materials for electronic skin is of crucial significance because of the restrictions of current materials such as poor electrical conductivity, large energy consumption, complex manufacturing process, and high cost. Here, we report a flexible strain sensor based on the Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 metallic glass thin film which we name metallic glass skin. The metallic glass skin, synthesized by ion beam deposition, exhibits piezoresistance effects with a gauge factor of around 2.86, a large detectable strain range (˜1% or 180° bending angle), and good conductivity. Compared to other e-skin materials, the temperature coefficient of resistance of the metallic glass skin is extremely low (9.04 × 10-6 K-1), which is essential for the reduction in thermal drift. In addition, the metallic glass skin exhibits distinct antibacterial behavior desired for medical applications, also excellent reproducibility and repeatability (over 1000 times), nearly perfect linearity, low manufacturing cost, and negligible energy consumption, all of which are required for electronic skin for practical applications.

  9. Assembly of metallic nanoparticle arrays on glass via nanoimprinting and thin-film dewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyu Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a nanofabrication process to generate large-area arrays of noble metal nanoparticles on glass substrates via nanoimprinting and dewetting of metallic thin films. Glass templates were made via pattern transfer from a topographic Si mold to an inorganically cross-linked sol–gel (IGSG resist on glass using a two-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS stamp followed by annealing, which turned the imprinted resist into pure silica. The transparent, topographic glass successfully templated the assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticle arrays via thin-film deposition and dewetting at elevated temperatures. The microstructural and mechanical characteristics that developed during the processes were discussed. The results are promising for low-cost mass fabrication of devices for several photonic applications.

  10. Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

    2010-05-01

    The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating.

  11. Effects of annealing on mechanical behavior of Zr–Ti–Ni thin film metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chu-Shuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yiu, Pakman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Chia-Lin; Chu, Jinn P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Shek, Chan-Hung [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Hsueh, Chun-Hway, E-mail: hsuehc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Zr{sub 46}Ti{sub 26}Ni{sub 28} thin film metallic glass was fabricated by radio frequency magnetron single target sputtering on Si and stainless steel substrates. The as-deposited film was found to be fully amorphous with high glass transition and crystallization temperatures of 466 °C and 502 °C, respectively. Its hardness progressively increased from 6.2 GPa to as high as 11.1 GPa when subjected to annealing near the glass-transition temperature at 450 °C. It was also of good adhesive strength and scratch resistance after the annealing treatment at 400 °C. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed annealing-induced nanocrystals that accounted for such superior mechanical properties. With the above unique properties, Zr–Ti–Ni thin film metallic glass has the potential for the fabrication of high strength micro parts and protective coating.

  12. Effect of Structural Defects, Surface Irregularities, and Quenched-In Defects on Corrosion of Zr-Based Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanadh, B.; Abraham, Geogy J.; Jagannath; Neogy, S.; Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K.

    2009-05-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed a fully amorphous structure for as-cast bulk metallic glass (BMG) and melt-spun ribbons of Zr52Ti6Al10Cu18Ni14 prepared by copper mold casting and the melt-spinning technique, respectively. For melt-spun ribbons, the wheel-side surface contained a higher concentration of quenched-in defects (air pockets), whereas surface irregularities were noticed in the air side. Fluctuation microscopy indicated more medium-range order for the as-cast structure of BMG than for the melt-spun ribbon, whereas in the BMG, the medium-range order was located more in the central region than in the periphery. Macro- and microcell electrochemical experiments of the BMG along the cross section and macrocell experiments of each side of the ribbons in dilute acidic chloride environments indicated that the corrosion resistance of the BMG decreased with the increase in the medium-range order; the medium-range order, however, was less deleterious than either the surface irregularities or the quenched-in defects from the viewpoint of corrosion. A surface film formed on the metallic glasses in a dilute acidic chloride environment mainly consisted of oxide of zirconium, in which zirconium was present in the Zr+3, Zr+2, and Zr+1 state in the BMG and in the air-side and wheel-side surfaces, respectively.

  13. Melt-quenched glasses of metal-organic frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Yue, Yuanzheng; Li, P.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline solids dominate the field of metal−organic frameworks (MOFs), with access to the liquid and glass states of matter usually prohibited by relatively low temperatures of thermal decomposition. In this work, we give due consideration to framework chemistry and topology to expand...... the phenomenon of the melting of 3D MOFs, linking crystal chemistry to framework melting temperature and kinetic fragility of the glass-forming liquids. Here we show that melting temperatures can be lowered by altering the chemistry of the crystalline MOF state, which provides a route to facilitate the melting...

  14. Dislocation and Structural Studies at Metal-Metallic Glass Interface at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradeep; Yedla, Natraj

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation deformation studies on the Al (metal)-Cu50Zr50 (metallic glass) model interface is carried out based on cohesive zone model. The interface is subjected to mode-I loading at a strain rate of 109 s-1 and temperature of 100 K. The dislocations reactions and evolution of dislocation densities during the deformation have been investigated. Atomic interactions between Al, Cu and Zr atoms are modeled using EAM (embedded atom method) potential, and a timestep of 0.002 ps is used for performing the MD simulations. A circular crack and rectangular notch are introduced at the interface to investigate the effect on the deformation behavior and fracture. Further, scale size effect is also investigated. The structural changes and evolution of dislocation density are also examined. It is found that the dominant deformation mechanism is by Shockley partial dislocation nucleation. Amorphization is observed in the Al regions close to the interface and occurs at a lower strain in the presence of a crack. The total dislocation density is found to be maximum after the first yield in both the perfect and defect interface models and is highest in the case of perfect interface with a density of 6.31 × 1017 m-2. In the perfect and circular crack defect interface models, it is observed that the fraction of Shockley partial dislocation density decreases, whereas that of strain rod dislocations increases with increase in strain.

  15. Dislocation and Structural Studies at Metal-Metallic Glass Interface at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradeep; Yedla, Natraj

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation deformation studies on the Al (metal)-Cu50Zr50 (metallic glass) model interface is carried out based on cohesive zone model. The interface is subjected to mode-I loading at a strain rate of 109 s-1 and temperature of 100 K. The dislocations reactions and evolution of dislocation densities during the deformation have been investigated. Atomic interactions between Al, Cu and Zr atoms are modeled using EAM (embedded atom method) potential, and a timestep of 0.002 ps is used for performing the MD simulations. A circular crack and rectangular notch are introduced at the interface to investigate the effect on the deformation behavior and fracture. Further, scale size effect is also investigated. The structural changes and evolution of dislocation density are also examined. It is found that the dominant deformation mechanism is by Shockley partial dislocation nucleation. Amorphization is observed in the Al regions close to the interface and occurs at a lower strain in the presence of a crack. The total dislocation density is found to be maximum after the first yield in both the perfect and defect interface models and is highest in the case of perfect interface with a density of 6.31 × 1017 m-2. In the perfect and circular crack defect interface models, it is observed that the fraction of Shockley partial dislocation density decreases, whereas that of strain rod dislocations increases with increase in strain.

  16. Exposure Buildup Factors for Heavy Metal Oxide Glass: A Radiation Shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manonara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray exposure buildup factors for three Heavy Metal Oxide (HMO) glass systems, viz. PbO-Bi2O3-B2O3, PbO-B2O3, and Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses are presented. The computations were done by interpolation method using the Geometric Progression fitting formula and ANSI/ANS-6.4.3 library for the energy range...... of graphs. Buildup factors of these HMO glasses cannot be found in any standard database, but they are useful for practical calculations in gamma ray shield designs, and they also, help to determine and control the thickness of the shielding material used....

  17. Proposed Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Glass-To-Metal Seal Stress Analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.; Gibson, Cory S; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-09-01

    The material characterization tests conducted on 304L VAR stainless steel and Schott 8061 glass have provided higher fidelity data for calibration of material models used in Glass - T o - Metal (GTM) seal analyses. Specifically, a Thermo - Multi - Linear Elastic Plastic ( thermo - MLEP) material model has be en defined for S S304L and the Simplified Potential Energy Clock nonlinear visc oelastic model has been calibrated for the S8061 glass. To assess the accuracy of finite element stress analyses of GTM seals, a suite of tests are proposed to provide data for comparison to mo del predictions.

  18. Strain-dependent activation energy of shear transformation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Falk, Michael; Li, Jinfu; Kong, Lingti

    2017-04-01

    Shear transformation (ST) plays a decisive role in determining the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses, which is believed to be a stress-assisted thermally activated process. Understanding the dependence in its activation energy on the stress imposed on the material is of central importance to model the deformation process of metallic glasses and other amorphous solids. Here a theoretical model is proposed to predict the variation of the minimum energy path (MEP) associated with a particular ST event upon further deformation. Verification based on atomistic simulations and calculations are also conducted. The proposed model reproduces the MEP and activation energy of an ST event under different imposed macroscopic strains based on a known MEP at a reference strain. Moreover, an analytical approach is proposed based on the atomistic calculations, which works well when the stress varies linearity along the MEP. These findings provide necessary background for understanding the activation processes and, in turn, the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses.

  19. Deformation behavior of a zirconium based metallic glass during cylindrical indentation: in situ observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniou, A. [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bastawros, A.F. [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lo, C.C.H. [Materials and Engineering Physics, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Biner, S.B. [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States) and Materials and Engineering Physics, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: sbbiner@iastate.edu

    2005-03-15

    An experimental methodology was developed which is simple and yet accurately elucidates the stress-state dependency of the deformation behavior of metallic glasses or similar amorphous systems. The methodology includes in situ observations of the evolution of the deformation behavior of metallic glasses under a cylindrical indenter. The set-up not only collects information on the load-displacement response of the system to the deformation, but also resolves the much-needed information on the temporal and spatial evolution of the shear bands. By employing various indenter radii, the critical shear stress for the nucleation of the shear bands is obtained. Experimental results for a zirconium based metallic glass where found to be consistently independent of the indenter radius and in close agreement with the uniaxial yield values.

  20. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log.

  1. Correlation between Local Structure Order and Spatial Heterogeneity in a Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Hirata, Akihiko; Liu, Pan; Song, Shuangxi; Tian, Yuan; Han, Jiuhui; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2017-11-01

    Although nanoscale spatial heterogeneity of metallic glasses has been demonstrated by extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, the nature of spatial heterogeneity remains poorly known owing to the absence of a structural depiction of the inhomogeneity from experimental insight. Here we report the experimental characterization of the spatial heterogeneity of a metallic glass by utilizing state-of-the-art angstrom-beam electron diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The subnanoscale electron diffraction reveals that the nanoscale spatial heterogeneity and corresponding density fluctuation have a close correlation with the local structure variation from icosahedronlike to tetragonal crystal-like order. The structural insights of spatial heterogeneity have important implications in understanding the properties and dynamics of metallic glasses.

  2. An electron microscopy appraisal of tensile fracture in metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; Bronsveld, P. M.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Three glass-forming alloy compositions were chosen for ribbon production and subsequent electron microscopy studies. In situ tensile testing with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), followed by ex situ TEM and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), allowed the deformation processes in

  3. Formation of quasicrystals in Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanderka, N.; Macht, M. P.; Siedel, M.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of the quasicrystalline phase is observed as a first step of crystallization during isothermal annealing of the Zr46.7Ti8.3Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass. The structure of the quasicrystals and the sequence of phase formation have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and transm......The formation of the quasicrystalline phase is observed as a first step of crystallization during isothermal annealing of the Zr46.7Ti8.3Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass. The structure of the quasicrystals and the sequence of phase formation have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction...

  4. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzov, Ivan; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx) play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL) and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL) in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:28788423

  5. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Litzov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed.

  6. Determination of Lubricant Bulk Modulus in Metal Forming by Means of a Simple Laboratory Test and Inverse FEM Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafis, S. M.; Christiansen, P.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2016-01-01

    facilitates the lubricant entrainment, pressurization and possible escape by micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. In order to model these mechanisms an important lubricant propertyd esignated as the bulk modulus is needed for characterizing the compressibility of the lubricant. The present paper describes...... a simple, practical test to determine the bulk modulus. Combination of the experimental upsetting of an axisymmetric metal workpiece containing a truncated conical surface pocket with an inverse finite element analysis of the test allows determining the lubricant bulk modulus. The finite element analysis...

  7. Anomalous Crystallization as a Signature of the Fragile-to-Strong Transition in Metallic Glass-Forming Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, X.N.; Zhou, C.; Sun, Q.J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the fragile-to-strong (F−S) transition of metallic glass-forming liquids (MGFLs) by measuring the thermal response during annealing and dynamic heating of La55Al25Ni5Cu15 glass ribbons fabricated at different cooling rates. We find that the glasses fabricated in the intermediate regime...

  8. Crystallization behavior of Zr62Al8Ni13Cu17 Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Mi Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization behavior has been studied in Zr62Al8Ni13Cu17 metallic glass alloy. The Zr62Al8Ni13Cu17 metallic glass crystallized through two steps. The fcc Zr2Ni phase transformed from the amorphous matrix during first crystallization and then the Zr2Ni and residual amorphous matrix transformed into a mixture of tetragonal Zr2Cu and hexagonal Zr6Al2Ni phases. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami analysis of isothermal transformation data suggested that the formation of crystalline phase is primary crystallization by diffusion-controlled growth.

  9. Characterization of Zr-Cu Base Metallic Glasses by means of Hydrogen Internal Friction Peak

    OpenAIRE

    Mizubayashi, H.; Nakamura, I.; Yamagishi, K.; H. Tanimoto

    2007-01-01

    The hydrogen internal friction peak in Zr50-metallic glasses (Zr50Cu50, Zr50Cu40Al10 and Zr50Cu35Al10Ni5) was studied. The hydrogen internal friction peak was shifted exponentially to lower temperatures with increasing hydrogen concentration similarly to other Zr-Cu base metallic glasses reported in the literature. The peak height increased in proportion to the square-root of hydrogen concentration. These results were discussed in the view point of the hydrogen induced structural relaxation i...

  10. Computer simulations of nanoindentation in Mg-Cu and Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paduraru, Anca; Andersen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Thyssen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    simulations using a Lennard-Jones description of the material. The metallic glasses are deformed both in simple shear and in a simulated nanoindentation experiment. Plastic shear localizes into shear bands with a width of approximately 5 nm in CuZr and 8 nm in MgCu. In simple shear, the shear band formation...... is very clear, whereas only incipient shear bands are seen in nanoindentation. The shear band formation during nanoindentation is sensitive to the indentation velocity, indenter radius and the cooling rate during the formation of the metallic glass. For comparison, a similar nanoindentation simulation...

  11. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component & Systems Analysis; Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electronic, Optical and Nano; Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Science; Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation System Analysis

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  12. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  13. Titanium addition influences antibacterial activity of bioactive glass coatings on metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Omar; Stone, Wendy; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zalzal, Paul; Waldman, Stephen; Papini, Marcello; Towler, Mark R

    2017-10-01

    In an attempt to combat the possibility of bacterial infection and insufficient bone growth around metallic, surgical implants, bioactive glasses may be employed as coatings. In this work, silica-based and borate-based glass series were synthesized for this purpose and subsequently characterized in terms of antibacterial behavior, solubility and cytotoxicity. Borate-based glasses were found to exhibit significantly superior antibacterial properties and increased solubility compared to their silica-based counterparts, with BRT0 and BRT3 (borate-based glasses with 0 and 15 mol% of titanium dioxide incorporated, respectively) outperforming the remainder of the glasses, both borate and silicate based, in these respects. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy confirmed the release of zinc ions (Zn(2+)), which has been linked to the antibacterial abilities of glasses SRT0, BRT0 and BRT3, with inhibition effectively achieved at concentrations lower than 0.7 ppm. In vitro cytotoxicity studies using MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed that cell proliferation was affected by all glasses in this study, with decreased proliferation attributed to a faster release of sodium ions over calcium ions in both glass series, factor known to slow cell proliferation in vitro.

  14. All-optical characterization of fs-laser induced refractive index changes in bulk and at the surface of zinc phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Semenov, V.; Troy, N.; Smith, C. E.; Brow, R. K.; Krol, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    The permanent refractive index change induced by ultrashort laser pulses in zinc phosphate glasses has been investigated both at the surface and in bulk. At the sample surface, irradiations have been performed by using loosely focused single fs-laser pulses at different energies. Optical microscopy images of the irradiations illustrate an interferometric pattern in form of concentric Newton rings due to the laser induced multilayer system (unmodified glass, thin laser-modified layer, air). This experimental reflectivity modulation along with simulations based on Abeles theory for multilayer optical systems allows retrieving laser-induced refractive index changes on the order of Δns= -10-3. In bulk, fs-laser written waveguides have been generated by translating the sample with respect to a tightly focused laser beam. The so-produced waveguides have been characterized by studying the optical near field of the TEM00 guided mode at 660 nm and using white light microscopy. The optical changes linked to the inscribed waveguides have been characterized by measuring the far field output profiles yielding values of approximately Δnb= +3·10-4. The laser-modified optical properties in bulk and at the surface will be linked to the glass structural changes as well as discussed in terms of the role of the incubation effects for multi-pulse processing.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of Zr-based thin film metallic glass in hydrochloric aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Ching-Yen [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City, 24301, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yi-Chia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tungnan University, New Taipei City, 222, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei, E-mail: jefflee@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City, 24301, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City, 24301, Taiwan (China); Li, Chia-Lin [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, 10607, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jinn P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, 10607, Taiwan (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Recently thin film metallic glass represents a class of promising engineering materials for structural applications. In this work, the Zr-based thin film metallic glass (TFMG) was fabricated on the Si and AISI 420 substrates using a Zr–Cu–Ni–Al alloy and pure Zr metal targets by a pulsed DC magnetron sputtering system. The chemical compositions, crystalline structures, microstructures and corrosion behavior in hydrochloric (HCl) aqueous solutions of Zr-based TFMGs were investigated. The results showed that the surface morphologies of Zr-based TFMG were very smooth. A compact and dense structure without columnar structure was observed. The amorphous structure of Zr-based TFMG was characterized by the X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscopy analyses. After the potentiodynamic polarization test, the better corrosion resistance was achieved for the Zr-based TFMG coated AISI 420 in 1 mM HCl aqueous solution. Based on the surface morphologies and chemical analysis results of the corroded surfaces, the pitting, crevice corrosion and filiform corrosion were found. The corrosion mechanisms of the Zr-based TFMG were discussed in this work. - Highlights: ► Zr-based thin film metallic glass with amorphous structure. ► Better corrosion resistance of Zr-based thin film metallic glass observed. ► Pitting, crevice and filiform corrosion reactions revealed. ► The Cu-rich corrosion products found in the pit. ► Nanowire and flaky corrosion products formed adjacent to the filiform corrosion path.

  16. Wetting, spreading and reactions at liquid/solid interfaces. [Glass/metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pask, J.A.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1980-07-01

    Chemical (thermodynamic) stable equilibrium at glass-metal interfaces is established when the liquid glass becomes saturated with the low valence oxide of the metal. Stable or metastable equilibrium conditions at glass-metal interfaces result in a constant contact angle in a sessile drop experiment. If chemical equilibrium is absent, then a driving force exists for the occurrence of a reaction to attain equilibrium. All reactions that take place contribute to the maintenance of the necessary saturation of the liquid and solid at the interface with the solid substrate oxide in order to realize chemical bonding across the interface. Spreading always occurs when the solid metal is an active participant in these reactions. Examples showing the development of these principles are based on systems of sodium disilicate with Fe, Co, Ni, Fe-Ni alloys, Pt, Ag, Au, Cu, Ta, W, Mo, Nb, Zr, and Cr. The final structure and composition of the glass-metal interfacial zone are determined by the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reactions that occur.

  17. An Assessment of Binary Metallic Glasses: Correlations Between Structure, Glass Forming Ability and Stability (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    elements (Figure 2). Solutes or solvents are taken from alkaline earth metals, early and late transition metals, lanthanides and actinide elements...techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy and 3D atom probe are suggested for future work. 4.2 Thermal Stability Parameters Give Post

  18. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  19. Anomalous Corrosion of Bulk Transition Metal Diselenides Leading to Stable Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Dodda, Akhil; Schulman, Daniel S; Sebastian, Amritanand; Zhang, Fu; Buzzell, Drew; Terrones, Mauricio; Feng, Shien-Ping; Das, Saptarshi

    2017-11-08

    In this paper we provide insight into an anomalous corrosion process, referred to as electroablation (EA), which converts multilayer flakes of transition metal diselenides like MoSe2 into their corresponding monolayers when micromechanically exfoliated on a conductive electrode and subsequently subjected to a high anodic potential inside a conventional electrochemical cell. Photoluminescence intensity maps and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images confirmed the single crystalline nature and 2H-hexagonal lattice structure of the remnant monolayer MoSe2 flakes, indicating the superior corrosion stability of the monolayers compared to that of the bulk counterpart. It is noted that the EA technique is a low-cost alternative for high-yield synthesis of single crystalline monolayer MoSe2 at room temperature. We also found that the dynamics of such an electro-oxidation-mediated and self-limiting corrosion process differs significantly for MoSe2 and WSe2. While we were able to engineer the corrosion conditions for the EA process to obtain monolayers of MoSe2, our attempts to obtain monolayers of WSe2 were largely unsuccessful. Finally, we constructed a phenomenological physical chemistry framework to explain such anomalous corrosion processes in transition metal diselenides.

  20. Prediction of glass-forming ability and characterization of atomic structure of the Co-Ni-Zr metallic glasses by a proposed long range empirical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dai; Jiahao, Li; Baixin, Liu

    2012-02-01

    An interatomic potential is constructed for the Co-Ni-Zr ternary metal system under long range empirical formalism and applied to conduct molecular dynamics simulations and Voronoi tessellations. Using solid solution models with varying solute concentrations, the simulations reveal that the physical origin of metallic glass formation is the crystalline lattice collapsing while solute concentration exceeding the critical solid solubility and determine a series of critical values. In the composition triangle, the determined critical solid solubilities define a quadrilateral region, in which the formation of Co-Ni-Zr ternary metallic glasses is favored and could therefore be considered as the quantitative glass-forming ability of the system. Voronoi tessellations indicate that the atomic structure of the Co-Ni-Zr ternary metallic glasses is obviously affected by the concentration of the component metals and that the differences of the atomic radii play the key role in influencing the atomic structure of the metallic glasses, e.g., for the Co50 - x/2Ni50 - x/2Zrx (15 popular polyhedrons, and they are almost Co- or Ni-centered. With increasing Zr concentration, the average coordination numbers of Co, Ni, or Zr decrease. When the Zr concentration is greater than 50 at. %, the fractions of {0, 0, 12, 0} icosahedrons and {0, 1, 12, 0} icosidihedrons decrease and the fraction of {0, 2, 8, 1} octadecahedrons remarkably increases. It turns out that the predicted glass-forming ability is well supported by the experimental observations so far reported in the literature.

  1. Microstructure of planar glass substrates modified by Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) of metal targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey-García, F. [UA Microóptica and Óptica GRIN, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultade de Óptica e Optometría, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), María de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Flores-Arias, M.T.; Gómez-Reino, C. [UA Microóptica and Óptica GRIN, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultade de Óptica e Optometría, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lahoz, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), María de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fuente, G.F. de la, E-mail: xerman@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), María de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Assenmacher, W.; Mader, W. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Bonn, Romerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Geometrically controlled, channel-like structures were prepared on commercial, soda-lime glass substrates, by a Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) process using a commercial Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser fitted with a beam steering galvanometer mirror unit. 70Cu30Zn Brass alloy, Ag and Al metal targets were evaporated onto glass substrates by simple irradiation through the same glass substrates. The resultant structures were characterized by SEM, TEM, and UV-vis-nIR spectroscopy. These revealed the presence of metal nanostructures in the case of brass and Ag targets, with their typical local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands. In contrast, Al was not found in its elemental form, but rather integrated into the glass substrate. These results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) studies, performed with TEM and SEM observation on representative, polished cross section samples. Preliminary light guiding studies demonstrated the potential to develop burried waveguides just below the surface of the glass substrates in all cases, suggesting that LAB may be a convenient method to prepare stable waveguides by modifying inexpensive, commercial window glass.

  2. Influence of loading rate on the mechanical performance of metallic glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huráková, Mária; Csach, Kornel; Juríková, Alena; Miškuf, Jozef; Demčák, Štefan; Ocelík, Václav; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous metallic glass Cu47Ti35Zr11Ni6Si1 was investigated by load-control nanoindentation experiments using the cube corner indenter tip over a wide range of loading rates. The indentation hardness was calculated using different methods either from the loading curves or indent area. Pop-in events

  3. Variation of Hardness and Modulus across thickness of Zr-Cu-Al Metallic Glass Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Humberto Melgarejo; J.E. Jakes; J. Hwang; Y.E. Kalay; M.J. Kramer; P.M. Voyles; D.S. Stone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate through-thickness hardness and modulus of Zr50Cu45Al5 metallic glass melt-spun ribbon. Because of their thinness, the ribbons are challenging to measure, so we employ a novel nanoindentation based-method to remove artifacts caused by ribbon flexing and edge effects. Hardness and modulus...

  4. In-Situ TEM Investigation of Deformation Behavior of Metallic Glass Pillars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C. Q.; Pei, Y. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Tamura, N; Minor, A; Murray, C; Friedman, L

    2009-01-01

    We show results of in situ TEM (transmission electron microscope) quantitative investigations on the compression behaviors of amorphous micropillars fabricated by focused ion beam from Cu(47)Ti(33)Zr(11)Ni(6)Sn(2)Si(1) metallic glass (MG) ribbon. Pillars with well defined gauge sections and tip

  5. Intrinsic size effects in the mechanical response of taper-free nanopillars of metallic glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chang Qiang; Pei, Yu Tao; Kuzmin, Oleksii; Zhang, Zhe Feng; Ma, Evan; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De

    2011-01-01

    Both quantitative stress-strain curves and in situ transmission electron microscope observations demonstrate intrinsically strong sample size effects on the deformation mode of taper-free metallic glass pillars. With the pillar diameter gradually decreasing from 640 to 70 nm, the deformation mode

  6. On the nature of low temperature internal friction peaks in metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khonik, VA; Spivak, LV

    Low temperature (30 metallic glass Ni60Nb40 subjected to preliminary inhomogeneous deformation by cold rolling, homogeneous tensile deformation or electrolytic charging with hydrogen is investigated. Cold rolling or hydrogenation result in appearance of similar

  7. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-02-23

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294-328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment.

  8. The fundamental structural factor in determining the glass-forming ability and mechanical behavior in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Z.D., E-mail: shaz@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Feng, Y.P. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Li, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-05-16

    Research highlights: {yields} A weak but significant hump in trend of the coordinate number and density was observed, respectively. {yields} Our findings indicate our simulation is more accurate to describe the atomic structure of Cu-Zr MGs. The composition-structure-properties correlation was established. {yields} And the effective structural unit for this correlation is the Cu-centered full icosahedra. - Abstract: Using the large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator, the quantitative composition-structure-properties (including glass-forming ability (GFA) and mechanical behavior) correlations in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses were established. The atomic-level origin of these correlations was tracked down. It was found that the Cu-centered full icosahedron is the microscopic factor that fundamentally influences both GFA and mechanical behavior. Our findings have implications for understanding the nature, forming ability and properties of metallic glasses, and for searching novel metallic glasses with unique functional properties.

  9. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, K; Thirumaran, S

    2015-08-05

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V₂O₅-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) VBS glass system and (x%MnO₂-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x=3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V₂O₅ doped glass system,(VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO₂ doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V₂O₅ with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO₂. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO₃ or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na₂CO₃, V₂O₅ and MnO₂ contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs

  10. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, K.; Thirumaran, S.

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V2O5-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) VBS glass system and (x% MnO2-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V2O5 doped glass system, (VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO2 doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V2O5 with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO2. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO3 or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na2CO3, V2O5 and MnO2 contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs.

  11. Evaluation of shielding parameters for heavy metal fluoride based tellurite-rich glasses for gamma ray shielding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we have evaluated the γ-ray shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff), half value layer (HVL), mean free path (MFP) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) for heavy metal fluoride (PbF2) based tellurite-rich glasses. In addition, neutron total macroscopic cross sections (∑R) for these glasses were also calculated. The maximum value for μ/ρ, Zeff and ∑R was found for heavy metal (Bi2O3) oxide introduced glass. The results of the selected glasses have been compared, in terms of MFP with different glass systems. The shielding effectiveness of the selected glasses is found comparable or better than of common ones, which indicates that these glasses with suitable oxides could be developed for gamma ray shielding applications.

  12. Investigations on LM6 Metal Matrix Composite with borosilicate Glass Reinforcement for Aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnaraj, J. David; Sathish, S.

    2017-10-01

    The recycling of glass wastes from the industries and society holds a threat to the environment and leads to the need for new applications. While producing a metal matrix composite production cost is an important factor which decides the suitable application. So, while developing a new material with this low - cost has great importance in this competitive world. In this study, an metal-matrix composite fabricated from an aluminum alloy (LM6) and Borosilicate glass powder particles with % addition of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% were produced by liquid Processing (stir casting) technique. The variations in the mechanical properties like toughness, compressive strength, hardness, and tensile were examined. The microstructures of the fabricated metal matrix composite have been obtained by using Metallographic microscope. The addition of the borosilicate glass indicated an improved behavior in the hardness and toughness properties. The Rockwell hardness value of fabricated metal matrix composite increases with the increase in % of reinforcement. The compressive and tensile strength of the fabricated MMC increases until reinforcement reaches a maximum of 7.5%. The microstructure of the fabricated MMC shows that the reinforcements were homogeneously distributed in the fabricated metal matrix composite.

  13. In Situ SEM Torsion Test of Metallic Glass Microwires Based on Micro Robotic Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwires, such as metallic, semiconductor, and polymer microwires and carbon fibers, have stimulated great interest due to their importance in various structural and functional applications. Particularly, metallic glass (MG microwires, because of their amorphous atoms arrangement, have some unique mechanical properties compared with traditional metals. Despite the fact that substantial research efforts have been made on the mechanical characterizations of metallic glass microwires under tension or flexural bending, the mechanical properties of microwires under torsional loading have not been well studied, mainly due to the experimental difficulties, such as the detection of torsion angle, quantitative measurement of the torsional load, and the alignment between the specimen and torque meter. In this work, we implemented the in situ SEM torsion tests of individual La50Al30Ni20 metallic glass (MG microwires successfully based on a self-developed micro robotic mechanical testing system. Unprecedented details, such as the revolving vein-pattern along the torsion direction on MG microwires fracture surface, were revealed. Our platform could provide critical insights into understanding the deformation mechanisms of other microwires under torsional loading and can even be further used for robotic micromanufacturing.

  14. Work-hardening induced tensile ductility of bulk metallic glasses via high-pressure torsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Pi, Dong-Hai; Setyawan, Albertus Deny Heri; Kato, Hidemi; Janecek, Milos; Kim, Yong Chan; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2015-01-01

    .... Enhanced tensile ductility and work-hardening behavior after the HPT process were investigated, focusing on the microstructure, particularly the changed free volume, which affects deformation mechanisms (i.e...

  15. Work-Hardening Induced Tensile Ductility of Bulk Metallic Glasses via High-Pressure Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Hyun Joo; Dong-Hai Pi; Albertus Deny Heri Setyawan; Hidemi Kato; Milos Janecek; Yong Chan Kim; Sunghak Lee; Hyoung Seop Kim

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of engineering materials are key for ensuring safety and reliability. However, the plastic deformation of BMGs is confined to narrow regions in shear bands, which usually result in limited ductilities and catastrophic failures at low homologous temperatures. The quasi-brittle failure and lack of tensile ductility undercut the potential applications of BMGs. In this report, we present clear tensile ductility in a Zr-based BMG via a high-pressure torsion (HPT) process....

  16. Work-hardening induced tensile ductility of bulk metallic glasses via high-pressure torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Pi, Dong-Hai; Setyawan, Albertus Deny Heri; Kato, Hidemi; Janecek, Milos; Kim, Yong Chan; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2015-04-23

    The mechanical properties of engineering materials are key for ensuring safety and reliability. However, the plastic deformation of BMGs is confined to narrow regions in shear bands, which usually result in limited ductilities and catastrophic failures at low homologous temperatures. The quasi-brittle failure and lack of tensile ductility undercut the potential applications of BMGs. In this report, we present clear tensile ductility in a Zr-based BMG via a high-pressure torsion (HPT) process. Enhanced tensile ductility and work-hardening behavior after the HPT process were investigated, focusing on the microstructure, particularly the changed free volume, which affects deformation mechanisms (i.e., initiation, propagation, and obstruction of shear bands). Our results provide insights into the basic functions of hydrostatic pressure and shear strain in the microstructure and mechanical properties of HPT-processed BMGs.

  17. NMR Investigation of Atomic Structure and Dynamics of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    that, via Al-27 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, that atomic level structures characterized by electric-field-gradient tensors and the...only by the second-order quadrupole effect, and wide satellite transitions 1m m  ( 1/ 2m   ) broadened by the first-order quadrupole ...was used to determine the corresponding linewidths of the central and satellite transitions as noted by the dashed curves in Fig 3.1. In addition, the

  18. Fatigue-induced damage in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Pin; Yuan, Tao; Dmowski, Wojciech; Wang, Gong-Yao; Freels, Matt; Liaw, Peter K; Li, Ran; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the effect of "fatigue" on the fatigue behavior and atomic structure of Zr-based BMGs. Fatigue experiments on the failed-by-fatigue samples indicate that the remnants generally have similar or longer fatigue life than the as-cast samples. Meanwhile, the pair-distribution-function (PDF) analysis of the as-cast and post-fatigue samples showed very small changes of local atomic structures. These observations suggest that the fatigue life of the 6-mm in-diameter Zr-based BMG is dominated by the number of pre-existing crack-initiation sites in the sample. Once the crack initiates in the specimen, the fatigue-induced damage is accumulated locally on these initiated sites, while the rest of the region deforms elastically. The results suggest that the fatigue failure of BMGs under compression-compression fatigue experiments is a defect-controlled process. The present work indicates the significance of the improved fatigue resistance with decreasing the sample size.

  19. Thermoplastic Joining and Assembly of Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Through Capacitive Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Roberts, Scott N. (Inventor); Kozachkov, Henry (Inventor); Demetriou, Marios D. (Inventor); Schramm, Joseph P. (Inventor); Johnson, William L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for joining BMG Composites are disclosed. Specifically, the joining of BMG Composites is implemented so as to preserve the amorphicity of their matrix phase and the microstructure of their particulate phase. Implementation of the joining method with respect to the construction of modular cellular structures that comprise BMG Composites is also discussed.

  20. Nanometer-Scale Heterogeneities of the Structure of Zirconium-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor M. Mikhailovskij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Structure of amorphous alloys ZrTiCuNiBe and ZrTiCuNiAl is studied by means of low-field ion and combined field-emission microscopy. In both alloys the structural heterogeneities of nanometer-scale are clearly revealed. The surface layers formed by field evaporation possess a cellular structure. The cells have polygonal shape with transverse size ranging from 2 nm to 20 nm. It is established that variance of the local energy of field evaporation is of 0%–5% in the cell body. A local minimum of the field evaporation energy is observed within the cell boundaries (intercluster boundaries. In the minimum the depth is measured to be of 0.8 eV.

  1. Dynamic Pressure Induced Transformation Toughening and Strengthening in Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    regions of the melt-spun ribbons. Density measurements performed with the Archimedes method, employing a surface tension lowering liquid added to...using Archimedes method. 10 Table IV Density and sound speed properties of DV1. CL – Longitudinal sound speed, CS – shear sound speed, CB

  2. Platinum group metal particles aggregation in nuclear glass melts under the effect of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotin, Caroline; Puig, Jean; Neyret, Muriel; Marchal, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The viscosity of simulated high level radioactive waste glasses containing platinum group metal particles is studied over a wide range of shear stress, as a function of the particles content and the temperature, thanks to a stress imposed rheometer, coupled to a high-temperature furnace. The system shows a very shear thinning behavior. At high shear rate, the system behaves as a suspension of small clusters and individual particles and is entirely controlled by the viscosity of the glass matrix as classical suspensions. At low shear rate, above a certain fraction in platinum group metal particles, the apparition of macroscopic aggregates made up of chains of RuO2 particles separated by thin layers of glass matrix strongly influences the viscosity of the nuclear glass and leads, in particular, to the apparition of yield stress and thixotropic effects. The maximum size of these clusters as well as their effective volume fraction have been estimated by a balance between Van der Waals attractive forces and hydrodynamic forces due to shear flow. We showed experimentally and theoretically that this aggregation phenomenon is favored by an increase of the temperature, owing to the viscosity decrease of the glass matrix, leading to an unusual increase of the suspension viscosity.

  3. Constant real-space fractal dimensionality and structure evolution in T i62C u38 metallic glass under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Luhong; Li, Renfeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Qu, Dongdong; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Liu, Haozhe

    2016-11-01

    The structure of binary T i62C u38 metallic glass is investigated under pressures up to 33.8 GPa using the pair distribution function analysis based on high-energy x-ray scattering and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations. At a global scale, its relative volume shows a continuously smooth curve as a function of pressure. The isothermal bulk modulus of T i62C u38 metallic glass is estimated as B0=132 (3 ) GPa with B0'=5.8 (0.4 ) . At a local scale, the atomic packing structure under compression conditions, which is extracted from RMC simulations, shows that the topological short-range order is dominated by the deformed icosahedron polyhedra and basically maintains stable. From the relationship between the relative volume and changing ratio of the atomic separation distances, the real-space fractal dimensionality of this metallic glass is determined as about 2.5 for all of the first four peaks. This experimental result reveals the consistent nature of the fractal feature on the degree of self-similarity in this sample within the entire experimental pressure range.

  4. Off-plane polarization ordering in metal chalcogen diphosphates from bulk to monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenshen; Fei, Ruixiang; Yang, Li

    2017-12-01

    Vertically (off-plane) ferroelectric ordering in ultrathin films has been pursued for decades. We predict the existence of intrinsic vertical polarization orderings in ultrathin metal chalcogen-diphosphates (MCDs). Taking CuInP2Se6 as an example, the first-principles calculation and electrostatic-energy model show that, under the open-circuit boundary condition, the ground state of bulk CuInP2Se6 is ferroelectric (FE) while that of monolayer is antiferroelectric (AFE), and the critical thickness for this FE/AFE transition is around six layers. Interestingly, under the closed-circuit boundary condition, the FE state can hold even for monolayer. Particularly, because of the small energy difference but the large barrier between FE and AFE orderings, the FE state can be stabilized in a free-standing monolayer, giving rise to intrinsic, off-plane two-dimensional ferroelectrics. Applying Monte Carlo simulations, we further calculate the ferroelectric Curie temperature (Tc) and electric hysteresis.

  5. Deformation in Metallic Glasses Studied by Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Egami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High mechanical strength is one of the superior properties of metallic glasses which render them promising as a structural material. However, understanding the process of mechanical deformation in strongly disordered matter, such as metallic glass, is exceedingly difficult because even an effort to describe the structure qualitatively is hampered by the absence of crystalline periodicity. In spite of such challenges, we demonstrate that high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement under stress, using a two-dimensional detector coupled with the anisotropic pair-density function (PDF analysis, has greatly facilitated the effort of unraveling complex atomic rearrangements involved in the elastic, anelastic, and plastic deformation of metallic glasses. Even though PDF only provides information on the correlation between two atoms and not on many-body correlations, which are often necessary in elucidating various properties, by using stress as means of exciting the system we can garner rich information on the nature of the atomic structure and local atomic rearrangements during deformation in glasses.

  6. Environmental impact of metal and metalloid leaching from highway marking glass beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Nimrat K; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Coolahan, Kelsey

    2013-05-07

    Recently, metals and metalloids have been observed at elevated concentrations in glass beads imported to the US. Average total concentrations in imported batches ranged from 103 to 683 mg kg(-1) for As, 62 to 187 mg kg(-1) for Sb, and 23 to 179 mg kg(-1) for Pb. The labile fraction associated with the glass beads resulted in leached concentrations as great as 538 μg L(-1) for As, 1092 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 160 μg L(-1) for Sb. Sequential extraction was conducted as well to better understand the form of metals and metalloids associated with the glass beads. Only 0.23% of As, 3.40% of Pb, 2.37% of Ba, and 1.92% of Mn were extracted in the exchangeable (As, Mn, and Ba) and the oxidizable forms (Pb), whereas greater than 97% of metals and metalloids present were associated with the glass matrix. Nonparametric statistics were applied to test total concentrations that resulted in exceedances in the groundwater quality criteria. Results demonstrated that the As, Pb, and Sb limits were exceeded for 98%, 58%, and 15% of the samples tested respectively suggesting a potential environmental impact to groundwater used as a drinking water source.

  7. A New Ni-Based Metallic Glass with High Thermal Stability and Hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Hitit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Glass forming ability (GFA, thermal stability and microhardness of Ni51−xCuxW31.6B17.4 (x = 0, 5 metallic glasses have been investigated. For each alloy, thin sheets of samples having thickness of 20 µm and 100 µm were synthesized by piston and anvil method in a vacuum arc furnace. Also, 400 µm thick samples of the alloys were synthesized by suction casting method. The samples were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Crystallization temperature of the base alloy, Ni51W31.6B17.4, is found to be 996 K and 5 at.% copper substitution for nickel increases the crystallization temperature to 1063 K, which is the highest value reported for Ni-based metallic glasses up to the present. In addition, critical casting thickness of alloy Ni51W31.6B17.4 is 100 µm and copper substitution does not have any effect on critical casting thickness of the alloys. Also, microhardness of the alloys are found to be around 1200 Hv, which is one of the highest microhardness values reported for a Ni-based metallic glass until now.

  8. Evolution of shear banding flows in metallic glasses characterized by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Li, E-mail: yltiger@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Institute of Space Power-Sources, 2965 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200245 (China); Luan, Yingwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-06-21

    To reveal the evolution of shear banding flows, one-dimensional nanostructure metallic glass composites have been studied with molecular dynamics. The inherent size determines the initial thickness of shear bands, and the subsequent broadening can be restricted to some extent. The vortex-like flows evoke the atomic motion perpendicular to the shear plane, which accelerates the interatomic diffusion. The reduction of local strain rate causes the flow softening for monolithic Cu-Zr glass, but the participation of Cu-atoms in the shear banding flow gradually leads to the shear hardening for the composites.

  9. Elastic properties of Ca-based metallic glasses predicted by first-principles simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widom, M.; Sauerwine, B.; Cheung, A.M.; Poon, S.J.; Tong, P.; Louca, D.; Shiflet, G.J. (CM); (UV)

    2012-07-11

    First-principles simulations of Ca-based metallic glass-forming alloys yield sample amorphous structures whose structures can be compared to experiment and whose properties can be analyzed. In an effort to understand and control ductility, we investigate the elastic moduli. Calculated Poisson ratios depend strongly on alloying elements in a manner that correlates with ionicity (charge transfer). Consequently, we predict that alloying Ca with Mg and Zn should result in relatively ductile glasses compared to alloying with Ag, Cu, or Al. Experimental observations validate these predictions.

  10. Characterization & Modeling of Materials in Glass-To-Metal Seals: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computer Science and Mechanics; Emery, John M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid Mechanics; Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Reliability; Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Science; Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Reliability

    2014-01-01

    To support higher fidelity modeling of residual stresses in glass-to-metal (GTM) seals and to demonstrate the accuracy of finite element analysis predictions, characterization and validation data have been collected for Sandia’s commonly used compression seal materials. The temperature dependence of the storage moduli, the shear relaxation modulus master curve and structural relaxation of the Schott 8061 glass were measured and stress-strain curves were generated for SS304L VAR in small strain regimes typical of GTM seal applications spanning temperatures from 20 to 500 C. Material models were calibrated and finite element predictions are being compared to measured data to assess the accuracy of predictions.

  11. Correlation between strain rate sensitivity and α relaxation of metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.; Wang, Y. J. [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, L. H., E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10081 (China)

    2016-07-15

    An inherent correlation between the strain rate sensitivity and α relaxation of metallic glasses (MGs) is observed. This correlation can be attributed to the secondary term which incorporates the nonaffine displacements of atoms in the analytical expression of the elastic modulus of amorphous solids. The observed correlation supports the proposition that stress and temperature play equivalent role in the glass transition of MGs. Besides, an ideal liquid state of MGs is observed in the supercooled liquid region when they are deformed below a critical loading rate. This observation would benefit the application of MGs in the fabrication of micro parts for MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems).

  12. An overview on the conventional and nonconventional methods for manufacturing the metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axinte Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses (MGs, first discovered in 1959 at Caltech are currently among the most studied metallic materials. MGs called also glassy metals, amorphous metals, liquid metals, are considered to be among the materials of the future. The “classic” methods for industrialization of MGs are : end-casting in copper molds and protected environment, die forging , atomization for obtaining MG powder ,selective laser melting , imprinting in molds, thermoplastic shaping in the super-cooled temperature region. These methods are suitable for producing high value-added precision components but the problems still exists: expensive tools, limited lifetime of tools and the occurring of crystallization. Actually methods (thermoplastic shaping, casting and die forging are limited by the low flexibility of production and by higher costs of tools and accessories. More suitable methods are greatly desired to machine MGs for their wider applications.

  13. Antimicrobial properties of Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsien-Wei; Hsu, Kai-Chieh; Chan, Yu-Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong, E-mail: jgd@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guo-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    Metallic glass as a prominent class of structure and multifunctional materials exhibits several unique properties in mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal properties. This study aimed to realize the advantage of biomedical application and to promote the attainable size of metallic glasses by the physical vapor deposition. The Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on silicon wafer and SUS304 stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering with single target. For X-ray diffraction analysis, all TFMGs revealed typical broad peaks around the incident angle of 30 to 50°, suggesting that coatings possess amorphous structure. In addition, diffuse halo ring patterns of transmission electron microscopy indicated a fine amorphorization for TFMG via sputtering process. The variation of surface roughness showed that TFMG derived from higher power of metallic targets revealed rougher morphology. Besides, the roughness of SUS304 stainless steel substrate significantly reduced from 7 nm to about 1 nm after TFMGs were deposited. The microbes of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used and cultivated on the TFMG coatings with medium to investigate the antimicrobial properties. In the incubation experiment, the growth of each microbe was recorded by a digital photography system and the growth area was calculated by image processing software. The growth area of the microbes on the TFMG was mostly smaller than that on SUS304 stainless steel ones within incubation time of 72 h, indicating that the TFMGs reveal better antimicrobial capability. Moreover, the coatings exhibit a particularly long-term antimicrobial effect for P. aeruginosa. In summary, the Zr–Cu–Al–Ag prepared by sputtering with a single target device presented superior glass forming ability, and coatings with copper and silver constituents revealed significantly antimicrobial properties. Besides, the surface roughness is another factor to affect the

  14. Thermal and fragility aspects of microwave synthesized glasses containing transition metal ions and heavy metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, C.; Viswanatha, R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2017-02-01

    A simple, clean and energy efficient microwave heating route is used to prepare glasses in the systems xMnO-33(0.09PbCl2:0.91PbO)-(67-x) NaPO3 and xPbCl2-33PbO-(67-x) NaPO3 where 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 4 (mol%). Thermal data extracted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms are used to study the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg), heat capacity, thermal stability and fragility. The decrease in glass transition temperature with modifier oxide (Na2O + MnO) content can be ascribed to network degradation and the volume increasing effect caused by PbCl2. The change in heat capacity of MnPb glass being greater than that of PbNP glass, suggests that MnPb glasses are more covalent than PbNP glasses. DSC thermograms taken at different heating rates (φ) reveal the dependence of Tg on φ, and the thermal stability of the glass increases due to MnO addition. Fragility aspects have also been studied by calculating the fragility functions ( {{Δ {{C}}_{{p}} }/{{{C}_{{pl}} }}{{and}}{[ {{NBO}} ]}/{{{V}_{{m}}3 {{T}}_{{g}} }}} ). Results obtained from both the fragility functions compare well and reveal the dependence of fragility functions on modifier content and PbCl2 mol%. Further, the decrease in Tg and Hv are suggested to be due to the increase in the number of non-bridging oxygens, which results in the lowering of stiffness and rigidity of the glass network. Analysis of the infrared spectra confirms that the glassy matrix is composed of P-O-P, P-O-Pb, P=O and P-O- bonding.

  15. Pressure effects on structure and dynamics of metallic glass-forming liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan-Chao; Guan, Peng-Fei; Wang, Qing; Yang, Yong; Bai, Hai-Yang; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Although the structure and dynamics of metallic glass-forming liquids have been extensively investigated, studies of the pressure effects are rare. In the present study, the structural and dynamical properties of a ternary metallic liquid are systematically studied via extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly show that, like isobaric cooling, isothermal compression could also slow down the dynamics of metallic liquid, leading to glass formation. However, the temperature- and pressure-induced glass transitions differ in the formation of local coordination structures and the variation of fragility. The increase of the kinetic fragility with increasing pressure is also accompanied by a monotonic structural fragility change. These findings may suggest a link between dynamics and structure. In addition, with increasing pressure, the dynamics becomes more heterogeneous, as revealed by the non-Gaussian parameter and dynamic correlation length. Here the length scales of both slow and fast domains are examined and discussed by analyzing the four-point dynamic structure factor associated with spatial correlations of atomic mobility. These correlation lengths coexist in the metallic liquids and grow comparatively in the considered temperature and pressure ranges. Finally, the scaling relation between the relaxation times and correlation lengths is discussed, which is found to be consistent with the spirit of Adam-Gibbs and random first-order transition theories.

  16. Randomized clinical study comparing metallic and glass fiber post in restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadebo, Olaide S; Ajayi, Deborah M; Oyekunle, Oyekunle O Dosumu; Shaba, Peter O

    2014-01-01

    Post-retained crowns are indicated for endodontically treated teeth (ETT) with severely damaged coronal tissue. Metallic custom and prefabricated posts have been used over the years, however, due to unacceptable color, extreme rigidity and corrosion, fiber posts, which are flexible, aesthetically pleasing and have modulus of elasticity comparable with dentin were introduced. To compare clinical performance of metallic and glass fiber posts in restoration of ETT. 40 ETT requiring post retained restorations were included. These teeth were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Twenty teeth were restored using a glass fiber-reinforced post (FRP) and 20 others received stainless steel parapost (PP), each in combination with composite core buildups. Patients were observed at 1 and 6 months after post placement and cementation of porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown. Marginal gap consideration, post retention, post fracture, root fracture, crown fracture, crown decementation and loss of restoration were part of the data recorded. All teeth were assessed clinically and radiographically. Fisher's exact test was used for categorical values while log-rank test was used for descriptive statistical analysis. One tooth in the PP group failed, secondary to decementation of the PFM crown giving a 2.5% overall failure while none in the FRP group failed. The survival rate of FRP was thus 100% while it was 97.5% in the PP group. This however was not statistically significant (log-rank test, P = 0.32). Glass FRPs performed better than the metallic post based on short-term clinical performance.

  17. Atomistic simulations of Mg-Cu metallic glasses: Mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2004-01-01

    The atomistic mechanisms of plastic deformation in amorphous metals are far from being understood. We have derived potential parameters for molecular dynamics simulations of Mg-Cu amorphous alloys using the Effective Medium Theory. We have simulated the formation of alloys by cooling from the melt......, and have used these glassy configurations to carry out simulations of plastic deformation. These involved different compositions, temperatures (including zero), and types of deformation (uniaxial strain/pure shear), and yielded stress-strain curves and values of flow stress. Separate simulations were...

  18. Interaction of power pulses of laser radiation with glasses containing implanted metal nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, A L; Hole, D E; Bukharaev, A A

    2001-01-01

    The sodium-calcium silicate glasses, implanted by the Ag sup + ions with the energy of 60 keV and the dose of 7 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 2 by the ion current flux density of 10 mu A/cm sup 2 , are studied. The ion implantation makes it possible to synthesize in the near-the-surface glass area the composite layer, including the silver nanoparticles. The effect of the powerful pulse excimer laser on the obtained composite layer is investigated. It is established that the laser radiation leads to decrease in the silver nanoparticles size in the implanted layer. However nonuniform distribution of particles by size remains though not so wide as before the irradiation. The experimental results are explained by the effect of glass and metallic particles melting in the nanosecond period of time

  19. Endoscopic fringe projection for in-situ inspection of a sheet-bulk metal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Steffen; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2015-05-01

    Sheet-bulk metal forming is a new production process capable of performing deep-drawing and massive forming steps in a single operation. However, due to the high forming forces of the forming process, continuous process control is required in order to detect wear on the forming tool before production quality is impacted. To be able to measure the geometry of the forming tool in the limited space of forming presses, a new inspection system is being developed within the SFB/TR 73 collaborative research center. In addition to the limited space, the process restricts the amount of time available for inspection. Existing areal optical measurement systems suffer from shadowing when measuring the tool's inner elements, as they cannot be placed in the limited space next to the tool, while tactile measurement systems cannot meet the time restrictions for measuring the areal geometries. The new inspection system uses the fringe projection optical measurement principle to capture areal geometry data from relevant parts of the forming tool in short time. Highresolution image fibers are used to connect the system's compact sensor head to a base unit containing both camera and projector of the fringe projection system, which can be positioned outside of the moving parts of the press. To enable short measurement times, a high intensity laser source is used in the projector in combination with a digital micro-mirror device. Gradient index lenses are featured in the sensor head to allow for a very compact design that can be used in the narrow space above the forming tool inside the press. The sensor head is attached to an extended arm, which also guides the image fibers to the base unit. A rotation stage offers the possibility to capture measurements of different functional elements on the circular forming tool by changing the orientation of the sensor head next to the forming tool. During operation of the press, the arm can be travelled out of the moving parts of the forming press

  20. The Effects of Gravity on the Crystallization Behavior of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, Guy A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses are used in such applications as fiber lasers and laser amplifiers. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) is one of the more commonly used heavy metal fluoride glasses. ZBLAN is an infrared transmitter and has a theoretical attenuation coefficient of 0.002 db/km. However, due to impurities and small crystallites this attenuation coefficient has not been achieved to date. ZBLAN is a fragile glass which can lead to rapid crystallization, if the glass is not cooled rapidly to below the glass transition temperature or if the glass is reheated near the crystallization temperature for any period of time. Studies carried on at Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville since 1993 have shown that heating ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity results in a suppression of crystallization when compared to ZBLAN processed in unit gravity. These studies utilized NASA's KC-135 aircraft and the Conquest sounding rocket. In the first series of experiments, short lengths of ZBLAN fiber were heated to the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity on board the KC- 135 and the Conquest sounding rocket and compared with fibers heated in unit gravity. The fibers processed in reduced gravity showed no evidence of crystallization when studied with x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. However, the fibers processed in unit gravity were completely crystallized. Subsequent experiments included heating small pieces of ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature while viewing with a video camera to follow the crystallization phenomenon. In this experiment crystallization was observed in reduced gravity, however, it was suppressed when compared to heating in unit gravity. In the most recent experiment on board the KC-135, rapid thermal analysis of ZBLAN was performed. A mechanism to explain the observations has been proposed. This mechanism is based on shear thinning whereby, the glass

  1. Third-order optical nonlinearities in bulk and fs-laser inscribed waveguides in strengthened alkali aluminosilcate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Almeida, Juliana M. P.; Martins, Renato J.; De Boni, Leonardo; Arnold, Craig B.; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2018-01-01

    The development of advanced photonics devices requires materials with large optical nonlinearities, fast response times and high optical transparency, while at the same time allowing for the micro/nano-processing needed for integrated photonics. In this context, glasses have been receiving considerable attention given their relevant optical properties which can be specifically tailored by compositional control. Corning Gorilla® Glass (strengthened alkali aluminosilicate glass) is well-known for its use as a protective screen in mobile devices, and has attracted interest as a potential candidate for optical devices. Therefore, it is crucial not only to expand the knowledge on the fabrication of waveguides in Gorilla Glass under different regimes, but also to determine its nonlinear optical response, both using fs-laser pulses. Thus, this paper reports, for the first time, characterization of the third-order optical nonlinearities of Gorilla Glass, as well as linear and nonlinear characterization of waveguide written with femtosecond pulses under the low repetition rate regime (1 kHz).

  2. Influence of the bulk diffusion of rubidium and sodium atoms in glass on their surface dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atutov, S. N.; Benimetskii, F. A.; Makarov, A. O.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurement of the surface potential and the dwell time of Rb and Na atoms on the surface of S-52 molybdenum glass. It is found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, the temperature dependence of the dwell time of Rb atoms is well described by the Arrhenius formula. The surface potentials for Rb and Na are measured to be 0.67 and 1.37 eV, respectively. At temperatures above the glass transition temperature, the dwell time of these atoms increases abnormally. The reason for this is that during impact of an atom on the surface of molten glass, it can penetrate into the volume of the window and then return by diffusion and desorb from the surface. In this case, the dwell time of the atom on the glass is determined by the diffusion time and can be very significant, despite the relatively low potential barrier at the surface and high temperature.

  3. Homogeneity and structure of CuZrAlY metallic glass ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetić, A. Salčinović, E-mail: amra.s@pmf.unsa.ba; Selimović, A.; Hrvat, K.; Djekić, M. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Fakić, B. [Metallurgical Institute Kemal Kapetanović, University of Zenica, University of Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    2016-03-25

    Metallic glasses are metastable amorphous structures produced by quenching-rapid cooling technique. Due to very high cooling rates during the production process, it is very difficult to produce homogeneous samples with identical chemical composition. In this paper we will present preliminary results of homogeneity and structure examinations of a CuZrAlY metallic glass ribbon. The ribbon, approximately 1.5 m long and 1 mm wide, was produced using melt spinning technique. Samples from the middle and the end of the ribbon were chosen for further examination. Surface was checked by metallographic and electron scanning microscopy. Chemical composition in different areas of each sample was checked by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity measurements in the temperature range from 80 K to 280 K were also conducted.

  4. On the nature of low temperature internal friction peaks in metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonik, V.A. [State Pedagogical Univ., Voronezh (Russian Federation); Spivak, L.V. [State Univ., Perm (Russian Federation)

    1996-01-01

    Low temperature (30 < T < 300 K) internal friction in a metallic glass Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} subjected to preliminary inhomogeneous deformation by cold rolling, homogeneous tensile deformation or electrolytic charging with hydrogen is investigated. Cold rolling or hydrogenation result in appearance of similar internal friction peaks and hysteresis damping. Homogeneous deformation has no influence on low temperature internal friction. The phenomenon of microplastic deformation during hydrogenation of weakly stressed samples is revealed. It is argued that microplastic deformation of metallic glasses during hydrogenation without external stress takes place too. Plastic flow both on cold rolling and hydrogenation occurs via formation and motion of dislocation-like defects which are the reason of the observed anelastic anomalies. It is concluded that low temperature internal friction peaks described in the literature for as-cast, cold deformed and hydrogenated samples have common dislocation-like origin.

  5. A quantitative link between microplastic instability and macroscopic deformation behaviors in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Chen, G. L.; Hui, X. D.; Liu, C. T.; Lin, Y.; Shang, X. C.; Lu, Z. P.

    2009-10-01

    Based on mechanical instability of individual shear transformation zones (STZs), a quantitative link between the microplastic instability and macroscopic deformation behavior of metallic glasses was proposed. Our analysis confirms that macroscopic metallic glasses comprise a statistical distribution of STZ embryos with distributed values of activation energy, and the microplastic instability of all the individual STZs dictates the macroscopic deformation behavior of amorphous solids. The statistical model presented in this paper can successfully reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain curves determined experimentally and readily be used to predict strain-rate effects on the macroscopic responses with the availability of the material parameters at a certain strain rate, which offer new insights into understanding the actual deformation mechanism in amorphous solids.

  6. Reuse of nuclear byproducts, NaF and HF in metal glass industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.W.; Lee, H.W. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S.H.; Moon, H.S.; Cho, N.C. [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the radiological safety and feasibility associated with reuse of NaF(Sodium Fluoride) and HF(Hydrofluoric Acid) which are generated as byproducts from the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The investigation of oversea`s experience reveals that the byproduct materials are most often used in the metal and glass industries. For the radiological safety evaluation, the uranium radioactivities in the byproduct materials were examined and shown to be less than radioactivities in natural materials. The radiation doses to plant personnel and the general public were assessed to be very small and could be ignored. The Korea nuclear regulatory body permits the reuse of NaF in the metal industry on the basis of associated radioactivity being {open_quote}below regulatory concern{close_quote}. HF is now under review for reuse acceptability in the steel and glass industries.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure evolutions of Cu-Zr metallic glasses under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Lin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Tian, Zean; Xiao, Shifang [Department of Applied Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Deng, Huiqiu, E-mail: hqdeng@hnu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ao, Bingyun [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang 621907 (China); Chen, Piheng, E-mail: chenpiheng@caep.cn [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang 621907 (China); Hu, Wangyu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The structural evolution of Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} MG under irradiation was studied. • The structure clusters were analyzed using the LSCA method. • Most of these radiation damages have been self-recovered quickly. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the structural evolution of Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} metallic glasses under irradiation. The largest standard cluster analysis (LSCA) method was used to quantify the microstructure within the collision cascade regions. It is found that the majority of clusters within the collision cascade regions are full and defective icosahedrons. Not only the smaller structures (common neighbor subcluster) but also primary clusters greatly changed during the collision cascades; while most of these radiation damages self-recover quickly in the following quench states. These findings indicate the Cu-Zr metallic glasses have excellent irradiation-resistance properties.

  8. Understanding ductile-to-brittle transition of metallic glasses from shear transformation zone dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Q. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model that takes into account the free-volume aided cooperative shearing of shear transformation zones (STZs is developed to quantitatively understand the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT of metallic glasses. The STZ dilatational strain is defined as the ratio of STZ-activated free volume to STZ volume itself. The model demonstrates that the STZ dilatational strain will increase drastically and exceed the characteristic shear strain of STZ as temperature decreases below a critical value. This critical temperature is in good agreement with the experimentally measured DBT temperature. Our results suggest that the DBT of metallic glasses is underpinned by the transition of atomic-cluster motions from STZ-type rearrangements to dilatational processes (termed tension transformation zones (TTZs.

  9. Shocking of metallic glass to induce microstructure heterogeneity: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Ye, Chang; Dong, Yalin

    2017-09-01

    Surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD) has been demonstrated to improve the ductility of metallic glass. The physical interpretation, however, remains on the phenomenological level. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the improvement in ductility. MD simulation reveals that shock waves resulting from SSPD can induce pre-deformed atoms, which are randomly embedded in the matrix of the metallic glass. The pre-deformed atoms have similar stress distribution and short-order structure as the matrix atoms, but with a larger atomic volume. When subjected to tensile or compressive stress, more shear bands are promoted by the pre-deformed atoms in the shock-treated sample as compared to the untreated one. The randomly distributed shear bands were found to experience more interactions, which delayed the catastrophic fracture, leading to increased ductility.

  10. Energy transfer mechanisms in heavy metal oxide glasses doped with lanthanide ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragin, Tomasz; Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Dominik

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, glasses based on bismuth, germanium, gallium and sodium oxides have been synthesized in terms of low phonon energy (724 cm-1) and high thermal stability (ΔT = 127°C). Synthesis process have been optimized using low vacuum conditions (approx. 60 mBar) to improve the transmittance in the mid-infrared region and decrease the content of hydroxide groups in the material structure. Glass doped with erbium ions has been pumped with high power diode (λexc = 980 nm) to obtain luminescence in the band of 2.7 μm as a result of Er3+: 4I11/2 -> 4I13/2 radiative transition. For analysis of emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms, glasses co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+, Er3+/Pr3+, Er3+/Nd3+ ions have been synthesized. Obtained results indicated energy transfer phenomenon between lanthanide ions and elements forming the glass matrix. This demonstrates that developed heavy metal oxide glass doped with optimal rare earth elements system is an attractive material for mid-infrared applications.

  11. Constitutive Rheological Modeling of Flow Serration Behaviour in Metallic Glasses Showing Nanocrystallization during Deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yousfi, M. A.; Hajlaoui, K.; Tourki, Z.; Yavari, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple micromechanism-inspired rheological model is developed that incorporates the serrated flow nature of metallic glasses subjected to compressive deformation at room temperatures. The process of propagation and the arrest of shear bands were addressed in this model. Shear-induced nanocrystallisation was believed to be responsible for strain hardening of material within the shear bands. The model is based on the assumption that the behaviour can be decomposed into two resistances acting ...

  12. A Highly Efficient and Self-Stabilizing Metallic-Glass Catalyst for Electrochemical Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan Chao; Wang, Yi Zhi; Su, Rui; Cao, Cheng Rong; Li, Fan; Sun, Chun Wen; Yang, Yong; Guan, Peng Fei; Ding, Da Wei; Wang, Zhong Lin; Wang, Wei Hua

    2016-12-01

    A multicomponent metallic glass (MG) with highly efficient and anomalous durability for catalyzing water splitting is reported. The outstanding performance of the MG catalyst contributed by self-optimized active sites originates from the intrinsic chemical heterogeneity and selective dealloying on the disordered surface; thus, a new mechanism for improving the durability of catalysts is uncovered. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. On the origin of second-peak splitting in the static structure factor of metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that the splitting of the second peak of the total static structure factor, S(k), of many metallic glasses is essentially the same feature as the indentation at kσ = (9/2)π in the function (sin k σ + α−1 sin kασ), caused by the coincidence of the fourth minimum of the second term with

  14. Structural influence of mixed transition metal ions on lithium bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Arti; Dahiya, Manjeet S.; Hooda, A.; Chand, Prem; Khasa, S.

    2017-08-01

    Lithium bismuth borate glasses containing mixed transition metals having composition 7CoO·23Li2O·20Bi2O3·50B2O3 (CLBB), 7V2O5·23Li2O·20Bi2O3·50B2O3 (VLBB) and x(2CoO·V2O5)·(30 - x)Li2O·20Bi2O3·50B2O3 (x = 0.0 (LBB) and x = 2.0, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0 mol% (CVLBB1-4)) are synthesized via melt quench route. The synthesized compositions are investigated for their physical properties using density (D) and molar volume (Vm), thermal properties by analyzing DSC/TG thermo-graphs, structural properties using IR absorption spectra in the mid-IR range and optical properties using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra of vanadyl and cobalt ion have been analyzed to study compositional effects on spin-Hamiltonian parameters. The non linear variations in physical properties depict a strong structural influence of Co/V- oxides on the glassy matrix. The compositional variations in characteristic temperatures (glass transition temperature Tg, glass crystallization temperature Tp and glass melting temperature Tm) reveals that Tg for glass samples CLBB is relatively less than that of pure lithium bismuth borate (LBB) glass sample wherein Tg for sample VLBB is higher than that of LBB. The increase in Tg (as compared with LBB) with an enhanced substitution of mixed transition metal oxides (2CoO·V2O5) shows a progressive structure modification of bismuth borate matrix. These predictions are very well corroborated by corresponding compositional trends of Tp and Tm. FTIR studies reveal that Co2+& VO2+ ions lead to structural rearrangements through the conversion of three-coordinated boron into four coordinated boron and thereby reducing number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. Bismuth is found to exist in [BiO6] octahedral units only, whereas boroxol rings are not present in the glass network. The theoretical values of optical basicity (Λth) and corresponding oxide ion polarizability (αo2-) have also been calculated to investigate oxygen covalency of

  15. Interaction of various functional elements in thin-walled cups formed by a sheet-bulk metal forming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheet-bulk metal forming allows the manufacturing of sheet metal parts with integrated functional elements. The investigated process combines deep drawing and upsetting. The occurring 2D and 3D stress and strain states lead to challenges regarding material flow control due to different geometries of functional elements. The numerical analysis shows the transferability for the results of the different functional elements for their combination and the interaction between those functional elements regarding the material flow. The results are validated by experimental tests.

  16. Fabrication and characterizations of thin film metallic glasses: Antibacterial property and durability study for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Jinn P., E-mail: jpchu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tz-Yah; Li, Chia-Lin; Wang, Chen-Hao [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason S.C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ming-Jen; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Chien [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    Metallic glasses with the disordered atomic structure have unique properties of high strength, high toughness, good corrosion and abrasion resistances. These materials are thus potentially useful for medical application. In this work, we evaluate the antibacterial property and durability of materials sputter-coated with Zr-based (Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 9}Ta{sub 5}) and Cu-based (Cu{sub 48}Zr{sub 42}Ti{sub 4}Al{sub 6}) thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs). Good adhesive coating of Zr-based TFMG on the dermatome gives rise to blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%, substantial surface roughness reduction of ∼ 66% and smoother incised wound on the pig skin. As compared to 48.8° on the bare Si wafer, the water contact angles of 119.5° and 106.6° for Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs, respectively, reveal the hydrophobic characteristic of the coated surfaces. The bacterial adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to both Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs is hindered to different extents. - Highlights: • Thin film metallic glass (TFMG) coatings are evaluated for medical application. • Good adhesive TFMG on the dermatome yields blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%. • A reduction of ∼ 66% in surface roughness is observed after coating with TFMG. • Water contact angle measurement reveals the hydrophobic characteristic for TFMGs. • Bacterial adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus to TFMGs is hindered.

  17. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  18. Merging of the alpha and beta relaxations and aging via the Johari–Goldstein modes in rapidly quenched metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Hachenberg, Jörg; Bedorf, Dennis; Samwer, Konrad; Richert, Ranko; Kahl, Annelen; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that the physical aging of deeply and rapidly quenched metallic glasses is promoted by the Johari–Goldstein slow beta relaxation, resulting in a significant irreversible increase in the mechanical modulus on initial heating. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to characterize relaxation phenomena of a strong and a fragile metallic glass. In addition, we can extrapolate the temperature dependence of beta- and alpha-relaxation peaks to higher temperatures and ...

  19. A study of crossover from 3D ferrimagnetic bulk NiCr2O4 compound into 2D spin-glass-like nanophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H.; Ono, T.; Chakraborty, T.; Srikanth, K.; Venimadhav, A.; Chandra, R.; Mitra, C.; Kumar, U.

    2014-04-01

    In this report, the magnetic behaviour of bulk and nanoparticles of NiCr2O4 under different applied magnetic fields has been investigated extensively. Nanoparticles of NiCr2O4 (12 nm) were obtained by mechanical milling of polycrystalline powder prepared by polyol method. FC-ZFC measurement of bulk at different applied magnetic fields has revealed the existence of a ferrimagnetic transition around 66 K followed by an antiferromagnetic transition close to 30 K. However, its nano counterpart has shown remarkable change in magnetic properties—a suppression of ferrimagnetic transition accompanied by strengthening low-temperature magnetic phase and observation of a new transition at 90 K ( T P), which is weakly magnetic in nature. The frequency-dependent ac susceptibility data of nanoparticles have been fitted to the well-known de Almeida-Thouless equation and a H2/3 dependence of the low-temperature peak is observed with a resulting zero-field freezing temperature ( T f 0 ) equal to 10.1 K. Further, the dynamical behaviour near freezing temperature has been analysed in terms of critical behaviour and the obtained fitted parameter values were found to be τ 0 (relaxation time constant) = 3.6 × 10-6 s, T f 0 = 8.7 K and zν = 11.1. Moreover, Vogel-Fulcher law has been used to understand the nature of freezing transition, and the parameters after fitting are obtained as E a/ k B = 58.9 K, τ 0 = 5.22 × 10-8 s and T 0 = 8.03 K. Finally, the spin-glass phase is concluded. Moreover, in contrast to bulk, the H2/3 dependence of freezing temperature of nanoparticles sample (75 h) does support the 2D surface-like spin-glass nature.

  20. Study of structural and spectroscopic behavior of Sm3+ ions in lead-zinc borate glasses containing alkali metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Kumar, M. V.; Babu, S.; Rajeswara Reddy, B.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2017-06-01

    High luminescence behavior of rare earth inorganic glasses have a variety of uses in the industry. In the past few decades, rare earth ions with characteristic photonics applications are being hosted by heavy metal oxide glasses. Among the rare earth ions Sm3+ ion has features which make it apt for high density optical storage. The authors of the paper have experimented to synthesize Sm3+ doped glasses. In this regard a new series of borate glasses doped with 1 mol% Sm3+ ion are developed by using melt-quenching technique. XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, luminescence techniques are used to study the various characteristics of Sm3+ ion in the present glass matrices. The XRD spectra confirms the amorphous nature of glasses. Further, the researchers have used differential thermal analysis to study the glass transition temperature. The structural groups in the prepared glasses are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectra. From the measurement of its optical absorption, three phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been computed. Based on these Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative properties such as radiative probabilities (Arad), branching ratios (β), and radiative life time (τR) are calculated. The excitation spectra of Sm3+ doped lithium heavy metal borate glass matrix is recorded under the emission wavelength of 600 nm. The emission spectra are recorded under 404 nm excitation wavelength. From various emission transitions, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 bands could be of interest for various applications. The decay profiles of 4G5/2 level exhibit single exponential nature in all the prepared glass matrices. The potassium glass matrix exhibits higher quantum efficiency than the other glass matrices. Finally, by going through these several spectroscopic characterizations, it is concluded that the prepared Sm3+ doped lead-zinc borate glasses might be useful for visible light applications.

  1. Molecular structure of virgin and Tg cycled (Ag2Se)x (AsSe)1-x bulk glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Jacob; Chen, Ping; Boochand, P.

    2009-03-01

    AsSe, the base glass (x = 0) in the titled ternary, is an interesting example of a chalcogenide that is partially de-mixed into As4Se4 molecules segregated from a connected AsSe network, with the latter determining glass network properties. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes of the Realgar molecules that are superimposed on broad modes coming from of the backbone. Upon Tg cycling virgin samples (as quenched melts), the concentration of de-mixed As4Se4 molecules decreases, suggesting that thermally induced polymerization occurs; molecules break up to form part of the connective tissue. Modulated DSC experiments reveal a broad exotherm near 140 ^oC in virgin samples, which becomes nearly extinct in Tg cycled samples. The exotherm may represent Realgar molecules nano-crystallizing as the temperature approaches Tg. Compositional trends in thermal parameters such as Tg(x), δCp(x), and the δHnr(x) as a function of Ag2Se content `x' of the glasses will be reported.

  2. Promising Ta-Ti-Zr-Si metallic glass coating without cytotoxic elements for bio-implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J. J.; Lin, Y. S.; Chang, C. H.; Wei, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Liao, Z. X.; Lin, C. H.; Chen, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) is considered as one of the most promising metal due to its high corrosion resistance, excellent biocompatibility and cell adhesion/in-growth capabilities. Although there are some researches exploring the biomedical aspects of Ta and Ta based alloys, systematic characterizations of newly developed Ta-based metallic glasses in bio-implant applications is still lacking. This study employs sputtering approach to produced thin-film Ti-based metallic glasses due to the high melting temperature of Ta (3020 °C). Two fully amorphous Ta-based metallic glasses composed of Ta57Ti17Zr15Si11 and Ta75Ti10Zr8Si7 are produced and experimentally characterized in terms of their mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties, surface hydrophilic characteristics, and in-vitro cell viability and cells attachment tests. Compare to conventional pure Ti and Ta metals, the developed Ta-based metallic glasses exhibit higher hardness and lower modulus which are better match to the mechanical properties of bone. MTS assay results show that Ta-based metallic glasses show comparable cell viability and cell attachment rate compared to that of pure Ti and Ta surface in a 72 h in-vitro test.

  3. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Crystallization of Cu60Ti20Zr20 metallic glass with and without pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Yang, B.; Saksl, K.

    2003-01-01

    Structural stability of a Cu60Ti20Zr20 metallic glass under-pressure up to 4.5 GPa was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The sample exhibited a supercooled liquid region of 33 K and a ratio of the glass-transition temperature to the liquidus temperature of 0.63. The glass crystallized in two......-step transformation processes in,the pressure range of 0-4.5 GPa; the first was a primary reaction to form a Cu51Zr14-type structure crystalline phase with a spacing group P6/m (175) and lattice parameters a 11.235 Angstrom and c = 8.271 Angstrom, and then the residual amorphous phase crystallized into a MgZn2-type......, structure crystalline phase with a spacing group P6(3)/mmc (194) and lattice parameters a = 5.105 Angstrom and c = 8.231 Angstrom. Both crystallization temperatures increased with pressure having a slope of 19 K/GPa. The increase of the first crystallization temperature with increasing pressure in the glass...

  5. Peculiarities and application perspectives of metal-ion implants in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoldi, P.; Gonella, F. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Arnold, G.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaglin, G. [Venice Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica; Bertoncello, R. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation in insulators causes modifications in the refractive-index as a result of radiation damage, phase separation, or compound formation. As a consequence, light waveguides may be formed with interesting applications in the field of optoelectronics. Recently implantation of metals ions (e.g. silver, copper, gold, lead,...) showed the possibility of small radii colloidal particles formation, in a thin surface layer of the glass substrate. These particles exhibit an electron plasmon resonance which depends on the optical constants of the implanted metal and on the refractive-index of the glass host. The non-linear optical properties of such colloids, in particular the enhancement of optical Kerr susceptibility, suggest that the, ion implantation technique may play an important role for the production of all-optical switching devices. In this paper an analysis of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field will be presented in the framework of ion implantation in glass physics and chemistry.

  6. Transverse Strength of Reinforced Denture Base Resin with Metal Wire and E-Glass Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojdani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Fracture strength of a denture base resin is of great concern,and many approaches have been used to strengthen acrylic resin dentures.Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the transverse strength of a heat polymerized acrylic resin, after reinforcement with metal wire and two types of glass fibers.Materials and Methods: Forty rectangular specimens (65.0×10.0×3.3 mm of a heatcured acrylic resin were made according to ISO/FDI 1567. Group I (control groupconsisted of 10 specimens with no reinforcement. Specimens in group II reinforced with sandblasted metal wires. Group III and IV strengthened with woven (Stick Net andcontinuous unidirectional (Stick fibers respectively. The specimens were polymerized according to manufacturer’s recommendation. The transverse strengths were assessed with a 3- point bending test at cross head speed of 5mm/min. One-way ANOVA was carried out to compare and detect any differences among groups (α=0.05.Results: Mean transverse strength (SD of unreinforced specimens was 85.44 (8.6MPa. The transverse strength increased significantly to 97.97 (5.5 MPa, 109.69 (5.8MPa, and 127.13 (6.4 MPa in Metal wires, Stick Net, and stick fibers groups,respectively.Conclusion: The transverse strength of heat-polymerized denture base resin was enhanced considerably by using metal wire and glass fibers reinforcements. However,the addition of unidirectional glass fibers was significantly more effective method to improve flexural strength of denture base acrylic resin.

  7. Noble metal behavior during melting of simulated high-level nuclear waste glass feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Noble metals and their oxides can settle in waste glass melters and cause electrical shorting. Simulated waste feeds from Hanford, Savannah River, and Germany were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600{degrees}C--1000{degrees}C and examined by electron microscopy to determine shapes, sizes, and distribution of noble metal particles as a function of temperature. Individual noble metal particles and agglomerates of rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (RuO{sub 2}), and palladium (Pd), as well as their alloys, were seen. the majority of particles and agglomerates were generally less than 10 microns; however, large agglomerations (up to 1 mm) were found in the German feed. Detailed particle distribution and characterization was performed for a Hanford waste to provide input to computer modeling of particle settling in the melter.

  8. Healing of interfaces of high and ultra-high-molecular- weight polystyrene below the bulk glass transition temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous bulk samples of high-molecular-weight (HMW) polystyrene (PS) with a weight-average molecular weight M-w of 102.5 kg/mol and a number-average molecular weight M. of 97 kg/mol and of ultra-high-molecular-weight PS (UHMWPS) with M-w=1110.5 kg/mol and M-n = 965.6 kg/mol were brought...

  9. Direct Observation Through In Situ Transmission Electron Microscope of Early States of Crystallization in Nanoscale Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sohn, S.; Schroers, J.; Cha, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    Crystallization is a complex process that involves multiscale physics such as diffusion of atomic species over multiple length scales, thermodynamic energy considerations, and multiple possible intermediate states. In situ crystallization experiments inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) using nanostructured metallic glasses (MGs) provide a unique platform to study directly crystallization kinetics and pathways. Here, we study the embryonic state of eutectic growth using Pt-Ni-Cu-P MG nanorods under in situ TEM. We directly observe the nucleation and growth of a Ni-rich polymorphic phase, followed by the nucleation and slower growth of a Cu-rich phase. The suppressed growth kinetics of the Cu-rich phase is attributed to locally changing chemical compositions. In addition, we show that growth can be controlled by incorporation of an entire nucleus instead of individual atoms. Such a nucleus has to align with the crystallographic orientation of a larger grain before it can be incorporated into the crystal. By directly observing the crystallization processes, particularly the early stages of non-polymorphic growth, in situ TEM crystallization studies of MG nanostructures provide a wealth of information, some of which can be applied to typical bulk crystallization.

  10. Tuning the Mechanical and Antimicrobial Performance of a Cu-Based Metallic Glass Composite through Cooling Rate Control and Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Villapún

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cooling rate on the wear and antimicrobial performance of a Cu52Z41Al7 (at. % bulk metallic glass (BMG composite was studied and the results compared to those of the annealed sample (850 °C for 48 h and to pure copper. The aim of this basic research is to explore the potential use of the material in preventing the spread of infections. The cooling rate is controlled by changing the mould diameter (2 mm and 3 mm upon suction casting and controlling the mould temperature (chiller on and off. For the highest cooling rate conditions CuZr is formed but CuZr2 starts to crystallise as the cooling rate decreases, resulting in an increase in the wear resistance and brittleness, as measured by scratch tests. A decrease in the cooling rate also increases the antimicrobial performance, as shown by different methodologies (European, American and Japanese standards. Annealing leads to the formation of new intermetallic phases (Cu10Zr7 and Cu2ZrAl resulting in maximum scratch hardness and antimicrobial performance. However, the annealed sample corrodes during the antimicrobial tests (within 1 h of contact with broth. The antibacterial activity of copper was proved to be higher than that of any of the other materials tested but it exhibits very poor wear properties. Cu-rich BMG composites with optimised microstructure would be preferable for some applications where the durability requirements are higher than the antimicrobial needs.

  11. Evolution of residual stress, free volume, and hardness in the laser shock peened Ti-based metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Lu; Nie, Zhihua; Ren, Yang; Xue, Yunfei; Zhu, Ronghua; Zhang, Haifeng; Fu, Huameng

    2016-12-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) with different cycles was performed on the Ti-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The sub-surface residual stress of the LSPed specimens was measured by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) and the near-surface residual stress was measured by scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM/FIB) instrument. The sub-surface residual stress in the LSP impact direction (about-170MPa) is much lower than that perpendicular to the impact direction (about -350 MPa), exhibiting anisotropy. The depth of the compressive stress zone increases from 400 mu m to 500 mu m with increasing LSP cycles. The highest near-surface residual stress is about -750 MPa. LSP caused the free volume to increase and the maximum increase appeared after the first LSP process. Compared with the hardness (567 +/- 7 HV) of the as-cast BMG, the hardness (590 +/- 9 HV) on the shocked surface shows a hardening effect due to the hardening mechanism of compressive residual stress; and the hardness (420 +/- 9 HV) on the longitudinal section shows a softening effect due to the softening mechanism of free volume.

  12. Surface patterning of Zr-based metallic glass by laser irradiation induced selective thermoplastic extrusion in nitrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hu; Yan, Jiwang

    2017-07-01

    Hierarchical surface structures on metallic glass (MG) are useful for enhancing the material’s functions. In this paper, surface patterning of Zr-based MG was realized by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in nitrogen gas. Experimental results showed that three kinds of surface structures, namely, micro grooves, cross-shaped protrusions, and nanoparticles, were generated on the MG surface under specific laser scanning speeds and various laser power intensities and pulse overlap rates. In particular, the formation of cross-shaped protrusions has never been reported in the literature before. The formation mechanism for each kind of surface structure was investigated. In a nitrogen gas environment, cracks are easily generated and the cracked regions have higher laser absorption and localized thermal resistivity than those of the bulk material. Accordingly, the cross-shaped protrusions were ascribed to the selective thermoplastic extrusion of MG material out of the cracks and the laser pulse tracks formed by the preceding laser scans. It was found that the hierarchical surface structures significantly improved the surface hydrophobicity.

  13. Cell growth on metallic glasses: the interaction of amorphous metal alloys with cultured neuronal, osteoblast, endothelial, and fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuslan, B R; Johnson, G; Delamore, G W; Gibson, M A; Steele, J G

    1988-10-01

    Ferrous based, corrosion resistant amorphous alloys supported the adhesion and growth of cultured chick neuronal cells, human marrow stromal cells (presumptive osteoblasts), bovine aortal endothelial cells, and hamster kidney fibroblasts. Alloys of compositions Fe60Ni10Cr10P13C7, Fe70Cr10P13C7, and Fe70Cr10P13B7 were found to be suitable. In contrast the crystalline form of these alloys was markedly less effective. Outgrowth of neurites from neuronal cells was promoted by precoating the metal surface with either laminin or neurite promotion factor. The adhesion of osteoblasts and fibroblasts suggests that corrosion resistant metal glasses should be considered as biomaterials useful for orthopedic applications. The adhesion of neuronal cells accompanied by neurite outgrowth indicates that the system might provide a functional interface between the neuromuscular system and an electromagnetic material that could be useful in bionic engineering.

  14. On the modeling of spectral map of glass-metal nanocomposite optical nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovskii, A A; Shustova, O V; Zhurikhina, V V; Svirko, Yu

    2012-05-21

    The spectral map of the nonlinear absorption coefficient of glass-copper nanocomposite in the pump-probe scheme constructed with the use of a simple anharmonic oscillator model reproduced well the spectral map obtained in the experiment. It is shown that spectral features in nonlinear response of glass-metal nanocomposites (GMN) can be engineered by varying the size of nanoparticles. The pronounced dependence of the magnitude of the third-order nonlinearity on the particles size explains the diversity of experimental data related to nonlinear optical response of GMNs in different experiments. Performed modeling proves that silver GMN demonstrate much sharper spectral dependence than copper ones due to strong frequency dependence of local field enhancement factor for silver nanoparticles.

  15. Metal-ion spin-on glasses: Novel materials for active waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Sullivan, C.T.; Vawter, G.A.; Hohimer, J.P.; Hadley, G.R.; Neal, D.R.

    1993-12-31

    Monolithic integration of a rare-earth-ion-based active waveguide on the same wafer as its diode pump laser would permit compact packaging of the technology demonstrated in fiber lasers and amplifiers. This new monolithic technology would offer the potential for developing compact infrared and visible (up-conversion) lasers, amplifiers, and other photonic integrated circuit components. One approach that we are investigating for such monolithic integration uses a high concentration of one or more rare-earth ions incorporated into polysiloxane spin-on glasses that are solvent-cast onto III-V semiconductor wafers. This ``fiber on a chip`` technology substitute a relatively high-ion-concentration, short-length metal-ion spin-on glass (MISOG) waveguide for the low-ion-concentration, long-length fiber. Progress to data on developing MISOG waveguide materials and technology is discussed.

  16. Connection of the slow {beta}-relaxation and physical aging in metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachenberg, Joerg; Bedorf, Dennis; Samwer, Konrad [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Metallic glasses are commonly used as model systems for glassy dynamics. This is due to the fact that their interactions can be simplified as such of hard spheres. Special attention has been attracted by recent experimental studies and computer simulations revealing the existence of a secondary, slow {beta}-relaxation as a universal feature of the glass transition. Here, heat rate dependant mechanical spectroscopy is used to investigate the connection between this {beta}-relaxation and physical aging, commonly described as a change in fictive temperature. The close dependence of both phenomena can be interpreted as a single relaxation showing up on two timescales (heating rate resp. spectroscopy frequency). It is proposed that both phenomena share a common origin.

  17. On the glass transition of the one-component metallic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the conditions for one-component metallic melts vitrification by quenching from a liquid state were formulated. It is shown that the tendency to the glass formation drastically increases with the temperature of melting. The maximum glass layer thickness and the associated cooling rates along with the vitrification temperatures was determined for Al, Cu, and Ni melts deposited on the Cu substrate. The results are in agreement with the available experimental data. Based on analytical solution of the impinging droplet solidification, the numerical value of the early-introduced asymptotic Ω criterion, which separates equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions, was determined. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of the thickness of the splats shows that Ω criterion indeed predicts a priori a scenario of solidification.

  18. Structure alterations in Al-Y-based metallic glasses with La and Ni addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X. M.; Wang, X. D.; Yu, Q.; Cao, Q. P.; Zhang, D. X.; Zhang, J.; Hu, T. D.; Lai, L. H.; Xie, H. L.; Xiao, T. Q.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-03-01

    The atomic structures of Al89Y11, Al90Y6.5La3.5, and Al82.8Y6.07Ni8La3.13 metallic glasses have been studied by using high energy X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure combined with the ab initio molecular dynamics and reverse Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that the partial replacement of Y atoms by La has limited improvement of the glass forming ability (GFA), although La atoms reduce the ordering around Y atoms and also the fractions of icosahedron-like polyhedra centered by Al atoms. In contrast, Ni atoms can significantly improve the GFA, which are inclined to locate in the shell of polyhedra centered by Al, Y, and La atoms, mainly forming Ni-centered icosahedron-like polyhedra to enhance the spatial connectivity between clusters and suppress the crystallization.

  19. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palza, Humberto, E-mail: hpalza@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bravo, Denisse [Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Diaz-Dosque, Mario [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas y Comunitarias, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Perez, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    Bioactive glasses (SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol–gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. - Highlights: • Copper and silver act as antimicrobial additives in bioactive glass materials. • Silver is more toxic than copper ions in these bioactive materials. • Sol–gel method allows the synthesis of antimicrobial bioactive materials.

  20. Fluctuation conductivity in a phase glass: A 2D Bose metal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Philip

    2003-03-01

    Traditionally, Cooper pairs are thought to exist in only one of two ground states: 1) localized in a Mott insulator or 2) condensed in a superconductor. However, recent experiments on 2D films exhibiting a nominal insulator-superconductor transition indicate that there may be a third possibility: a metal with a finite resistivity at zero temperature. I will review the standard theoretical framework used to understand the insulator-superconductor transition and show quite generally how Cooper pairs lacking phase coherence can form a metal in the presence of disorder rather than an insulating phase. The metal is glassy and the conductivity arises from the motion of bosonic excitations in the dissipative environment of the phase glass. Collective glass excitations as well as the ac response will also be discussed. *In collaboration with Denis Dalidovich. 1.) D. Dalidovich and P. Phillips, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 89, 27001 (2002). 2.) D. Dalidovich and P. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 59, 11925-11935 (1999).

  1. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides, in particular, NMCs (LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 ) represent a family of prominent lithium ion battery cathode materials with the potential to increase energy densities and lifetime, reduce costs, and improve safety for electric vehicles and grid storage. Our work has focused on various strategies to improve performance and to understand the limitations to these strategies, which include altering compositions, utilizing cation substitutions, and charging to higher than usual potentials in cells. Understanding the effects of these strategies on surface and bulk behavior and correlating structure-performance relationships advance our understanding of NMC materials. This also provides information relevant to the efficacy of various approaches toward ensuring reliable operation of these materials in batteries intended for demanding traction and grid storage applications. In this Account, we start by comparing NMCs to the isostructural LiCoO 2 cathode, which is widely used in consumer batteries. Effects of changing the metal content (Ni, Mn, Co) upon structure and performance of NMCs are briefly discussed. Our early work on the effects of partial substitution of Al, Fe, and Ti for Co on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties is then covered. The original aim of this work was to reduce the Co content (and thus the raw materials cost) and to determine the effect of the substitutions on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties. More recently, we have turned to the application of synchrotron and advanced microscopy techniques to understand both bulk and surface characteristics of the NMCs. Via nanoscale-to-macroscale spectroscopy and atomically resolved imaging techniques, we were able to determine that the surfaces of NMC undergo heterogeneous reconstruction from a layered structure to rock salt under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, formation of rock salt also occurs under abuse conditions. The surface

  2. Application of cylindrical covers from glass-metal composite made by spin casting method for strong cases of deep-sea submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, V. K.; Bocharova, A. A.; Ratnikov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work the manufacturing techniques of layered constructional material metal-glass-metal are considered by method of centrifugal casting; a similar approach to formation of a glass layer without superficial microcracks has no analogues in the world practice. The scheme of installation for production of cylindrical covers from a glass-metal composite is provided. The research of the main technological modes providing reliable connection of aluminium coverings with the glass which is in a plastic state is conducted. Optimum values of temperature parameters are defined. Methods of electronic microscopy have investigated the diffusive layer which is formed on the glass-aluminium border.

  3. Watching the growth of bulk grains during recrystallization of deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Fæster Nielsen, Søren; Gundlach, C.

    2004-01-01

    , contradicting the classical assumption of smooth and spherical growth of new grains during recrystallization. This type of in situ bulk measurement opens up the possibility of obtaining experimental data on scientific topics that before could only be analyzed theoretically on the basis of the statistical...

  4. Unusual energy state evolution in Ce-based metallic glass under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, T. P.; Wang, C.; Tan, J.; Ma, T.; Yu, X. H.; Jin, C. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Metallic Glasses (MGs) are always aging toward the lower energy state, which leads to higher density, modulus, and hardness. We find that high pressure (HP) could lead to similar densification and hardening while the energy is increased. The comparison between two processes under HP and ambient pressure shows that densification happens in denser regions in MGs under HP, while it happens in looser regions under ambient pressure, which leads to the opposite energy changes in the two conditions. This result breaks the common wisdom about the relationship between the free volume and enthalpy and displays different structural and energy evolutions in MGs.

  5. Constitutive Rheological Modeling of Flow Serration Behaviour in Metallic Glasses Showing Nanocrystallization during Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Yousfi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micromechanism-inspired rheological model is developed that incorporates the serrated flow nature of metallic glasses subjected to compressive deformation at room temperatures. The process of propagation and the arrest of shear bands were addressed in this model. Shear-induced nanocrystallisation was believed to be responsible for strain hardening of material within the shear bands. The model is based on the assumption that the behaviour can be decomposed into two resistances acting in parallel: one captures the initial stiffness and shear softening and the second gives the time-shear-temperature hardening of material.

  6. Atomistic Origin of Rate-Dependent Serrated Plastic Flow in Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao YG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoindentation simulations on a binary metallic glass were performed under various strain rates by using molecular dynamics. The rate-dependent serrated plastic flow was clearly observed, and the spatiotemporal behavior of its underlying irreversible atomic rearrangement was probed. Our findings clearly validate that the serration is a temporally inhomogeneous characteristic of such rearrangements and not directly dependent on the resultant shear-banding spatiality. The unique spatiotemporal distribution of shear banding during nanoindentation is highlighted in terms of the potential energy landscape (PEL theory.

  7. Subsurface structure and magnetic parameters of Fe-Mo-Cu-B metallic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglierini Marcel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface properties of 57Fe81Mo9Cu1B9 metallic glass were studied by conversion electron and conversion X-ray Mössbauer spectrometry. They were applied to both surfaces of the ribbons. Deviations in structural surface features are exhibited via different contents of crystalline phases, which were identified as bcc-Fe and magnetite. The presence of small ferromagnetic particles was also suggested from magnetic measurements. An influence of irradiation with 130-keV N+ ions on surface properties of the as-quenched alloy is also discussed.

  8. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  9. Metal glass vacuum tube solar collectors are approaching lower-medium temperature heat application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinian

    2010-04-26

    Solar thermal collectors are widely used worldwide mainly for hot water preparation at a low temperature (less than 80?C). Applications including many industrial processes and central air conditioning with absorption chillers, instead require lower-medium temperature heat (between 90 degrees C and 150 degrees C) to be driven when using solar thermal energy. The metal absorber glass vacuum tube collectors (MGVT) are developed for this type of applications. Current state-of-art and possible future technology development of MGVT are presented.

  10. Effects of additional Ag on the thermal stability and glass-forming ability of La-Al-Cu bulk glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Fei [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: jiafei@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Zhang Wei; Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2008-02-25

    The addition of Ag to La-Al-Cu ternary glassy alloys greatly increases the stabilization of supercooled liquid and glass-forming ability (GFA). The large supercooled liquid region ({delta}T{sub x}) exceeding 60 K was obtained in a wide composition range of 10-22.5 at.% Al, 15-25 at.% Cu, and 2-12.5 at.% Ag. The largest {delta}T{sub x} of 83 K and the reduced glass transition temperature (T{sub g}/T{sub l}) were obtained for La{sub 62.5}Al{sub 12.5}Ag{sub 5}Cu{sub 20} alloy, leading to formation of the glassy alloy sample with a diameter of 6.0 mm. The addition of small amounts of Fe or Co to La-Al-Ag-Cu alloy increases T{sub g}/T{sub l} though the decrease in T{sub l}, resulting in an increase of GFA. As a result, the glassy alloy rods with diameters of over 7.0 mm were fabricated by addition of 2.5-5 at.% Fe or Co. The new La-based bulk glassy alloys exhibited high compressive fracture strength of 589-858 MPa with distinct plastic strain of 0.2-1.0%.

  11. Preparation of glasses and glass ceramics of heavy metal oxides containing silver: optical, structural and electrochemical properties; Preparacao de vidros e vitroceramicas de oxidos de metais pesados contendo prata: propriedades opticas, estruturais e eletroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregadiolli, Bruna A. [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru - SP (Brazil); Souza, Ernesto R.; Sigoli, Fernando A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas - SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose M.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Alencar, Monica A.S.; Benedetti, Assis V. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara - SP (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo, E-mail: mnalin@ufscar.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP, (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Silver containing heavy metal oxide glasses and glass ceramics of the system WO{sub 3}-SbPO{sub 4} -PbO-AgCl with different AgCl contents have been prepared and their thermal, structural and optical properties characterized. Glass ceramics containing metallic silver nanoparticles have been prepared by annealing glass samples at temperatures above the glass transition and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The presence of the metallic clusters has been also confirmed by the observation of a surface plasmon resonance band in the visible range. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated the presence of metallic silver into the glasses, even before to perform the thermal treatment. (author)

  12. Transition and post-transition metal ions in borate glasses: Borate ligand speciation, cluster formation, and their effect on glass transition and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möncke, D.; Kamitsos, E. I.; Palles, D.; Limbach, R.; Winterstein-Beckmann, A.; Honma, T.; Yao, Z.; Rouxel, T.; Wondraczek, L.

    2016-09-01

    A series of transition and post-transition metal ion (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Bi) binary borate glasses was studied with special consideration of the cations impact on the borate structure, the cations cross-linking capacity, and more generally, structure-property correlations. Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used for the structural characterization. These complementary techniques are sensitive to the short-range order as in the differentiation of tetrahedral and trigonal borate units or regarding the number of non-bridging oxygen ions per unit. Moreover, vibrational spectroscopy is also sensitive to the intermediate-range order and to the presence of superstructural units, such as rings and chains, or the combination of rings. In order to clarify band assignments for the various borate entities, examples are given from pure vitreous B2O3 to meta-, pyro-, ortho-, and even overmodified borate glass compositions. For binary metaborate glasses, the impact of the modifier cation on the borate speciation is shown. High field strength cations such as Zn2+ enhance the disproportionation of metaborate to polyborate and pyroborate units. Pb2+ and Bi3+ induce cluster formation, resulting in PbOn- and BiOn-pseudophases. Both lead and bismuth borate glasses show also a tendency to stabilize very large superstructural units in the form of diborate polyanions. Far-IR spectra reflect on the bonding states of modifier cations in glasses. The frequency of the measured cation-site vibration band was used to obtain the average force constant for the metal-oxygen bonding, FM-O. A linear correlation between glass transition temperature (Tg) and FM-O was shown for the metaborate glass series. The mechanical properties of the glasses also correlate with the force constant FM-O, though for cations of similar force constant the fraction of tetrahedral borate units (N4) strongly affects the thermal and mechanical properties. For paramagnetic Cu- and Mn-borate glasses, N4 was determined

  13. Direct welding of glass and metal by 1  kHz femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Cheng, Guanghua

    2015-10-20

    In the welding process between similar or dissimilar materials, inserting an intermediate layer and pressure assistance are usually thought to be necessary. In this paper, the direct welding between alumina-silicate glass and metal (aluminum, copper, and steel), under exposure from 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses without any auxiliary processes, is demonstrated. The micron/nanometer-sized metal particles induced by laser ablation were considered to act as the adhesive in the welding process. The welding parameters were optimized by varying the pulse energy and the translation velocity of the sample. The shear joining strength characterized by a shear force testing equipment was as high as 2.34 MPa. This direct bonding technology has potential for applications in medical devices, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  14. Plasmonically enhanced Faraday effect in metal and ferrite nanoparticles composite precipitated inside glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Seisuke; Sugioka, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Masahiro; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Mukai, Kohki

    2012-12-17

    Using femtosecond laser irradiation and subsequent annealing, nanocomposite structures composed of spinel-type ferrimagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and plasmonic metallic NPs have been formed space-selectively within glass doped with both α-Fe(2)O(3) and Al. The Faraday rotation spectra exhibit a distinct negative peak at around 400 nm, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic Faraday response is enhanced by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) due to metallic Al NPs. At the interfaces in the nanocomposites, the ferrimagnetism of magnetite NPs is directly coupled with the plasmon in the Al NPs. The control of the resonance wavelength of the magneto-optical peaks, namely, the size of plasmonic NPs has been demonstrated by changing the irradiation or annealing conditions.

  15. Determination of critical cooling rates in metallic glass forming alloy libraries through laser spike annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeenithikasem, Punnathat; Liu, Jingbei; Kube, Sebastian A; Li, Yanglin; Ma, Tianxing; Scanley, B Ellen; Broadbridge, Christine C; Vlassak, Joost J; Singer, Jonathan P; Schroers, Jan

    2017-08-02

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of metallic glasses (MGs) is quantified by the critical cooling rate (R C ). Despite its key role in MG research, experimental challenges have limited measured R C to a minute fraction of known glass formers. We present a combinatorial approach to directly measure R C for large compositional ranges. This is realized through the use of compositionally-graded alloy libraries, which were photo-thermally heated by scanning laser spike annealing of an absorbing layer, then melted and cooled at various rates. Coupled with X-ray diffraction mapping, GFA is determined from direct R C measurements. We exemplify this technique for the Au-Cu-Si system, where we identify Au 56 Cu 27 Si 17 as the alloy with the highest GFA. In general, this method enables measurements of R C over large compositional areas, which is powerful for materials discovery and, when correlating with chemistry and other properties, for a deeper understanding of MG formation.

  16. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  17. Computer-aided manufacturing for mass production of non-conventional shapes made of the alloying of a heterogeneous composite metallic glass matrix with nano-meter-sized elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah AM Elmoselhy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of radically improving the strength and stiffness of materials while maintaining satisfactory level of ductility for formability has been on for decades. A patent has laid in 2005 the foundation for alloying a metallic matrix, such as steel matrix, with nano-meter-sized elements while exploiting amorphous cross-linking of the matrix. This patented innovation is expected to trigger the third industrial revolution based on mass production of the alloying of a metallic matrix, such as steel matrix, with nano-meter-sized elements in order to produce bulk metallic glasses. The first industrial revolution had been triggered by the mass production of steel in about 1840 and the second industrial revolution was triggered by the mass production of the synthetic polymeric materials and composites in about 1960. This article presents an approach of computer-aided manufacturing based on this patent for the mass production of an E-like-shaped spring made of the alloying of heterogeneous composite ferromagnetic metallic glass matrix with nano-meter-sized elements. The proposed heterogeneous nanocomposite metallic glass alloy exhibits features that are promising in applications such as vehicle suspension springs.

  18. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Santanu C.

    2014-01-14

    In this Perspective, we present an overview of recent fundamental studies on the nature of the interaction between individual metal atoms and metal clusters and the conjugated surfaces of graphene and carbon nanotube with a particular focus on the electronic structure and chemical bonding at the metal-graphene interface. We discuss the relevance of organometallic complexes of graphitic materials to the development of a fundamental understanding of these interactions and their application in atomtronics as atomic interconnects, high mobility organometallic transistor devices, high-frequency electronic devices, organometallic catalysis (hydrogen fuel generation by photocatalytic water splitting, fuel cells, hydrogenation), spintronics, memory devices, and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some of the latest advances in understanding the nature of interactions between metals and graphene surfaces from the standpoint of metal overlayers deposited on graphene and SWNT thin films. Finally, we comment on the major challenges facing the field and the opportunities for technological applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Manipulating femtosecond laser interactions in bulk glass and thin-film with spatial light modulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadian, Ehsan; Ho, Stephen; Ertorer, Erden; Gherghe, Sebastian; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are emerging as a power tool for laser beam shaping whereby digitally addressed phase shifts can impose computer-generated hologram patterns on incoming laser light. SLM provide several additional advantages with ultrashort-pulsed lasers in controlling the shape of both surface and internal interactions with materials. Inside transparent materials, nonlinear optical effects can confine strong absorption only to the focal volume, extend dissipation over long filament tracks, or reach below diffraction-limited spot sizes. Hence, SLM beam shaping has been widely adopted for laser material processing applications that include parallel structuring, filamentation, fiber Bragg grating formation and optical aberration correction. This paper reports on a range of SLM applications we have studied in femtosecond processing of transparent glasses and thin films. Laser phase-fronts were tailored by the SLM to compensate for spherical surface aberration, and to further address the nonlinear interactions that interplay between Kerr-lens self-focusing and plasma defocusing effects over shallow and deep focusing inside the glass. Limits of strong and weak focusing were examined around the respective formation of low-loss optical waveguides and long uniform filament tracks. Further, we have employed the SLM for beam patterning inside thin film, exploring the limits of phase noise, resolution and fringe contrast during interferometric intra-film structuring. Femtosecond laser pulses of 200 fs pulse duration and 515 nm wavelength were shaped by a phase-only LCOS-SLM (Hamamatsu X10468-04). By imposing radial phase profiles, axicon, grating and beam splitting gratings, volume shape control of filament diameter, length, and uniformity as well as simultaneous formation of multiple filaments has been demonstrated. Similarly, competing effects of spherical surface aberration, self-focusing, and plasma de-focusing were studied and delineated to enable formation

  20. Density changes in shear bands of a metallic glass determined by correlative analytical transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rösner, Harald, E-mail: rosner@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Peterlechner, Martin [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Kübel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmidt, Vitalij [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Wilde, Gerhard [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Density changes between sheared zones and their surrounding amorphous matrix as a result of plastic deformation in a cold-rolled metallic glass (melt-spun Al{sub 88}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}) were determined using high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector intensities supplemented by electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and nano-beam diffraction analyses. Sheared zones or shear bands were observed as regions of bright or dark contrast arising from a higher or lower density relative to the matrix. Moreover, abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa were found within individual shear bands. We associate the decrease in density mainly with an enhanced free volume in the shear bands and the increase in density with concomitant changes of the mass. This interpretation is further supported by changes in the zero loss and Plasmon signal originating from such sites. The limits of this new approach are discussed. - Highlights: • We describe a novel approach for measuring densities in shear bands of metallic glasses. • The linear relation of the dark-field intensity I/I{sub 0} and the mass thickness ρt was used. • Individual shear bands showed abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa. • Density changes ranging from about −10% to +6% were found for such shear bands. • Mixtures of amorphous/medium range ordered domains were found within the shear bands.

  1. Local structure of Al-and Fe-based metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyungsoo [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Louca, Despina [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Poon, S J [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Shiflet, G J [University of Virginia, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2003-08-13

    The local atomic structures of Fe-and Al-based amorphous metallic glasses have been investigated by the pair density function (PDF) analysis of neutron diffraction data. In the Fe system, chemical substitution at the transition metal ion sites induces significant changes of the local structural environment. With the substitution of Nb for Zr and Mn for Fe, a pre-peak in the structure function is observed that is indicative of short-range chemical rearrangement. This is accompanied by a reduction of volume in real space and a contraction of interatomic pair correlations that could in turn be associated with stronger glass forming ability. In the Al-Ni-Nd system, using the isotope difference neutron PDF technique, the local environments for Ni and Nd were separately determined. The Ni ions tend to form strong interactions with Al with significant shortening of the bond length and weaker interactions with Nd. The local Ni-Al cluster is almost spherical with a coordination close to twelve nearest neighbours, while Ni-Ni chemical short-range ordering is quite strong as indicated by the change of amplitude of the pre-peak with the isotopic substitution. On the other hand, the local Nd environment is more disordered with two separate Nd-Al coordination environments and weaker clustering.

  2. In Situ Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-Based Metallic Glass Coatings by Electrospark Deposition Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, Alexander A.; Pyachin, S. A.; Ermakov, M. A.; Syuy, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Crystalline FeWMoCrBC electrode materials were prepared by conventional powder metallurgy. Metallic glass (MG) coatings were produced by electrospark deposition onto AISI 1035 steel in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy verified the amorphous structure of the as-deposited coatings. The coatings have a thickness of about 40 microns and a uniform structure. The results of dry sliding wear tests against high-speed steel demonstrated that Fe-based MG coatings had a lower friction coefficient and more than twice the wear resistance for 20 km sliding distance with respect to AISI 1035 steel. High-temperature oxidation treatment of the metal glass coatings at 1073 K in air for 12 h revealed that the oxidation resistance of the best coating was 36 times higher than that for bare AISI 1035 steel. These findings are expected to broaden the applications of electrospark Fe-based MG as highly protective and anticorrosive coatings for mild steel.

  3. Ubiquitous formation of bulk Dirac cones and topological surface states from a single orbital manifold in transition-metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramy, M. S.; Clark, O. J.; Yang, B.-J.; Feng, J.; Bawden, L.; Riley, J. M.; Marković, I.; Mazzola, F.; Sunko, V.; Biswas, D.; Cooil, S. P.; Jorge, M.; Wells, J. W.; Leandersson, M.; Balasubramanian, T.; Fujii, J.; Vobornik, I.; Rault, J. E.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Okawa, K.; Asakawa, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Eknapakul, T.; Meevasana, W.; King, P. D. C.

    2018-01-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are renowned for their rich and varied bulk properties, while their single-layer variants have become one of the most prominent examples of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Their disparate ground states largely depend on transition metal d-electron-derived electronic states, on which the vast majority of attention has been concentrated to date. Here, we focus on the chalcogen-derived states. From density-functional theory calculations together with spin- and angle-resolved photoemission, we find that these generically host a co-existence of type-I and type-II three-dimensional bulk Dirac fermions as well as ladders of topological surface states and surface resonances. We demonstrate how these naturally arise within a single p-orbital manifold as a general consequence of a trigonal crystal field, and as such can be expected across a large number of compounds. Already, we demonstrate their existence in six separate TMDs, opening routes to tune, and ultimately exploit, their topological physics.

  4. Thermal Stability of Metal Nanocrystals: An Investigation of the Surface and Bulk Reconstructions of Pd Concave Icosahedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kyle D; Elnabawy, Ahmed O; Yang, Tung-Han; Roling, Luke T; Howe, Jane; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2017-06-14

    Despite the remarkable success in controlling the synthesis of metal nanocrystals, it still remains a grand challenge to stabilize and preserve the shapes or internal structures of metastable kinetic products. In this work, we address this issue by systematically investigating the surface and bulk reconstructions experienced by a Pd concave icosahedron when subjected to heating up to 600 °C in vacuum. We used in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to identify the equilibration pathways of this far-from-equilibrium structure. We were able to capture key structural transformations occurring during the thermal annealing process, which were mechanistically rationalized by implementing self-consistent plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Specifically, the concave icosahedron was found to evolve into a regular icosahedron via surface reconstruction in the range of 200-400 °C, and then transform into a pseudospherical crystalline structure through bulk reconstruction when further heated to 600 °C. The mechanistic understanding may lead to the development of strategies for enhancing the thermal stability of metal nanocrystals.

  5. Wear behavior and corrosion properties of Fe-based thin film metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Cheng, E-mail: czhang@hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lin

    2015-11-25

    Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6} (at%) thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) with various thickness (125–745 nm) were deposited on glass and 304 stainless steel (SS) by using single-alloy target magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy verified the fully amorphous structure of the as-deposited films. Results of dry friction and wear tests against Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} demonstrated that Fe-based TFMGs had lower friction coefficient and nearly three times higher wear resistance with respective to 304SS. The corrosion properties of the Fe-based TFMGs were evaluated in an artificial sweat solution by various electrochemical analytical techniques, including potentiodynamic, potentiostatic polarization and Mott–Schottky analysis. It was shown that the Fe-based TFMGs exhibited highly stable passivity and pitting resistance, which was significantly higher than that of uncoated 304SS. The good corrosion resistance of Fe-based TFMGs results from the lower defect density and higher thickness of the as-formed passive film as compared to 304SS. The pitting of the Fe-based TFMGs follows three distinct stages, i.e., pitting initiation, metastable pitting and stable pitting, as well as substrate dissolution-induced film rupture due to the adsorption and penetration of chloride ions in the artificial sweat solution. These findings are expected to broaden the application of Fe-based TFMGs as a highly protective film for electronic device applications. - Highlights: • New Fe-based thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Fe-based TFMGs with a higher film thickness exhibited better adhesion. • Fe-based TFMGs show superior wear resistance than 304SS substrate. • Fe-based TFMGs show excellent passivity stability and pitting resistance in artificial sweat. • We captured the whole pitting corrosion processes on Fe-based TFMGs.

  6. In vitro fracture resistance of glass-fiber and cast metal posts with different lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovani, Alessandro Rogério; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; de Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião; Paulino, Silvana Maria

    2009-03-01

    Dental fractures can occur in endodontically treated teeth restored with posts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fracture resistance of roots with glass-fiber and metal posts of different lengths. Sixty endodontically treated maxillary canines were embedded in acrylic resin, except for 4 mm of the cervical area, after removing the clinical crowns. The post spaces were opened with a cylindrical bur at low speed attached to a surveyor, resulting in preparations with lengths of 6 mm (group 6 mm), 8 mm (group 8 mm), or 10 mm (group 10 mm). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the post material: cast post and core or glass-fiber post (n=30). The posts were luted with dual-polymerizing resin cement (Panavia F). Cast posts and cores of Co-Cr (Resilient Plus) crowns were made and cemented with zinc phosphate. Specimens were subjected to increasing compressive load (N) until fracture. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test (alpha =.05). The ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences (Pposts of 6-mm length (26.5 N +/-13.4), 8-mm length (25.2 N +/-13.9), and 10-mm length (17.1 N +/-5.2). Also, in the glass-fiber post group, there was no significant difference when posts of 8-mm length (13.4 N +/-11.0) were compared with the 6-mm (6.9 N +/-4.6) and 10-mm (31.7 N +/-13.1) groups. The 10-mm-long post displayed superior fracture resistance, and the 6-mm-long post showed significantly lower mean values (Pglass-fiber post represents a viable alternative to the cast metal post, increasing the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated canines.

  7. Efficiency Enhancement in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using ZrTiO4/Bi2O3 Metal-Oxide Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Neppolian, B.; Shim, Hee-Sang

    2010-01-01

    We report the effect of metal-oxide nanocomposites on the performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. A photoactive layer composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was blended with a newly developed ZrTiO4/Bi2O3 (BITZ) metal-oxide ...

  8. A Si/Glass Bulk-Micromachined Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for High Heat Loads: Fabrication, Test, and Application Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; White, Michael J; Nellis, Gregory F; Klein, Sanford A; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on a micromachined Si/glass stack recuperative heat exchanger with in situ temperature sensors. Numerous high-conductivity silicon plates with integrated platinum resistance temperature detectors (Pt RTDs) are stacked, alternating with low-conductivity Pyrex spacers. The device has a 1 x 1-cm(2) footprint and a length of up to 3.5 cm. It is intended for use in Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers and can sustain pressure exceeding 1 MPa. Tests at cold-end inlet temperatures of 237 K-252 K show that the heat exchanger effectiveness is 0.9 with 0.039-g/s helium mass flow rate. The integrated Pt RTDs present a linear response of 0.26%-0.30%/K over an operational range of 205 K-296 K but remain usable at lower temperatures. In self-cooling tests with ethane as the working fluid, a J-T system with the heat exchanger drops 76.1 K below the inlet temperature, achieving 218.7 K for a pressure of 835.8 kPa. The system reaches 200 K in transient state; further cooling is limited by impurities that freeze within the flow stream. In J-T self-cooling tests with an external heat load, the system reaches 239 K while providing 1 W of cooling. In all cases, there is an additional parasitic heat load estimated at 300-500 mW.

  9. A Si/Glass Bulk-Micromachined Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for High Heat Loads: Fabrication, Test, and Application Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; White, Michael J.; Nellis, Gregory F.; Klein, Sanford A.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a micromachined Si/glass stack recuperative heat exchanger with in situ temperature sensors. Numerous high-conductivity silicon plates with integrated platinum resistance temperature detectors (Pt RTDs) are stacked, alternating with low-conductivity Pyrex spacers. The device has a 1 × 1-cm2 footprint and a length of up to 3.5 cm. It is intended for use in Joule–Thomson (J–T) coolers and can sustain pressure exceeding 1 MPa. Tests at cold-end inlet temperatures of 237 K–252 K show that the heat exchanger effectiveness is 0.9 with 0.039-g/s helium mass flow rate. The integrated Pt RTDs present a linear response of 0.26%–0.30%/K over an operational range of 205 K–296 K but remain usable at lower temperatures. In self-cooling tests with ethane as the working fluid, a J–T system with the heat exchanger drops 76.1 K below the inlet temperature, achieving 218.7 K for a pressure of 835.8 kPa. The system reaches 200 K in transient state; further cooling is limited by impurities that freeze within the flow stream. In J–T self-cooling tests with an external heat load, the system reaches 239 K while providing 1 W of cooling. In all cases, there is an additional parasitic heat load estimated at 300–500 mW. PMID:20490284

  10. Recovery of palladium, cesium, and selenium from heavy metal alkali borosilicate glass by combination of heat treatment and leaching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A separation technique of both noble and less noble metal from glass is studied. • Via reductive heat treatment, 80% of palladium is extracted in liquid bismuth. • Sodium–potassium-rich materials with cesium and selenium are phase separated. • From the materials, over 80% of cesium and selenium are extracted in water. - Abstract: Reductive heat-treatment and leaching process were applied to a simulated lead or bismuth soda-potash-borosilicate glass with palladium, cesium, and selenium to separate these elements. In the reductive heat treatment, palladium is extracted in liquid heavy metal phase generated by the reduction of the heavy metal oxides, whereas cesium and selenium are concentrated in phase separated Na–K-rich materials on the glass surface. From the materials, cesium and selenium can be extracted in water, and the selenium extraction was higher in the treatment of the bismuth containing glass. The chemical forms of palladium in the glass affected the extraction efficiencies of cesium and selenium. Among the examined conditions, in the bismuth glass treatment, the cesium and selenium extraction efficiencies in water were over 80%, and that of palladium in liquid bismuth was over 80%.

  11. Chain-like structure elements in Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses observed by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Rémy; Marot, Laurent; Sadeghi, Ali; Kawai, Shigeki; Glatzel, Thilo; Reimann, Peter; Goedecker, Stefan; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-08-13

    The structure of metallic glasses is a long-standing question because the lack of long-range order makes diffraction based techniques difficult to be applied. Here, we used scanning tunneling microscopy with large tunneling resistance of 6 GΩ at low temperature in order to minimize forces between probe and sample and reduce thermal fluctuations of metastable structures. Under these extremely gentle conditions, atomic structures of Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses are revealed with unprecedented lateral resolution. In agreement with previous models and experiments, icosahedral-like clusters are observed. The clusters show a high degree of mobility, which explains the need of low temperatures for stable imaging. In addition to icosahedrons, chain-like structures are resolved and comparative density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that these structures are meta-stable. The co-existence of icosahedral and chain-like structures might be an key ingredient for the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic glasses.

  12. In situ observation of bending stress–deflection response of metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, R.T.; Liu, H.S.; Zhang, Z.F., E-mail: zhfzhang@imr.ac.cn

    2013-10-10

    Understanding the shear banding mechanism is of significance not only for improving the mechanical performance of metallic glassy components but also for designing new metallic glassy materials with better combinations of strength and toughness. In this study, through an in situ bending experiment under a scanning electron microscope, the shear banding behavior and the bending stress-deflection response were investigated. We found that the flexural strength was higher than either the tensile strength or the compressive strength of the identical metallic glass. The initial appearance of shear bands was observed at a stress lower than the flexural yield strength. As shear band propagating stably, the flexural stress increases with increasing the deflection, which is similar to but analytically found different with the traditional “work-hardening” behavior of metallic crystalline materials. At the peak stress, a shear banding instability with an abrupt increment of plastic deformation localization and shear cracking was found. Some shear band zones were observed and the size of the zone in tension side of the bending sample was found larger than that in compression side.

  13. A Novel Route for Development of Bulk Al/SiC Metal Matrix Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payodhar Padhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of nano particles, even in quantities as small as 2 weight percent can enhance the hardness or yield strength by a factor as high as 2. There are several methods for the production of metal matrix nanocomposites including mechanical alloying, vertex process, and spray deposition and so forth. However, the above processes are expensive. Solidification processing is a relatively cheaper route. During solidification processing, nano particulates tend to agglomerate as a result of van der Waals forces and thus proper dispersion of the nano particulate in metal matrix is a challenge. In the present study a noncontact method, where the ultrasonic probe is not in direct contact with the liquid metal, was attempted to disperse nanosized SiC particulates in aluminum matrix. In this method, the mold was subjected to ultrasonic vibration. Hardness measurements and microstructural studies using HRTEM were carried out on samples taken from different locations of the nanocomposite ingot cast by this method.

  14. High strain rate sensitivity of hardness in quinary Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni high entropy metallic glass thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaofan; Wang, Haibin; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Nan; Zhao, Delin; Yao, Kefu; Chen, Na

    2017-10-01

    Quinary Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni high-entropy metallic glass thin films were produced by magnetron sputter deposition. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the deposited film exhibits a relatively large hardness of 10.4±0.6 GPa and a high elastic modulus of 131±11 GPa under the strain rate of 0.5 s-1. Specifically, the strain rate sensitivity of hardness measured for the thin film is 0.05, the highest value reported for metallic glasses so far. Such high strain rate sensitivity of hardness is likely due to the high-entropy effect which stabilizes the amorphous structure with enhanced homogeneity.

  15. Effect of component substitution on the atomic dynamics in glass-forming binary metallic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, B.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Yang, F.; Voigtmann, Th.; Evenson, Z.; Hansen, T. C.; Meyer, A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the substitution of early transition metals (Zr, Hf, and Nb) in Ni-based binary glass-forming metallic melts and the impact on structural and dynamical properties by using a combination of neutron scattering, electrostatic levitation (ESL), and isotopic substitution. The self-diffusion coefficients measured by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) identify a sluggish diffusion as well as an increased activation energy by almost a factor of 2 for Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr36Ni64 . This finding can be explained by the locally higher packing density of Hf atoms in Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr atoms in Zr36Ni64 , which has been derived from interatomic distances by analyzing the measured partial structure factors. Furthermore, QENS measurements of liquid Hf35Ni65 prepared with 60Ni , which has a vanishing incoherent scattering cross section, have demonstrated that self-diffusion of Hf is slowed down compared to the concentration weighted self-diffusion of Hf and Ni. This implies a dynamical decoupling between larger Hf and smaller Ni atoms, which can be related to a saturation effect of unequal atomic nearest-neighbor pairs, that was observed recently for Ni-rich compositions in Zr-Ni metallic melts. In order to establish a structure-dynamics relation, measured partial structure factors have been used as an input for mode-coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition to calculate self-diffusion coefficients for the different atomic components. Remarkably, MCT can reproduce the increased activation energy for Hf35Ni65 as well as the dynamical decoupling between Hf and Ni atoms.

  16. Computational modeling sheds light on structural evolution in metallic glasses and supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Ma, En

    2017-03-01

    This article presents an overview of three challenging issues that are currently being debated in the community researching on the evolution of amorphous structures in metallic glasses and their parent supercooled liquids. Our emphasis is on the valuable insights acquired in recent computational analyses that have supplemented experimental investigations. The first idea is to use the local structural order developed, and in particular its evolution during undercooling, as a signature indicator to rationalize the experimentally observed temperature-dependence of viscosity, hence suggesting a possible structural origin of liquid fragility. The second issue concerns with the claim that the average nearest-neighbor distance in metallic melts contracts rather than expands upon heating, concurrent with a reduced coordination number. This postulate is, however, based on the shift of the first peak maximum in the pair distribution function and an average bond length determined from nearest neighbors designated using a distance cutoff. These can instead be a result of increasing skewness of the broad first peak, upon thermally exacerbated asymmetric distribution of neighboring atoms activated to shorter and longer distances under the anharmonic interatomic interaction potential. The third topic deals with crystal-like peak positions in the pair distribution function of metallic glasses. These peak locations can be explained using various connection schemes of coordination polyhedra, and found to be present already in high-temperature liquids without hidden crystal order. We also present an outlook to invite more in-depth computational research to fully settle these issues in future, and to establish more robust structure-property relations in amorphous alloys.

  17. Artificial Microstructures to Investigate Microstructure-Property Relationships in Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Baran

    Technology has evolved rapidly within the last decade, and the demand for higher performance materials has risen exponentially. To meet this demand, novel materials with advanced microstructures have been developed and are currently in use. However, the already complex microstructure of technological relevant materials imposes a limit for currently used development strategies for materials with optimized properties. For this reason, a strategy to correlate microstructure features with properties is still lacking. Computer simulations are challenged due to the computing size required to analyze multi-scale characteristics of complex materials, which is orders of magnitude higher than today's state of the art. To address these challenges, we introduced a novel strategy to investigate microstructure-property relationships. We call this strategy "artificial microstructure approach", which allows us to individually and independently control microstructural features. By this approach, we defined a new way of analyzing complex microstructures, where microstructural second phase features were precisely varied over a wide range. The artificial microstructures were fabricated by the combination of lithography and thermoplastic forming (TPF), and subsequently characterized under different loading conditions. Because of the suitability and interesting properties of metallic glasses, we proposed to use this toolbox to investigate the different deformation modes in cellular structures and toughening mechanism in metallic glass (MG) composites. This study helped us understand how to combine the unique properties of metallic glasses such as high strength, elasticity, and thermoplastic processing ability with plasticity generated from heterostructures of metallic glasses. It has been widely accepted that metallic glass composites are very complex, and a broad range of contributions have been suggested to explain the toughening mechanism. This includes the shear modulus, morphology

  18. Effect of correlation length between metallic nanoparticles in nonlinear properties of composition of oxide glass and metallic nanoparticles using SPFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naseri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a kind of composite materials made up of noble metal nanoparticles (such as gold, silver, copper and a dielectric material (such as silica with unique properties. In this paper, using Strong Permittivity Fluctuation Theory (SPFT method, the coefficient of effective permittivity and the effective susceptibility coefficient are calculated for combining glass with metal nanoparticles, assuming that the nanoparticles are spherical. Coefficient of effective permittivity and the effective susceptibility index are estimated for the sample of homogeneous composite materials. And the results of this study are compared with experimental results and other models. It is observed that the data obtained for the zero-order estimate do not match the experimental results. By appropriate correlation length for the second- and third-order, specially for the second-order estimate of SPFT method, conformity between results can be established. Therefore, it can be concluded that SPFT method is betler than other models for calculating and improving the properties of the non-linear model.

  19. Experimental Tooling for Contact Stress Measurement in Bulk Metal Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotić, Dragiša; Plančak, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of contact stresses in metal forming operations is essential not only for optimal die design, but also for theoretical and numerical analysis of the metal forming processes. Determination of contact stresses can be performed theoretically and experimentally. This paper presents a tool construction with built-in pin-load cells for experimental determination of contact stresses and friction coefficient at upsetting of prismatic specimen with cylindrical dies. This construction allows measurement of contact stresses in any point of the contact surface of specimen, due to adjustable location of pin-load cells. The adjustments are performed by turning cylindrical dies around its own axis in combination with the change of axial position of the specimen. Experimental determination of contact stresses in upsetting of Ck35 prismatic specimens using cylindrical tools was performed at the Laboratory for technology of plasticity, FTN Novi Sad.

  20. Evolution of the Valley Position in Bulk Transition-Metal Chalcogenides and Their Monolayer Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, H; Liu, Z.; Xu, G.; Zhou, B.; Wu, S; Dumcenco, D.; Yan, K.; Zhang, Y; Mo, SK; Dudin, P.; Kandyba, V; Yablonskikh, M; Barinov, A.; Shen, Z.; S. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 American Chemical Society.Layered transition metal chalcogenides with large spin orbit coupling have recently sparked much interest due to their potential applications for electronic, optoelectronic, spintronics, and valleytronics. However, most current understanding of the electronic structure near band valleys in momentum space is based on either theoretical investigations or optical measurements, leaving the detailed band structure elusive. For example, the exact position of the con...