Sample records for bulk in-situ gamma-spectrometry

  1. Application of in-situ gamma spectrometry in the remediation of radioactively contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, C.; Yesso, J.D.; Danahy, R.J.; Cox, T.


    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a US Department of Energy site that is undergoing total remediation and closure. Most of the remediation effort entails massive excavation of soil for disposal, both offsite and onsite, at an engineered disposal facility. In-situ gamma spectrometry is routinely used to support soil excavation operations to accurately and quickly identify soil areas as being above or below regulatory remediation criteria. Two different in-situ gamma spectrometry systems are used. The first is a sodium iodide (NaI) detector mounted either on a tractor or a jogging stroller, depending on the terrain to be measured. The NaI system allows the collection of a gamma energy spectrum which can be analyzed to identify and quantify radioactive isotopes which are present within the detector`s viewing area. Each energy spectrum is tagged by location coordinates provided by an on-board global positioning system (GPS) to precisely locate elevated contamination areas. The second is a tripod-mounted, high purity germanium detector (HPGe) gamma spectrometry system that is functionally similar to the NaI system. The principal advantage of the HPGe is its superior resolution, which allows much more accurate identification and quantification of radionuclide contaminants in soils. In order to effectively utilize the data quality objective process with these systems, three quality assurance (QA) elements had to be performed.

  2. Determination of Th and U by neutron activation for gamma spectrometry calibration in situ; Determinacion de Th y U por activacion neutronica para calibracion de espectrometria gamma in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava M, F.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Landsberger, S., E-mail: [University of Texas at Austin, Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, Pickle Research Campus, R9000 Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)


    Using the analysis by neutron activation to determine the profile of the thorium and uranium concentration calibration factors were obtained for their use in the gamma spectrometry in situ. Three sites were selected (San Ramon, Villa de Cos y la Zacatecana) and the analysis by activation was development in the Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering Teaching of the Texas University in Austin with the nuclear reactor Ut-TRIGA. Starting from the gamma spectra in situ, the areas of normalized photo-pick of the radioisotopes were: {sup 208}Tl and {sup 228}Ac for the thorium series and {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for the uranium series. The averages of the factors found in units of (cpm/Bq/Kg) are of 105.63{+-}8.32 and 75.87{+-}4.61 for the thorium and uranium, respectively. (Author)

  3. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu


    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  4. Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Imaged by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per


    . After the first cycle of copper deposition and dissolution the morphology of the polycrystalline gold surface had apparently changed into a recrystallized phase of a copper-gold alloy. At a given stage of the cycle the potential of the electrode was found to depend linearly on the tip potential......Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined...... for correlation with features of the current-voltage diagram. Copper growth is by nucleation and formation of 3D islands. During the initial stages of bulk copper growth the potentials were fixed at selected values and a balance observed between formation of polycrystalline copper nuclei and of copper crystals...

  5. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))


    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather

  6. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cracks, and occur plastic deformation homogeneously. Keywords. Zr-based bulk metallic glasses; in situ composites; ductile phase; wear behaviours. 1. Introduction. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with special short-range order and long-range disorder microstructure usually exhibit unique physical, chemical and mechanical ...

  7. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))


    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  8. Bulk crystalline copper electrodeposition on polycrystalline gold surfaces observed by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per


    Bulk copper electrodeposition onto technical gold surfaces in electrolytes of 0.05 M H2SO4 and 1 mM CuSO4 was investigated by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy at fixed overpotentials. At potentials between -60 and -30 mV the growth of bulk copper proceeds in cycles of nucleation, agglomerat......Bulk copper electrodeposition onto technical gold surfaces in electrolytes of 0.05 M H2SO4 and 1 mM CuSO4 was investigated by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy at fixed overpotentials. At potentials between -60 and -30 mV the growth of bulk copper proceeds in cycles of nucleation......, agglomeration and crystallization. Crystalline copper is seen as involving an intermediate stage in the progress of growth. The final stage in the growth involves an equilibrium of copper electrochemically dissolving and precipitating. The drift velocity was measured for a gold surface subjected to flame...... annealing and subsequently installed in the cell compartment. It was found that the drift velocity decays with time in an exponential-like manner, and a 70 min waiting time before experiments with atomic resolution is recommended. Atomic resolution on Au(111) has been obtained, and an apparent surface...

  9. In situ current voltage measurements for optimization of a novel fullerene acceptor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuttle, Christopher G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept.of Materials; Treat, Neil D. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept.of Materials and Materials Research Lab.; Fan, Jian [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Depts. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Varotto, Alessandro [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Depts. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Hawker, Craig J. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Depts. of Materials, Chemistry, Biochemistry and the Materials Research Lab.; Wudl, Fred [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Materials Research Lab. and Depts. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Chabinyc, Michael L. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept.of Materials and Materials Research Lab.


    The evaluation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of new materials for organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics is difficult due to the large number of processing parameters possible. An efficient procedure to determine the optimum conditions for thermal treatment of polymer-based bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices using in situ current-voltage measurements is presented. The performance of a new fullerene derivative, 1,9-dihydro-64,65-dihexyloxy-1,9-(methano[1,2] benzomethano)fullerene[60], in BHJ photovolatics with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was evaluated using this methodology. The device characteristics of BHJs obtained from the in situ method were found to be in good agreement with those from BHJs annealed using a conventional process. This fullerene has similar performance to 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methano fullerene in BHJs with P3HT after thermal annealing. For devices with thickness of 70 nm, the short circuit current was 6.24 mA/cm² with a fill factor of 0.53 and open circuit voltage of 0.65 V. The changes in the current-voltage measurements during thermal annealing suggest that the ordering process in P3HT dominates the improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  10. In situ neutron scattering study of nanostructured PbTe-PbS bulk thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Fei [Temple University; Schmidt, Robert D [ORNL; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing; An, Ke [ORNL


    Nanostructures play an important role in thermoelectric materials. Their thermal stability, such as phase change and evolution at elevated temperatures, is thus of great interest to the thermoelectric community. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was used to examine the phase evolution of nanostructured bulk PbTe-PbS materials fabricated using hot pressing and pulsed electrical current sintering (PECS). The PbS second phase was observed in all samples in the as-pressed condition. The temperature dependent lattice parameter and phase composition data show an initial formation of PbS precipitates followed by a redissolution during heating. The redissolution process started around 570 600 K, and completed at approximately 780 K. During cooling, the PECS sample followed a reversible curve while the heating/cooling behavior of the hot pressed sample was irreversible.

  11. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Karin M. [Environmental Measurements Lab. (EML), New York, NY (United States)


    This report presents the results of the analyses for the third EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (October 1999). This program assists laboratories in providing more accurate gamma spectra analysis results and provides a means for users of gamma data to assess how a laboratory performed on various types of gamma spectrometry analyses. This is accomplished through the use of synthetic gamma spectra. A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum, and three sample spectra are sent to each participant in the spectral file format requested by the laboratory. The calibration spectrum contains nuclides covering the energy range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants are told fallout and fission product nuclides could be present. The sample spectra are designed to test the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets and to identify and quantify nuclides in a complicated fission product spectrum. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Thirty-one sets of results were reported from a total of 60 laboratories who received the spectra. Six foreign laboratories participated. The percentage of the results within 1 of the expected value was 68, 33, and 46 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 18% of the results were more than 3 from the expected value. Eighty-three (12%) values out of a total of 682 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Approximately 30% of these false negatives were due the laboratories not reporting 144Pr in sample 2 which was present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 25% of these responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results show improvement in the ability of the software or user to resolve peaks separated by 1 keV. Improvement is still needed either in the analysis report produced by the software or in the review of these

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of the in Situ Bulk Polymerization of PMMA Containing Graphene Sheets Using Microwave Irradiation


    Mohammad A. Aldosari; Ali A. Othman; Alsharaeh, Edreese H.


    Polymethylmethacrylate–graphene (PMMA/RGO) nanocomposites were prepared via in situ bulk polymerization using two different preparation techniques. In the first approach, a mixture of graphite oxide (GO) and methylmethacrylate monomers (MMA) were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator. After the addition of the reducing agent hydrazine hydrate (HH), the product was reduced via microwave irradiation (MWI) to obtain R-(GO-PMMA) composites. In the second app...

  13. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Karin M. [Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), New York, NY (United States)


    This report represents the results of the analyses for the second EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (August 1997). A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum and three sample spectra were included for each software format as part of the evaluation. The calibration spectrum contained nuclides covering the range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants were told fallout and fission product nuclides as well as naturally occurring nuclides could be present. The samples were designed to test the detection and quantification of very low levels of nuclides and the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Twenty-nine sets of results were reported from a total of 70 laboratories who received the spectra. The percentage of the results within 1 F of the expected value was 76, 67, and 55 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 12% of the results were more than 3 F from the expected value. Sixty-two nuclides out of a total of 580 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Sixty percent of these false negatives were due to nuclides which were present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 60% of the responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results indicate that the Program is beneficial to the participating laboratories in that it provides them with analysis problems that are difficult to create with spiked samples due to the unavailability of many nuclides and the short half-lives of others. EML will continue its annual distribution, the third is to be held in March 1999.

  14. Gamma spectrometry for chronology of recent sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittauerova, Daniela


    This thesis deals with several aspects of gamma spectrometric analysis of natural and artificial isotopes in sediments and their use as tracers for qualification and quantification of accumulation and mixing processes in different aquatic environments. Sediment cores from three distinct areas including terrigenous sediments deposited on the continental slope off NW Africa, deep sea sediments off Sumba Island and five stations from the Gulf of Eilat in the Red Sea area were measured and interpreted within this dissertation. The main concern in gamma spectrometry of voluminous environmental samples is a reliable efficiency calibration. This is specially relevant for the analysis of low energy gamma emitters (<100 keV). {sup 210}Pb, an important isotopic tracer to cover the period of the last century, is one of them. Within this work mathematical efficiency calibration was applied using a commercial software package. A series of validation tests was performed and evaluated for point and voluminous samples. When using {sup 210}Pb as a tracer it is necessary to determine its excess portion, which is not supported by ingrowth from the parent nuclide {sup 226}Ra. Its analysis is mostly performed via short lived daughter isotopes that follow after the intermediate gaseous member {sup 222}Rn. Preventing the escape of radon from the sample is a critical step before analysis due to a negative effect of supported {sup 210}Pb underestimation on the chronology, which was also documented in this thesis. Time series registering ingrowth of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi towards radioactive equilibrium with {sup 226}Ra in different containers were evaluated for analyses of {sup 226}Ra. Direct analyses of {sup 226}Ra was compared to its detection via daughter products. A method for aligning parallel radionuclide depth profiles was described and applied successfully in two case studies from the continental slope off NW Africa and off Sumba Island, Indonesia. This is primarily important

  15. Real-Time In-situ Characterization of Electron-Beam-Induced Bulk Polymerizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmese, Giuseppe R


    ..., our research team focused on two major tasks: (1) Performing real-time in-situ characterization of EB cure kinetics for representative cationic and free radical cured systems and the development of appropriate mechanistically based cure models...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of the in situ bulk polymerization of PMMA containing graphene sheets using microwave irradiation. (United States)

    Aldosari, Mohammad A; Othman, Ali A; Alsharaeh, Edreese H


    Polymethylmethacrylate-graphene (PMMA/RGO) nanocomposites were prepared via in situ bulk polymerization using two different preparation techniques. In the first approach, a mixture of graphite oxide (GO) and methylmethacrylate monomers (MMA) were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator. After the addition of the reducing agent hydrazine hydrate (HH), the product was reduced via microwave irradiation (MWI) to obtain R-(GO-PMMA) composites. In the second approach, a mixture of graphite sheets (RGO) and MMA monomers were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator to obtain RGO-(PMMA) composites. The composites were characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and Raman spectroscopy and XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA and DSC. The results indicate that the composite obtained using the first approach, which involved MWI, had a better morphology and dispersion with enhanced thermal stability compared with the composites prepared without MWI.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of the in Situ Bulk Polymerization of PMMA Containing Graphene Sheets Using Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aldosari


    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate–graphene (PMMA/RGO nanocomposites were prepared via in situ bulk polymerization using two different preparation techniques. In the first approach, a mixture of graphite oxide (GO and methylmethacrylate monomers (MMA were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator. After the addition of the reducing agent hydrazine hydrate (HH, the product was reduced via microwave irradiation (MWI to obtain R-(GO-PMMA composites. In the second approach, a mixture of graphite sheets (RGO and MMA monomers were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator to obtain RGO-(PMMA composites. The composites were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR and Raman spectroscopy and XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA and DSC. The results indicate that the composite obtained using the first approach, which involved MWI, had a better morphology and dispersion with enhanced thermal stability compared with the composites prepared without MWI.

  18. Bulk conductivity measurement of paper by a new in situ pressure cell (United States)

    Josefowicz, Jack Y.; Anczurowski, Edward; Jones, Arthur Y.; Deslandes, Yves


    In this report a new bulk conductivity cell design is described which can be used to characterize both conductivized and nonconductive paper. By the use of optically flat stainless steel electrodes under a pressure of 115 bars during the conductivity measurement, it is shown that the contact resistance between the paper sample and the electrodes is reduced to negligible proportions. The effect of paper surface morphology on the contact resistance during the measurement of bulk conductivity was studied by a comparison between the polished stainless steel electrodes and electrodes composed of liquid Galium Indium, which make intimate contact with the paper surface. Bulk conductivity measurements were determined for paper samples having different basis weights and different degrees of calendering. The results obtained with the pressurized stainless steel electrodes for these paper samples indicate that the contact resistance is essentially eliminated for all the papers studied by using an applied pressure of 115 bars.

  19. Decoupling Bulk and Surface Contributions in Water- Splitting Photocatalysts by In Situ Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Mingzhao, Liu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Black, Charles T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Sfeir, Matthew Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials


    By performing ultrafast emission spectroscopy in an operating, bias-controlled photoelectrochemical cell, we distinguish between bulk (charge transport) and surface (chemical reaction) recombination processes in a nanostructured photocatalyst and correlate its electronic properties directly with its incident-photon-to-current efficiency.

  20. Printing Fabrication of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells and In Situ Morphology Characterization. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Ferdous, Sunzida; Wan, Xianjian; Zhu, Chenhui; Schaible, Eric; Hexemer, Alexander; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P


    Polymer-based materials hold promise as low-cost, flexible efficient photovoltaic devices. Most laboratory efforts to achieve high performance devices have used devices prepared by spin coating, a process that is not amenable to large-scale fabrication. This mismatch in device fabrication makes it difficult to translate quantitative results obtained in the laboratory to the commercial level, making optimization difficult. Using a mini-slot die coater, this mismatch can be resolved by translating the commercial process to the laboratory and characterizing the structure formation in the active layer of the device in real time and in situ as films are coated onto a substrate. The evolution of the morphology was characterized under different conditions, allowing us to propose a mechanism by which the structures form and grow. This mini-slot die coater offers a simple, convenient, material efficient route by which the morphology in the active layer can be optimized under industrially relevant conditions. The goal of this protocol is to show experimental details of how a solar cell device is fabricated using a mini-slot die coater and technical details of running in situ structure characterization using the mini-slot die coater.

  1. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui, E-mail:; Ren, Luquan; Liang, Yunhong [The Key Laboratory of Engineering Bionics (Ministry of Education) and the College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University (Nanling Campus), 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhao, Hongwei [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University (Nanling Campus), 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhu, Bing [College of Automotive Engineering, Jilin University (Nanling Campus), 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China)


    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.

  2. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials. (United States)

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan; Zhao, Hongwei; Liang, Yunhong; Zhu, Bing


    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.

  3. Ferroferric oxide/polystyrene (Fe3O4/PS superparamagnetic nanocomposite via facile in situ bulk radical polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Organo-modified ferroferric oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles, synthesized by the coprecipitation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in presence of oleic acid (OA, were incorporated in polystyrene (PS by the facile in situ bulk radical polymerization by using 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis of the resultant uniform ferroferric oxide/polystyrene superparamagnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4/PS showed that the superparamagnetic nanoparticles had been dispersed homogeneously in the polymer matrix due to the surface grafted polystyrene, confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The superparamagnetic property of the Fe3O4/PS nanocomposite was testified by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis. The strategy developed is expected to be applied for the large-scale industrial manufacturing of the superparamagnetic polymer nanocomposite.

  4. Proficiency test of gamma spectrometry laboratories in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelic, G., E-mail: [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia); Vuletic, V. [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrovic, R. [Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia)


    This paper presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 8 radionuclides in water samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of gamma spectrometry Laboratories in Serbia organized in 2008. The water samples used in this proficiency test were prepared using certified radioactive solution containing gamma emitting radionuclides. This solution was diluted and used as a master solution for preparation of test samples. The overall performance evaluation showed that 64.7% of all reported results met the individual proficiency test criteria, where 26.5% of all reported results did not pass the overall PT acceptance criterion.

  5. Isotope dilution gamma spectrometry for Pu using low energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.; Sarkar, A.; Alamelu, D.; Shah, R.V.; Aggarwal, S.K. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Centre, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.


    Isotope dilution gamma spectrometry (IDGS) for determination of the Pu concentration, using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (HRGS) in the 40-150 keV energy range, is developed and described. The methodology involves purification of Pu by an anion exchange procedure, followed by the determination of Pu isotopic composition using HRGS. For isotope dilution, a pre-calibrated power reactor grade Pu ({proportional_to} 70 at. % {sup 239}Pu) solution from an Indian PHWR was used as a spike for research reactor grade Pu ({proportional_to} 95 at. % {sup 239}Pu) samples and vice versa. Changes in {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (45.24 keV/51.62 keV) and {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (148.57 keV/129.29 keV) activity ratios in the spiked samples were determined by gamma spectrometry. Using the atom ratios calculated from the measured activity ratios, the concentration of Pu in the sample was calculated using two different efficiency calibration methods. The isotopic composition and concentration of Pu samples both from power reactor and research reactor grade agreed well with the values obtained by isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The present method also shows the superiority of using the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio against the {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in IDGS with respect to the accuracy and precision. (orig.)

  6. In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, NXMM Laboratory, IMX, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rauscher, P. [Fraunhofer IWS Dresden, Laser Ablation and Cutting, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Harti, R. P.; Kaestner, A.; Hovind, J.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Schäfer, R. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Helmholzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden, Germany and Institute for Materials Science, University of Technology, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Van Swygenhoven, H. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, NXMM Laboratory, IMX, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institut, Photons for Engineering and Manufacturing, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)


    The performance and degree of efficiency of industrial transformers are directly influenced by the magnetic properties of high-permeability steel laminations (HPSLs). Industrial transformer cores are built of stacks of single HPSLs. While the insulating coating on each HPSL reduces eddy-current losses in the transformer core, the coating also induces favorable inter-granular tensile stresses that significantly influence the underlying magnetic domain structure. Here, we show that the neutron dark-field image can be used to analyze the influence of the coating on the volume and supplementary surface magnetic domain structures. To visualize the stress effect of the coating on the bulk domain formation, we used an uncoated HPSL and stepwise increased the applied external tensile stress up to 20 MPa. We imaged the domain configuration of the intermediate stress states and were able to reproduce the original domain structure of the coated state. Furthermore, we were able to visualize how the applied stresses lead to a refinement of the volume domain structure and the suppression and reoccurrence of supplementary domains.

  7. In situ growth of luminescent silver nanoclusters inside bulk sol-gel silica glasses (United States)

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Capoen, Bruno; Razdobreev, Igor; Bouazaoui, Mohamed


    Silver nanocluster-doped glasses are attractive materials for various photonic applications. In this paper, bulk silica glasses doped with luminescent silver nanoclusters have been prepared using the sol-gel technique. As a first step, dense silica glasses doped with ionic silver have been loaded with hydrogen. Thereafter, a heat-treatment in air atmosphere was performed to enable the growth of silver nanoclusters at different temperatures in the range 100-600 °C. The optical properties of the obtained nanocomposites have been studied, as a function of the post-annealing temperature, using optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. It has been shown that, under UV photoexcitation, the hydrogenated samples, heat-treated between 200 and 500 °C present visible luminescence due to cationic and neutral molecular-like silver clusters, consisting of a small number of Ag atoms or ions. After annealing at 600 °C, further Ag aggregation led to 2 nm-size silver nanoparticles, resulting in a quenching of the visible luminescence.

  8. Endoscopic fringe projection for in-situ inspection of a sheet-bulk metal forming process (United States)

    Matthias, Steffen; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard


    Sheet-bulk metal forming is a new production process capable of performing deep-drawing and massive forming steps in a single operation. However, due to the high forming forces of the forming process, continuous process control is required in order to detect wear on the forming tool before production quality is impacted. To be able to measure the geometry of the forming tool in the limited space of forming presses, a new inspection system is being developed within the SFB/TR 73 collaborative research center. In addition to the limited space, the process restricts the amount of time available for inspection. Existing areal optical measurement systems suffer from shadowing when measuring the tool's inner elements, as they cannot be placed in the limited space next to the tool, while tactile measurement systems cannot meet the time restrictions for measuring the areal geometries. The new inspection system uses the fringe projection optical measurement principle to capture areal geometry data from relevant parts of the forming tool in short time. Highresolution image fibers are used to connect the system's compact sensor head to a base unit containing both camera and projector of the fringe projection system, which can be positioned outside of the moving parts of the press. To enable short measurement times, a high intensity laser source is used in the projector in combination with a digital micro-mirror device. Gradient index lenses are featured in the sensor head to allow for a very compact design that can be used in the narrow space above the forming tool inside the press. The sensor head is attached to an extended arm, which also guides the image fibers to the base unit. A rotation stage offers the possibility to capture measurements of different functional elements on the circular forming tool by changing the orientation of the sensor head next to the forming tool. During operation of the press, the arm can be travelled out of the moving parts of the forming press

  9. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part II: in situ investigation of growth processes

    KAUST Repository

    Von Dollen, Paul


    We report recent results of bulk GaN crystal growth using the sodium flux method in a new crucible-free growth system. We observed a (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) growth rate >50 µm/h for growth at a N2 overpressure of ~5 MPa and 860 °C, which is the highest crystal growth rate reported for this technique to date. Omega X-ray rocking curve (ω-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3. By monitoring the nitrogen pressure decay over the course of the crystal growth, we developed an in situ method that correlates gas phase changes with precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Based on this analysis, the growth rate may have actually been as high as 90 µm/h, as it would suggest GaN growth ceased prior to the end of the run. We also observed gas phase behavior identified as likely characteristic of GaN polynucleation.

  10. Revealing the surface and bulk regimes of isothermal graphene growth on Ni with in situ kinetic measurements and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Merkulov, Igor A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL


    In situ optical diagnostics are used to reveal the isothermal nucleation and growth mechanisms of graphene on Ni across a wide temperature range (560 C < T < 840 C) by chemical vapor deposition from single, sub-second pulses of acetylene. An abrupt, two-orders of magnitude change in growth times (~ 100s to 1s) is revealed at T = 680 C. Below and above this temperature, similar sigmoidal kinetics are measured and attributed to autocatalytic growth reactions but by two different mechanisms, surface assembly and dissolution/precipitation, respectively. These data are used to develop a simple and general kinetic model for graphene growth that includes the nucleation phase and includes the effects of carbon solubility in metals, describes delayed nucleation, and allows the interpretation of the competition between surface and bulk growth modes. The sharp transition in growth kinetics at T = 680 C is explained by a change in defect site density required for nucleation due to a transition in the carbon-induced mobility of the Ni surface. The easily-implemented optical reflectivity diagnostics and the simple kinetic model described here allow a pathway to optimize the growth of graphene on metals with arbitrary carbon solubility.

  11. Improved properties of chemically modified graphene/poly(methyl methacrylate nanocomposites via a facile in-situ bulk polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Yuan


    Full Text Available The nanosheet of graphene was chemically modified by long alkyl chain for enhanced compatibility with polymer matrix and graphene/poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanocomposites with homogeneous dispersion of the nanosheets and enhanced nanofiller-matrix interfacial interaction were fabricated via a facile in-situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The results showed that the graphene nanosheets were fully exfoliated in PMMA matrix and the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were significantly improved at low graphene loadings. Large shifts of 15°C in the glass transition temperature and 27°C improvement of onset thermal degradation temperature were achieved with graphene loading as low as 0.07 wt%. A 67% increase in tensile strength was also observed by the addition of only 0.5 wt% graphene. The method used in this study provided a novel route to other graphene-based polymers.

  12. Layered double hydroxides as fillers in poly(l-lactide nanocomposites, obtained by in situ bulk polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Nogueira

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study in situ bulk polymerization of L-lactide filled with layered double hydroxides (LDH was investigated. Four different LDHs intercalated with two different organic anions (salicylate and sebacate were synthesized and characterized. After characterization, these synthetic layered compounds were used as fillers in poly(L-lactide (PLLA nanocomposites with two different fillers’s loadings (1 wt% and 2 wt%. PLLA and PLLA nanocomposites were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA, flexural testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results demonstrated that, compared to PLLA, the nanocomposite containing 1 wt% of Zn/Al salicylate transmitted less UVA and UVB light, while keeping a similar transparency in the visible region. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the nanocomposite with 1 wt% of Zn/Al salicylate exhibited the highest thermal stability. In general the flexural and dynamical mechanical properties were reduced in compassion to neat PLLA. DSC results, demonstrated that, compared to PLLA, all the nanocomposites exhibited lower glass transition temperature and melting temperature values.

  13. In situ morphology studies of the mechanism for solution additive effects on the formation of bulk heterojunction films

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.


    The most successful active film morphology in organic photovoltaics is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The performance of a BHJ arises from a complex interplay of the spatial organization of the segregated donor and acceptor phases and the local order/quality of the respective phases. These critical morphological features develop dynamically during film formation, and it has become common practice to control them by the introduction of processing additives. Here, in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies of the development of order in BHJ films formed from the donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester under the influence of two common additives, 1,8-octanedithiol and 1-chloronaphthalene, are reported. By comparing optical aggregation to crystallization and using GISAXS to determine the number and nature of phases present during drying, two common mechanisms by which the additives increase P3HT crystallinity are identified. Additives accelerate the appearance of pre-crystalline nuclei by controlling solvent quality and allow for extended crystal growth by delaying the onset of PCBM-induced vitrification. The glass transition effects vary system-to-system and may be correlated to the number and composition of phases present during drying. Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  14. Mapping strain fields induced in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses during in-situ nanoindentation by X-ray nanodiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamcová, J.; Bednarčík, J.; Franz, H. [DESY, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg 22547 (Germany); Mohanty, G.; Wehrs, J.; Michler, J. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstraße 39, Thun 3602 (Switzerland); Michalik, Š. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, Praha 18221 (Czech Republic); Krywka, C. [HZG, Institut für Werkstoffforschung, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg 22547 (Germany); Breguet, J. M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstraße 39, Thun 3602 (Switzerland); Alemnis GmbH, Feuerwerkerstraße 39, Thun 3602 (Switzerland)


    A pioneer in-situ synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction approach for characterization and visualization of strain fields induced by nanoindentation in amorphous materials is introduced. In-situ nanoindentation experiments were performed in transmission mode using a monochromatic and highly focused sub-micron X-ray beam on 40 μm thick Zr-based bulk metallic glass under two loading conditions. Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction scans in the deformed volume of Zr-based bulk metallic glass covering an area of 40 × 40 μm{sup 2} beneath the pyramidal indenter revealed two-dimensional map of elastic strains. The largest value of compressive elastic strain calculated from diffraction data at 1 N load was −0.65%. The region of high elastic compressive strains (<−0.3%) is located beneath the indenter tip and has radius of 7 μm.

  15. Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Reaction Kinetics of Methyl Methacrylate In Situ Radical Polymerization via the Bulk or Solution Technique


    Ioannis S. Tsagkalias; Triantafyllos K. Manios; Achilias, Dimitris S.


    The synthesis of nanocomposite materials based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and graphene oxide (GO) is presented using the in situ polymerization technique, starting from methyl methacrylate, graphite oxide, and an initiator, and carried out either with (solution) or without (bulk) in the presence of a suitable solvent. Reaction kinetics was followed gravimetrically and the appropriate characterization of the products took place using several experimental techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) d...

  16. Genomic and in situ investigations of the novel uncultured Chloroflexi associated with 0092 morphotype filamentous bulking in activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta


    Overgrowth of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to impaired sludge settleability, a condition known as bulking, which is a common operational problem worldwide. Filaments with the Eikelboom 0092 morphotype are commonly associated with such bulking ...

  17. Results from the RESUME-95 exercise. In-situ gamma spectrometry performed at Vesivehmaa Airport, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Univ. Hospital MAS, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)


    The Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe has an agreement with the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, in which we are obliged to perform instantaneous field measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides in case of a major release of radionuclides in the environment. The department possesses a High Purity Germanium detector system (35 % commercial at 1.33 MeV) with a PC software spectrum analyser that was purchased and calibrated for this reason. The aim of our participation in the RESUME-95{sup 1} exercise, which took place in Vaeaexsy, Finland, in August 1995, was both to obtain efficiency values for different source geometries (both artificial and natural radionuclides) in field and to compare our results with those of other groups. Furthermore, this exercise was an ideal opportunity to test the full equipment under field conditions. (au).

  18. Online gamma spectrometry above the aerosol filter during sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyza, Miroslav; Rulik, Petr [National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO), Bartoskova 28, 14000, Prague (Czech Republic)


    Within the frame of a research project, possible uses of various types of detectors for online gamma spectrometry above the aerosol filter during sampling were considered. The goal of this work was to compare capabilities of particular gamma-ray spectrometers to detect artificial radionuclides in presence of relatively high natural background of the radon progenies. The comparisons of different detectors with respect to energy resolution, efficiency and detection limit were performed. Detection limits were determined for energy regions of radionuclides typically present in the air in case of NPP accidents such as {sup 132}Te-{sup 132}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs or {sup 103}Ru. Measurements were done with high volume aerosol samplers with flow rate 900 m{sup 3}/h and 150 m{sup 3}/h, respectively. Five types of spectrometers were tested - semiconductor HPGe, CdZnTe and MediPix detectors and NaI(Tl) and LaBr scintillation detectors. Daily and seasonal variations of radon concentration in outdoor air were also included in the analysis. Other effects influencing measurement, as aerosol deposition inhomogeneity on the filter due to the presence of detector, aerosol deposition on the detector surface and detector-filter distance, were also considered. Sequence in the energy resolution of the detectors from best to worst is as follows: HPGe, CdZnTe, LaBr, NaI(Tl) and Medipix. Sequence in efficiency from highest to lowest for the energy range 200-700 keV is as follows: NaI(Tl), HPGe, LaBr, CdZnTe and Medipix. In the near future a relatively rapid development of detectors LaBr, CdZnTe and Medipix can be expected. This investigation was supported by the project 'MOSTAR', identification code VG20132015119, funded by the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic. (authors)

  19. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makmal, T. [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Nuclear Physics and Engineering Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Radiation Safety Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Gilad, E., E-mail: [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections. - Highlights: • Simple, inexpensive, safe and flexible experimental setup that can be quickly deployed. • Experimental results are thoroughly corroborated against ORIGEN2 burnup code. • Experimental uncertainty of 9% and 5% deviation between measurements and simulations. • Very high burnup MTR fuel element is examined, with 60% depletion of {sup 235}U. • Impact of highly irregular irradiation regime on burnup evaluation is studied.

  20. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)


    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  1. Het meten van radioactieve bodembesmettingen vanuit de lucht. Gebruik van de in-situ gammaspectrometriemethode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loman AC; ter Kuile CR; Slaper H


    In-situ gamma spectrometry can be used to determine the qualitative and quantitative deposition of radioactive materials on the ground surface. By applying the in-situ spectrometry method using either a helicopter or an airplane, large areas can be scanned in a short period of time. In this report

  2. Genomic and in situ investigations of the novel uncultured Chloroflexi associated with 0092 morphotype filamentous bulking in activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta


    on annotation of its genome, showing its ability to generate energy by respiration, utilizing oxygen, nitrite or nitrous oxide as electron acceptors, or by fermentation of sugars. The ability of B45 members to ferment sugars under anaerobic conditions was validated in situ with microautoradiography...

  3. GammaSem Proceedings - A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, P. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IS)); Israelson, C. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark))


    The project GammaSem was proposed to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and to establish a network of users of gamma spectrometry in the Nordic countries, thereby strengthening the collaboration and improving all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. The seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 75 people participated; representing 34 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and also all Nordic authorities. During the seminar several key issues for follow-up were identified and working groups for addressing the identified problems were established. The working groups were: 1) Uncertainties and detections of limits 2) True summing coincidence 3) Monte Carlo simulations and efficiency transfer 4) Absorption (density corrections and geometries) 5) Mobile gamma spectrometry systems 6) Nuclear forensics (on special samples and special parts of the spectra). The identified topics will form the basis for the agenda of the next seminar in 2010. There, the different working groups will be invited to present their ideas/solutions to the relevant problems. (author)

  4. Initial Gamma Spectrometry Examination of the AGR-3/4 Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Stempien, John D.


    The initial results from gamma spectrometry examination of the different components from the combined third and fourth US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiation tests (AGR-3/4) have been analyzed. This experiment was designed to provide information about in-pile fission product migration. In each of the 12 capsules, a single stack of four compacts with designed-to-fail particles surrounded by two graphitic diffusion rings (inner and outer) and a graphite sink were irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor. Gamma spectrometry has been used to evaluate the gamma-emitting fission product inventory of compacts from the irradiation and evaluate the burnup of these compacts based on the activity of the radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the compacts. Burnup from gamma spectrometry compares well with predicted burnup from simulations. Additionally, inner and outer rings were also examined by gamma spectrometry both to evaluate the fission product inventory and the distribution of gamma-emitting fission products within the rings using gamma emission computed tomography. The cesium inventory of the scanned rings compares acceptably well with the expected inventory from fission product transport modeling. The inventory of the graphite fission product sinks is also being evaluated by gamma spectrometry.

  5. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)


    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  6. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang


    Full Text Available Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  7. Car-borne gamma spectrometry: a virtual exercise in emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowdall, M.; Smethurst, M.A.; Watson, R.


    In recent years car-borne gamma spectrometry has expanded from its role as a geological survey platform to being a useful asset in searching for orphan sources and for surveying in the aftermath of an incident involving the release of radioactive materials. The opportunities for gaining practical...

  8. Growth of a Copper-Gold Alloy Phase by Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Investigated by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per


    Simultaneous in situ scanning tunneling microscopy measurements and recordings of voltammograms were used to study in real time the initial cycles of potentiostatic copper electrodeposition and subsequent dissolution on a clean gold polycrystalline electrode. The cycles were carried out by sweeping...... the potential in the double-layer charging region from 500 to -100 mV and back to 500 mV at a sweep rate of 1 mV/s in an acidified copper sulfate electrolyte (0.01M H2SO4, 0.01M CuSO4, and Millipore water). After completion of the first cycle the gold surface had recrystallized and nuclei of an alloy phase were...... in peak potential for the anodic current transient from E = 20 mV to E = -2 mV was observed after completion of four subsequent cycles of copper electrodeposition/dissolution. The shift is suggested to be equal to the change in potential of the working electrode owing to the formation of the alloy phase....

  9. A simple method for the absolute determination of uranium enrichment by high-resolution {gamma} spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korob, R.O. [Unidad de Actividad Radioquimica y Quimica de las Radiaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15 Partido de Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail:; Blasiyh Nuno, G.A. [Unidad de Actividad Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15 Partido de Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    A simple method for the determination of uranium enrichment using high-resolution {gamma} spectrometry is presented in this paper. The method relies solely on the {gamma}-ray emission probabilities of {sup 235}U and {sup 234m}Pa, and an iterative procedure for the least squares fit of a polynomial to a set of experimentally determined data. To ensure the reliability of the {sup 234m}Pa {gamma}-ray emission probabilities employed, a new determination of these probabilities was carried out using a combination of {gamma} spectrometry and Cerenkov counting of a purified {sup 234}Th solution. Using these new data, a maximum difference of {approx}5% has been found between the experimental and declared uranium enrichment in a set of solid and liquid samples containing uranium compounds.

  10. Time sequence determination of parent–daughter radionuclides using gamma-spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J. L.; Britton, R. E.; Abrecht, D. G.; Davies, A. V.


    The acquisition of time-stamped list (TLIST) data provides additional information useful to gamma-spectrometry analysis. A novel technique is described that uses non-linear least-squares fitting and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to simultaneously determine parent-daughter atoms from time sequence measurements of only the daughter radionuclide. This has been demonstrated for the radioactive decay of short-lived radon progeny (214Pb/214Bi, 212Pb/212Bi) described using the Bateman first-order differential equation. The calculated atoms are in excellent agreement with measured atoms, with a difference of 1.3 – 4.8% for parent atoms and 2.4% - 10.4% for daughter atoms. Measurements are also reported with reduced uncertainty. The technique has potential to redefine gamma-spectrometry analysis.

  11. Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Reaction Kinetics of Methyl Methacrylate In Situ Radical Polymerization via the Bulk or Solution Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Tsagkalias


    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanocomposite materials based on poly(methyl methacrylate and graphene oxide (GO is presented using the in situ polymerization technique, starting from methyl methacrylate, graphite oxide, and an initiator, and carried out either with (solution or without (bulk in the presence of a suitable solvent. Reaction kinetics was followed gravimetrically and the appropriate characterization of the products took place using several experimental techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD data showed that graphite oxide had been transformed to graphene oxide during polymerization, whereas FTIR spectra revealed no significant interactions between the polymer matrix and GO. It appears that during polymerization, the initiator efficiency was reduced by the presence of GO, resulting in a reduction of the reaction rate and a slight increase in the average molecular weight of the polymer formed, measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, along with an increase in the glass transition temperature obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The presence of the solvent results in the suppression of the gel-effect in the reaction rate curves, the synthesis of polymers with lower average molecular weights and polydispersities of the Molecular Weight Distribution, and lower glass transition temperatures. Finally, from thermogravimetric analysis (TG, it was verified that the presence of GO slightly enhances the thermal stability of the nano-hybrids formed.

  12. Synthesis of High cis-Polybutadiene in Styrene Solution with Neodymium-Based Catalysts: Towards the Preparation of HIPS and ABS via In Situ Bulk Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz de León


    Full Text Available In a first step, 1,3-butadiene was selectively polymerized at 60°C in styrene as solvent using NdV3/DIBAH/EASC as the catalyst system. The catalyst system activation process, the addition order of monomers and catalyst components, and the molar ratios [Al]/[Nd] and [Cl]/[Nd] were studied. The catalyst system allowed the selective 1,3-butadiene polymerization, reaching conversions between 57.5 and 88.1% with low polystyrene contents in the order of 6.3 to 15.4%. Molecular weights ranging from 39,000 to 150,000 g/mol were obtained, while cis-1,4 content was found in the interval of 94.4 to 96.4%. On the other hand, the glass transition temperatures of synthesized materials were established in the range of −101.9 to −107.4°C, explained by the presence of polystyrene segments in the polybutadiene chains; in the same sense, the polybutadienes did not show the typical melting endotherm of high cis-polybutadienes. In a second step, the resulting styrene/high cis-1,4 polybutadiene solutions were used to synthesize ABS (adding a fraction of acrylonitrile monomer and HIPS via in situ bulk polymerizations and the results were discussed in terms of morphological development, molecular parameters, dynamical mechanical behavior, and mechanical properties.

  13. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry; Laboratorio de espectrometria gamma de alta resolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B


    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a novel nitric oxide fluorescent probe CdS-PMMA nanocomposite via in-situ bulk polymerization. (United States)

    Ding, Liyun; Li, Tao; Zhong, Yunming; Fan, Chao; Huang, Jun


    A novel nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent probe CdS-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites with different molar ratios of CdS quantum dots (QDs) to PMMA are developed successfully via in-situ bulk polymerization method. The optical properties of CdS/PMMA nanocomposites are studied by UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence (FL) spectra in detail. It is demonstrated that the optical properties from such nanocomposite solution are tuned and stabilized by simply varying the concentration of CdS in the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of CdS-PMMA nanocomposite with higher loading of CdS show broad pattern for cubic CdS, which has narrow particle size distribution with less than 5 nm in PMMA observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphological characterization of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite has been done through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirm the enhanced thermal stability of CdS-PMMA nanocomposites than PMMA. NO can coordinate with Cd(2+) as a ligand for transition metal complexes, which will cause a quenching effect on the fluorescence of CdS QDs. Therefore, a significant quenching effect on the fluorescence of the CdS-PMMA nanocomposite is observed in the presence of NO. The fluorescence responses are concentration-dependent and can be well described by the typical Stern-Volmer equation, and a linear calibration I0/I=1.0021+0.1944[NO] (R(2)=0.96052) is obtained in the range from 1.4×10(-5) to 9.3×10(-3) mol/L NO with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-6) mol/L (S/N=3). © 2013.

  15. Measuring the radium quartet (228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry. (United States)

    van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Reyss, J-L


    Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While 228Ra and 226Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccarès lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The 223Ra and 224Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the 224Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low 223Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of {sup 7}BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Alexander D., E-mail: [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas e Hidrotecnicas (CIHH/UTP-PA), Universidad Tecnologica de Panama (Panama); Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Cosmogenic {sup 7}Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The {sup 7}Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. {sup 7}Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to {sup 228}Ac (E{sub γ} = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the {sup 7}Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of {sup 228}Ac in the {sup 7}Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  17. Enhanced critical current density of in situ processed MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors with MgB{sub 4} additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Jun, B. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, C. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, W. N. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The effects of MgB{sub 4} addition on the superconducting properties and the microstructure of in situ processed MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors were studied. MgB{sub 4} powder of 1-20 wt.% was mixed with (Mg + 2B) powder and then pressed into pellets. The pellets of (Mg + 2B + xMgB{sub 4}) were heat-treated at 650 ℃ for 1 h in flowing argon. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the heat-treated samples showed that the major formed phase in all samples was MgB{sub 2} and the minor phases were MgB{sub 4} and MgO. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values showed that the grain size of MgB{sub 2} decreased as the amount of MgB{sub 4} addition increased. MgB{sub 4} particles included in a MgB{sub 2} matrix is considered to suppress the grain growth of MgB{sub 2}. The onset temperatures (T{sub c},onset) of MgB{sub 2} with MgB{sub 4} addition (0-10 wt.%) was between 37-38 K. The 20 wt.% MgB{sub 4} addition slightly reduced the T{sub c},onset of MgB{sub 2} to 36.5 K. This result indicates that MgB{sub 4} addition did not influence the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of MgB{sub 2} significantly. On the other hand, the small additions of 1-5 wt.% MgB{sub 4} increased the critical current density (J{sub c}) of MgB{sub 2}. The Jc enhancement by MgB{sub 4} addition is attributed not only to the grain size refinement but also to the possible flux pinning of MgB{sub 4} particles dispersed in a MgB{sub 2} matrix.

  18. Two low-level gamma spectrometry systems of the IAEA Safeguards Analytical Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parus, J.L. [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Raab, W. [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Donohue, D. [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Jansta, V. [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Kierzek, J. [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria)


    A gamma spectrometry system designed for the measurement of samples with low and medium radioactivity (activity from a few to about 10{sup 4} Bq in the energy range from 25 to 2700 keV) has been installed at the IAEA Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf. The system consists of 3 low level detectors: (1) n-type coaxial Ge with 42.4% relative efficiency, 1.85 keV FWHM at 1.33 MeV (2) planar Ge with 2000 mm{sup 2} area and 20 mm thickness, 562 eV FWHM at 122 keV (3) NaI(Tl) annulus of 25.4 cm diameter and 25.4 cm height, hole diameter 90 mm. (orig./DG)

  19. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.


    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  20. Preparation of Transparent Bulk TiO2/PMMA Hybrids with Improved Refractive Indices via an in Situ Polymerization Process Using TiO2 Nanoparticles Bearing PMMA Chains Grown by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masato; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki


    Transparent TiO2/PMMA hybrids with a thickness of 5 mm and improved refractive indices were prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles bearing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains grown using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the effect of the chain length of modified PMMA on the dispersibility of modified TiO2 nanoparticles in the bulk hybrids was investigated. The surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticles were modified with both m-(chloromethyl)phenylmethanoyloxymethylphosphonic acid bearing a terminal ATRP initiator and isodecyl phosphate with a high affinity for common organic solvents, leading to sufficient dispersibility of the surface-modified particles in toluene. Subsequently, SI-ATRP of MMA was achieved from the modified surfaces of the TiO2 nanoparticles without aggregation of the nanoparticles in toluene. The molecular weights of the PMMA chains cleaved from the modified TiO2 nanoparticles increased with increases in the prolonging of the polymerization period, and these exhibited a narrow distribution, indicating chain growth controlled by SI-ATRP. The nanoparticles bearing PMMA chains were well-dispersed in MMA regardless of the polymerization period. Bulk PMMA hybrids containing modified TiO2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared by in situ polymerization of the MMA dispersion. The transparency of the hybrids depended significantly on the chain length of the modified PMMA on the nanoparticles, because the modified PMMA of low molecular weight induced aggregation of the TiO2 nanoparticles during the in situ polymerization process. The refractive indices of the bulk hybrids could be controlled by adjusting the TiO2 content and could be increased up to 1.566 for 6.3 vol % TiO2 content (1.492 for pristine PMMA).

  1. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail:; Davies, A.V.


    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  2. On the gamma spectrometry efficiency of reference materials and soil samples. (United States)

    Mohammad Modarresi, S; Farhad Masoudi, S


    The relative discrepancies between the gamma spectrometry efficiency of RGU, RGTh, RGK reference materials and some soil samples have been studied using a MCNP model of a real HPGe detector. It has been shown that, in a specified geometry, efficiencies differences depend on the sample elemental composition. The elemental compositions of RGU-1, RGTh-1 reference materials and a soil sample have been evaluated using X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) method and used in the MCNP simulation along with RGK-1 and six other soil samples with different elemental compositions to calculate their efficiencies in different gamma ray energies. To estimate the maximum relative efficiencies differences between soil samples and reference materials, five soil samples with higher attenuation properties were selected from a large data set of soils elemental compositions. The results show that the efficiency differences between soil samples and reference materials are almost ignorable for more than 100 KeV gamma energies. It strongly depends on the sample attenuation factor in the lower energies, so use of a self-attenuation correction is essential for radionuclide counting in low energies gamma rays. Results show about 8 percent discrepancy between RGU and two soil samples efficiencies in 63.2 KeV energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The {sup 124}Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)


    This work describes a metrological activity determination of {sup 124}Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. {sup 124}Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. {sup 124}Sb decays by {beta}-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point {sup 124}Sb solid sources were obtained from a {sup 166m}Ho standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of {sup 124}Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  4. Characterization of radioactive orphan sources by gamma spectrometry; Caracterizacion de fuentes huerfanas radiactivas por espectrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz W, H., E-mail: [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (PGRR/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Planta de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos


    The sealed radioactive sources are widely applicable in industry. They must have a permanent control and must be registered with the Technical Office of the National Authority (OTAN). However, at times it has identified the presence of abandoned sealed sources unknown to the owner. These sources are called 'orphan sources'. Of course these sources represent a high potential risk because accidents can trigger dire consequences depending on your activity and chemical form in which it presents the radioisotope. This paper describes the process and the actions taken to characterize two orphan radioactive sources from the smelter a Aceros Arequipa. For characterization we used a gamma spectrometry system using a detector NaI(Tl) 3″ x 3″ with a multichannel analyzer Nucleus PCA-II. The radioisotope identified was cesium - 137 ({sup 137}Cs) in both cases. Fortunately, the sources maintained their integrity would otherwise have generated significant pollution considering the chemical form of the radioisotope and easy dispersion. (author)

  5. Test spectra experimental construction for evaluating gamma-spectrometry computer codes for the 235U determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karfopoulos Konstantinos L.


    Full Text Available The determination of 235U in environmental samples from its 185.72 keV photons may require the deconvolution of the multiplet photopeak at ~186 keV, due to the co-existence of the 186.25 keV photons of 226Ra in the spectrum. Successful deconvolution depends on many parameters, such as the detector characteristics, the activity concentration of the 235U and 226Ra in the sample, the background continuum in the 186 keV energy region and the gamma-spectrometry computer code used. In this work two sets of experimental test spectra were constructed for examining the deconvolution of the multiplet photopeak performed by different codes. For the construction of the test spectra, a high-resolution low energy germanium detector was used. The first series consists of 140 spectra and simulates environmental samples containing various activity concentration levels of 235U and 226Ra. The second series consists of 280 spectra and has been derived by adding 137Cs, corresponding to various activity concentration levels, to specific first series test spectra. As the 137Cs backscatter edge is detected in the energy region of the multiplet photopeak at ~186 keV, this second series of test spectra tests the analysis of the multiplet photopeak in high background continuum conditions. The analysis of the test spectra is performed by two different g-spectrometry analysis codes: (a spectrum unix analysis code, a computer code developed in-house and (b analysis of germanium detector spectra, a program freely available from the IAEA. The results obtained by the two programs are compared in terms of photopeak detection and photopeak area determination.

  6. Fission Product Inventory and Burnup Evaluation of the AGR-2 Irradiation by Gamma Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Gamma spectrometry has been used to evaluate the burnup and fission product inventory of different components from the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program's second TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiation test (AGR-2). TRISO fuel in this irradiation included both uranium carbide / uranium oxide (UCO) kernels and uranium oxide (UO2) kernels. Four of the 6 capsules contained fuel from the US Advanced Gas Reactor program, and only those capsules will be discussed in this work. The inventories of gamma-emitting fission products from the fuel compacts, graphite compact holders, graphite spacers and test capsule shell were evaluated. These data were used to measure the fractional release of fission products such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Eu-154, Ce-144, and Ag-110m from the compacts. The fraction of Ag-110m retained in the compacts ranged from 1.8% to full retention. Additionally, the activities of the radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) have been used to evaluate the burnup of all US TRISO fuel compacts in the irradiation. The experimental burnup evaluations compare favorably with burnups predicted from physics simulations. Predicted burnups for UCO compacts range from 7.26 to 13.15 % fission per initial metal atom (FIMA) and 9.01 to 10.69 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Measured burnup ranged from 7.3 to 13.1 % FIMA for UCO compacts and 8.5 to 10.6 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Results from gamma emission computed tomography performed on compacts and graphite holders that reveal the distribution of different fission products in a component will also be discussed. Gamma tomography of graphite holders was also used to locate the position of TRISO fuel particles suspected of having silicon carbide layer failures that lead to in-pile cesium release.

  7. Fission Product Inventory and Burnup Evaluation of the AGR-2 Irradiation by Gamma Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Stempien, John D.


    Gamma spectrometry has been used to evaluate the burnup and fission product inventory of different components from the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program's second TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiation test (AGR-2). TRISO fuel in this irradiation included both uranium carbide / uranium oxide (UCO) kernels and uranium oxide (UO2) kernels. Four of the 6 capsules contained fuel from the US Advanced Gas Reactor program, and only those capsules will be discussed in this work. The inventories of gamma-emitting fission products from the fuel compacts, graphite compact holders, graphite spacers and test capsule shell were evaluated. These data were used to measure the fractional release of fission products such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Eu-154, Ce-144, and Ag-110m from the compacts. The fraction of Ag-110m retained in the compacts ranged from 1.8% to full retention. Additionally, the activities of the radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) have been used to evaluate the burnup of all US TRISO fuel compacts in the irradiation. The experimental burnup evaluations compare favorably with burnups predicted from physics simulations. Predicted burnups for UCO compacts range from 7.26 to 13.15 % fission per initial metal atom (FIMA) and 9.01 to 10.69 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Measured burnup ranged from 7.3 to 13.1 % FIMA for UCO compacts and 8.5 to 10.6 % FIMA for UO2 compacts. Results from gamma emission computed tomography performed on compacts and graphite holders that reveal the distribution of different fission products in a component will also be discussed. Gamma tomography of graphite holders was also used to locate the position of TRISO fuel particles suspected of having silicon carbide layer failures that lead to in-pile cesium release.

  8. Anomalous Depletion of Pore-Confined Carbon Dioxide upon Cooling below the Bulk Triple Point: An In Situ Neutron Diffraction Study (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, K. L.; Katsaros, F. K.; Steriotis, Th. A.; Sapalidis, A. A.; Thommes, M.; Bowron, D. T.; Youngs, T. G. A.


    The phase behavior of sorbed CO2 in an ordered mesoporous silica sample (SBA-15) was studied by neutron diffraction. Surprisingly, upon cooling our sample below the bulk critical point, confined CO2 molecules neither freeze nor remain liquid as expected, but escape from the pores. The phenomenon has additionally been confirmed gravimetrically. The process is reversible and during heating CO2 refills the pores, albeit with hysteresis. This depletion was for the first time observed in an ordered mesoporous molecular sieve and provides new insight on the phase behavior of nanoconfined fluids.

  9. Comparative Study of δ18O Compositions Determined for Fossil Holocene Planktic Foraminifera by In Situ SIMS Measurements and Standard Gas-Source IRMS Bulk Shell Analyses (United States)

    Wycech, J.; Kelly, D. C.; Kozdon, R.; Kitajima, K.; Spero, H. J.; Orland, I. J.; Kita, N.; Valley, J. W.


    The use of SIMS to perform in situ δ18O analyses on micron-scale domains within individual foraminiferal shells is an emerging technique that holds much promise for elucidating new paleoclimate information from deep-sea records. High precision and accuracy are possible for inorganic calcite, but continued testing is essential to establish the accuracy of this novel technique for biocarbonates; hence, a comparative study was conducted using both in situ SIMS (IMS 1280) and standard gas-source IRMS analyses to measure the δ18O in the same chamber of a foraminifera shell. An initial experiment was performed on 18 Orbulina universa shells (~600 μm) exhibiting varying states of preservation (3 well-preserved glassy, 1 intermediate, 14 frosty) handpicked from the uppermost 2 cm (Holocene) of a piston core (PC9) retrieved from the northwestern Atlantic. The spherical chamber of each shell was manually broken into smaller fragments with the majority of the fragments pooled for δ18O analysis by IRMS, and a remaining fragment cast in epoxy for SIMS. Comparison of average SIMS δ18O values to corresponding IRMS δ18O values for the same chamber reveals a linear relationship across a 3‰ range in glassy and frosty shells with the SIMS values being 0.9 ± 0.7‰ (2SD) lower. This 0.9‰ offset is also seen in O. universa shells (1 glassy, 3 intermediate, 10 frosty) that have undergone hydrogen peroxide cleaning and sonication. The δ18O offset is being further investigated using manually fragmented O. universa shells from the core-top of PC9 that have been vacuum roasted as well as cultured specimens grown under controlled conditions. Through these additional experiments we are exploring possible offset mechanisms including: errors in SIMS and gas-source analysis; differences between the coarsely crystalline homogeneous SIMS standards and complex biocarbonate samples; and zoning in shells due to growth, diagenesis or other components not targeted by SIMS.

  10. Effective bulk and surface temperatures of the catalyst bed of FT-IR cells used for in situ and operando studies. (United States)

    Li, Haoguang; Rivallan, Mickael; Thibault-Starzyk, Frederic; Travert, Arnaud; Meunier, Frederic C


    The temperature prevailing in the catalyst bed of three different IR spectroscopic reaction cells was assessed by means of thermocouples, an optical pyrometer and reaction rate measurements. One of the cells was a custom-made transmission FT-IR cell for use with thin wafers and the two others were commercial Harrick and Spectra-Tech diffuse reflectance FT-IR (DRIFTS) cells used for the analysis of powdered samples. The rate of CO methanation measured over a 16 wt% Ni/alumina catalyst was used as a means to derive the effective temperature prevailing in the IR cells from that existing in a traditional (non-spectroscopic) reactor having a well-controlled temperature. The sample bed of these three IR cells exhibited a significantly lower temperature than that of the corresponding measure thermocouple, which was yet located in or close to the sample bed. The comparison of Arrhenius plots enabled us to determine a temperature correction valid over a large temperature range. The use of an optical pyrometer was assessed with a view to determining the temperature of the surface of the powdered beds and that at the centre of the wafer. The optical pyrometer proved useful in the case of the catalyst powder, which behaved as a black non-reflecting body. In contrast, the temperature reading was inaccurate in the case of the pressed wafer, probably due to the shiny surface and minute thickness of the wafer, which led to a significant portion of the IR radiation of the surroundings being reflected by and transmitted through the wafer. The optical pyrometer data showed that the temperature of the surface of the powdered beds was significantly lower than that of the bulk of the bed, and that the total flow rate and composition did not affect this value. This work emphasises that the effective bed temperature in spectroscopic cells can be significantly different from that given by measure thermocouples, even when located in the vicinity of the sample, but that the calibration

  11. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Leo A.; Savian, Jairo F., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Lopes, William R. [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Geologia e Mineracao


    An integrated evaluation of geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembo terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Cangucu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Cacapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aero gamma spectrometry or aero magnetometry. (author)

  12. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry; Metodologia para determinacao da atividade de radionuclideos por sistema de espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the {sup 18}F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  13. Radiation hazards and lifetime risk assessment of tap water using liquid scintillation counting and high-resolution gamma spectrometry. (United States)

    Al-Shboul, K F; Alali, A E; Batayneh, I M; Al-Khodire, H Y


    In this work, two complementary techniques, viz. liquid scintillation counting and high-resolution gamma spectrometry are utilized to analyze radionuclides concentrations in tap water of Irbid governorate, Jordan, and study their correlation. Gross alpha and gross beta concentrations, in the tap water samples collected from the nine districts of Irbid governorate, ranged from natural radionuclides with no trace of artificial radioactivity. In addition, the results of both techniques show that storing tap water in drilled wells leads to higher levels of radioactivity concentrations beyond the international permissible limits. Furthermore, the average lifetime risk and annual effective dose received by age-grouped inhabitants due to direct and indirect tap water consumption are evaluated, where most of the received dose is attributed to (226)Ra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Jonathan G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Tzu-Fang [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vo, Duc T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, Pierre F. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Weber, Anne-Laure [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Under a 2006 agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America and the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) of France, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) within DOE and IRSN initiated a collaboration to improve isotopic identification and analysis of nuclear material [i.e., plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U)]. The specific aim of the collaborative project was to develop new versions of two types of isotopic identification and analysis software: (1) the fixed-energy response-function analysis for multiple energies (FRAM) codes and (2) multi-group analysis (MGA) codes. The project is entitled Action Sheet 4 – Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems (Action Sheet 4). FRAM and MGA/U235HI are software codes used to analyze isotopic ratios of U and Pu. FRAM is an application that uses parameter sets for the analysis of U or Pu. MGA and U235HI are two separate applications that analyze Pu or U, respectively. They have traditionally been used by safeguards practitioners to analyze gamma spectra acquired with high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) systems that are cooled by liquid nitrogen. However, it was discovered that these analysis programs were not as accurate when used on spectra acquired with a newer generation of more portable, electrically cooled HRGS (ECHRGS) systems. In response to this need, DOE/NNSA and IRSN collaborated to update the FRAM and U235HI codes to improve their performance with newer ECHRGS systems. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed this work for DOE/NNSA.

  15. In situ (United States)

    Chamlagain, Bhawani; Sugito, Tessa A; Deptula, Paulina; Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Varmanen, Pekka; Piironen, Vieno


    The in situ production of active vitamin B12 was investigated in aqueous cereal-based matrices with three strains of food-grade Propionibacterium freudenreichii . Matrices prepared from malted barley flour (33% w/v; BM), barley flour (6%; BF), and wheat aleurone (15%; AM) were fermented. The effect of cobalt and the lower ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) or its natural precursors (riboflavin and nicotinamide) on active B12 production was evaluated. Active B12 production was confirmed by UHPLC-UV-MS analysis. A B12 content of 12-37 μg·kg -1 was produced in BM; this content increased 10-fold with cobalt and reached 940-1,480 μg·kg -1 with both cobalt and DMBI. With riboflavin and nicotinamide, B12 production in cobalt-supplemented BM increased to 712 μg·kg -1 . Approximately, 10 μg·kg -1 was achieved in BF and AM and was increased to 80 μg·kg -1 in BF and 260 μg·kg -1 in AM with cobalt and DMBI. The UHPLC and microbiological assay (MBA) results agreed when both cobalt and DMBI or riboflavin and nicotinamide were supplemented. However, MBA gave ca. 20%-40% higher results in BM and AM supplemented with cobalt, indicating the presence of human inactive analogues, such as pseudovitamin B12. This study demonstrates that cereal products can be naturally fortified with active B12 to a nutritionally relevant level by fermenting with P. freudenreichii .

  16. Measurement of short-lived radon progenies by simultaneous alpha gamma-spectrometry at the German radon reference chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Honig, A; Sulima, T; Buchholz, A; Keyser, U


    In the German radon reference chamber, the short-lived radon progenies are separated by a sample tube according to the attached or unattached fraction, while their activity concentration is afterwards measured by simultaneous alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. The results are expressed by the equilibrium factor F and the unattached fraction f sub p (International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 50, Ann. ICRP 17 (1987) 1). Both F and f sub p , can be therefore studied with respect to the full set of environmental parameters, e.g. temperature, humidity, air pressure and aerosol concentration (Honig et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 416 (1998) 525). Up to now, well-defined and stable equilibrium factors in the interval from 0.1 to 1.0 have been established. In correlation with this, the unattached fraction can be varied from 0.01 to 0.9. The sample and measuring technique for the short-lived radon progenies described in this work is the basis for fundamental studies with regard to the equilibr...

  17. Comparison of SensL and Hamamatsu 4×4 channel SiPM arrays in gamma spectrometry with scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzicka-Kobylka, M., E-mail:; Szczesniak, T.; Moszyński, M.


    The market of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) consists of many manufacturers that produce their detectors in different technology. Hamamatsu (Japan) and SensL (Ireland) seems to be the most popular companies that produce large SiPM arrays. The aim of this work is characterization and comparison of 4×4 channel SiPM arrays produced by these two producers. Both of the tested SiPMs are made in through-silicon via (TSV) technology, consist of 16, 3×3 mm avalanche photodiode (APD) cells and have fill factor slightly above 60%. The largest difference is a single APD cell size and hence total number of APD cells (55,424 for Hamamatsu, 76,640 for SensL). In the case of SensL SiPM, its spectral response characteristics is shifted slightly toward shorter wavelengths with maximum at 420 nm (450 nm for Hamamatsu). The presented measurements cover selection of the SiPM optimum operating voltage (in respect to energy resolution), verification of the excess noise factor and check of the linearity characteristics. Moreover, the gamma spectrometry with LSO, BGO and CsI:Tl scintillators together with pulse characteristics for these crystals (rise time and fall time) is reported, as well as temperature dependence. The presented measurements show better performance of the SensL array comparing to the Hamamatsu detector.

  18. Precise determination of HPGe detector efficiency for gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with variable geometry and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera Manuel


    Full Text Available A methodology to determine the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE for precise gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with high-purity germanium (HPGe detector, valid when this efficiency depends on the energy of the radiation E, the height of the cylindrical sample H, and its density ρ, is introduced. The methodology consists of an initial calibration as a function of E and H and the application of a self-attenuation factor, depending on the density of the sample ρ, in order to correct for the different attenuation of the generic sample in relation to the measured standard. The obtained efficiency can be used in the whole range of interest studied, E = 120–2000 keV, H = 1–5 cm, and ρ = 0.8–1.7 g/cm3, being its uncertainty below 5%. The efficiency has been checked by the measurement of standards, resulting in a good agreement between experimental and expected activities. The described methodology can be extended to similar situations when samples show geometric and compaction differences.

  19. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira


    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  20. Theoretical determination of gamma spectrometry systems efficiency based on probability functions. Application to self-attenuation correction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Manuel, E-mail: [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, University of Cadiz, Avda, Universidad de Cadiz 10, 11519 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Suarez-Llorens, Alfonso [Facultad de Ciencias, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Alonso, José J.; Vidal, Juan [CEIMAR, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)


    A generic theoretical methodology for the calculation of the efficiency of gamma spectrometry systems is introduced in this work. The procedure is valid for any type of source and detector and can be applied to determine the full energy peak and the total efficiency of any source-detector system. The methodology is based on the idea of underlying probability of detection, which describes the physical model for the detection of the gamma radiation at the particular studied situation. This probability depends explicitly on the direction of the gamma radiation, allowing the use of this dependence the development of more realistic and complex models than the traditional models based on the point source integration. The probability function that has to be employed in practice must reproduce the relevant characteristics of the detection process occurring at the particular studied situation. Once the probability is defined, the efficiency calculations can be performed in general by using numerical methods. Monte Carlo integration procedure is especially useful to perform the calculations when complex probability functions are used. The methodology can be used for the direct determination of the efficiency and also for the calculation of corrections that require this determination of the efficiency, as it is the case of coincidence summing, geometric or self-attenuation corrections. In particular, we have applied the procedure to obtain some of the classical self-attenuation correction factors usually employed to correct for the sample attenuation of cylindrical geometry sources. The methodology clarifies the theoretical basis and approximations associated to each factor, by making explicit the probability which is generally hidden and implicit to each model. It has been shown that most of these self-attenuation correction factors can be derived by using a common underlying probability, having this probability a growing level of complexity as it reproduces more precisely

  1. Low-energy X-ray and gamma spectrometry using silicon photodiodes; Espectrometria de raios X e gama de baixa energia utilizando fotodiodos de silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Iran Jose Oliveira da


    The use of semiconductor detectors for radiation detection has increased in recent years due to advantages they present in comparison to other types of detectors. As the working principle of commercially available photodiodes is similar to the semiconductor detector, this study was carried out to evaluate the use of Si photodiodes for low energy x-ray and gamma spectrometry. The photodiodes investigated were SFH-205, SFH-206, BPW-34 and XRA-50 which have the following characteristics: active area of 0,07 cm{sup 2} and 0,25 cm{sup 2}, thickness of the depletion ranging from 100 to 200 {mu}m and junction capacitance of 72 pF. The photodiode was polarized with a reverse bias and connected to a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, followed by a amplifier and multichannel pulse analyzer. Standard radiation source used in this experiment were {sup 241} Am, {sup 109} Cd, {sup 57} Co and {sup 133} Ba. The X-ray fluorescence of lead and silver were also measured through K- and L-lines. All the measurements were made with the photodiodes at room temperature.The results show that the responses of the photodiodes very linear by the x-ray energy and that the energy resolution in FWHM varied between 1.9 keV and 4.4 keV for peaks corresponding to 11.9 keV to 59 keV. The BPW-34 showed the best energy resolution and the lower dark current. The full-energy peak efficiency was also determined and it was observed that the peak efficiency decreases rapidly above 50 keV. The resolution and efficiency are similar to the values obtained with other semiconductor detectors, evidencing that the photodiodes used in that study can be used as a good performance detector for low energy X-ray and gamma spectrometry. (author)

  2. Portable gamma spectrometry system for simultaneous monitoring of radiotracers in vivo using CdTe and CdZnTe radiation detector probes (United States)

    Lorenz, M.; Van Ryn, J.; Merk, H.; Markert, M.; Eisert, W. G.


    A portable gamma spectrometry system has been designed to simultaneously monitor various radiotracers in vivo. This system includes a portable IBM® compatible personal computer and miniaturized gamma radiation detector probes based on the semiconductor materials CdTe and CdZnTe. The computer has been expanded with pulse processing and analyzing electronics for three independent inputs and a software package. A portable NIM Bin cabinet, equipped with charge loss correction electronics, is an optional addition. This can be used to improve the peak to valley ratio, the spectral resolution and the peak efficiency of the CdTe detectors. Two different probe housings have been developed, a rectangular and a cylindrical shaped housing. The rectangular probe is designed for clinical use. This device contains one CdTe or CdZnTe crystal with a sensitive area of 10 × 2 mm (2 mm thick) or 10 × 3 mm (3 mm thick) and a preamplifier circuit. The probes can be attached to each other, in order to form a linear array. The cylindrical detector probe is developed for implantation in animals and contains two parallel switched CdTe crystals with a sensitive area of 5 × 5 mm (2 mm thick) and a preamplifier circuit. Both probe housings were made from a tungsten alloy (2 mm thick), which provides good shielding for low-energy gamma radiation isotopes frequently used in clinical settings ( 111In, 123I, 99mTc, 125I). The detection sensitivity of the probes was very similar to the sensitivity of a standard gamma camera when comparing measurements in different in vitro models and in patients. In addition, the detector probes more accurately measured small, local radiation sources as compared to the gamma camera. This gamma spectrometry system has also been used to simultaneously measure the accumulation of 99mTc-labelled platelets and 123I-labelled fibrin after arterial injury in rabbits. This has allowed the in vivo monitoring of different doses of antithrombotic therapies in animals by

  3. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.


    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  4. Development and calibration automatic equipment's measuring in real time of the environmental radioactivity by gamma spectrometry; Desarrollo y calibracion de equipos automaticos de medida en tiempo real de la radiactividad ambiental mediante espectrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R.; Morant, J. J.; Salvado, M.


    In this paper, we describe the general aspects of the implementation of gamma spectrometry in water, as well as the development of two measuring devices based on this technique: aerosol monitor (RARM-F) and a monitor direct measurement (RARMD2) , both patent applications. Furthermore, they described in detail the aspects of calibration of equipment, which has been made by combining experimental measurements with Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)

  5. Analysis of the gamma spectrometry {sup 210}Pb radioisotope in river bottom sediments of the hydrographic sub-basins around the UTM-Caldas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Pedro H.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Oliveira, Aline F.G. de, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Viana, Valquiria F.L., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas


    The uranium mine of Caldas, currently named Ore Treatment Unit (UTM-Caldas), is sited at the Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State) and was the first uranium mineral-industrial complex in Brazil. It has been installed since 1982 and now it is under decommissioning process. Taking into account the potential sources of contamination and the assessment of the impact of the mine, based on the presence of radionuclides from the radioactive decay series of natural {sup 238}U, the aim of the article is to present the distribution of {sup 210}Pb in the stream bottom sediments of the study area that consists of the Taquari watershed, sub-divided by its three major sub-basins: Consulta stream, Soberbo stream and Taquari river. The radionuclide activity concentrations were measured in sediment samples that were collected in twelve collecting points, during four sampling campaigns, carried out in the dry and rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011. The results of the {sup 210}Pb concentration activity were obtained by gamma spectrometry performed in both high and low energy CANBERRA detectors. The results point out that the UTM-Caldas is influencing on the bottom sediment distribution of {sup 210}Pb activity in its neighborhood. However, a more detailed study should be done in order to identify if there is another source of {sup 210}Pb in the study area, such as a geogenic anomaly, that may contributing to the local increment of {sup 210}Pb activity. (author)

  6. Measurement of radon concentration in water by means of {alpha}, {gamma} spectrometry. Radon concentration in ground and spring water in Hiroshima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)


    Radon ({sup 222}Rn, T{sub 1/2}=3.8235{+-}0.0003d) is {alpha}-ray releasing nuclide, so that it can not be detected by {gamma}-ray measurement. But, the daughter nuclides {sup 214}Pb (T{sub 1/2}=26.8 min) and {sup 214}Bi (T{sub 1/2}=19.9 min) release {gamma}-ray, accordingly they are measured by Ge detector. Their radioactive equilibrium is kept in the closed vessel, because their half-lives are shorter than that of radon. We developed a measurement method of radon concentration by means of {gamma}-spectrometry. We applied this method to catch radon in the atmosphere by active carbon. The same principle can be applied to radon in water. Radon concentrations in the ground water were measured in 22 points in the Higashi-Hiroshima city and 82 points in the Hiroshima prefecture. The efficiencies of {gamma}-ray were determined. The radon concentration showed between 11 and 459 Bq/l and the average was 123 Bq/l. The high concentration of radon was distributed in the spring of granitic layer and higher concentration of radon were observed in the ground water of fault. (S.Y.)

  7. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida


    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  8. Lobular carcinoma in situ. (United States)

    Afonso, Nelia; Bouwman, David


    The diagnosis of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) provokes considerable anxiety in patients owing to misconceptions about this diagnosis. Initially LCIS was considered a premalignant lesion, but it is now a marker of increased risk. The number of women diagnosed with LCIS has increased in recent years most likely owing to more rigorous breast cancer screening. Implications of this diagnosis and management options are discussed in this review.

  9. Experimental study on neptunium migration under in situ geochemical conditions (United States)

    Kumata, M.; Vandergraaf, T. T.


    Results are reported for migration experiments performed with Np under in situ geochemical conditions over a range of groundwater flow rates in columns of crushed rock in a specially designed facility at the 240-level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. This laboratory is situated in an intrusive granitic rock formation, the Lac du Bonnet batholith. Highly altered granitic rock and groundwater were obtained from a major subhorizontal fracture zone at a depth of 250 m in the URL. The granite was wet-crushed and wet-sieved with groundwater from this fracture zone. The 180-850-μm size fraction was selected and packed in 20-cm long, 2.54-cm in diameter Teflon™-lined stainless steel columns. Approximately 30-ml vols of groundwater containing 3HHO and 237Np were injected into the columns at flow rates of 0.3, 1, and 3 ml/h, followed by elution with groundwater, obtained from the subhorizontal fracture, at the same flow rates, for a period of 95 days. Elution profiles for 3HHO were obtained, but no 237Np was detected in the eluted groundwater. After terminating the migration experiments, the columns were frozen, the column material was removed and cut into twenty 1-cm thick sections and each section was analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Profiles of 237Np were obtained for the three columns. A one-dimensional transport model was fitted to the 3HHO breakthrough curves to obtain flow parameters for this experiment. These flow parameters were in turn applied to the 237Np concentration profiles in the columns to produce sorption and dispersion coefficients for Np. The results show a strong dependence of retardation factors ( Rf) on flow rate. The decrease in the retarded velocity of the neptunium ( Vn) varied over one order of magnitude under the geochemical conditions for these experiments.

  10. In-Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Slot, Susanne; Paltved, Charlotte


    for the in situ simulation program. Three scenarios were written and were double-checked by two medical experts. One researcher observed the training to score events and fill out the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM), a validated team observational tool set for measuring teamwork skills during medical...... emergencies. It contains 12 questions, which are rated using a five-point scale, and covers four categories; leadership, teamwork and task management, and an overall score on team performance. Results: 16 simulations were conducted with 16 different teams of 10 doctors and 32 nurses. First, this study took...

  11. Methodology for measuring surfaces using in situ gamma spectrometry in nuclear and radiological emergencies; Metodologia de medida de superficies mediante espectrometria gamma in sit en emergencias radiologicas y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yague, L.; Navarro, N.; Perez, C.; Perez-Cejuela, P.; Vico, A.; Maquez, J. L.; Alvarez, A.


    CIEMAT has an environmental mobile unit for measurements of ambient dose rate and activity concentration in air. In addition, recently it included the ability to surface concentration measurement. This measure is particularly useful for making decisions about emergency decontaminate surfaces according to the criteria of the DBRR. (Author)

  12. Determination and quantification of impurities found in samples of {sup 124}I using gamma spectrometry; Determinacao e quantificacao de impurezas encontradas em amostra de {sup 124}I usando a espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ronaldo Lins da; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Laranjeira, Adilson da Silva; Poledna, Roberto; Veras, Eduardo de; Almeida, Maria Candida M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braghirolli, Ana Maria S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    {sup 124}I, positron emitter is produced in the IEN/CNEN-RJ and used in diagnosis image of tumors. In this radioisotope production process impurities appear and health agency requires that the level of these characteristics is quantified. These radionuclides emit gamma and X-radiation, allowing the identification and quantitation by gamma spectrometry. With the use of HPGE detector, coupled with the efficiency curve, was identified {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I. The impurity levels measured in the sample were in the range of 0.5% to 90%, respectively, indicating the feasibility of the method for controlling the quality of the radiopharmaceutical.

  13. Spent BWR fuel characterisation combining a fork detector with gamma spectrometry. Report on Task JNT A 1071 FIN of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiitta, A.; Hautamaeki, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Turunen, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Arlt, R.; Arenas, Carrasco J.; Esmailpour-Kazerouni, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Schwalbach, P. [Euratom Safeguards Office (United Kingdom)


    The LWR spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before they become difficult to access. According to the IAEA's criteria the partial defect test for spent fuel should be able to detect if half or more of the fuel pins have been removed from an assembly and possibly replaced by dummies. Euratom applies similar criteria. Therefore a standard verification procedure needs to be developed using an appropriate combination of measurements and theoretical calculations. Two experiments with an 'upgraded' fork detector were performed at the TVO KPA Store in September and in December 1999. On the whole, 26 assemblies were measured. In the 'upgraded' fork detector the total neutron count and the gross gamma measurements are complemented with gamma spectroscopic measurement using an integrated measurement head. A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector is placed on the same vertical level as the fission and ionisation chambers. This enables simultaneous gamma and neutron measurements at one location. In the upgraded fork model the fork prongs can also be removed and gamma spectrometric measurements can be done using only the CZT detector. This allows more versatile placement of the target fuel assembly allowing various kind of gamma spectroscopic scanning measurements. In this report a gamma spectroscopy based correction to the gross gamma data is introduced. This corrected gross gamma signal seems to describe more consistently the burnup of the assembly than the {sup 137}Cs intensity obtained by direct gamma spectrometry. Concerning the measured neutron data of assemblies with different enrichments, an enrichment correction method based on calculations made with the ORIGEN-S program is introduced in this report. In addition, the share of {sup 244}Cm neutrons of the total neutron source is derived from the results calculated with the PYVO program. These corrections to the neutron signal seem to improve the correlation of the

  14. The metrological activity determination of {sup 238} U and {sup 230} Th by gamma spectrometry to industrial fuel-cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida M, M.C. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria- IRD/SEMRA, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. e-mail:


    This work describes the difficulty for determining the activity of {sup 238} U and {sup 230} Th using gamma spectrometry due to the low gamma-ray emission probabilities of 92 and 67 keV, and, mainly, the associated high uncertainties about 13 and 11%, respectively. {sup 230} Th is a {sup 238} U daughter and it is product from uranium mills and refineries. {sup 230} Th decays to {sup 226} Ra and this decay has to be measured because these radionuclides are not in secular equilibrium with their daughter products, besides the gamma-energies have high uncertainties in the emission probabilities. These radionuclides, mostly {sup 238} U, are important in the nuclear fuel-cycle, since the mining of uranium ore, where the nominal isotopic content of natural uranium is 99.27% of {sup 238} U, until the irradiated fuel reprocessing, where this isotope, a fertile material, is recovered to be used again. The uranium and thorium are considered safeguarded nuclear materials and the metrology tries to calibrate and standardize these materials to improve the activity determination techniques applied in different fuel-cycle scopes. The essential characteristics of the safeguarded materials are low gamma energies (less than 100 keV) and emission probabilities but with high uncertainties. In this way, the metrology can contribute to homeland security defense against illicit nuclear trafficking with the identification and quantification of the safeguarded radionuclides such as uranium and thorium, using specific gamma window energy and high resolution planar or coaxial germanium detector. The efficiency curve is obtained from the reference source spectrum considering the photopeak areas corresponding the standard activities. This curve depends on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation (sample absorption and material absorption between sample-detector), dead time and sample-detector position. The metrological activity determinations of {sup 238} U solid sources, and of

  15. Statistical signal processing for gamma spectrometry: application for a pileup correction method; Traitement statistique du signal spectrometrique: etude du desempilement de spectre en energie pour la spectrometrie gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigano, T


    The main objective of gamma spectrometry is to characterize the radioactive elements of an unknown source by studying the energy of the emitted photons. When a photon interacts with a detector, its energy is converted into an electrical pulse. The histogram obtained by collecting the energies can be used to identify radioactive elements and measure their activity. However, at high counting rates, perturbations which are due to the stochastic aspect of the temporal signal can cripple the identification of the radioactive elements. More specifically, since the detector has a finite resolution, close arrival times of photons which can be modeled as an homogeneous Poisson process cause pile-ups of individual pulses. This phenomenon distorts energy spectra by introducing multiple fake spikes and prolonging artificially the Compton continuum, which can mask spikes of low intensity. The objective of this thesis is to correct the distortion caused by the pile-up phenomenon in the energy spectra. Since the shape of photonic pulses depends on many physical parameters, we consider this problem in a nonparametric framework. By introducing an adapted model based on two marked point processes, we establish a nonlinear relation between the probability measure associated to the observations and the probability density function we wish to estimate. This relation is derived both for continuous and for discrete time signals, and therefore can be used on a large set of detectors and from an analog or digital point of view. It also provides a framework to this problem, which can be considered as a problem of nonlinear density deconvolution and nonparametric density estimation from indirect measurements. Using these considerations, we propose an estimator obtained by direct inversion. We show that this estimator is consistent and almost achieves the usual rate of convergence obtained in classical nonparametric density estimation in the L{sup 2} sense. We have applied our method to a set

  16. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovik Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  17. In situ measurement system (United States)

    Lord, D.E.


    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  18. Decision Threshold and Detection Limit in Spectrometric Measurements. Part 1: Application to Gamma Spectrometry; Umbral de Decision y Limite de Deteccion en Medidas Espectrometricas. Parte 1: Aplicacion a la Espectrometria Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.; Gasco, C.; Lopez, M.A.


    This report summarised the author's lecture of the advanced gamma spectrometry course organised by CIEMAT. The characteristic limits determination in gamma spectrometry generally is obtained through the programming that the trade marks offers to the client with the objective of the automatic calculation of the activity concentrations existing in a sample. In this report, the examples shown in the ISO 11929 standard are compared to the programming realised by Genie 2k for determining characteristic limits. The main difference of both is located in the uncertainty calculations due to the efficiency calibration that is considered by ISO and not by Genie 2K. Through implementation in the software developed by trade marks will be possible to introduce this uncertainty and to assimilate to the calculation done by ISO 11929. In the second part of this report will be analyzed the more complicated samples of this application as counting in a whole body counter (following ISO-28218 about Performance Criteria for radio bioassay), multiplet, overlapping, addition of several peaks for obtaining the activity concentration, etc. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Determination of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis; Determinacao de {sup 226}Ra por espectrometria gama: estudo do recipiente de acondicionamento de amostra para analise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti


    Determination of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, daughters of {sup 222}Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the {sup 226}Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand {sup 226}Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was {sup 222}Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  20. Determination of activity by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides present in drums of residues generated in nuclear centrals; Determinacion de actividad por espectrometria gamma de radionucleidos presentes en tambores de residuos generados en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Fernandez, J. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail:


    The generation of radioactive residuals in nuclear centrals as CNA I (Atucha I Nuclear Central) and CNE (Embalse Nuclear Central) makes that the measurement of those radionuclides has been a previous stage to the waste management. A method used in those nuclear centrals it is the gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors, previous to the immobilization of the residual in a cemented matrix, with this the contact with the external agents and its possible dispersion to the atmosphere in the short term is avoided. The ARN (Nuclear Regulatory Authority) of Argentina it carries out periodically intercomparisons and evaluations of the measurement and procedures systems used in the nuclear power stations for the correct measurement and determination of activity of radioactive residuals by gamma spectrometry. In this work an independent method of measurement is exposed to the nuclear power stations. To determine the activity of the residuals by gamma spectrometry deposited in drums, it is required of the precise knowledge of the efficiency curve for such geometry and matrix. Due to the RNA doesn't have a pattern of these characteristics, a mathematical model has been used to obtain this efficiency curve. For it, it is necessary to determine previously: 1) the geometric efficiency or solid angle sustained by the source-detector system (drum-detector) applying a mathematical model described in this work. 2) To estimate the auto-attenuation factor that present the photons in the cemented matrix, these calculations are carried out with a simple equation and its are verified with the Micro Shield 6.10 program. The container commonly used by these nuclear power stations its are drums for 220 liters constructed with SAE 1010 steel and with a thickness of 0.127 cm, with an approximate weight 7.73 Kg., internal diameter of 57.1 cm, and height: 87 cm. The results obtained until the moment register a discrepancy from 5 to 10% with relationship to the measurements carried out by the

  1. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The


    and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...... materials and devices with the specimen being contacted by electrical, mechanical or other means, with emphasis on in situ electrical measurements performed in a gaseous or liquid environment. We will describe the challenges and prospects of electrical characterization of devices and processes induced...... by a voltage in gas and liquids. We will also provide a historical perspective of in situ TEM electrical measurements and applications using electrical contacts....

  2. In Situ Aerosol Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is developing new platform systems that have the potential to benefit Earth science research activities, which include in situ instruments for atmospheric...

  3. In situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, S.; Voigts, F. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maus-Friedrichs, W., E-mail: [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)


    The in situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is constrained by the decomposition of species at the surface and the absence of OH bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by water exposure to a Calcium layer. We present four different approaches for the preparation of Ca(OH){sub 2} films in an UHV. Two of these methods are found to be ineffective for the preparation, the other two are shown to produce Calcium hydroxide films. Both of the two effective procedures make use of H{sub 2} gas exposure. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  4. In situ preparation of calcium carbonate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, S. [Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Voigts, F. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maus-Friedrichs, W., E-mail: [Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)


    The in situ preparation of calcium carbonate films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is inhibited by the decomposition of CO{sub 2} molecules at the surface and the absence of CO{sub 2} bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by CO{sub 2} exposure to a calcium layer. We investigated different approaches for the preparation of CaCO{sub 3} films in an UHV. Among these, only the simultaneous evaporation of Ca atoms in a mixed O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmosphere is able to produce well defined stoichiometric calcium carbonate films. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  5. In Situ Activation of Microcapsules (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)


    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing two or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug, or a prodrug and a drug activator are partitioned into separate phases. or prevented from diffusing out of the microcapsule by a liquid phase in which the drug is poorly soluble. Also disclosed are methods of using the microcapsules for in situ activation of drugs where upon exposure to an appropriate energy source the internal phases mix and the drug is activated in situ.

  6. Comparison of results at area 1 and area 2 between different Swedish in-situ teams in the RESUME-95 exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics (Sweden)


    In the beginning of 1996 the Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe was commissioned by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute to perform a compilation of the results obtained by the Swedish in-situ teams that participated in the RESUME-95 exercise. The aim of this survey is to study the coherence in the reported activity data between the groups. It is not the purpose to see this comparison as a performance ranking of individual laboratories. Any such comparison must be made with precaution since the teams generally have collected their data with different equipment and by different methods. In this work, all in-situ teams have been given code-names, where each team has been labelled a number from 1 to 5. For more details, the interested reader is referred to the internal reports made by each team that (supposedly) also are to be included in the major compilation of the in-situ gamma spectrometry in the RESUME-95 exercise by Danish Emergency Management Agency. (au).

  7. In Situ Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, H


    In this thesis, the feasibility of in situ TE for vascular and valvular purposes were tested with the use of different materials, and animal models. First, the feasibility of a decellularized biological scaffold (pSIS-ECM) as pulmonary heart valve prosthesis is examined in sheep (Chapter 2). Next,

  8. Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS) (United States)

    ... consider treatments to reduce your risk of developing invasive breast cancer. Symptoms Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) doesn't cause signs or ... tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: The NSABP study of tamoxifen and ... & treatment Advertisement ...

  9. Sex in situ, Teater Nordkraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida


    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  10. In situ measurements of X-ray peak profile asymmetry from individual grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Lienert, U.; Pantleon, Wolfgang


    Two copper samples, pre-deformed in tension to 5% plastic strain, are subjected to an in situ tensile deformation of 1% plastic strain while X-ray peak profiles from individual bulk grains are obtained. One sample is oriented with the in situ tensile axis parallel to the pre-deformation axis......, and peak profiles are obtained with the scattering vector parallel to this direction. The profiles show the expected asymmetry explained by the composite model as caused by intra-grain stresses. The other sample is oriented with the in situ tensile axis perpendicular to the pre-deformation axis, and peak...... profiles are obtained with the scattering vector parallel to the in situ tensile axis. In this case the profiles initially show an opposite asymmetry, but during the in situ deformation the asymmetry reverses sign as the deformation under new loading conditions leads to changes in the intra-grain stresses....

  11. Comparison of optimised germanium gamma spectrometry and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 154}Eu single ratios in highly burnt UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, S. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail:; Guenther-Leopold, I. [Laboratory for Materials Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Murphy, M.F.; Jatuff, F. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Non-destructive and destructive methods have been compared to validate their corresponding assessed accuracies in the measurement of {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs isotopic concentration ratios in four spent UO{sub 2} fuel samples with very high (52 and 71 GWd/t) and ultra-high (91 and 126 GWd/t) burnup values, and about 10 (in the first three samples) and 4 years (in the latter sample) cooling time. The non-destructive technique tested was high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and a special tomographic station for the handling of highly radioactive 400 mm spent fuel segments that included a tungsten collimator, lead filter (to enhance the signal to Compton background ratio and reduce the dead time) and paraffin wax (to reduce neutron damage). The non-destructive determination of these isotopic concentration ratios has been particularly challenging for these segments because of the need to properly derive non-Gaussian gamma-peak areas and subtract the background from perturbing capture gammas produced by the intrinsic high-intensity neutron emissions from the spent fuel. Additionally, the activity distribution within each pin was determined tomographically to correct appropriately for self-attenuation and geometrical effects. The ratios obtained non-destructively showed a 1{sigma} statistical error in the range 1.9-2.9%. The destructive technique used was a high-performance liquid chromatographic separation system, combined online to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS), for the analysis of dissolved fuel solutions. During the mass spectrometric analyses, special care was taken in the optimisation of the chromatographic separation for Eu and the interfering element Gd, as also in the mathematical correction of the {sup 154}Gd background from the {sup 154}Eu signal. The ratios obtained destructively are considerably more precise (1{sigma} statistical error in

  12. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)


    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  13. Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ. (United States)

    Consolo, Pierluigi; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Crinò, Stefano F; Tortora, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Cintolo, Marcello; Familiari, Luigi; Pallio, Socrate


    The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing "irretrievable stones" include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis.

  14. Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ (United States)

    Consolo, Pierluigi; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Crinò, Stefano F; Tortora, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Cintolo, Marcello; Familiari, Luigi; Pallio, Socrate


    The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing “irretrievable stones” include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis. PMID:23858381

  15. Four Models of In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Krogh, Kristian; Paltved, Charlotte


    that there are four fruitful approaches to in situ simulation: (1) In situ simulation informed by reported critical incidents and adverse events from emergency departments (ED) in which team training is about to be conducted to write scenarios. (2) In situ simulation through ethnographic studies at the ED. (3) Using...... and relevance Empirical and theoretical research is needed to develop in situ simulation and to theorize and experiment with how we best take reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic. In situ simulation offers a unique way to study team interactions there are widely different approaches......Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest...

  16. In Situ Instrumentation for Sub-Surface Planetary Geochemistry (United States)

    Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Parsons, A.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.


    Novel instrumentation is under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, building upon earth-based techniques for hostile environments, to infer geochemical processes important to formation and evolution of solid bodies in our Solar System. A prototype instrument, the Pulsed Neutron Generator Gamma Ray and Neutron Detectors (PNG-GRAND), has a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator coupled with gamma ray and neutron detectors to measure quantitative elemental concentrations and bulk densities of a number of major, minor and trace elements at or below the surfaces with approximately a meter-sized spatial resolution down to depths of about 50 cm without the need to drill. PNG-GRAND's in situ a meter-scale measurements and adaptability to a variety of extreme space environments will complement orbital kilometer-scale and in-situ millimeter scale elemental and mineralogical measurements to provide a more complete picture of the geochemistry of planets, moons, asteroids and comets.

  17. Calibration of the High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Detection Systems from the Environmental Radioactivity Unit and Radiological Surveillance (ARU and RV); Calibracion de los Sistemas Detectores de Espectrometria Gamma de Alta Resolucion de la Unidad de Radiactividad Ambiental y Vigilancia Radiologica (URA y VR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Arana, M.; Suanez, A.


    In accordance with international regulations and with the quality criteria imposed by the internal quality system of the laboratory of gamma spectrometry, which belongs to the Unit of Environmental Radioactivity and Radiation Monitoring (URA y VR), it is necessary to perform a periodic calibration of the measurement systems of gamma spectrometry. The equipment calibration carries with the need for the preparation of the geometries of measurement and calibration in energy and in efficiencies. This report reflects the procedures for the preparation of the wide range of geometries available in the laboratory, as well as the different calibrations performed with those geometries in almost all the laboratory gamma detectors using the CANBERRA software Genie 2k. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils; Puesta a Punto de un sistema de Expectrometria Gamma para la Determinacion de Cs-137 en Suelos Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.


    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs.

  19. The Art of in situ Cryocrystallization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Art of in situ Cryocrystallization. Dhananjay Dey and Deepak Chopra. Keywords. In situ cryocrystallization, states of matter, OHCD. The molecular and crystal structure of low-melting organic compounds and molecular liquids can be determined by in situ cryocrystallization technique. This also enables a detailed.

  20. Noise canceling in-situ detection (United States)

    Walsh, David O.


    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  1. In situ bypass og diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E


    From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 in situ bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients. Preoperative risk-factors were equally distributed among diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM) patients, except for smoking habits (DM:48%, NDM:64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (DM:45%, NDM:29%, p...... decreased survival rate was found in diabetics (p bypass technique very useful in the treatment of critical ischaemia of the lower limb in diabetic patients. The overall results in diabetic patients, whether insulin-dependent or not, were equal to those in non...

  2. In situ dehydration of yugawaralite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny; Cruciani, G.


    The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room...... of the cell parameters in the measured temperature range. This model involves a sixfold coordination of the Ca cations (five framework O atoms and one water molecule). There is no indication of significant structure changes before collapse, likely occurring when the last water molecule is expelled from...

  3. Cancer statistics: Breast cancer in situ. (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; DeSantis, Carol E; Lin, Chun Chieh; Kramer, Joan L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Kohler, Betsy; Brawley, Otis W; Gansler, Ted


    An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States-ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ-using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. In-situ measurement of the electrical conductivity of aluminum oxide in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; White, D.P.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others


    A collaborative DOE/Monbusho irradiation experiment has been completed which measured the in-situ electrical resistivity of 12 different grades of aluminum oxide during HFIR neutron irradiation at 450{degrees}C. No evidence for bulk RIED was observed following irradiation to a maximum dose of 3 dpa with an applied dc electric field of 200 V/mm.

  5. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  6. Experimental Measurement of In Situ Stress (United States)

    Tibbo, Maria; Milkereit, Bernd; Nasseri, Farzine; Schmitt, Douglas; Young, Paul


    The World Stress Map data is determined by stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanisms, in situ measurement in mining, oil and gas boreholes as well as the borehole cores, and geologic data. Unfortunately, these measurements are not only infrequent but sometimes infeasible, and do not provide nearly enough data points with high accuracy to correctly infer stress fields in deep mines around the world. Improvements in stress measurements of Earth's crust is fundamental to several industries such as oil and gas, mining, nuclear waste management, and enhanced geothermal systems. Quantifying the state of stress and the geophysical properties of different rock types is a major complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines. Most stress measurement techniques involve either the boreholes or their cores, however these measurements usually only give stress along one axis, not the complete stress tensor. The goal of this project is to investigate a new method of acquiring a complete stress tensor of the in situ stress in the Earth's crust. This project is part of a comprehensive, exploration geophysical study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and focuses on two boreholes located in this mine. These boreholes are approximately 400 m long with NQ diameters and are located at depths of about 1300 - 1600 m and 1700 - 2000 m. Two borehole logging surveys were performed on both boreholes, October 2013 and July 2015, in order to perform a time-lapse analysis of the geophysical changes in the mine. These multi-parameter surveys include caliper, full waveform sonic, televiewer, chargeability (IP), and resistivity. Laboratory experiments have been performed on borehole core samples of varying geologies from each borehole. These experiments have measured the geophysical properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. The apparatus' used for this project are geophysical imaging cells capable

  7. In-situ measurement system (United States)

    Lord, David E.


    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop "hairpin" configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. The electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements are obtained, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  8. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila


    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  9. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  10. Extraordinary plasticity of ductile bulk metallic glasses. (United States)

    Chen, Mingwei; Inoue, Akihisa; Zhang, Wei; Sakurai, Toshio


    Shear bands generally initiate strain softening and result in low ductility of metallic glasses. In this Letter, we report high-resolution electron microscope observations of shear bands in a ductile metallic glass. Strain softening caused by localized shearing was found to be effectively prevented by nanocrystallization that is in situ produced by plastic flow within the shear bands, leading to large plasticity and strain hardening. These atomic-scale observations not only well explain the extraordinary plasticity that was recently observed in some bulk metallic glasses, but also reveal a novel deformation mechanism that can effectively improve the ductility of monolithic metallic glasses.

  11. PRINS and in situ PCR protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gosden, John R


    ... mapping of DNA sequences on chromosomes and location of gene expression followed the invention and refinement of in situ hybridization. Among the most recent technical developments has been the use of oligonucleotide primers to detect and amplify or extend complementary sequences in situ, and it is to this novel field that PRINS and In S...

  12. In situ characterization technique for nanotribological investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    An innovative technique has been developed to enable in situ monitoring of mechanical surface modification. The method is based on using a test surface and a sharp tip located on two different cantilevers; one for mechanical surface modification and the other for in situ detection of surface

  13. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharfe, K. [CleanEARTH Solutions Ltd., Concord, ON (Canada)


    An enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation process was described. The process used microbe supporting emulsifications to enhance bioavailability as well as to attenuate microbe competition and boost microbial production. Microbes were added prior to application and rapidly initiated bioremediation once applied to impacted areas. The microbe supporting emulsifiers were metabolically active. The study showed that exposed surface areas increased as hydrocarbon masses were divided, which in turn increased the water/substrate interface where microbial action occurred. Nutrients were used to ensure that crowding and waste accumulation were attenuated in order to ensure that the speed of growth and reproduction progressed exponentially. Water-carrying bacteria, enzymes and nutrients were adsorbed to the soil's particle surface and then diffused between particles. The sequestered hydrocarbons were then emulsified and removed in order to be bioremediated. It was concluded that biological catalysts were used to increase microbial activity and to trigger anabolic responses in microbes. Details of a biocatalyst laboratory solution analysis were also included. tabs., figs.

  15. In situ neoplasia in lymph node pathology. (United States)

    Oishi, Naoki; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Feldman, Andrew L


    In situ neoplasia represents the earliest form of malignant progression and is characterized by localization limited to the compartment corresponding to the cell of origin. Like other cancers, lymphoid neoplasms are considered to develop by multistep pathogenetic mechanisms. However, because of the circulating nature of lymphocytes, in situ lymphoid neoplasia may be difficult to identify histopathologically, and the compartment to which it is restricted may be physiological rather than strictly anatomical. The 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms recognizes two in situ entities: in situ follicular neoplasia (ISFN) and in situ mantle cell neoplasia (ISMCN). This review summarizes the clinical features, histopathology, genetics, and differential diagnoses of these two entities, including distinction from both their overly malignant counterparts and a variety of reactive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bulk Nanostructured Materials (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.


    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  17. Non-destructive determination of the burn-up of a nuclear fuel using {gamma} spectrometry; Determination non destructive du taux de combustion d'un combustible nucleaire par spectrometrie {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelman, Ch.; Petit, J.F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A non-destructive method has been developed for measuring the burn-up of a nuclear fuel. The principle of the method is based on the quantitative determination of a fission product using {gamma} spectrometry. For fuel elements containing uranium 235, the measurements concern the photoelectric peak at 2.18 MeV of {sup 144}Ce which has a half-life of 290 days. The same method could be applied under certain conditions: a) to the measurement of the number of fissions due to {sup 239}Pu, by dosing the {sup 106}Rh deriving from the {sup 106}Ru and having a half-life of 370 days. b) and therefore possibly to the non-destructive determination of the quantity of {sup 239}Pu present in a fuel element. If the operational programme of the reactor is known as a function of time, the possible field of application of the method is extended to times of irradiation of from two to three years. (authors) [French] Nous avons mis au point une methode de mesure non destructive du taux de combustion d'un combustible nucleaire. Son principe repose sur la determination quantitative d'un produit de fission par spectrometrie {gamma}. Pour les elements combustibles utilisant l'uranium 235, les mesures portent sur le pic photoelectrique a 2,18 MeV du {sup 144}Pr fils du {sup 144}Ce de periode 290 jours. La meme methode pourrait etre appliquee sous certaines conditions : a) a la mesure du nombre de fissions dues au {sup 239}Pu en faisant le dosage du {sup 106}Rh fils du {sup 106}Ru de periode 370 jours. b) donc eventuellement a la determination non destructive de la quantite du {sup 239}Pu contenue dans un element combustible. Si le programme de fonctionnement dans le temps du reacteur est connu, le domaine d'application de la methode s'etend a des durees d'irradiation pouvant atteindre deux a trois ans. (auteurs)

  18. in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith


    in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita ( (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at

  19. Crystallization method providing composition autocontrol in situ (CAM-S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkrbec, J.J. (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 16627 Prague 6 (Czechoslovakia)); Rosick, V.; Kohout, J. (Institute of Radioelectronics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia))


    A novel approach to crystal growth from a molten solution zone (MSZ) is presented. There are five variants of CAM-S, which is a modification of the travelling heater method (THM), which can solve crystal growth problems as THM does, especially synthesis, repeated creation of the MSZ, zoning operations with vibrational stirring, and perform all these operations in situ. The combination of CAM-S with calculation method of optimal molten-solution composition (COM-S) has been applied to the growth of bulk crystals of the ternary solid solutions Ga[sub x]In[sub 1-x]Sb. Extreme constancy of the lattice parameter throughout the crystalline length has been achieved. Both methods are based on the knowledge of phase diagrams.

  20. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J


    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  1. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ manipulation technologies subprogram plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.


    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified.

  2. Monitoring microstructural evolution in-situ during cyclic deformation by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben


    is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...... different loading regimes as tension and compression. With this technique, the evolution of dislocation structures in selected grains was followed during an individual load cycle....

  3. Pulse Plating on Gold Surfaces Studied by In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per


    Deposition of bulk copper on thin film gold surfaces is carried out by computer-aided pulse plating. It is demonstrated that the morphology of the copper deposit can be studied by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy both in potentiostatic experiments and in galvanostatic experiments. Optimized...... procedures for obtaining smooth deposits by pulse plating are explained in terms of a levelling effect. Possible non-faradaic processes observed in measurements with high frequency pulse plating are discussed....

  4. Properties of polymer/clay interphase in nanoparticles synthesized through in-situ polymerization processes


    Faucheu, Jenny; Gauthier, Catherine; Chazeau, Laurent; Cavaille, Jean-Yves; Mellon, Veronique; Pardal, Francis; Lami, Elodie Bourgeat


    International audience; This article is devoted to the effects of the presence of modified clays during in-situ polymerization. Such synthesis routes require clay modifications in order to render the clay surface compatible with the monomer-polymer and/or reactive during polymerization. In addition, the use of nanometric clays (laponite) induces a large surface area which introduces the differentiation between the polymer located in the clay vicinity (interphase) and the bulk polymer. Composi...

  5. Detection of colony-stimulating factor messenger RNA in single T cells by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, D J; Owens, T; Pearse, M


    In situ hybridization has been used to study the accumulation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) mRNA in single cells of a T lymphocyte clone (E9.D4) following antibody-mediated (F23.1) activation via the Ti-T3 complex in filler-independent bulk cultures. The specificity of hybridization...... by normal spleen cells and should be useful in the further analysis of lymphokine gene regulation in single T cells....

  6. An In-situ XPS study of non-evaporable ZrVFe getter material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hee Yoon


    Full Text Available To investigate the temperature dependence of a synthesized Zr57V36Fe7 non evaporable vacuum getter material, the in-situ temperature x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (in-situ XPS were performed in a UHV chamber equipped with a programmable ceramic sample heating system. The surface and bulk composition of Zr, V, and Ti was determined in the as-received state and after in-situ heating from 50℃ to 600℃ at 50℃per step. The peak fitting results for O 1s, C 1s, Zr 3d, V 2p, and Fe 2p high resolution spectra were acquired and the chemical state of the elements were then characterized as a function of heating temperature. In-situ XPS investigations showed that oxide reduction proceeds via the formation of sub-oxides with the simultaneous formation of carbides in the region near the surface. The activation temperature for completion of the Zr57V36Fe7 alloy, which approximates the XPS peaks changed from oxide to metallic state(20 % of the oxide peak, was determined around 480℃. The findings suggest that the in-situ temperature XPS technique is a useful analytical tool for evaluating activation characteristics of NEG materials.

  7. Determination of the initial oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 by in-situ TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, Wayne; Ghassemi, Hessam; Taheri, Mitra L., E-mail:


    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4), specifically by oxidation, is a problem of great importance as this material is critical for current nuclear reactor cladding. The early formation behavior and structure of the oxide layer during oxidation was studied using in-situ TEM techniques that allowed for Zry-4 to be monitored during corrosion. These environmental exposure experiments were coupled with precession electron diffraction to identify and quantify the phases present in the samples before and after the oxidation. Following short-term, high temperature oxidation, the dominant phase was revealed to be monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} in a columnar structure. These samples oxidized in-situ contained structures that correlated well with bulk Zry-4 subjected to autoclave treatment, which were used for comparison and validation of this technique. By using in-situ TEM the effect of microstructure features, such as grain boundaries, on oxidation behavior of an alloy can be studied. The technique presented herein holds the potential to be applied any alloy system to study these effects. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM was used to oxidize samples of Zircaloy-4. • Similar behavior was found in the in-situ oxidized and autoclave-oxidized samples. • Precession diffraction was used to characterize oxide phase and texture.

  8. Crystallization of Pd40CU30Ni10P20 bulk metallic glass with and without pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, B.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhuang, Yanxin


    The glass-transition behavior of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk metallic glass was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass was studied by in situ high-pressure and high-t...

  9. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.


    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  11. In-situ measurement of annealing kinetics of individual bulk grains in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    recrystallisation starts and, by fast growth of recrystallisation nuclei, some very big grains evolve. This occurs simultaneously with recovery coarsening of other parts of the microstructure. Consequently, very broad grain size distributions are observed. The 3DXRD results show that the nuclei (those crystallites...... that end up being very large by fast recrystallisation growth) do not have an initial size advantage compared to those coarsening much slower by recovery. Kinetics curves for these two categories of grains are determined. Data of this type are considered very important for understanding the thermal...

  12. In-situ studies of bulk deformation structures: Static properties under load and dynamics during deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bo


    grains in polycrystalline samples during tensile deformation. We have shown that the resulting 3D reciprocal space maps from tensile deformed copper comprise a pronounced structure, consisting of bright sharp peaks superimposed on a cloud of enhanced intensity. Based on the integrated intensity...

  13. "Understanding" cosmological bulk viscosity


    Zimdahl, Winfried


    A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

  14. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  15. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM...... of SiNW were also investigated in situ. SiNWs were grown on silicon microcantilever heaters using the VLS mechanism. When grown across a gap between adjacent cantilevers, contact was formed when the SiNW impinged on the sidewall of an adjacent cantilever. Using in situ TEM, SiNW contact formation...... process at high temperatures was observed in real time. As the eutectic droplet made contact, it wetted the surface; Si growth catalyzed by the eutectic continued, while at the same time Au often migrated/diffused away from the contact site. The parameters of this contact formation process were measured...

  16. Petroleum recovery by in situ combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orkiszewski, J.


    In an in situ combustion process for the recovery of oil, the available fuel is changed to more nearly equal the minimum fuel requirement for the process. The API gravity of the reservoir oil and the temperature of the reservoir are used to determine the total available fuel. The available fuel in the reservoir is changed to more nearly equal the minimum fuel requirement for the in situ combustion process by injecting a fluid capable of changing either the API gravity of the reservoir oil, the reservoir temperature, or both. An oxygen containing gas is then injected into the reservoir to initiate combustion. Oil is recovered from the reservoir as a result of the in situ combustion process. (10 claims)

  17. Design Games for In-Situ Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik


    The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses...... on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but we propose an approach...... that calls for the designer to conceptualise and perform ideas in-situ, that is on the site, where the game is supposed to be played. The problem was to design a creativity method that incorporated in-situ design work and which generated game concepts for pervasive games. The proposed design method, called...

  18. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams. (United States)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W; Robinson, James I; Nettleship, Joanne E; Owens, Raymond J; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E; Grimes, Jonathan M; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S; Stuart, David I; Evans, Gwyndaf


    Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  19. Mechanochemical Knoevenagel condensation investigated in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haferkamp


    Full Text Available The mechanochemical Knoevenagel condensation of malononitrile with p-nitrobenzaldehyde was studied in situ using a tandem approach. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were combined to yield time-resolved information on the milling process. Under solvent-free conditions, the reaction leads to a quantitative conversion to p-nitrobenzylidenemalononitrile within 50 minutes. The in situ data indicate that the process is fast and proceeds under a direct conversion. After stopping the milling process, the reaction continues until complete conversion. The continuous and the stopped milling process both result in crystalline products suitable for single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  20. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  1. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  2. Micromegas in a bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Aune, S; Charpak, Georges; Colas, P; Giganon, Arnaud; Rebourgeard, P C; Salin, P; Rebourgeard, Ph.


    In this paper we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it extremely attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  3. Micromegas in a bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)]. E-mail:; De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Andriamonje, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Aune, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Charpak, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colas, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physcis, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Ferrer, E. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Giganon, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Rebourgeard, Ph. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Salin, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)


    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine.

  4. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří


    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  5. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    aske og reducere logistikomkostningerne ville gøre denne alternative energikilde betydelig mere attraktiv. Disse mål kan nås med in situ flash pyrolyse, hvor halm bliver omdannet til bio-olie i marken og koks efterlades på jorden for at forbedre jordstrukturen og tilføre mineraler. Hovedformålene med...

  6. Carcinoma in situ in the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Andersson, L


    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis is a common precursor of germ-cell tumours in adults and adolescents, with the exception of spermatocytic seminoma. This article reviews existing knowledge on the pathobiology, genetic aspects and epidemiology of CIS, discusses current hypotheses concerning...

  7. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M S; Gundgaard, M.G.; Daugaard, G


    Carcinoma in situ testis (CIS) is known as the precursor of germ cell cancer of the testis. International guidelines on diagnosis and treatment are inconsistent. Some countries offer routine biopsies of the contralateral testicle in relation to orchidectomy for testicular cancer, whereas other...... their androgen status measured on a regular basis to find those cases where hormone substitution is needed....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acoustic target strength (TS) of Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis was measured in situ at 38 kHz during two surveys over the Namibian continental shelf in 1998 and 1999 using a SIMRAD EK500 echosounder/ES38D submersible split-beam transducer. Scattered aggregations of horse mackerel ...

  9. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  10. Reduced prokaryotic heterotrophic production at in situ pressure conditions in the dark ocean (United States)

    Amano-Sato, Chie; Sintes, Eva; Reinthaler, Thomas; Utsumi, Motoo; Herndl, Gerhard J.


    Prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) is a key process in the ocean's biological carbon cycle. About 50% of the oceanic PHP takes place in the dark ocean characterized by low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure, which increases by 1 MPa (10 atm) every 100 m depth. However, rate measurements of PHP are usually performed under atmospheric pressure conditions. Yet, the difference in pressure conditions and the handling of the samples on board may introduce biases in the PHP measurements. To determine PHP at in situ conditions, we developed an in situ microbial incubator (ISMI) designed to autonomously sample and incubate seawater down to a depth of 4000 m. Natural prokaryotic communities from the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were incubated in the ISMI with 5 nM 3H-leucine at different depths ranging between 10 and 3200 m. For comparison, atmospheric pressure incubations at in situ temperature were also conducted. PHP and single cell activity assessed by microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (MICRO-CARD-FISH) were determined. PHP obtained under in situ pressure conditions was generally lower than under atmospheric pressure conditions, suggesting that incubation under atmospheric pressure on board stimulates activity of dark ocean prokaryotes. The ratio between the bulk PHP obtained under in situ and under atmospheric pressure conditions decreased with depth. Moreover, MICRO-CARD-FISH revealed that some specific prokaryotic groups are apparently more affected by the hydrostatic pressure condition than others. Our results suggest that PHP in the dark ocean might be lower than assumed based on measurements under surface pressure conditions.

  11. In situ60Fe-60Ni systematics of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (United States)

    Telus, Myriam; Huss, Gary R.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ogliore, Ryan C.; Tachibana, Shogo


    The initial 60Fe/56Fe of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) can potentially constrain the stellar source of short-lived radionuclides and develop the 60Fe-60Ni (t1/2 = 2.6 Ma) system for early solar system chronology. However, progress with the 60Fe-60Ni system has been hindered by discrepancies between initial ratios inferred from bulk and in situ Fe-Ni analyses. Telus et al. (2016) show that discrepancies between these different techniques stem from late-stage open-system Fe-Ni mobilization. Here, we report in situ analyses of the Fe-Ni isotopic composition of ferromagnesian silicates in chondrules from UOCs using the ion microprobe. Of the 24 chondrules analyzed for this study, a few chondrules have resolved excesses in 60Ni of up to 70‰; however, the correlations with Fe/Ni are weak. Although complications from Fe-Ni redistribution make it difficult to interpret the data, we show that the initial 60Fe/56Fe for UOC chondrules is between 5 × 10-8 and 3.0 × 10-7. This is consistent with a late supernova source for 60Fe, but self-enrichment of the molecular cloud is another possible mechanism for incorporating 60Fe in the solar system. Discrepancies between bulk and in situ analyses remain, but likely stem from late-stage open-system Fe-Ni mobilization.

  12. Fabrication of Nanocarbon Composites Using In Situ Chemical Vapor Deposition and Their Applications. (United States)

    He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun


    Nanocarbon (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (GN)) composites attract considerable research interest due to their fascinating applications in many fields. Here, recent developments in the field of in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the design and controlled preparation of advanced nanocarbon composites are highlighted, specifically, CNT-reinforced bulk structural composites, as well as CNT, GN, and CNT/GN functional composites, together with their practical and potential applications. In situ CVD is a very attractive approach for the fabrication of composites because of its engaging features, such as its simplicity, low-cost, versatility, and tunability. The morphologies, structures, dispersion, and interface of the resulting nanocarbon composites can be easily modulated by varying the experimental parameters (such as temperature, catalysts, carbon sources, templates or template catalysts, etc.), which enables a great potential for the in situ synthesis of high-quality nanocarbons with tailored size and dimension for constructing high-performance composites, which has not yet been achieved by conventional methods. In addition, new trends of the in situ CVD toward nanocarbon composites are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Watching the growth of bulk grains during recrystallization of deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Fæster Nielsen, Søren; Gundlach, C.


    , contradicting the classical assumption of smooth and spherical growth of new grains during recrystallization. This type of in situ bulk measurement opens up the possibility of obtaining experimental data on scientific topics that before could only be analyzed theoretically on the basis of the statistical...

  14. Soil water retention of a bare soil with changing bulk densities (United States)

    Tillage changes the bulk density of the soil, lowering the density initially after which it increases as the soil settles. Implications of this for soil water content and soil water potential are obvious, but limited efforts have been made to monitor these changes continuously. We present in-situ me...

  15. In-Situ Planetary Chemical Analysis (United States)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Buehler, M. G.; Grannan, S. M.; Hecht, M. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.


    Both, the search for evidence of life on Mars and the assessment of the Martian environment in respect to its compatibility with human explorers, will require the ability to measure and understand the aqueous chemistry of the Martian regolith. Direct in-situ chemical analysis is the only method by which chemical biosignatures can be reliably recognized and the toxicity of the regolith accurately assessed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the aqueous ionic constituents and their concentrations is critical in developing kinetic and thermodynamic models that can be used to accurately predict the potential of the past or present Martian geochemical environment to have either generated or still sustain life. In-situ chemical characterization could provide evidence as to whether the chemical composition of the regolith or evaporates in suspected ancient water bodies have been biologically influenced.

  16. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)


    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  17. Electrocrystallisation studied in situ by optical scattering (United States)

    Rönnow, R.; Isidorsson, J.


    Optical scattering was measured in situ on an electrochromic tin oxide film during coulometric titration in an electrolyte of 1 M LiClO 4 in propylene carbonate. The normalised scattering increased at the critical point where electrocrystallisation started, according to optical and electrochemical results. A lower potential limit of 1.2V vs Li was established for tin oxide in electrochromic applications. Electrocrystallisation takes place below this limit.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami


    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  19. Ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Yaron S


    The potential for litigation has resulted in increased interest in ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. This article summarizes papers written during this past year on this subject. A panel of refractive surgery experts have summarized the current state of knowledge on this subject and provided guidelines to minimize risk. Because ectasia may occur in the absence of risk factors, there may be corneas with biomechanical factors not detectable with present technology which are at risk. Several articles point out the limitations of the Orbscan (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, New York, USA), in particular its accuracy and reproducibility with regard to data generated from the posterior surface of the cornea. A biomechanical model of the cornea is proposed which suggests that each cornea's response to laser in situ keratomileusis is unique. Several case reports are also reviewed which provide insight into pathogenesis and potential new treatment options; these include reports on histopathology, topographic pseudokeratectasia, ectasia from transient raised intraocular pressure, poor response to laser in situ keratomileusis after incisional surgery, intracorneal rings, collagen cross-linking and conductive keratoplasty to stabilize and sphericize the cornea with ectasia. Our knowledge about ectasia is still in evolution. Insights into the biomechanics and genetics of the cornea may allow us to further reduce its occurrence.

  20. In Situ Measurement of Aerosol Extinction (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Castaneda, R.; Owano, T. G.; Bear, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)


    Aerosols are important contributors to the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Much of the uncertainty in our knowledge of climate forcing is due to uncertainties in the radiative forcing due to aerosols as illustrated in the IPCC reports of the last ten years. Improved measurement of aerosol optical properties, therefore, is critical to an improved understanding of atmospheric radiative forcing. Additionally, attempts to reconcile in situ and remote measurements of aerosol radiative properties have generally not been successful. This is due in part to the fact that it has been impossible to measure aerosol extinction in situ in the past. In this presentation we introduce a new instrument that employs the techniques used in cavity ringdown spectroscopy to measure the aerosol extinction and scattering coefficients in situ. A prototype instrument has been designed and tested in the lab and the field. It is capable of measuring aerosol extinction coefficient to 2x10(exp -6) per meter. This prototype instrument is described and results are presented.


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  2. Comparison of in situ nutrient degradabilities of alternative by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    product feed; MBPF) were compared with shelled maize (SM) and soyabean meal (SBM) for their in situ nutrient disappearance. In situ experiments were conducted in two rumen fistulated Holstein cows to evaluate dry matter (DM), crude.

  3. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Tim


    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single....... The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge......, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity...

  4. In situ Raman spectroscopy of topological insulator BiTe films with varying thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, C.; Zhu, X.; Nilsson, Louis


    Topological insulators (TIs) are a new state of quantum matter with a band gap in bulk and conducting surface states. In this work, the Raman spectra of topological insulator Bi2Te3 films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been measured by an in situ ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)-MBE-Raman sp...... effects and symmetry breaking. In addition, an obvious change was observed at 3 QL when a Dirac cone formed. These results offer some new information about the novel quantum states of TIs.......Topological insulators (TIs) are a new state of quantum matter with a band gap in bulk and conducting surface states. In this work, the Raman spectra of topological insulator Bi2Te3 films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been measured by an in situ ultrahigh vacuum (UHV......)-MBE-Raman spectroscopy system. When the thickness of Bi2Te3 films decreases from 40 quintuple-layers (QL) to 1 QL, the spectral characteristics of some Raman modes appearing in bulk Bi2Te3 vary and a new vibrational mode appears, which has not been reported in previous studies and might be related to quantum size...

  5. Kinetics and microstructure evolution of Ti{sub 2}SC during in situ synthesis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wen Bin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Song, Jing Hong [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Mei, Bing Chu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    Highlights: •We first fabricate bulk Ti{sub 2}SC by using in situ/hot press method. •The reaction path of Ti{sub 2}SC formation is investigated. •The densification process of bulk sample is observed. -- Abstract: Using in situ reaction method, we have studied the sinter process of the layered ternary Ti{sub 2}SC with Ti, TiS{sub 2} and C powders as initial materials. By XRD and thermodynamic calculations we know that Ti{sub 2}SC is the final result of the reaction between TiS and TiC. TiS is an important intermediate which is more possible the result of TiS{sub 2} and Ti rather than the decomposition of TiS{sub 2}. DSC curves are used to investigate the reaction kinetics of the whole sintering process. By Kissinger and Ozawa method the activation energy are separately calculated to be 125.4 kJ/mol and 134.9 kJ/mol. We also have observed the grain growth and densification process of bulk sample by SEM.

  6. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel


    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  7. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin


    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  8. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment developed for the renewal of the network of stations automatic monitoring environmental radiation of the Generalitat of Catalunya; Calibracion y estudio de las capacidades de medida de los equipos de espectrometria gamma en tiempo real desarrollados para la renovacion de la Red de Estaciones Automaticas de vigilancia radiologia ambiental de la Generalitat de Catalunya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.


    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Generalitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. the monitors use scintillation crystals, either Na(TI) or LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentration for some isotopes. (Author)

  9. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment, developed for the renewal of the network of automatic stations for environmental radiological surveillance of the Generalitat de Catalunya; Calibracion y estudio de las capacidades de medida de loes equipos de espectrometria gamma en tiempo real desarrollados para la renovacion de la Red de Estaciones Automaticas de vigencia radiologica ambiental de la generalitat de Catalunya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.


    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Gereralitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. The monitors use scintillation cristals, either NaI(Tl) or LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment: water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentrations for some isotopes.

  10. Characterization of the in situ ecophysiology of novel phylotypes in nutrient removal activated sludge treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta


    with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information......An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants...

  11. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  12. The treatment of in situ breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fentiman, I.S. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK). Clinical Oncology Unit)


    Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG).

  13. Nanoindentation in situ a Transmission Electron Microscope


    Johnson, Lars


    The technique of Nanoindentation in situ Transmission Electron Microscope has been implemented on a Philips CM20. Indentations have been performed on Si and Sapphire (α-Al2O3) cut from wafers; Cr/Sc multilayers and Ti3SiC2 thin films. Different sample geometries and preparation methods have been evaluated. Both conventional ion and Focused Ion Beam milling were used, with different ways of protecting the sample during milling. Observations were made of bending and fracture of samples, disloca...

  14. In situ fabrication of a tunable microlens. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yichuan; Qiu, Rui; Fang, Wei; Tong, Limin


    We demonstrate an optofluidic variable-focus microlens formed by a solid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) meniscus channel wall and a tunable liquid lens body. A novel method for in situ fabrication of the meniscus channel wall is developed by introducing liquid PDMS prepolymer into a microchannel followed by curing. Three-light manipulation techniques including tunable optical focusing, collimating, and diverging are realized by varying the refractive index (RI) of liquid lens body. Also, we present an absorption measurement of methylene blue (MB) with a collimated probing light, achieving a detection limit of 0.25 μM by using a 5-mm-long detection cell.

  15. In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Köszali, R.


    We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency...... of the flow, which is simply proportional to the viscosity, when measured in units of the thermal power spectral density at the same frequency. Measurements are validated on different water-glycerol mixtures, as well as in a glycerol gradient, where no a priori knowledge of the solution is used to determine...

  16. Unannounced in situ simulation of obstetric emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jette Led; Lottrup, Pernille; van der Vleuten, Cees


    AIM: To describe how unannounced in situ simulation (ISS) was perceived by healthcare professionals before and after its implementation, and to describe the organisational impact of ISS. STUDY DESIGN: Ten unannounced ISS involving all staff were scheduled March-August 2007. Questionnaire surveys...... on staff perceptions were conducted before (2003-2006) and after (2007-2008) implementation of unannounced ISS. Information from the debriefing sessions following each ISS constituted a proxy measure of the organisational impact of the ISS. RESULTS: Five out of ten of the unannounced ISS scheduled were...

  17. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  18. Polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by in situ polymerization; Nanocompositos polipropileno/grafite via polimerizacao in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Marceo A.; Galland, Giselda B., E-mail: [Instituto de Quimica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidade de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Centro de Ciencias de los Materiales; Basso, Nara R.S. [Fac. de Quimica, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    This work presents the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene/graphite by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalyst and graphene nanosheets. Initially was analyzed which of the metallocene catalysts rac-Et(Ind){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2} or rac-Me{sub 2}Si(Ind){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2} produces polypropylene with mechanical properties more relevant. Then it were performed the in situ polymerization reactions to obtain the nanocomposites. The polymeric materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, GPC and DMTA. (author)

  19. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  20. Bulk metallic glass composite with good tensile ductility, high strength and large elastic strain limit. (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K C; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang


    Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19' phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties.

  1. Low-Temperature in Situ Growth of Graphene on Metallic Substrates and Its Application in Anticorrosion. (United States)

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Yin, Zongyou; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Zhengdong; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong


    Metal or alloy corrosion brings about huge economic cost annually, which is becoming one area of growing concern in various industries, being in bulk state or nanoscale range. Here, single layer or few layers of graphene are deposited on various metallic substrates directly at a low temperature down to 400 °C. These substrates can be varied from hundreds-micrometer bulk metallic or alloy foils to tens of nanometer nanofibers (NFs). Corrosion analysis reveals that both graphene-grown steel sheets and NFs have reduced the corrosion rate of up to ten times lower than that of their bare corresponding counterparts. Moreover, such low-temperature in situ growth of graphene demonstrates stable and long-lasting anticorrosion after long-term immersion. This new class of graphene coated nanomaterials shows high potentials in anticorrosion applications for submarines, oil tankers/pipelines, and ruggedized electronics.

  2. In-situ TEM study of domain switching in GaN thin films (United States)

    Wang, Baoming; Wang, Tun; Haque, Aman; Snure, Michael; Heller, Eric; Glavin, Nicholas


    Microstructural response of gallium nitride (GaN) films, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, was studied as a function of applied electrical field. In-situ transmission electron microscopy showed sudden change in the electron diffraction pattern reflecting domain switching at around 20 V bias, applied perpendicular to the polarization direction. No such switching was observed for thicker films or for the field applied along the polarization direction. This anomalous behavior is explained by the nanoscale size effects on the piezoelectric coefficients of GaN, which can be 2-3 times larger than the bulk value. As a result, a large amount of internal energy can be imparted in 100 nm thick films to induce domain switching at relatively lower voltages to induce such events at the bulk scale.

  3. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berney, Daniel M; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Idrees, Muhammad


    The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity and disagr......The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity...... and disagreement on its name. Initially termed 'carcinoma in situ' (CIS), it has also been known as 'intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified' (IGCNU) and 'testicular intraepithelial neoplasia' (TIN). In this paper, we review the history of discovery and controversy concerning these names and introduce...... the reasoning for uniting behind a new name, endorsed unanimously at the World Health Organization (WHO) consensus classification 2016: germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)....

  4. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.


    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de


    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  6. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew


    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  7. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization. (United States)

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A


    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  8. The application of in situ analytical transmission electron microscopy to the study of preferential intergranular oxidation in Alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M.G., E-mail:; Bertali, G.; Prestat, E.; Scenini, F.; Haigh, S.J.


    In situ analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide a unique perspective on dynamic reactions in a variety of environments, including liquids and gases. In this study, in situ analytical TEM techniques have been applied to examine the localised oxidation reactions that occur in a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy, Alloy 600, using a gas environmental cell at elevated temperatures. The initial stages of preferential intergranular oxidation, shown to be an important precursor phenomenon for intergranular stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), have been successfully identified using the in situ approach. Furthermore, the detailed observations correspond to the ex situ results obtained from bulk specimens tested in hydrogenated steam and in high temperature PWR primary water. The excellent agreement between the in situ and ex situ oxidation studies demonstrates that this approach can be used to investigate the initial stages of preferential intergranular oxidation relevant to nuclear power systems. - Highlights: • In situ analytical TEM has been performed in 1 bar H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O vapor at 360–480 °C. • Nanoscale GB migration and solute partitioning correlate with ex situ data for Alloy 600 in H{sub 2}-steam. • This technique can provide new insights into localised reactions associated with localised oxidation.

  9. Study of the artificial radioactivity of the marine medium using gamma spectrometry (1962-1966); Etude de la radioactivite artificielle du milieu marin par spectrometrie gamma (1962-1966)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The results described in this study are relative to the artificial radioactivity of such elements as zirconium-95, niobium-95, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-106, cerium-141, cerium-144 and praseodymium-144 which were present in the atmospheric fallout between 1962 and 1964, and their incidence in superficial marine waters. Various physical, chemical or biological processes are studied by a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometry technic, using those radioelements as 'tracers'. The change of state in sea water of an important fraction (about 50 per cent) of the radioactive particles going into the soluble phase - this phenomenon was not expected for those radioelements - controls the processes of accumulation in the planktonic biomass and the diffusion towards deeper waters. On the other hand, an 'in situ' spectrometry method is described. It enables the direct measurement in the sea of very low concentrations of some gamma ray emitters. The application of this method has made possible to carry out numerous observations in the surface waters of the Western Mediterranean sea and in the Bay of Biscay. It is shown that the mixing depth is closely connected to the depth of the thermocline. An accumulation process at this level is observed. The diffusion coefficients are similar to the thermal turbulent coefficient. The existence during several months of 'compartments' is established for the surface waters of the Bay of Biscay. From the establishment of the budget of fall-out, a comparative study shows that the rate of radioactive fallout on the maritime zone considered is always two to three times higher than on the neighbouring continental regions. Several explanations of this phenomenon are discussed. (author) [French] Les resultats decrits dans cette etude concernent la radioactivite artificielle sous forme de zirconium-95, niobium-95, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-106, cerium-141, cerium-144 et praseodyme-144 apportee par la retombee

  10. Characterization of the In Situ Ecophysiology of Novel Phylotypes in Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Treatment Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jon McIlroy

    Full Text Available An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class Betaproteobacteria, as well as Kaga01, within sub-group 10 of the phylum Acidobacteria. While the Sulfuritalea spp. were observed to be metabolically versatile, the A21b and Kaga01 phylotypes appeared to be highly specialized.

  11. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging. (United States)

    Sun, Boqin


    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y


    Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

  13. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lee


    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast represents a complex, heterogeneous pathologic condition in which malignant epithelial cells are confined within the ducts of the breast without evidence of invasion. The increased use of screening mammography has led to a significant shift in the diagnosis of DCIS, accounting for approximately 27% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer in 2011, with an overall increase in incidence. As the incidence of DCIS increases, the treatment options continue to evolve. Consistent pathologic evaluation is crucial in optimizing treatment recommendations. Surgical treatment options include breast-conserving surgery (BCS and mastectomy. Postoperative radiation therapy in combination with breast-conserving surgery is considered the standard of care with demonstrated decrease in local recurrence with the addition of radiation therapy. The role of endocrine therapy is currently being evaluated. The optimization of diagnostic imaging, treatment with regard to pathological risk assessment, and the role of partial breast irradiation continue to evolve.

  14. In situ soil remediation: Bacteria or fungi?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Contamination of the environment is not a new problem. For most of recorded history, the unwanted byproducts of industrial and residential processes have been dumped into unlined pits or nearby streams. Although disposal techniques have greatly improved, significant quantities of hazardous materials are still being released to the environment via accidental spills and leaking underground storage tanks. One particular group of contaminants of critical environmental concern is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-contaminated sites typically cover large areas; therefore, the development of in situ remediation techniques such as bioremediation is strongly emphasized. In situations when inherent microorganisms are not capable of degrading the contaminants, foreign strains must be used. Bioremediation experiments were conducted to compare the remediation efficiencies of a bacteria and a fungus for an industrially PAH contaminated soil. Specifically, the use of three supplemental nutrient solutions were investigated in conjunction with the bacteria Achromobacter sp. and fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans.

  15. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean


    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the

  16. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system (United States)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.


    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  17. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang


    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  18. In Situ Thermal Decomposition of Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Wood, Joshua D; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Hersam, Mark C


    With a semiconducting band gap and high charge carrier mobility, two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP)—often referred to as phosphorene—holds significant promise for next generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, as a 2D material, it possesses a higher surface area to volume ratio than bulk BP, suggesting that its chemical and thermal stability will be modified. Herein, an atomic-scale microscopic and spectroscopic study is performed to characterize the thermal degradation of mechanically exfoliated 2D BP. From in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy, decomposition of 2D BP is observed to occur at ∼400 °C in vacuum, in contrast to the 550 °C bulk BP sublimation temperature. This decomposition initiates via eye-shaped cracks along the [001] direction and then continues until only a thin, amorphous red phosphorus like skeleton remains. In situ electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and energy-loss near-edge structure changes provide quantitative insight into this chemical transformation process.

  19. In situ observations from STEREO/PLASTIC: a test for L5 space weather monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. C. Simunac


    Full Text Available Stream interaction regions (SIRs that corotate with the Sun (corotating interaction regions, or CIRs are known to cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. The Earth's L5 Lagrange point, separated from the Earth by 60 degrees in heliographic longitude, is a logical location for a solar wind monitor – nearly all SIRs/CIRs will be observed at L5 several days prior to their arrival at Earth. Because the Sun's heliographic equator is tilted about 7 degrees with respect to the ecliptic plane, the separation in heliographic latitude between L5 and Earth can be more than 5 degrees. In July 2008, during the period of minimal solar activity at the end of solar cycle 23, the two STEREO observatories were separated by about 60 degrees in longitude and more than 4 degrees in heliographic latitude. This time period affords a timely test for the practical application of a solar wind monitor at L5. We compare in situ observations from PLASTIC/AHEAD and PLASTIC/BEHIND, and report on how well the BEHIND data can be used as a forecasting tool for in situ conditions at the AHEAD spacecraft with the assumptions of ideal corotation and minimal source evolution. Preliminary results show the bulk proton parameters (density and bulk speed are not in quantitative agreement from one observatory to the next, but the qualitative profiles are similar.

  20. In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

  1. In situ analysis of measurements of auroral dynamics and structure (United States)

    Mella, Meghan R.

    Two auroral sounding rocket case studies, one in the dayside and one in the nightside, explore aspects of poleward boundary aurora. The nightside sounding rocket, Cascades-2 was launched on 20 March 2009 at 11:04:00 UT from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska, and flew across a series of poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs). Each of the crossings have fundamentally different in situ electron energy and pitch angle structure, and different ground optics images of visible aurora. The different particle distributions show signatures of both a quasistatic acceleration mechanism and an Alfvenic acceleration mechanism, as well as combinations of both. The Cascades-2 experiment is the first sounding rocket observation of a PBI sequence, enabling a detailed investigation of the electron signatures and optical aurora associated with various stages of a PBI sequence as it evolves from an Alfvenic to a more quasistatic structure. The dayside sounding rocket, Scifer-2 was launched on 18 January 2008 at 7:30 UT from the Andoya Rocket Range in Andenes, Norway. It flew northward through the cleft region during a Poleward Moving Auroral Form (PMAF) event. Both the dayside and nightside flights observe dispersed, precipitating ions, each of a different nature. The dispersion signatures are dependent on, among other things, the MLT sector, altitude, source region, and precipitation mechanism. It is found that small changes in the shape of the dispersion have a large influence on whether the precipitation was localized or extended over a range of altitudes. It is also found that a single Maxwellian source will not replicate the data, but rather, a sum of Maxwellians of different temperature, similar to a Kappa distribution, most closely reproduces the data. The various particle signatures are used to argue that both events have similar magnetospheric drivers, that is, Bursty Bulk Flows in the magnetotail.

  2. Iodine 129 measurements by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. Results in seaweeds (Fucus serratus et laminaria digitata); Dosage par spectrometrie gamma de l`iode 129 dans les echantillons biologiques marins et terrestres. Application a des prelevees le long des cotes de la Manche: fucus serratus et laminaria digitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maro, D.; Hebert, D.; Gandon, R.; Solier, L. [IPSN, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 50 - Octeville (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement


    A iodine selective radiochemistry method was developed to measure {sup 129}I(period 1,57 x 10 10{sup 7} years) by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. This method avoids using neutron activation analysis or accelerator mass spectrometry. The method is based on iodine extraction from samples in order to obtain an aqueous matrix with no attenuation agent except {sup 127}I(stable isotope). The parallel determination of {sup 127}I allows to correct {sup 129}I measurements for self attenuation and also monitor seasonal changes in iodine metabolism in biological species. Measurements were performed in two seaweed species (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) samples in the area of La Hague reprocessing plant discharge between January and February 1997). Samples from stations close to the point of release (Goury and Herquemoulin), showed {sup 129}I activities around 60 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Fucus serratus and around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 300 km away from the realize point, {sup 129}I activities were 10 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Fucus serratus and 171 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Laminaria digitata. {sup 127}I concentrations were between 547 and 1,232 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight in Fucus serratus and between 6,624 and 14,296 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight in Laminaria digitata. (authors)

  3. Identifying equatorial ionospheric irregularities using in situ ion drifts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. A. Stoneback; R. A. Heelis


    Previous climatological investigations of ionospheric irregularity occurrence in the equatorial ionosphere have utilized in situ measurements of plasma density to identify the presence of an irregularity...

  4. Radiation effects in bulk silicon (United States)

    Claeys, Cor; Vanhellemont, Jan


    This paper highlights important aspects related to irradiation effects in bulk silicon. Some basic principles related to the interaction of radiation with material, i.e. ionization and atomic displacement, are briefly reviewed. A physical understanding of radiation effects strongly depends on the availability of appropriate analytical tools. These tools are critically accessed from a silicon bulk viewpoint. More detailed information, related to the properties of the bulk damage and some dedicated application aspects, is given for both electron and proton irradiations. Emphasis is placed on radiation environments encountered during space missions and on their influence on the electrical performance of devices such as memories and image sensors.

  5. In situ X-ray investigations of oxygen precipitation in semiconductor silicon; In-situ-Roentgenuntersuchungen der Sauerstoffpraezipitation in Halbleitersilizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillenberger, Hannes


    The precipitation of oxygen in Czochralski grown semiconductor silicon is investigated in situ during thermal treatments up to 1000 C with high energy X-rays. All investigations are performed with a focusing Laue diffractometer. The parameters of the diffraction curve are the relative full width at half maximum (rFHWM) and the enhancement of the integral intensity (EII). A readout software has been developed to extract these automatically from the detector image for the measured 220, -220 and 040 Bragg peaks. The sample thickness is set to 15 mm as this enhances the sensitivity of the method and the samples are processed after the strain-field diffraction (SFD) experiments to wafers for an ex situ characterization demanding wafers. Three experimental series with a total of 21 in situ SFD experiments with different thermal treatments have been performed. The slope of the initial temperature ramp is set to 1 K/min in the first and the third series to generate a high precipitate (Bulk Micro Defect, BMD) density. In the second series the slope is chosen as 10 K/min to generate a lower density in the same silicon material. It is shown with all experiments and with preliminary works that the built up of strain during the heat treatment is caused by BMDs during the high temperature period of the treatment. The detection limit of series 1 is found at 7 nm at a density of 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 3}, of series 2 at 40 nm at a density of 2 x 10{sup 8}/cm{sup 3}, and at 8 nm at a density of 4.8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3} for series 3. The local maximum of the EII at 450 C, which emerges coincident with a local minimum of the rFWHM in series 2 may be caused by thermal donors (TD). With the experiments is shown that SFD operates in the infrared-laser scattering tomography detection range, but also reaches in a region covered only by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) so far. In contrast to these methods SFD is not limited to low temperatures and in situ experiments can be done. Thus

  6. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope (United States)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.


    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers


    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  8. Interplay between nanoscale reactivity and bulk performance of H-ZSM-5 catalysts during the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramburo, Luis R.; Teketel, Shewangizaw; Svelle, Stian; Bare, Simon R.; Arstad, Bjornar; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Olsbye, Unni; de Groot, Frank M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397


    H-ZSM-5 catalyst powders before and after a steaming post-treatment have been investigated during the Methanol-To-Hydrocarbons (MTH) process at 350 degrees C. Bulk and surface characterization techniques have been combined with in situ Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) at the aluminum

  9. Proceedings of BulkTrans '89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Papers were presented on bulk commodity demand; steel industry bulk trades; grains and the world food economy; steam coal and cement demand; shipping profitability; bulk carrier design and economics; bulk ports and terminals; ship unloading; computers in bulk terminals; and conveyors and stockyard equipment.

  10. Combatting bulking sludge with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, B.; Heine, W.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering


    Bulking and floating sludge cause great problems in many waste water treatment plants with biological nutrient removal. The purification as well as the sludge digestion process can be affected. These problems are due to the interlaced structure of filamentous microorganisms, which have an impact on the sludge's settling behaviour. Foam is able to build up a stable layer, which does not settle in the secondary clarifier. Foam in digestion causes a reduction of the degree of stabilisation and of the biogas production. We use low-frequency ultrasound to combat filamentous organisms in bulking sludge. Low-frequency ultrasound is suitable to create high local shear stresses, which are capable of breaking the filamentous structures of the sludge. After preliminary lab-scale tests now a full-scale new ultrasound equipment is operating at Reinfeld sewage treatment plant, Germany. The objective of this study is to explore the best ultrasound configuration to destroy the filamentous structure of bulking and foaming sludge in a substainable way. Later this study will also look into the effects of ultrasound treated bulking sludge on the anaerobic digestion process. Up to now results show that the settling behaviour of bulking sludge is improved. The minimal ultrasound energy input for destruction of bulking structure was determined. (orig.)

  11. In situ chemical functionalization of gallium nitride with phosphonic acid derivatives during etching. (United States)

    Wilkins, Stewart J; Greenough, Michelle; Arellano, Consuelo; Paskova, Tania; Ivanisevic, Albena


    In situ functionalization of polar (c plane) and nonpolar (a plane) gallium nitride (GaN) was performed by adding (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid or propyl phosphonic acid to a phosphoric acid etch. The target was to modulate the emission properties and oxide formation of GaN, which was explored through surface characterization with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and water contact angle. The use of (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid and propyl phosphonic acid in phosphoric acid demonstrated lower amounts of gallium oxide formation and greater hydrophobicity for both sample sets, while also improving PL emission of polar GaN samples. In addition to crystal orientation, growth-related factors such as defect density in bulk GaN versus thin GaN films residing on sapphire substrates were investigated as well as their responses to in situ functionalization. Thin nonpolar GaN layers were the most sensitive to etching treatments due in part to higher defect densities (stacking faults and threading dislocations), which accounts for large surface depressions. High-quality GaN (both free-standing bulk polar and bulk nonpolar) demonstrated increased sensitivity to oxide formation. Room-temperature PL stands out as an excellent technique to identify nonradiative recombination as observed in the spectra of heteroepitaxially grown GaN samples. The chemical methods applied to tune optical and physical properties of GaN provide a quantitative framework for future novel chemical and biochemical sensor development.

  12. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.


    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions. (DLC)

  13. In-situ remediation of contaminated sediments : conceivable and feasible?!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joziasse, J.; Gun, J. van der


    In-situ remediation has assumed large proportions in dealing with terrestrial soil pollution. Although implementation of in-situ remediation for contaminated sediments is restricted by the fact that dredging is necessary for nautical or water management reasons, it should not be discarded

  14. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize in situ gel-forming implants of methylprednisolone for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Methods: In situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone were prepared by dispersing polylactide glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer and methylprednisolone in N-methyl-pyrrolidone solvent, and subsequent ...

  15. Human papillomavirus (HPV) in vulvar dysplasia and carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Poulsen, H; Horn, T


    Surgical specimens from 62 patients with vulvar dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were morphologically investigated. Lesions were classified according to WHO (mild, moderate, severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ) and according to Toki et al. (1991) (warty, basaloid, combined warty/basaloid or bas...

  16. Comparison of in situ nutrient disappearance of alternative maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two maize milling by-products (maize gluten feed; MGF and maize by-product feed; MBPF) were compared with shelled maize (SM) and soyabean meal (SBM) for their in situ nutrient disappearance. In situ experiments were conducted in two rumen fistulated Holstein cows to evaluate dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ...

  17. Intrathecal Delivery of Ketorolac Loaded In Situ Gels for Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Intrathecal Delivery of Ketorolac Loaded In Situ Gels for. Prolonged Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity in. Vertebral Fracture. Shu-E Cao, Sheng-Yang Chen, Jian-Min ... VF as well as spinal injuries and is usually administered through oral ... injection to the body cavity. In situ gel formation.

  18. CGS and In Situ Measurements in Gävle 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim


    Calibration of CGS-equipment.In situ measuremts with HPGe-detector (and dose rate meter)in Gävle Sweden as part of the Nordic exercise RESUME99.......Calibration of CGS-equipment.In situ measuremts with HPGe-detector (and dose rate meter)in Gävle Sweden as part of the Nordic exercise RESUME99....

  19. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao

    consists of three complimentary in situ techniques: (1) Activity measurements based on a reactor connected to a gas chromatograph (GC), (2) In situ x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements based on a reactor cell connected to a mass spectrometer (MS), and (3) environmental TEM (ETEM) that allows...... distribution, measured both macroscopically (XRD) and microscopically (ETEM), with the catalytic activity....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    was incorporated onto APTS-modified ethylene-bridged silica materials by in situ and by incipient wetness addition .... In situ and post reaction cobalt-incorporation into mesoporous organosilica materials. Bull. Chem. .... measurements, the samples were sprinkled on a disk smeared with carbon and then coated with gold.

  1. Influence of a polyclonal antibody preparation on the in situ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PAP was observed for any in situ degradability parameters of starch from HMMS or pectin of CiPu. It was concluded that the polyclonal antibody preparation had limited effect on the in situ degradability of the tested energy sources. .... cm; measurement taken by the Penn State Particle Size Separator (Lammers et al., 1996).

  2. paediatric ureteric calculi: in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of ureteric calculi in the paediatric age group. Patients and Methods Twenty children (aged 2.2 16 years) with 22 ureteric stones were evaluated and treated with in-situ ESWL using the Dornier S lithotripter ...

  3. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was intended to evaluate in situ rumen degradability characteristic of soybean curd residue (SCR) and peppermint compared to rice straw, which are used as a functional feed source for beef cattle for high quality beef production. Two steers were fitted with rumen and duodenum cannulae and in situ degradable ...

  4. Photonic MEMS for NIR in-situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, T C; Cole, G D; Goddard, L L; Behymer, E


    We report on a novel sensing technique combining photonics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for the detection and monitoring of gas emissions for critical environmental, medical, and industrial applications. We discuss how MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be exploited for in-situ detection and NIR spectroscopy of several gases, such as O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub x}, CH{sub 4}, HF, HCl, etc., with estimated sensitivities between 0.1 and 20 ppm on footprints {approx}10{sup -3} mm{sup 3}. The VCSELs can be electrostatically tuned with a continuous wavelength shift up to 20 nm, allowing for unambiguous NIR signature determination. Selective concentration analysis in heterogeneous gas compositions is enabled, thus paving the way to an integrated optical platform for multiplexed gas identification by bandgap and device engineering. We will discuss here, in particular, our efforts on the development of a 760 nm AlGaAs based tunable VCSEL for O{sub 2} detection.

  5. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  6. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Peterson


    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast is a noninvasive form of breast cancer that has increased in incidence over the past several decades secondary to screening mammography. DCIS now represents 20–30% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. Patients with DCIS typically present with an abnormal mammogram, and diagnosis is most commonly obtained with an imageguided biopsy. Historically, mastectomy was considered the primary curative option for patients with DCIS. However, treatment of DCIS continues to evolve, and now treatment strategies also include breast-conserving therapy, which consists of local excision followed by radiation therapy or local excision alone. Multiple randomized trials have confirmed a decrease in ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence in patients treated with local excision followed by radiation therapy compared with local excision alone. Ongoing clinical trials attempt to identify a subgroup of DCIS patients at low risk for recurrence who may not benefit from radiation therapy. In addition, because the majority of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences occur near the original primary tumor site, partial breast irradiation is currently under investigation as a treatment option for DCIS patients. Randomized trials have shown tamoxifen can reduce the risk of ipsilateral and contralateral breast tumor recurrences while the role of aromatase inhibitors is the subject of current clinical trials. DCIS represents a complex pathologic entity, and treatment optimization requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  7. In situ vitrification of radioactive underground tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, S.S.; Gibby, R.D.; Thompson, L.E.


    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a treatment process with great potential for remediating underground tanks previously used for storing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Tests at several scales have demonstrated the utility of ISV for these tanks. An engineering-scale test vitrified a 30-cm-diameter buried steel and concrete tank that contained simulated tank sludge. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized, or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system, and the tank walls were melted or incorporated into the ISV block. A pilot-scale ISV test vitrified a 1-m simulated underground tank than contained a simulated refractory sludge. The ISV process completely vitrified the tank, its contents, and the soil below the tank to a depth of 2.4 m, producing a uniform glass and crystalline monolith with an estimated mass of 30 tons. A large-scale underground tank test is scheduled for early 1991. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Synthesis and characteristics of MgB{sub 2} bulks with different densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, R. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhou, S., E-mail: [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, L.; Li, W.X.; Dou, S.X. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)


    Pure MgB{sub 2} bulks of different densities were synthesized by direct Mg-diffusion method. It is found that the connectivity was significantly improved since the current-carrying effective area was improved by the diffusion method, hence the self-field critical current density, J{sub c}, was significantly improved comparing with conventional porous MgB{sub 2} bulks made by in situ method. A sample reacted at 850 {sup o}C for 10 h exhibited J{sub c} of 1.2 MA/cm{sup 2} at 20 K in self-field.

  9. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.


    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  10. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.


    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  11. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil bulk density for Northern Africa : Tunisia case


    Brahim, N.; Bernoux, Martial; Gallali, T. (ed.)


    Countries should provide regularly national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and, and for the agriculture and forestry sectors this comprise national estimates of soil organic carbon (C) stocks. Estimation of soil C stock requires soil bulk density (D-b) values. However, direct measurement of D-b is often lacking mainly for soils in arid and semi-arid conditions. Much effort has been made in finding alternative solution to predict D-b, either improving in situ determinations,...

  12. Final Technical Report: Application of in situ Neutron Diffraction to Understand the Mechanism of Phase Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandran, Ravi


    In this research, phase transitions in the bulk electrodes for Li-ion batteries were investigated using neutron diffraction (ND) as well as neutron imaging techniques. The objectives of this research is to design of a novel in situ electrochemical cell to obtain Rietveld refinable neutron diffraction experiments using small volume electrodes of various laboratory/research-scale electrodes intended for Li-ion batteries. This cell is also to be used to investigate the complexity of phase transitions in Li(Mg) alloy electrodes, either by diffraction or by neutron imaging, which occur under electrochemical lithiation and delithiation, and to determine aspects of phase transition that enable/limit energy storage capacity. Additional objective is to investigate the phase transitions in electrodes made of etched micro-columns of silicon and investigate the effect of particle/column size on phase transitions and nonequilibrium structures. An in situ electrochemical cell was designed successfully and was used to study the phase transitions under in-situ neutron diffraction in both the electrodes (anode/cathode) simultaneously in graphite/LiCoO2 and in graphite/LiMn2O4 cells each with two cells. The diffraction patterns fully validated the working of the in situ cell. Additional experimental were performed using the Si micro-columnar electrodes. The results revealed new lithiation phenomena, as evidenced by mosaicity formation in silicon electrode. These experiments were performed in Vulcan diffractometer at SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In parallel, the spatial distribution of Li during lithiation and delithiation processes in Li-battery electrodes were investigated. For this purpose, neutron tomographic imaging technique has been used for 3D mapping of Li distribution in bulk Li(Mg) alloy electrodes. It was possible to observe the phase boundary of Li(Mg) alloy indicating phase transition from Li-rich BCC β-phase to Li-lean

  13. Ductal carcinoma in situ: a challenging disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay Altintas


    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS represents a heterogenous group of lesions with variable malignant potential. Although it is clearly pre-invasive, not all lesions progress to an invasive malignant disease. The significant increase in the frequency of diagnosis is the result of both widespread use of screening mammography and better recognition among pathologists. Treatment is controversial, but for several decades total mastectomy has been considered as the appropriate treatment. The tendency to be less aggressive in terms of surgery has followed the pattern of events observed in the treatment of invasive breast carcinomas. More recently, it has become clear that breastconserving procedures could be applied and selected on the basis of diagnostics and risk factors. When all patients with DCIS are considered, the overall mortality is extremely low, only about 1–2%. On the other hand, breast-conserving surgery is only curative in 75–85%; 50% of the local recurrences have proven to be invasive with a mortality rate of 12–15%. There is no place for axillary node dissection, adjuvant hormonal treatment or chemotherapy in the treatment. Important factors in predicting local recurrence are age, family history, nuclear grade, comedo-type necrosis, tumor size and margin width. With the addition of radiation therapy to excisional surgery, there is a 50% reduction in the overall local recurrence rate. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VNPI, recently updated, is a tool that quantifies measurable prognostic factors that can be used in the decision-making process of treatment. Recent data from large cohort studies and randomized trials have emerged to guide treatment. DCIS is now understood to have diverse malignant potential and it is unlikely that there will be a single treatment for this wide range of lesions. Advances in molecular biology and gene expression profiling of human breast tumors have been providing important insights into the relationship

  14. Microbial Repopulation Following In Situ STAR Remediation (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Overbeeke, G.; Edwards, E.; Lomheim, L.; Grant, G.


    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an emerging remediation technology that employs a self-sustaining smouldering reaction to destroy nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. The reaction front travels outwards from an ignition well at approximately 0.5 per day and subjects the soil to temperatures of 400°C-1000°C. The objectives of this work were to monitor re-saturation of the soil over time and quantify the microbial repopulation of the treated zone. STAR is currently being applied as a full scale, in situ remedy for coal tar beneath a former creosol manufacturing facility in New Jersey, USA. This study analyzed soil cores taken at regular intervals following STAR treatment, allowing time for groundwater to re-infiltrate and for microbial populations to potentially reestablish. Soil and groundwater were analyzed for total number of microorganisms via quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), as well as microbial diversity via amplicon sequencing. Results demonstrate that microbes rapidly repopulated over a 2 month period to 106 gene copies/g of soil. However, concentrations in the treated zone did not rise above this concentration over 6 months post-STAR, indicating a low carrying capacity of the treated soil. To examine the system in more detail and consider the effects of bio-stimulation, a bench top column study using site soil and artificial groundwater explored the rate at which STAR-treated soil is repopulated with naturally occurring microorganisms in the presence and absence of lactate and a terminal electron acceptor. Results demonstrated that biostimulation did not increase the carrying capacity of the STAR treated sol, but rather shifted the microbial community to reflect the TEA provided, in this case, promoting sulfate reducers. Overall, the work illustrates that microbial populations in STAR treated soil do recover via groundwater infiltration but robust communities will take time to naturally establish.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp


    Full Text Available While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are – if at all available – based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest

  16. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott


    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  17. High energy resolution and high count rate gamma spectrometry measurement of primary coolant of generation 4 sodium-cooled fast reactor; Spectrometrie gamma haute resolution et hauts taux de comptage sur primaire de reacteur de type generation 4 au sodium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.


    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors are under development for the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. Breeders reactors could gives solutions for the need of energy and the preservation of uranium resources. An other purpose is the radioactive wastes production reduction by transmutation and the control of non-proliferation using a closed-cycle. These thesis shows safety and profit advantages that could be obtained by a new generation of gamma spectrometry system for SFR. Now, the high count rate abilities, allow us to study new methods of accurate power measurement and fast clad failure detection. Simulations have been done and an experimental test has been performed at the French Phenix SFR of the CEA Marcoule showing promising results for these new measurements. (author) [French] Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides refroidis au sodium sont en developpement en vue d'assurer une quatrieme generation de reacteurs repondant a la demande energetique, tout en assurant la preservation des ressources d'uranium par un fonctionnement en surgenerateur. L'objectif de la filiere est egalement d'ameliorer la gestion de la radiotoxicite des dechets produits par transmutation des actinides mineurs et de controler la non-proliferation par un fonctionnement en cycle ferme. Une instrumentation de surveillance et de controle de ce type de reacteur a ete etudiee dans cette these. La spectrometrie gamma de nouvelle generation permet, par les hauts taux de traitement aujourd'hui accessibles, d'envisager de nouvelles approches pour suivre avec une precision accrue la puissance neutronique et de detecter plus precocement des ruptures de gaine combustible. Des simulations numeriques ont ete realisees et une campagne d'essai a ete menee a bien sur le reacteur Phenix de Marcoule. Des perspectives prometteuses ont ete mises en exergue pour ces deux problematiques

  18. Development of an analytical model for the determination of {sup 60}Co in aqueous samples by atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry techniques; Elaboracion de un modelo analitico para la determinacion de {sup 60}Co en muestras acuosas mediante tecnicas de absorcion atomica y espectrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis A, N. A.


    The applications of the nuclear energy in industry and medicine generate radioactive wastes that must be isolated and confined in order to limit its spread in the biosphere. These types of wastes are generated in hospitals, industry, research centers and nuclear power plants (during de fuel cycle). The radioactive elements (radionuclides) cannot be destroyed by any known method, either chemical or mechanical. Its final destruction is produced by radioactive decay, which makes them stable isotopes, or nuclear transmutation being bombarded with atomic particles. Consequently, the radioactive waste management is to control the radioactive discharges and reduce to tolerable limits, eliminating of effluents and wastes the radionuclides of interest, concentrating them so they can be stored or evacuated so that later not appear in dangerous concentration in the biosphere. In Mexico, the main generators of radioactive wastes are the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Hospitals of the public and private sector, in addition Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) some institutes and facilities of the UNAM and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) and industries among others. The aqueous radioactive wastes, particularly those from the nuclear power plants contain traces of cobalt-60. Currently there is no model or analytical technique for the separation of this radionuclide, so it became necessary to develop an analytical model for separation and facilitate their disposal. In this paper was shown that atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry techniques can separate the active concentration of the inactive, which is important because the total concentration can be associated through direct relationships with the wear of metal parts of the nuclear reactor, since the metal alloys of the same reactor containing a fraction of cobalt. Also this analytical and mathematical model that can be reproducible and applicable to full sets of samples and that this


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson


    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  20. Fast optical in situ spectroscopy in III-V MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspari, C.


    This work describes the application of optical in situ measurement techniques (reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy, RAS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, SE) to processes that are important for the growth of III-V semiconductors like GaAs, InP, InAs and GaP in metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Special emphasis is placed on the determination of the free carrier concentration (doping level) and the study of the thermal desorption properties of III-V oxides. A large part of this work is concerned with the development and the construction of a multichannel RAS setup that allows the recording of RAS spectra within fractions of a second. On the basis of benchmark measurements it was shown that the spectral resolution is sufficiently accurate for application in epitaxy. To demonstrate the recording of spectra with high temporal resolution, RAS monolayer oscillations during growth of GaAs were studied and it was shown that the surface changes periodically between a relatively smooth morphology with adsorbed methyl groups (type III) and a stepped, gallium-rich surface (type II). Furthermore the non-reversible process of growing InAs quantum dots on GaAs was studied. It was shown that the multichannel RAS is capable of detecting the 2D-3D transition as well as the following morphological change of the surface at high temporal resolution. For the measurement of the doping level, the relationship between the doping-induced internal electric field and the anisotropy of the sample was studied. To understand the effect of the so-called doping oscillations, a theoretical model was developed. For the investigation of the thermal desorption of the III-V oxides in MOVPE, a number of test series were realised. It was also found that the formation of the reconstructed surface is finished a considerable time after the SE transient indicates stable conditions (no further reduction of the oxide layer). The activation energy for oxide desorption from InAs, GaAs and InP was

  1. In Situ Probe Science at Saturn (United States)

    Atkinson, D.H.; Lunine, J.I.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Colaprete, A.; Coustenis, A.; Fletcher, L. N.; Guillot, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.; hide


    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar sys-tem, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation pro-cess was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Several theories have been put forward to explain the process of solar system formation, and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Each theory offers quantifiable predictions of the abundances of noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He3He, DH, 15N14N, 18O16O, and 13C12C. Detection of certain dis-equilibrium species, diagnostic of deeper internal pro-cesses and dynamics of the atmosphere, would also help discriminate between competing theories. Measurements of the critical abundance profiles of these key constituents into the deeper well-mixed at-mosphere must be complemented by measurements of the profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at high vertical resolution and also require in situ explora-tion. The atmospheres of the giant planets can also serve as laboratories to better understand the atmospheric chem-istries, dynamics, processes, and climates on all planets including Earth, and offer a context and provide a ground truth for exoplanets and exoplanetary systems. Additionally, Giant planets have long been thought to play a critical role in the development of potentially habitable planetary systems. In the context of giant planet science provided by the Galileo, Juno, and Cassini missions to Jupiter and Sat-urn, a small, relatively shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances and isotopic ratios of key at-mospheric constituents, and atmospheric structure in-cluding pressures, temperatures, dynamics, and cloud

  2. satellite and in-situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Salas Pérez


    Full Text Available La distribución espacial y temporal de la circulación superficial de la Bahía de Banderas se obtuvo con el empleo de series temporales de rapidez de viento, temperatura superficial del mar (AVHR radiómetro y un termógrafo, nivel del mar y trazas ascendentes y descendentes del radar altimétrico ERS-2. El período que abarca dichos datos es de cuatro años, ya que comenzó en el verano de 1997 y finalizó en el invierno de 2002. La marea en la Bahía es mixta (F=0.25 con predominio del armónico M2. La bahía no muestra características de resonancia con la marea del mar abierto. Amplitudes promedio de 30 cms., resultan en corrientes de marea de pocos cms./s. Las bajas frecuencias (periodos mayores a tres días parecen ser los principales generadores de la circulación marina en esta área, en la que predomina el periodo estacional sobre los otros periodos. FEOs fueron aplicadas a las componentes de velocidad, calculadas con observaciones de altimetría medidas en la boca de la Bahía, las cuales mostraron dos principales distribuciones espaciales. El primer periodo de distribución, que se extendió desde febrero hasta julio, muestra un flujo de entrada por la porción norte/sur de la bahía, con un flujo de salida por su boca (distribución anticiclónica. El segundo periodo se extiende desde agosto hasta diciembre y es opuesto al primero (distribución ciclónica. Las características de la circulación aquí presentadas son hipotéticas y observaciones de velocidad medidas in-situ deben confirmarlas

  3. In Situ Observations of Seismic Wave Propagation (United States)

    Hudson, Kenneth Stewart

    Instrumented geotechnical field sites are designed to capture the infrequent but critically important in situ case histories of ground response, deformation, and liquefaction during significant earthquakes that generate high intensity ground shaking and large strains. The University of California at Santa Barbara has been monitoring densely instrumented geotechnical array field sites for almost three decades, with continuous recording now for more than a decade. When seismic waves travel into soil with sufficiently large ground motions, the soil behaves nonlinearly meaning the shear modulus of the material decreases from the linear value observed during weak ground motions. The degraded shear modulus can continue to affect a site for a period of time by changing the soil response during smaller ground motions after the large event. Decreased shear modulus is inferred when a decrease of shear wave velocity between two sensors in a vertical downhole array is observed. This velocity is calculated by measuring the difference in shear wave arrival times between the sensors using normalized cross correlation. The trend of decreasing shear wave velocity with increasing peak ground acceleration is observed at multiple geotechnical array field sites. The length of time the decreased velocity remains following stronger shaking is analyzed using more than 450 events over more than a decade at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA). Using both monthly and yearly velocity averages between sensors, there is evidence that suggests the shear wave velocity remains low over a period of months following larger significant shaking events at the site. In addition, at WLA there is evidence that the decrease in shear wave velocity can be detected at ground motion levels as low as 20 cm/s2. Additionally at the Garner Valley Downhole Array, a permanent cross-hole experiment is used to measure velocity changes in the soil with changing water table height. An underground hammer source swings

  4. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja


    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  5. Bulk fields with brane terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, F. del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales (CAFPE), Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Perez-Victoria, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Santiago, J. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    In theories with branes, bulk fields get in general divergent corrections localized on these defects. Hence, the corresponding brane terms are renormalized and should be included in the effective theory from the very beginning. We review the phenomenology associated to brane kinetic terms for different spins and backgrounds, and point out that renormalization is required already at the classical level. (orig.)

  6. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene (United States)

    Shen, T. C.


    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  7. In Situ Oxygen Production from Lunar and Martian Regolith Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ oxygen production is of immense importance to NASA in the support of the NASA initiative to sustain man's permanent presence in space. The oxygen produced...

  8. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  9. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies (United States)

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  10. A Miniature Electron Probe for In Situ Elemental Microanalysis (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Southard, A. E.; Getty, S. A.; Hess, L. A.; Hagopian, J. G.; Kotecki, C. A.


    The Mini-EPMA under development will enable advanced, fine-scale in situ mapping of the elemental composition of planetary materials. Composition provides key evidence about the processes by which rocks, soils, and ices were formed and altered.

  11. In situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae using hydrochloric acid. (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Im, Hanjin; Lee, Jae W


    This study addresses in situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst. In situ transesterification was performed by heating the mixture of wet algal cells, HCl, methanol, and solvent in one pot, resulting in the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield over 90% at 95°C. The effects of reaction variables of temperature, amounts of catalyst, reactant, and solvent, and type of solvents on the yield were investigated. Compared with the catalytic effect of H2SO4, in situ transesterification using HCl has benefits of being less affected by moisture levels that are as high as or above 80%, and requiring less amounts of catalyst and solvent. For an equimolar amount of catalyst, HCl showed 15wt.% higher FAME yield than H2SO4. This in situ transesterification using HCl as a catalyst would help to realize a feasible way to produce biodiesel from wet microalgae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...... as oil spill response method. The parameters studied were the initial slick thickness of the oil, the vaporization order of burning crude oil, the ignition of fresh and weathered crude oils on water, the influence of the burning area, the effect of the water layer below the burning oil and the use...

  13. Comparison of Radar and In Situ Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zink, Florian


    We compare measurements of refractive index structure constant C (2)(n) and energy dissipation rate e by VHF radar with in situ observations by high-resolution thermosondes during a campaign near Adelaide, Australia, in August 1998...

  14. In situ gene expression and ecophysiology of thermophilic Cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila Ingemann

    -378), the expression patterns of various functional genes (with an emphasis on nif genes involved in N2-fixation), the protein levels of nitrogenase (NifH), the N2-fixation activity, as well as microsensor based measurements on O2 availability, production and consumption were investigated in situ over the entire diel...... investigated along with microenvironmental measurements of O2 and pH throughout the diel cycle. This is the very first study of in situ gene transcription related to CCM and ROS detoxification along with microenvironmental measurements in a microbial mat. Different transcriptional patterns were found......, metabolic controls and interactions using biogeochemical and molecular tools. This thesis builds on the extensive genomic information available from Mushroom and Octopus Springs enabling new insights into the in situ physiology and regulatory factors that might influence processes in situ. The availability...

  15. In-situ Airborne Sampler for Advanced Guided Dropsonde Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a low-cost, retrievable and reusable, autonomously guided dropsonde capable of in-situ atmospheric measurements. The proposed effort will...

  16. An Efficient Heat Exchanger for In Situ Resource Utilization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from...

  17. In Situ Instrument to Detect Prebiotic Compounds in Planetary Ices (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Dworkin, Jason; Glavin, Daniel P.; Southard, Adrian; Balvin, Manuel; Kotecki, Carl; Ferrance, Jerome


    The development of an in situ LC-MS instrument for future planetary science missions to icy surfaces that are of high astrobiology and astrochemistry potential will advance our understanding of organics in the solar system.

  18. In situ Transesterification of Microalgal Oil to Produce Algal Biodiesel (United States)


    This research was to process whole microalgae cells for biodiesel production without first extracting lipids. The ultimate : goal is develop a novel process for algal biodiesel production directly from microalgae cells in a single step, i.e., in situ...

  19. Cytogenetic, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F3 generations of a wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica intergeneric cross. Their agronomic traits were evaluated in the field and their meiotic behaviors and chromosome composition were analyzed by cytogenetic and GISH (genomic in situ ...

  20. Novel Instrumentation for In Situ Combustion Measurements Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test a novel instrument based on laser absorption diagnostics for fast, in situ measurements of important...

  1. Analysis of bulk heterojunction material parameters using lateral device structures (United States)

    Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Liang, Kelly; Morris, Joshua; Lombardo, Christopher; Dodabalapur, Ananth


    We review the key optoelectronic properties of lateral organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device structures with asymmetric contacts. These structures are used to develop a detailed model of charge transport and recombination properties within materials used for organic photovoltaics. They permit a variety of direct measurement techniques, such as nonlinear optical microscopy and in situ potentiometry, as well as photoconductive gain and carrier drift length studies from photocurrent measurements. We present a theoretical framework that describes the charge transport physics within these devices. The experimental results presented are in agreement with this framework and can be used to measure carrier concentrations, recombination coefficients, and carrier mobilities within BHJ materials. Lateral device structures offer a useful complement to measurements on vertical photovoltaic structures and provide a more complete and detailed picture of organic BHJ materials.

  2. Cast bulk glassy alloys: fabrication, alloy development and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Metallic glasses represent an interesting group of materials as they possess outstanding physical, chemical and mechanical properties compared to their crystalline counterparts. Currently, with well designed compositions it is possible to cast liquid alloys into the glassy state at low critical cooling rates from 100 K•s-1 to 1 K•s-1 and in large critical sample sizes up to several centimeters, which significantly enhances the promise for possible applications as advanced engineering materials. This paper reviews the development of (ZrCu-based bulk metallic glasses with large sizes by copper mold casting and their unique properties. Additionally, the ex-situ and in-situ second phases reinforced BMG composites with large plasticity are also presented.

  3. In situ examination of microbial populations in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Adam Camillo; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Arvin, Erik


    A flow cell set-up was used as a model drinking water distribution system to analyze the in situ microbial population. Biofilm growth was followed by transmission light microscopy for 81 days and showed a biofilm consisting of microcolonies separated by a monolayer of cells. Protozoans (ciliates...... revealed that the majority of the isolated strains from the bulk water and biofilm were affiliated to the family of Comamonadaceae in the β-lineage of Proteobacteria. The majority of the strains from the α-lineage were affiliated to the family of Sphingomonadaceae. We were unable to detect any strains from...... of a mixed population of α- and β-Proteobacteria. 65 strains from the inlet water and 20 from the biofilm were isolated on R2A agar plates and sorted into groups with amplified rDNA restriction analysis. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced for representatives of the abundant groups. A phylogenetic analysis...

  4. Nanocrystallization of amorphous alloys using microwaves: In situ time-resolved synchrotron radiation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicula, R; Stir, M; Ishizaki, K; Vaucher, S [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research - Empa, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Catala-Civera, J M, E-mail: radu.nicula@empa.c [Polytechnical University of Valencia, School of Telecommunication, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)


    Important energy and time savings can be achieved with the thermal treatment of materials by replacing conventional heating methods with microwave heating. The nanocrystallization of Co-Fe-W-B amorphous alloy powders under microwave irradiation was followed for the first time by in situ time-resolved synchrotron radiation powder diffraction. It is shown that even a very short exposure to the electromagnetic field (single pulse microwave application) typically of the order of a few seconds is sufficient to obtain the bulk nano-crystalline state. A metastable high-temperature Co-W-B orthorhombic phase forms during the microwave heating, which gradually transforms to the tetragonal Co{sub 2}B stable phase.

  5. In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friebel, Daniel


    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  6. In situ atomic-scale observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized gold particles (United States)

    Lee, Junggoo; Lee, Joonho; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Mori, Hirotaro


    Phase stabilities of nanometer-sized materials are quite different from those of the corresponding bulk materials. Among the phase stabilities, melting point suppression is one of the most fundamentally important issues. In this work, real-time, atomic-scale direct observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized Au particles, along with simple size reduction, was carried out by means of in situ high resolution electron microscopy. Namely, it was confirmed in real space on an atomic scale that a solid-to-liquid transition occurred when the size of a particle, placed on a graphite substrate maintained at 1100 K, decreased to 5 nm during diminution. Furthermore, a monolayer-thick hole was formed on the substrate at the position of the liquid Au particle, probably due to carbon dissolution into the liquid Au particle.

  7. In situ atomic-scale observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized gold particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junggoo [Functional Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 66 Sangnam-dong, Changwon, Kyungsangnam-Do 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joonho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mori, Hirotaro, E-mail: [Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, 7-1 Mihogaoka, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)


    Phase stabilities of nanometer-sized materials are quite different from those of the corresponding bulk materials. Among the phase stabilities, melting point suppression is one of the most fundamentally important issues. In this work, real-time, atomic-scale direct observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized Au particles, along with simple size reduction, was carried out by means of in situ high resolution electron microscopy. Namely, it was confirmed in real space on an atomic scale that a solid-to-liquid transition occurred when the size of a particle, placed on a graphite substrate maintained at 1100 K, decreased to 5 nm during diminution. Furthermore, a monolayer-thick hole was formed on the substrate at the position of the liquid Au particle, probably due to carbon dissolution into the liquid Au particle.

  8. Venus Interior Probe Using In-Situ Power and Propulsion (VIP-INSPR) (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.


    Venus, despite being our closest neighboring planet, is under-explored due to its hostile and extreme environment, with a 92 bar pressure and 467 C temperature at the surface. The temperature decreases at higher altitudes, almost at the rate of 7.9 C/km, reaching the Earth surface conditions at 65 km. Due to the less extreme conditions, balloon missions could survive as long as 46 h at an altitude of 54 km. However, because of the opacity of the Venus atmosphere filled with clouds of sulfuric acid and CO2, orbiter or balloon missions are not as revealing and informative in characterizing the surface, as similar missions on Moon and Mars. To understand the evolutionary paths of Venus in relation to Earth, it is imperative to gather basic information on the crust, mantle, core, atmosphere/exosphere and bulk composition of Venus, through in-situ investigations using landers, probes and variable altitude areal platforms.

  9. In situ probing of surface hydrides on hydrogenated amorphous silicon using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kessels, W M M; Sanden, M C M; Aydil, E S


    An in situ method based on attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is presented for detecting surface silicon hydrides on plasma deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and for determining their surface concentrations. Surface silicon hydrides are desorbed by exposing the a-Si:H films to low energy ions from a low density Ar plasma and by comparing the infrared spectrum before and after this low energy ion bombardment, the absorptions by surface hydrides can sensitively be separated from absorptions by bulk hydrides incorporated into the film. An experimental comparison with other methods that utilize isotope exchange of the surface hydrogen with deuterium showed good agreement and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed. Furthermore, the determination of the composition of the surface hydrogen bondings on the basis of the literature data on hydrogenated crystalline silicon surfaces is presented, and quantification of the h...

  10. Assessment of Shape Memory Alloys - From Atoms To Actuators - Via In Situ Neutron Diffraction (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane


    As shape memory alloys (SMAs) become an established actuator technology, it is important to identify the fundamental mechanisms responsible for their performance by understanding microstructure performance relationships from processing to final form. Yet, microstructural examination of SMAs at stress and temperature is often a challenge since structural changes occur with stress and temperature and microstructures cannot be preserved through quenching or after stress removal, as would be the case for conventional materials. One solution to this dilemma is in situ neutron diffraction, which has been applied to the investigation of SMAs and has offered a unique approach to reveal the fundamental micromechanics and microstructural aspects of bulk SMAs in a non-destructive setting. Through this technique, it is possible to directly correlate the micromechanical responses (e.g., internal residual stresses, lattice strains), microstructural evolutions (e.g., texture, defects) and phase transformation properties (e.g., phase fractions, kinetics) to the macroscopic actuator behavior. In this work, in situ neutron diffraction was systematically employed to evaluate the deformation and transformation behavior of SMAs under typical actuator conditions. Austenite and martensite phases, yield behavior, variant selection and transformation temperatures were characterized for a polycrystalline NiTi (49.9 at. Ni). As the alloy transforms under thermomechanical loading, the measured textures and lattice plane-level variations were directly related to the cyclic actuation-strain characteristics and the dimensional instability (strain ratcheting) commonly observed in this alloy. The effect of training on the shape memory characteristics of the alloy and the development of two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) were also assessed. The final conversion from a material to a useful actuator, typically termed shape setting, was also investigated in situ during constrained heatingcooling and

  11. Characterization of VPO ammoxidation catalysts by in situ methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Luecke, B.; Brueckner, A.; Steinike, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Brzezinka, K.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie


    In-situ methods are well known as powerful tools in studying catalyst formation processes, their solid state properties under working conditions and the interaction with the feed, intermediates and products to reveal reaction mechanisms. This paper gives a short overview on results of intense studies using in-situ techniques to reveal VPO catalyst generation processes, interaction of educts, intermediates and products with VPO catalyst surfaces and mechanistic insights. Catalytic data of the ammoxidation of toluene on different VPOs complete these findings. The precursor-catalyst transformation processes were preferently investigated by in-situ XRD, in-situ Raman and in-situ ESR spectroscopy. The interaction of aromatic molecules and intermediates, resp., and VPO solid surfaces was followed by in-situ ESR and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. Mechanistic information was mainly obtained using in-situ FTIR spectroscopy and the temporal-analysis-of-products (TAP) technique. Catalytic studies were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor on pure (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO){sub 3}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, generated [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO{sub 3})(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}+V{sub x}O{sub y}] catalysts, having different V{sub x}O{sub y} proportions by use of VOHPO{sub 4} x 1/2H{sub 2}O (V/P=1) and recently studied (VO){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 7 H{sub 2}O (V/P=1.5) precursors; the well-known (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was used for comparison. (orig.)

  12. NASA wind shear flight test in situ results (United States)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.


    The main objectives in developing the NASA in situ windshear detection algorithm were to provide a measurement standard for validation of forward-look sensors under development, and to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to operate with a suitably low nuisance alert rate. It was necessary to know exactly how the algorithm was implemented and what parameters and filtering were used, in order to be able to fully test its effectiveness and correlate in situ results with forward-look sensor data.

  13. Utilization of Organic Farming for In Situ Conservation of Biodiversity


    Lee, Minho; Han, Eun-Jung; Park, Jong-Ho; Hong, Sung-Jun; Kang, Seong-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho


    Organic farming is potentially useful approach for in situ conservation of biodiversity when the farming technologies are effective and economically sound. Functional rate of arthropod biodiversity as an index of biodiversity quality was assessed according to some organic farming methods, such as landscape management and using companion plants in rice and soybean fields. In this study, it is important to select effective farming technologies for in situ conservation and utilization of functio...

  14. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica


    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; P?rez-Negr?n, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso


    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from t...

  15. Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, D.K.


    The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)

  16. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  17. Micron-Scale Deformation: A Coupled In Situ Study of Strain Bursts and Acoustic Emission. (United States)

    Hegyi, Ádám István; Ispánovity, Péter Dusán; Knapek, Michal; Tüzes, Dániel; Máthis, Kristián; Chmelík, František; Dankházi, Zoltán; Varga, Gábor; Groma, István


    Plastic deformation of micron-scale crystalline materials differs considerably from bulk samples as it is characterized by stochastic strain bursts. To obtain a detailed picture of the intermittent deformation phenomena, numerous micron-sized specimens must be fabricated and tested. An improved focused ion beam fabrication method is proposed to prepare non-tapered micropillars with excellent control over their shape. Moreover, the fabrication time is less compared with other methods. The in situ compression device developed in our laboratory allows high-accuracy sample positioning and force/displacement measurements with high data sampling rates. The collective avalanche-like motion of the dislocations is observed as stress decreases on the stress-strain curves. An acoustic emission (AE) technique was employed for the first time to study the deformation behavior of micropillars. The AE technique provides important additional in situ information about the underlying processes during plastic deformation and is especially sensitive to the collective avalanche-like motion of the dislocations observed as the stress decreases on the deformation curves.

  18. On the ex situ and in situ doping of refractory Ta by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.L.; Lin, S.S.; Shen, P. [National Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, S. [I-Shou University, Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)


    Ex situ and in situ doping processes of refractory Ta were accomplished by pulsed laser ablation of bulk Ta in vacuum with C-O-H supply from C-coated collodion film and within tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), respectively. Analytical electron microscopic observations of the resultant particulates and condensates indicated that the former process involved interdiffusion in the condensed state to form two kinds of core-shell structures, i.e., C-O-H doped Ta with α-type (bcc) core and lamellar shell and O-H doped γ-TaC{sub 1-x} with amorphous Ta-C-O-H surrounding, respectively, for potential wear and lubrication applications at high temperatures. In situ TEOS mediation, however, enhanced solute trapping to form Si-C-O-H overdoped α-Ta with significant tetragonality (c/a ratio up to 1.27) and Si-O-H doped γ-TaC{sub 1-x} with {111}{sub γ} twin/fault and occasional epitaxial relationship [ anti 123]{sub α}//[ anti 112]{sub γ}; (121){sub α}//(anti 11 anti 1){sub γ} due to particle coalescence. Such Si-C-O-H mediated Ta particles may have potential optocatalytic applications. (orig.)

  19. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the piezoelectric response of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydok, A., E-mail: [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Department Structure and Nano-/Micromechanics of Materials, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Cornelius, T.W. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Mocuta, C. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, DiffAbs beamline, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lima, E.C. [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, 77500-000 Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil); Araujo, E.B. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56 Centro, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Thomas, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France)


    Piezoelectric properties of randomly oriented self-polarized PbZr{sub 0.50}Ti{sub 0.50}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Possibilities for investigating the piezoelectric effect using micro-sized hard X-ray beams are demonstrated and perspectives for future dynamical measurements on PZT samples with variety of compositions and thicknesses are given. Studies performed on the crystalline [100, 110] directions evidenced piezoelectric anisotropy. The piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was calculated in terms of the lab reference frame (d{sub perp}) and found to be two times larger along the [100] direction than along the [110] direction. The absolute values for the d{sub perp} amount to 120 and 230 pm/V being in good agreement with experimental and theoretical values found in literature for bulk PZT ceramics. - Highlights: • We performed in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies on (PZT) thin films. • We discuss anisotropy of piezo effect in different crystallographic directions. • Perpendicular component Piezo coefficient of thin PZT layer is defined.

  20. Ivabradine Hydrochloride (S-Mandelic Acid Co-Crystal: In Situ Preparation during Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Sládková


    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical salt ivabradine hydrochloride is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. It exhibits extensive polymorphism and co-crystallization, which could be a way to provide an alternative solid form. We conducted a co-crystal screen, from which two hits were identified: with (S-mandelic and (R-mandelic acid. Both structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data as co-crystals. The co-crystals were further characterized by common solid-state techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, solid-state NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopy, and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS. The co-crystal with (S-mandelic acid was selected for further development; its physical and chemical stability was compared with two different polymorphs of the hydrochloride salt. The co-crystal exhibited a similar stability with the polymorph used in the original drug product and was, therefore, selected for formulation into the drug product. During the pre-formulation experiments, the in situ formation of the co-crystal was achieved during the wet granulation process. The following formulation experiments showed no influence of in situ prepared co-crystal on the overall stability of the bulk, when compared with pre-prepared co-crystal formulation.

  1. An Asynchronous Many-Task Implementation of In-Situ Statistical Analysis using Legion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bennett, Janine Camille [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In this report, we propose a framework for the design and implementation of in-situ analy- ses using an asynchronous many-task (AMT) model, using the Legion programming model together with the MiniAero mini-application as a surrogate for full-scale parallel scientific computing applications. The bulk of this work consists of converting the Learn/Derive/Assess model which we had initially developed for parallel statistical analysis using MPI [PTBM11], from a SPMD to an AMT model. In this goal, we propose an original use of the concept of Legion logical regions as a replacement for the parallel communication schemes used for the only operation of the statistics engines that require explicit communication. We then evaluate this proposed scheme in a shared memory environment, using the Legion port of MiniAero as a proxy for a full-scale scientific application, as a means to provide input data sets of variable size for the in-situ statistical analyses in an AMT context. We demonstrate in particular that the approach has merit, and warrants further investigation, in collaboration with ongoing efforts to improve the overall parallel performance of the Legion system.

  2. Antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral injection using an in situ thermosensitive hydrogel. (United States)

    Xu, Yourui; Shen, Yan; Ouahab, Ammar; Li, Chang; Xiong, Yerong; Tu, Jiasheng


    Local drug delivery strategies based on nanoparticles, gels, polymeric films, rods and wafers are increasingly used in cancer chemotherapy in order to enhance therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicity. Herein, a biodegradable and biocompatible in situ thermosensitive hydrogel was designed and employed to deliver tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) locally by intratumoral injection. The triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-butyrolactone (β-BL) and lactide (LA) in bulk using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst, the polymer was characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. Blood and tumor pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral administration in hydrogel or solution with the same dose were evaluated on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Compared with TNF-α solution, TNF-α hydrogel exhibited a longer T1/2 (4-fold) and higher AUCtumor (19-fold), but Cmax was lower (0.5-fold), which means that the hydrogel formulation improved the efficacy with a lower systhemic exposure than the solution formation. In addition, TNF-α hydrogel improved the antitumor activity and survival due to lower systemic exposure than the solution. These results demonstrate that the in situ thermosensitive hydrogel-based local delivery system by intratumoral injection is well suited for the administration of TNF-α.

  3. In-situ observation of atmospheric particulates (United States)

    Harrison, William Alan

    Airborne particulates play a central role in both the earth’s radiation balance and as a trigger for a wide range of health impacts. Air quality monitors are placed in networks across many cities globally. Typically these provide at best a few recording locations per city. However, large spatial variability occurs on the neighborhood scale. This study sets out to comprehensively characterize a full size distribution from 0.25 - 32 μm of airborne particulates on a fine spatial scale (meters). To fully characterize the impact of atmospheric particulates, global scale observations and data products are needed. Satellite products allow for this global coverage but require in situ validations. For the first part of this study data is gathered on a near daily basis over the month of May, 2014 in a 100 km2 area encompassing parts of Richardson, Texas, and Garland, Texas. Wind direction was determined to be the dominant factor in classifying the data. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was 14.1 ± 5.7 μgm. -3 corresponding to periods when the wind was out of the south. The lowest PM2.5 concentrations were observed after several consecutive days of rainfall. The rainfall was found to not only “cleanse” the air, leaving a mean PM2.5 concentration as low as 3.0 ± 0.5 μgm. -3 , but to leave the region with a more uniform PM2.5 concentration. Variograms were used to determine an appropriate spatial scale for future sensor placement to provide measurements on a neighborhood scale and found that the spatial scales varied, depending on the synoptic weather pattern, from 0.8 km to 5.2 km, with a typical length scale of 1.7 km. This second part of this study used a zero emission remote-controlled aerial vehicle to look at the horizontal, vertical, and temporal variability of airborne particulates within the first 140 m of the atmosphere. Four flights where conducted on December 4, 2014 between 12:00 pm and 5:00 pm local time. The first three flights flew a pattern of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG


    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  5. KISAP: New in situ seafloor velocity measurement tool (United States)

    Kim, Gil Young; Park, Ki Ju; Kyo Seo, Young; Lee, Gwang Soo; Kim, Seong Pil


    The KISAP (KIGAM Seafloor Acoustic Prober) is an instrument developed to obtain in situ compressional wave velocity and attenuation profiles for upper several meters of sedimentary layer at the sediment-seawater interface. This instrument consists of independent recording channels (NI cDAQ-9132, National Instruments) with a linear array of receivers (5 Hz-20 kHz, GeoSpectrum Technologies Inc) with depth below acoustic source (acoustic pinger, 1-50 kHz frequency, GeoSpectrum Technologies Inc). It provides in situ recording of full waveforms to determine interval velocity and attenuation. The system can be attached to a corer (gravity and/or piston corer) or to a specially designed prober. The experiments for in situ test were carried out in east coast of Korea and Songjeong beach, Pusan, Korea. We collected good waveform data to be calculated in situ velocity from KISAP test. Therefore KISAP can be used to collect in situ acoustic data. In addition, it can be effectively used to calibrate previous laboratory data to in situ data.

  6. Bulk, thermal, and mechanical properties of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimick, F.B.; Schwartz, B.M.


    Experimental data on matrix porosity, grain density, thermal expansion, compressive strength, Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio, and axial strain at failure for samples from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff are compiled. Heat capacity and emissivity also are discussed. Data have been analyzed for spatial variability; slight variability is observed for matrix porosity, grain density, and thermal expansion coefficient. Estimates of in situ values for some properties, such as bulk density and heat capacity, are presented. Vertical in situ stress as a function of horizontal and vertical location has been calculated. 96 refs., 37 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Geochemical and Microbiological Characteristics during in Situ Chemical Oxidation and in Situ Bioremediation at a Diesel Contaminated Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Kalisz, M.; Krupanek, J.; Marek, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Weert, de J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Gaans, van P.; Keijzer, T.


    While in situ chemical oxidation with persulfate has seen wide commercial application, investigations into the impacts on groundwater characteristics, microbial communities and soil structure are limited. To better understand the interactions of persulfate with the subsurface and to determine the

  8. A study of CuZr-based bulk metallic glass composite dispersed by in-situ Ta particles (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Mu, Juan; Xie, Qingge; Xu, Haijian; Wang, Yandong; Zhang, Haifeng


    The microstructure and mechanical behavior of Cu46Zr41Al7Nb1Ta5 BMGC containing Ta-rich particles and B2 phase were investigated. The parabolic strain-hardening behavior is observed due to the martensitic transformation of the B2 phase. The stress behavior of B2 phase dominates the macro-mechanical behavior rather than the shear-banding deformation.

  9. In situ management and domestication of plants in Mesoamerica. (United States)

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso


    Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the

  10. Venus, Earth and Mars: Present bounds on similarities and differences in bulk composition (United States)

    Goettel, K. A.


    The bulk compositions of the terrestrial planets are constrained in part by rigorous bounds derivable from geophysical data and from chemical data obtained in situ or by remote sensing. In large part, however, the bulk compositions are constrained only by the inferred plausibility of assumptions made about the processes responsible for producing planets. Present data are consistent with Venus, Earth and Mars all having solar ratios of the major, non-volatile elements. The mantle of Mars has a higher FeO content than the Earth's present upper mantle. The FeO content of the Venus mantle is poorly constrained. Abundances of minor elements are virtually unconstrained by geophysical data and only weakly constrained by existing chemical data. Inferences drawn from SNC meteorites suggest that Mars may be enriched in most volatiles relative to the Earth. Simple models in which volatiles are added in a single component probably do not accurately predict bulk volatile inventories of the planets.

  11. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas


    to target both DNA strands; the target DNA was cut by a restriction endonuclease close to the probe binding sites, which subsequently were made accessible by 5'-3' exonucleolysis. After hybridization, the padlock probe was circularized by ligation and served as template for in situ RCA, primed by the probe...

  12. POWTEX Neutron Diffractometer at FRM II - New Perspectives for In-Situ Rock Deformation Analysis (United States)

    Walter, J. M.; Stipp, M.; Ullemeyer, K.; Klein, H.; Leiss, B.; Hansen, B. T.; Kuhs, W. F.


    In Geoscience quantitative texture analysis here defined as the quantitative analysis of the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), is a common tool for the investigation of fabric development in mono- and polyphase rocks, their deformation histories and kinematics. Bulk texture measurements also allow the quantitative characterisation of the anisotropic physical properties of rock materials. A routine tool to measure bulk sample volumes is neutron texture diffraction, as neutrons have large penetration capabilities of several cm in geological sample materials. The new POWTEX (POWder and TEXture) Diffractometer at the neutron research reactor FRM II in Garching, Germany is designed as a high-intensity diffractometer by groups from the RWTH Aachen, Forschungszentrum Jülich and the University of Göttingen. Complementary to existing neutron diffractometers (SKAT at Dubna, Russia; GEM at ISIS, UK; HIPPO at Los Alamos, USA; D20 at ILL, France; and the local STRESS-SPEC and SPODI at FRM II) the layout of POWTEX is focused on fast time-resolved experiments and the measurement of larger sample series as necessary for the study of large scale geological structures. POWTEX is a dedicated beam line for geoscientific research. Effective texture measurements without sample tilting and rotation are possible firstly by utilizing a range of neutron wavelengths simultaneously (Time-of-Flight technique) and secondly by the high detector coverage (9.8 sr) and a high flux (~1 - 107 n/cm2s) at the sample. Furthermore the instrument and the angular detector resolution is designed also for strong recrystallisation textures as well as for weak textures of polyphase rocks. These instrument characteristics allow in-situ time-resolved texture measurements during deformation experiments on rocksalt, ice and other materials as large sample environments will be implemented at POWTEX. The in-situ deformation apparatus is operated by a uniaxial spindle drive with a maximum axial load of

  13. Bulk density of small meteoroids (United States)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.


    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  14. Airborne and surface-level in situ observations of wintertime clouds in the Southern Rockies (United States)

    Dorsi, Samuel Winchester

    The phase of cloud water has important impacts on cloud radiative properties, cloud lifetime, and the formation of precipitation. Mixed-phase clouds, or those in which liquid droplets, ice particle and water vapor co-exist, are of particular importance in the Southern Rockies of the United States, where these clouds enhance wintertime mountain precipitation mass and annual water storage in the snowpack. The interaction between multiple water phases within a cloud presents challenges for in situ observation. I describe the existing in situ cloud microphysical instrumentation, and introduce a new instrument for the in situ measurement of total water concentration: the second-generation University of Colorado closed-path tunable-diode laser hygrometer (CLH-2). This compact instrument can be flown within a scientific aircraft under-wing canister and is designed for operation in diverse environmental conditions. During the winter 2010-2011, the CLH-2 was installed on a wind vane at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in the Park Range of Colorado as a part of the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) campaign. I apply a new method for determining the bulk mass-dimensional relationship of ice particles from ground-based observations. Despite important difference between airborne and ground-based particle measurements, my parameterization yields particle masses close to those from recent airborne studies that take into account the effect of ice particle shattering on observed number concentrations. Variations in particle density over the course of a storm are suggested by time variations between the observed and parameterized ice water concentrations. Using observations from the Wyoming King Air research aircraft collected during the Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS) in winter 2010-2011, cloud water phase is identified using in situ microphysical measurements. While mixed-phase clouds are identified throughout the study area, the

  15. Investigation of environmental samples by low-level gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Niese, S. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany)


    The average sample number in our laboratory is about 200 per month (12% technical solid state, 30% geological solid state, 6% geological solid state with low mass, 12% biological, 11% water directly, 25% water after chemical separation, 4% others). In 54% of the measurements the background continuum, and though the detection limit, is determined only by the detector himself and not by the compton continuum from high energy lines in the sample. Some examples in the presented work aim to prove the advantages of gamma ray spectrometry in the underground laboratory Felsenkeller. (orig./DG)

  16. Mobile gamma spectrometry. Evaluation of the Resume 99 exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellander, H.; Karlsson, S. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Lauritzen, B. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Smethurst, M. [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)


    During the RESUME 99 exercise, the radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) activity in the surroundings of Gavle in central Sweden was ma{sup p}ped using car-borne gamma-ray spectrometry (CGS). The CGS data along with airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGS) data from the same area have been used to examine possible correlations between the CGS and AGS results, detector type and position, and geographical information, such as land-use and road type. The overall differences between various CGS results are small, while larger differences are found between AGS and CGS results. In general only little correlation was found with land-use and with road-type and width. The differences between AGS and CGS results arise because airborne detectors have a different field of view than a ground-based detector. From an analysis of the depth-dependency of AGS and CGS data for a depth-distributed source, it is found that the mean mass depth may be inferred from the ratio of AGS to CGS spectral count rates. Integration of AGS and CGS data requires a precise definition of quantities and units for reporting activity concentrations in a complicated geometry and care must be taken to translate AGS results into equivalent CGS quantities taking into account the spatial distribution of the radionuclides. (au)

  17. Basic characterization of highly enriched uranium by gamma spectrometry


    Nguyen, Cong Tam; Zsigrai, Jozsef


    Gamma-spectrometric methods suitable for the characterization of highly enriched uranium samples encountered in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials are presented. In particular, procedures for determining the 234U, 235U, 238U, 232U and 236U contents and the age of highly enriched uranium are described. Consequently, the total uranium content and isotopic composition can be calculated. For determining the 238U and 232U contents a low background chamber was used. In addition, age dating of...

  18. Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.

  19. Statistical modelling of neural networks in {gamma}-spectrometry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, V.; Martinez, J.M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Morel, J.; Lepy, M.C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Applications et de la Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants


    Layered Neural Networks, which are a class of models based on neural computation, are applied to the measurement of uranium enrichment, i.e. the isotope ratio {sup 235} U/({sup 235} U + {sup 236} U + {sup 238} U). The usual method consider a limited number of {Gamma}-ray and X-ray peaks, and require previously calibrated instrumentation for each sample. But, in practice, the source-detector ensemble geometry conditions are critically different, thus a means of improving the above convention methods is to reduce the region of interest: this is possible by focusing on the K{sub {alpha}} X region where the three elementary components are present. Real data are used to study the performance of neural networks. Training is done with a Maximum Likelihood method to measure uranium {sup 235} U and {sup 238} U quantities in infinitely thick samples. (authors). 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denois- ing in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data. Keywords.

  1. Gamma spectrometry on SIRIO R277 gamma scan wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.


    The influence of the boron shielding on the thermal neutron fluence can be noticed from the nuclides representing the thermal neutron fluence {sup 51}Cr and {sup 60}Co. Without the boron shielding the {sup 51}Cr activity increases with a factor of about 83.3 and the {sup 60}Co activity increases with a factor of about 11.1. The {sup 58}Co activity decreases with a factor 0.45 due to burn out of {sup 58}Co by thermal neutrons. The absorption of the fast neutrons in the sample holders is shown by the decrease of {sup 54}Mn, this is the difference between GSW3 and GSW1 which is 0.95. (orig.).

  2. Rapid in situ detection of chromosome 21 by PRINS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellestor, F.; Girardet, A.; Andreo, B. [CNRS UPR 9008, Montpellier (France)] [and others


    The {open_quotes}PRimed IN Situ labeling{close_quotes} (PRINS) method is an interesting alternative to in situ hybridization for chromosomal detection. In this procedure, chromosome labeling is performed by in situ annealing of specific oligonucleotide primers, followed by primer elongation by a Taq polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides. Using this process, we have developed a simple and semi-automatic method for rapid in situ detection of human chromosome 21. The reaction was performed on a programmable temperature cycler, with a chromosome 21 specific oligonucleotide primer. Different samples of normal and trisomic lymphocytes and amniotic fluid cells were used for testing the method. Specific labeling of chromosome 21 was obtained in both metaphases and interphase nuclei in a 1 hour reaction. The use of oligonucleotide primer for in situ labeling overcomes the need for complex preparations of specific DNA probes. The present results demonstrate that PRINS may be a simple and reliable technique for rapidly detecting aneuploidies. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  3. In situ measurements of phytoplankton fluorescence using low cost electronics. (United States)

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S; Wright, Dana L


    Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  4. Advanced physical models and monitoring methods for in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, K.; Chalmer, P.


    Numerous reports have indicated that contamination at DOE facilities is widespread and pervasive. Existing technology is often too costly or ineffective in remediating these contamination problems. An effective method to address one class of contamination, petroleum hydrocarbons, is in situ bioremediation. This project was designed to provide tools and approaches for increasing the reliability of in situ bioremediation. An example of the recognition within DOE for developing these tools is in the FY-1995 Technology Development Needs Summary of the Office of Technology Development of the US DOE. This document identifies specific needs addressed by this research. For example, Section 3.3 Need Statement IS-3 identifies the need for a {open_quotes}Rapid method to detect in situ biodegradation products.{close_quotes} Also, BW-I identifies the need to recognize boundaries between clean and contaminated materials and soils. Metabolic activity could identify these boundaries. Measuring rates of in situ microbial activity is critical to the fundamental understanding of subsurface microbiology and in selecting natural attenuation as a remediation option. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of subsurface environments, a significant cost incurred during bioremediation is the characterization of microbial activity, in part because so many intermediate end points (biomass, gene frequency, laboratory measurements of activity, etc.) must be used to infer in situ activity. A fast, accurate, real-time, and cost-effective method is needed to determine success of bioremediation at DOE sites.

  5. Feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment. (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Park, Ki Hyun; Kang, Sung Won; Joo, Koan Sik


    We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2.273 MeV end-point energy spectrum of 90 Sr/ 90 Y when using the system underwater. The results demonstrate the feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment and can be applied for designing an in situ detector for radioactivity measurement in underwater environment. The in situ detector can also have other applications such as installation on the marine monitoring platform and quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanoparticles laden in situ gel for sustained ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta


    Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.

  7. Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kumar


    Full Text Available Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.

  8. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright


    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  9. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat. (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E


    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Active Neutron and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for In Situ Planetary Science Applications (United States)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, A.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; hide


    We describe the development of an instrument capable of detailed in situ bulk geochemical analysis of the surface of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. This instrument technology uses a pulsed neutron generator to excite the solid materials of a planet and measures the resulting neutron and gamma-ray emission with its detector system. These time-resolved neutron and gamma-ray data provide detailed information about the bulk elemental composition, chemical context, and density distribution of the soil within 50 cm of the surface. While active neutron scattering and neutron-induced gamma-ray techniques have been used extensively for terrestrial nuclear well logging applications, our goal is to apply these techniques to surface instruments for use on any solid solar system body. As described, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center use a prototype neutron-induced gamma-ray instrument and the resulting data presented show the promise of this technique for becoming a versatile, robust, workhorse technology for planetary science, and exploration of any of the solid bodies in the solar system. The detection of neutrons at the surface also provides useful information about the material. This paper focuses on the data provided by the gamma-ray detector.

  11. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John


    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  12. Gold based bulk metallic glass


    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan


    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  13. Direct Observation Through In Situ Transmission Electron Microscope of Early States of Crystallization in Nanoscale Metallic Glasses (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sohn, S.; Schroers, J.; Cha, J. J.


    Crystallization is a complex process that involves multiscale physics such as diffusion of atomic species over multiple length scales, thermodynamic energy considerations, and multiple possible intermediate states. In situ crystallization experiments inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) using nanostructured metallic glasses (MGs) provide a unique platform to study directly crystallization kinetics and pathways. Here, we study the embryonic state of eutectic growth using Pt-Ni-Cu-P MG nanorods under in situ TEM. We directly observe the nucleation and growth of a Ni-rich polymorphic phase, followed by the nucleation and slower growth of a Cu-rich phase. The suppressed growth kinetics of the Cu-rich phase is attributed to locally changing chemical compositions. In addition, we show that growth can be controlled by incorporation of an entire nucleus instead of individual atoms. Such a nucleus has to align with the crystallographic orientation of a larger grain before it can be incorporated into the crystal. By directly observing the crystallization processes, particularly the early stages of non-polymorphic growth, in situ TEM crystallization studies of MG nanostructures provide a wealth of information, some of which can be applied to typical bulk crystallization.

  14. Investigation of the thermal stability of phosphotungstic Wells-Dawson heteropoly-acid through in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matkovic, Silvana Raquel, E-mail: [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas-Dr. Jorge J. Ronco. U.N.L.P., CONICET, CCT La Plata. Calle 47 N 257, B1900AJK La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Briand, Laura Estefania [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas-Dr. Jorge J. Ronco. U.N.L.P., CONICET, CCT La Plata. Calle 47 N 257, B1900AJK La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Banares, Miguel Angel [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Catalitica, Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC. Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: {yields} Insitu Raman is used to monitor the thermal stability of Wells Dawson heteropolyacid. {yields} TP-Raman follows the gradual dehydration and the effect on the secondary structure. {yields} Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid does not decompose into Keggin and WO{sub 3} units below 600{sup o}C -- Abstract: The present investigation applies laser Raman spectroscopy under in situ conditions to obtain insights on the effect of the temperature on the molecular structure of the bulk phosphotungstic Wells-Dawson heteropoly-acid H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}.xH{sub 2}O (HPA). The in situ temperature-programmed studies followed the evolution of phosphotungstic Wells-Dawson and Keggin heteropoly-acids along with tungsten trioxide under controlled atmosphere and temperature. The spectroscopic investigation of the Wells-Dawson HPA demonstrated that in situ Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique to follow the effect of a gradual dehydration on the secondary structure of such a complex structure. Moreover, the absence of the signals belonging either to the Keggin or WO{sub 3} phases provides further evidence that the phosphotungstic heteropolyanion does not decomposes towards those materials at temperatures below 600 {sup o}C.

  15. Grain Nucleation and Growth in Deformed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: An In Situ TEM Study (United States)

    Burow, J.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, C.; Prokofiev, E.; Valiev, R.; Eggeler, G.


    The present study investigates the evolution of nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures in plastically deformed NiTi. Two deformed NiTi alloys were subjected to in situ annealing in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at 400 and 550 °C: an amorphous material state produced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and a mostly martensitic partly amorphous alloy produced by wire drawing. In situ annealing experiments were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution from the initial nonequilibrium states toward energetically more favorable microstructures. In general, the formation and evolution of nanocrystalline microstructures are governed by the nucleation of new grains and their subsequent growth. Austenite nuclei which form in HPT and wire-drawn microstructures have sizes close to 10 nm. Grain coarsening occurs in a sporadic, nonuniform manner and depends on the physical and chemical features of the local environment. The mobility of grain boundaries in NiTi is governed by the local interaction of each grain with its microstructural environment. Nanograin growth in thin TEM foils seems to follow similar kinetic laws to those in bulk microstructures. The present study demonstrates the strength of in situ TEM analysis and also highlights aspects which need to be considered when interpreting the results.

  16. Imaging by in situ Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy and its Nanotechnological Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov


    in the interpretation of the imaging procedure. Other methods of in situ Scanning Probe Microscopy (in situ SPM), such as in situ Scanning Force Microscopy (in situ AFM) are considered for the sake of comparison and they are applied to imaging of non-conducting systems. Major results include demonstration of atomic...

  17. Undulator field correction by in-situ sorting (United States)

    Tanaka, T.; Seike, T.; Kitamura, H.


    A novel field-correction method for insertion devices called in-situ sorting has been developed. It is based on a rearrangement of magnet blocks with an analysis of the magnetic data measured for the total device after assembly instead of that for each magnet block before assembly. The field integral at each magnet pole obtained from the magnetic distribution determines how to exchange or flip magnet blocks to reduce both the phase error and multipole components of the field integral. The practical results of the in-situ sorting used for a field correction of an in-vacuum undulator are shown to reveal the validity of the in-situ sorting.

  18. Assessing bitumen and heavy oil viscosity in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larter, S.; Adams, J.; Jiang, D.; Snowdon, L.; Bennett, B.; Gates, I. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Gushor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Log-based techniques for evaluating the in-situ viscosity of oil rely on dead oil viscosity measurements are conducted in laboratories. However, bitumen viscosity is impacted by water; sediment and gas loads; emulsion formation; and shear properties. This abstract discussed a method of assessing the in-situ viscosity of bitumen and heavy oils. The method was designed to simulate the viscosity of heavy oil fluid flow in process conditions. Measured appropriate dead oil viscosity was combined with estimates of solution gas content using mixing rules in order to establish in-situ live oil viscosity estimates. The method takes into account solid and water loads, procedures for correction of viscosity for core storage artifacts, and the impact of variable bitumen saturation pressures through oil columns on live oil reconstruction algorithms.

  19. Master of Puppets: Cooperative Multitasking for In Situ Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lukic, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Modern scientific and engineering simulations track the time evolution of billions of elements. For such large runs, storing most time steps for later analysis is not a viable strategy. It is far more efficient to analyze the simulation data while it is still in memory. Here, we present a novel design for running multiple codes in situ: using coroutines and position-independent executables we enable cooperative multitasking between simulation and analysis, allowing the same executables to post-process simulation output, as well as to process it on the fly, both in situ and in transit. We present Henson, an implementation of our design, and illustrate its versatility by tackling analysis tasks with different computational requirements. This design differs significantly from the existing frameworks and offers an efficient and robust approach to integrating multiple codes on modern supercomputers. The techniques we present can also be integrated into other in situ frameworks.

  20. In Situ Atom Probe Deintercalation of Lithium-Manganese-Oxide. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Björn; Maier, Johannes; Arlt, Jonas; Nowak, Carsten


    Atom probe tomography is routinely used for the characterization of materials microstructures, usually assuming that the microstructure is unaltered by the analysis. When analyzing ionic conductors, however, gradients in the chemical potential and the electric field penetrating dielectric atom probe specimens can cause significant ionic mobility. Although ionic mobility is undesirable when aiming for materials characterization, it offers a strategy to manipulate materials directly in situ in the atom probe. Here, we present experimental results on the analysis of the ionic conductor lithium-manganese-oxide with different atom probe techniques. We demonstrate that, at a temperature of 30 K, characterization of the materials microstructure is possible without measurable Li mobility. Also, we show that at 298 K the material can be deintercalated, in situ in the atom probe, without changing the manganese-oxide host structure. Combining in situ atom probe deintercalation and subsequent conventional characterization, we demonstrate a new methodological approach to study ionic conductors even in early stages of deintercalation.

  1. Design, fabrication, and applications of in situ fluid cell TEM. (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; De Yoreo, James J


    In situ fluid cell TEM is a powerful new tool for understanding dynamic processes during liquid phase chemical reactions, including mineral formation. This technique, which operates in the high vacuum of a TEM chamber, provides information on crystal structure, phase, morphology, size, aggregation/segregation, and crystal growth mechanisms in real time. In situ TEM records both crystal structure and morphology at spatial resolutions down to the atomic level with high temporal resolution of up to 10(-6)s per image, giving it distinct advantages over other in situ techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, or X-ray scattering or diffraction. This chapter addresses the design, fabrication, and assembly of TEM fluid cells and applications of fluid cell TEM to understanding mechanisms of mineralization. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In situ detection of horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Johansen, Tove


    . The obtained data show that the several different types of fluorescent reporters, which are now available, allow more informative in situ investigations of horizontal gene transfer to be carried out, and by combining these genes with various expression systems it is possible to simultaneously monitor donor......Plasmid transfer was investigated in microbial populations associated with different types of surfaces. The general strategy behind these investigations was to label the transferable plasmid with a gene encoding a fluorescent protein in order to make it a transfer reporter. This was achieved......, was used to monitor bacterial growth activity in situ. Differential tagging of mobilizing and mobilizable plasmids with different genes encoding fluorescent proteins with varying emission wavelengths allowed in situ detection of plasmid mobilization and detection of retro-transfer on agar surfaces...

  3. Detector calibration for in-situ gamma ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Balea, G


    The power in the technique of in-situ spectrometry lies in the fact that a detector placed on ground measures gamma radiation from sources situated over an area of several hundred square meters. The 'field of view' for the detector would be larger for high energy radiation sources and for sources closer to the soil surface. In contrast, a soil sample would represent an area of a few tens of hundreds of square centimeters. In practice, an effective characterization of a site would involve in-situ gamma ray spectrometry in conjunction with soil sampling. As part of an overall program, in-situ gamma ray spectrometry provides a means to assess the degree of contamination in areas during the course of operations in the field, thus guiding the investigator on where to collect samples. It can also substantially reduce the number of samples need to be collected and subsequently analyzed. (author)

  4. Production rates of terrestrial in-situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tuniz, C.; Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)


    Production rates of cosmogenic nuclides made in situ in terrestrial samples and how they are applied to the interpretation of measured radionuclide concentrations were discussed at a one-day Workshop held 2 October 1993 in Sydney, Australia. The status of terrestrial in-situ studies using the long-lived radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca and of various modeling and related studies were presented. The relative uncertainties in the various factors that go into the interpretation of these terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic nuclides were discussed. The magnitudes of the errors for these factors were estimated and none dominated the final uncertainty.

  5. In-situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy for battery research. (United States)

    Mehdi, B Layla; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas R; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David A; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong-Min; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James; Browning, Nigel D


    The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  6. Crystallization in Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhou, T.J.; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl


    The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of the bulk metallic glass-forming Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 alloy with a wide supercooled liquid region has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation....

  7. Pressure effect on crystallization kinetics in Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Xu, Y.S.


    Crystallization kinetics of a Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass in the supercooled liquid region have been investigated by performing in situ high-temperature and high-pressure x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. A pressure-time-temperature-transformation diagram, desc...

  8. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T{sub g} polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T{sub g}. Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance

  9. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    Oil spills in ice filled and Arctic waters pose other challenges for oil spill response compared to open and temperate waters. In situ burning has been proven to be an effective oil spill response method for oil spills in ice filled waters. This thesis presents results from laboratory and field...... experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented...

  10. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.


    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  11. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Challa, Sivakumar R.


    along with our recent in situ TEM studies on the sintering of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts. These results suggest that the rapid loss of catalyst activity in the earliest stages of catalyst sintering could result from Ostwald ripening rather than through particle migration and coalescence. The smallest...... of Ostwald ripening as well as atomistic Monte Carlo simulations are both in good agreement with these experimental observations, predicting a steep loss in catalyst activity at short times on stream. The in situ studies show the importance of direct observations to deduce mechanisms and show the important...

  12. Rapid in situ hybridization using digoxigenin probe and microwave oven. (United States)

    Besançon, R; Bencsik, A; Voutsinos, B; Belin, M F; Févre-Montange, M


    In situ hybridization has been developed with probes labelled with a non-radioactive nucleotide, especially digoxigenin-coupled nucleotides. These non-radioactive probes significantly reduce safety problems and experimentation time. In this paper, we have studied by in situ hybridization the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), in the rat pituitary gland using digoxigenin labelled oligonucleotide and a microwave oven. Our protocol permitted us to visualize POMC mRNA in all cells of the intermediate lobe and a few corticotroph cells in the anterior lobe, as it has been already demonstrated and to complete the experiment in less than 24 hrs.

  13. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)


    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Electrochemical atomic force microscopy: In situ monitoring of electrochemical processes (United States)

    Reggente, Melania; Passeri, Daniele; Rossi, Marco; Tamburri, Emanuela; Terranova, Maria Letizia


    The in-situ electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANI), one of the most attractive conducting polymers (CP), has been monitored performing electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) experiments. The electropolymerization of PANI on a Pt working electrode has been observed performing cyclic voltammetry experiments and controlling the evolution of current flowing through the electrode surface, together with a standard AFM image. The working principle and the potentialities of this emerging technique are briefly reviewed and factors limiting the studying of the in-situ electrosynthesis of organic compounds discussed.

  15. Airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index (United States)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.; Bowles, Roland L.; Robinson, Paul A.


    An algorithm for airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index (F-factor) was developed and evaluated in simulation and verified in flight. The algorithm was implemented on NASA's B-737-100 airplane, and tested under severe maneuvering, nonhazardous wind conditions, and normal takeoffs and landings. The airplane was flown through actual microburst conditions in Orlando, FL, where the algorithm produced wind shear measurements which were confirmed by an independent, ground-based radar measurement. Flight test results indicated that the in situ F-factor algorithm correctly measured the effect of the wind environment on the airplane's performance, and produced no nuisance alerts.

  16. Subsurface In Situ Elemental Composition Measurements with PING (United States)

    Parsons, Ann; McClanahan, Timothy; Bodnarik, Julia; Evans, Larry; Nowicki, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Starr, Richard


    This paper describes the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, that can measure the subsurface elemental composition in situ for any rocky body in the solar system without the need for digging into the surface. PING consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG), a gamma ray spectrometer and neutron detectors. Subsurface elements are stimulated by high-energy neutrons to emit gamma rays at characteristic energies. This paper will show how the detection of these gamma rays results in a measurement of elemental composition. Examples of the basalt to granite ratios for aluminum and silicon abundance are provided.

  17. Future directions for in-situ product removal (ISPR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Bisschops, Marc; Straathof, Adrie J J


    This paper summarizes the main findings of a round-table discussion held to examine the key bottlenecks in the further application and industrial implementation of in-situ product removal (ISPR) techniques. It is well established that ISPR can yield great benefits for processes limited by inhibit......This paper summarizes the main findings of a round-table discussion held to examine the key bottlenecks in the further application and industrial implementation of in-situ product removal (ISPR) techniques. It is well established that ISPR can yield great benefits for processes limited...

  18. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A


    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  19. Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong


    In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...

  20. Design of Thermo Mechanicaln Processing and Transformation Behaviour of Bulk Si-Mn Trip Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnik, J.


    Full Text Available In the last decade, a lot of effort has been paid to optimising the thermomechanical processing of TRIP steels that stands for transformation induced plasticity. The precise characterization of the resulting multiphase microstructure of low alloyed TRIP steels is of great importance for the interpretation and optimisation of their mechanical properties. The results obtained in situ neutron diffraction laboratory experiment concerning the austenite to ferrite transformation in Si-Mn bulk TRIP steel specimens, displaying the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP, are presented. The advancement of ferrite formation during transformation in conditioned austenite is investigated at different transformation temperatures and has been monitored using neutron diffraction method. The relevant information on transformation proceeding is extracted from neutron diffraction spectra. The integrated intensities of austenite and ferrite neutron diffraction profiles developed during the transformation are then assumed as a measure of the phase volume fractions of both phases in dependence on transformation temperature and austenite conditioning. According to the yielding information on ferrite volume fractions from isothermal transformation kinetics data the thermo mechanical processing of bulk specimen was designed in order to support austenite stabilization through bainitic transformation. The volume fractions of retained austenite resulting at alternating transformation conditions were measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction respectively. The stability of retained austenite in bulk specimens during room temperature mechanical testing was characterized by in situ neutron diffraction experiments as well.

  1. Structure formation and characterization of injectable drug loaded biodegradable devices: in situ implants versus in situ microparticles. (United States)

    Kranz, H; Bodmeier, R


    The objective of the study was to investigate key formulation variables affecting the release of bupivacaine hydrochloride, a local anesthetic, from different in situ forming biodegradable drug delivery devices. The formulations included ISM systems [in situ microparticles, a poly(lactide)-solvent phase dispersed into an external oil phase] and poly(lactide) solutions (in situ implant systems). The solubility of the biodegradable polymer poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) in various organic solvents was determined using the Hansen multicomponent solubility parameter concept. The solvent release from ISM and polymer solutions into phosphate buffer which influences the polymer precipitation rate was investigated as a function of the type of solvent, polymer concentration and polymer:oil phase ratio by using a HPLC assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed in order to relate the drug release to the surface properties of the precipitated implants or microparticles. Suitable solvents for the preparation of the in situ forming drug delivery systems, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-pyrrolidone were found using the Hansen multicomponent solubility parameter concept. The injection of the polymer solutions (in situ implants) into the aqueous medium led to a rapid solvent/non-solvent exchange. The resulting in situ implants were porous, thus explaining the rapid initial drug release. Upon contact with the release medium, the internal polymer phase of the ISM system solidified and formed microparticles as shown by SEM measurements. Due to the presence of an external oil phase the solvent release into the buffer medium from ISM was significantly slower compared to the polymer solutions. The solvent release of the ISM systems into the phosphate buffer decreased with increasing polymer concentration and decreasing polymer:oil phase ratio. The type of solvent used also affected the solvent release. A slower solvent release into the aqueous

  2. A novel approach for preparation and in situ tensile testing of silica glass membranes in the TEM (United States)

    Mačković, Mirza; Przybilla, Thomas; Dieker, Christel; Herre, Patrick; Romeis, Stefan; Stara, Hana; Schrenker, Nadine; Peukert, Wolfgang; Spiecker, Erdmann


    The mechanical behavior of glasses in the micro- and/or nanometer regime increasingly gains importance in nowadays modern technology. However, suitable small scale preparation and mechanical testing approaches for a reliable assessment of the mechanical properties of glasses still remain a big challenge. In the present work, a novel approach for site-specific preparation and quantitative in situ tensile testing of thin silica glass membranes in the transmission electron microscope is presented. Thereby, advanced focused ion beam techniques are used for the preparation of nanoscale dog bone shaped silica glass specimens suitable for in situ tensile testing. Small amounts of gallium are detected on the surface of the membranes resulting from redeposition effects during the focused ion beam preparation procedure. Possible structural changes of silica glass upon irradiation with electrons and gallium ions are investigated by controlled irradiation experiments, followed by a structural analysis using Raman spectroscopy. While moderate electron beam irradiation does not alter the structure of silica glass, ion beam irradiation results in minor densification of the silica glass membranes. In situ tensile testing of membranes under electron beam irradiation results in distinctive elongations without fracture confirming the phenomenon of superplasticity. In contrast, in situ tensile testing in the absence of the electron beam reveals an elastic/plastic deformation behavior, and finally leads to fracture of the membranes. The Young’s moduli of the glass membranes pulled at beam off conditions in the TEM are comparable with values known for bulk fused silica, while the tensile strength is in the range of values reported for silica glass fibers with comparable dimensions. The impact of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of silica glass membranes is further discussed. The results of the present work open new avenues for dedicated preparation and

  3. Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE (United States)

    Poellot, Michael R.; Kucera, Paul A.


    This report describes the work performed by the University of North Dakota (UND) under NASA Grant NAG5-11509, titled Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE. This work focused on the collection of data by two key platforms: the UND Citation II research aircraft and the NASA NPOL radar system. The CRYSTAL-FACE (C-F) mission addresses several key issues from the NASA Earth System Enterprise, including the variability of water in the atmosphere, the forcing provided by tropical cirrus and the response of the Earth system to this forcing. In situ measurements and radar observations of tropical convection, cirrus clouds and their environment are core elements of C-F. One of the primary issues that C-F is addressing is the relationship of tropical cirrus anvils to precipitating deep convection. The in situ measurements from C-F are being used to validate remote sensing of Earth-Atmosphere properties, increase our knowledge of upper tropospheric water vapor and its distribution, and increase our knowledge of tropical cirrus cloud morphology and composition. Radar measurements, especially polarimetric diversity observations available fiom the NASA NPOL radar, are providing essential information about the initiation, modulation, and dissipation of convective cores and the generation of associated anvils in tropical convection. Specifically, NPOL radar measurements contain information about convective intensity and its vertical structure for comparison with thermodynamic and kinematic environmental measurements observed from soundings. Because of the polarimetric diversity of MOL, statistics on bulk microphysical properties can be retrieved and compared to the other characteristics of convection and associated cirrus anvils. In summary, the central objectives of this proposal were to deploy the UND Citation research aircraft as an in situ sensing platform for this mission and to provide collaborative

  4. In situ production of solar power systems for exploration: Potential for in situ rectenna production on Mars (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.


    In situ derived expandable power is a key to eventual Mars base self-sufficiency. Initial studies for a non-nuclear human Mars reference mission rely on a large area of solar cells with energy storage for night power requirements. Preliminary studies indicate that utilization of Solar Electric Propulsion vehicles in Mars areosynchronous orbit might competitively provide continuous power if laser or 245 GHz microwave power transmission were utilized. This paper looks at the potential to reduce landed mass on Mars for a non-nuclear human mission and thus reduce mission cost by making the power receiving rectennas in situ on Mars surface.

  5. Work hardening mechanism in high nitrogen austenitic steel studied by in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, M., E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Adachi, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tomota, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Hikari, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-0014 (Japan); Kamiyama, T. [Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Katada, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)


    With a focus on microstructural hierarchy, work hardening behaviour in high nitrogen-bearing austenitic steel (HNS) was investigated mainly by a combined technique of in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Stress partitioning due to difference in deformability among grains is enhanced in HNS. The larger stress partitioning among [h k l]-oriented family grains seems to realize high work hardening at a small strain. At a larger strain, dislocation density is higher in HNS than in low nitrogen austenitic steel (LNS), which is a possible reason for high work hardening after straining proceeds, resulting in large uniform elongation.

  6. Method of making in-situ whisker reinforced glass ceramic (United States)

    Brown, Jesse J.; Hirschfeld, Deidre A.; Lee, K. H.


    A heat processing procedure is used to create reinforcing whiskers of TiO.sub.2 in glass-ceramic materials in the LAS and MAS family. The heat processing procedure has particular application in creating TiO.sub.2 in-situ in a modified .beta.-eucryptite system.

  7. IN SITU Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossil Energy Research


    SCR catalyst management has become an important operations and maintenance activity for coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. To facilitate this activity, a method to determine Catalyst Activity in situ is being developed. This report describes the methodology and presents the results of a two ozone season demonstration conducted at Alabama Power Company's Gorgas Unit 10 during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons. The results showed that the in situ measurements are in good agreement with the laboratory measurements and the technique has some advantages over the traditional laboratory method of determining Catalyst Activity and Reactor Potential. SCR Performance is determined by the overall Reactor Potential (the product of the Catalyst Activity and the available surface area per unit of flue gas). The in situ approach provides a direct measurement of Reactor Potential under actual operating conditions, whereas laboratory measurements of Catalyst Activity need to be coupled with estimates of catalyst pluggage and flue gas flowrate in order to assess Reactor Potential. The project also showed that the in situ activity results can easily be integrated into catalyst management software to aid in making informed catalyst decisions.

  8. In-situ biogas upgrading process: modeling and simulations aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovato, Giovanna; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Kovalovszki, Adam


    Biogas upgrading processes by in-situ hydrogen (H2) injection are still challenging and could benefit from a mathematical model to predict system performance. Therefore, a previous model on anaerobic digestion was updated and expanded to include the effect of H2 injection into the liquid phase of...

  9. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca


    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  10. In-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Dirk Jan


    The scope of this thesis concerns a new method to produce oriented polymers by the in-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates. The desired macroscopic molecular order is already accomplished in the monomeric state prior to the polymerization. ... Zie: Summary

  11. Operability test report for the in SITU vapor sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford


    This report documents the successful completion of testing for the In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system. The report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-196, Rev OA), data sheets, exception resolutions, and a test report summary. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, `Engineering Practice Guidelines,` Appendix L, `Operability Test Procedures and Reports.`

  12. Charleston Pouch with In-Situ Appendix and Concealed Umbilical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer recurrence was recorded in 3 patients at 12, 27 and 32 months. Conclusions: The Charleston pouch with in-situ appendix is an efficient versatile technique for the creation of a catheterizable continent cutaneous urinary reservoir. The umbilical stoma with triangular skin flap provides excellent cosmetic results.

  13. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Petridis (Christos); R.H. Brook; V. Shah (Vandna); K. Kohut (Kelly); P. Gorman (Patricia); M. Caneppele (Michele); D. Levi (Dina); E. Papouli (Efterpi); N. Orr (Nick); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); J. Peto (Julian); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J. Benítez (Javier); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); J. Li (Jingmei); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); P. Soucy (Penny); J. Simard (Jacques); R.L. Milne (Roger); G.G. Giles (Graham); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Lindblom (Annika); T. Brüning (Thomas); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); M. Kabisch (Maria); U. Hamann (Ute); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); A. Meindl (Alfons); H. Brenner (Hermann); V. Arndt (Volker); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); L. Le Marchand (Loic); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); F. Marme (Federick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); N. Miller (Nicola); M. Kerin (Michael); D. Lambrechts (Diether); O.A.M. Floris; J. Wesseling (Jelle); H. Flyger (Henrik); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S. Yao (Song); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Guénel (Pascal); A. Rudolph (Anja); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Czene (Kamila); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); J.E. Olson (Janet); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A.M. Dunning (Alison); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); S. Pinder (Sarah); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); R. Roylance (Rebecca); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor)


    textabstractBackground: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk

  14. Prenatal detection of aneuploidies using fluorescence in situ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic technique which allows rapid detection of aneuploidies on interphase cells and metaphase spreads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FISH as a tool in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies in high risk pregnancies in an Indian set up.

  15. In situ hybridization to somatic metaphase chromosomes of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R. G.; Hoekstra, R.; van der Leij, F. R.; Pijnacker, L. P.; Witholt, B.; Feenstra, W. J.


    An in situ hybridization procedure was developed for mitotic potato chromosomes by using a potato 24S rDNA probe. This repetitive sequence hybridized to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of chromosome 2 in 95%-100% of the metaphase plates. Another repetitive sequence (P5), isolated from the

  16. Influence of a polyclonal antibody preparation on the in situ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP) against specific ruminal bacteria on the in situ degradability of dry-grounded maize grain (DMG), high moisture maize silage (HMMS) starch and citrus pulp (CiPu) pectin. Nine ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3 x 3 Latin ...

  17. Determination of forage escape protein value with in situ and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to compare in situ and in vitro enzyme techniques for determining estimates of forage escape proteins. Eight forages (vetch hay, wheat silage, corn silage, wheat hay, grass hay, lentil straw, triticale hay and alfalfa hay) were used as feed materials. During 70 h, incubation with enzyme method had ...

  18. Applied in situ product recovery in ABE fermentation (United States)

    Lalander, Carl‐Axel; Lee, Jonathan G. M.; Davies, E. Timothy; Harvey, Adam P.


    The production of biobutanol is hindered by the product's toxicity to the bacteria, which limits the productivity of the process. In situ product recovery of butanol can improve the productivity by removing the source of inhibition. This paper reviews in situ product recovery techniques applied to the acetone butanol ethanol fermentation in a stirred tank reactor. Methods of in situ recovery include gas stripping, vacuum fermentation, pervaporation, liquid–liquid extraction, perstraction, and adsorption, all of which have been investigated for the acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation. All techniques have shown an improvement in substrate utilization, yield, productivity or both. Different fermentation modes favored different techniques. For batch processing gas stripping and pervaporation were most favorable, but in fed‐batch fermentations gas stripping and adsorption were most promising. During continuous processing perstraction appeared to offer the best improvement. The use of hybrid techniques can increase the final product concentration beyond that of single‐stage techniques. Therefore, the selection of an in situ product recovery technique would require comparable information on the energy demand and economics of the process. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:563–579, 2017 PMID:28188696

  19. In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Ipsen, John Hjorth


    In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-co...

  20. Effect of method of sample preparation on ruminal in situ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of method of sample preparation on the degradation kinetics of herbage when applying the in situ technique. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) was harvested at three and four weeks after cutting and fertilizing with 200 kg nitrogen (N)/ha. Freshly cut herbage ...

  1. In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin; Ottow, Kim Ekelund


    employed directly in the broth during the fermentation, followed by in situ magnetic separation, Proof of the concept was first demonstrated in shake flask culture, then scaled up and applied during a fed batch cultivation ill a 3.7 L bioreactor. It could be demonstrated that growth of B. licheniformis...

  2. A Technique for In Situ Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (United States)

    Balsano, Robert; Garramone, John; Labella, Vincent


    Ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) is a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique that can measure transport of hot electrons through materials and interfaces with high spatial and energetic resolution. BEEM requires an additional contact to ground the metal base layer of a metal semiconductor junction. Performing BEEM in situ with the sample fabrication requires a custom built STM or modifying a commercial one to facilitate the extra contact, which leaves the technique to highly trained experts. This poster will describe our work to develop a special silicon substrate that has the extra contact built in to enable in situ BEEM without modifications to the STM. Electrically isolated contact traces are lithographically patterned ex situ onto the silicon substrate and connected to the BEEM sample plate which is then inserted into the ultra-high vacuum chamber. The metal is then deposited through a shadow mask and then mounted in situ onto the STM for BEEM measurements. BEEM measurements comparing both in situ and ex situ deposited films will be presented.

  3. Determination of forage escape protein value with in situ and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 12, 2012 ... This study was carried out to compare in situ and in vitro enzyme techniques for determining estimates of forage escape ... enzyme method had similar escape protein values for vetch hay, wheat hay, grass hay, triticale hay and .... the bags was determined by the macro-Kjeldahl procedure (AOAC,. 1990).

  4. Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.


    Summary Of the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li The work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and

  5. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization analysis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) with biotin-labeled rice genomic DNA to the chromosomes of Zea mays, Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor, Setaria italic and Secale cereale were conducted to analyze genomic homology between rice and other grass (Gramineae) speices. At 75% stringency, the rice ...

  6. Repurposing CRISPR/Cas9 for in situ functional assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malina, Abba; Mills, John R; Cencic, Regina; Yan, Yifei; Fraser, James; Schippers, Laura M; Paquet, Marilène; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry


    RNAi combined with next-generation sequencing has proven to be a powerful and cost-effective genetic screening platform in mammalian cells. Still, this technology has its limitations and is incompatible with in situ mutagenesis screens on a genome-wide scale. Using p53 as a proof-of-principle

  7. 3D float tracking: in situ floodplain roughness estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, M.W.


    This paper presents a novel technique to quantify in situ hydrodynamic roughness of submerged floodplain vegetation: 3D float tracking. This method uses a custom-built floating tripod that is released on the inundated floodplain and tracked from shore by a robotic total station. Simultaneously, an

  8. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.; Honkamaa, T.; Niskala, P. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)


    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  9. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.


    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  10. OceanSITES PAPA daily in-situ data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from station Papa at 50N,145W in the North Pacific. This taut-line mooring has been instrumented...

  11. Ortho lithiation-in situ borylation of substituted morpholine benzamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederbalk, Anna; Lysén, Morten; Kehler, Jan


    Morpholine amides are cheap and safe alternative to Weinreb amides as acylating agents of organometallic species. Herein, the in-situ lithiation/borylation of 18 ortho- meta- and para-substituted morpholine benzamides has been investigated. 10 of the 18 substrates provided the desired boronic...

  12. AFM cantilever with in situ renewable mercury microelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, Peter Manfred; Geerlings, J.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Sarajlic, Edin


    We report here first results obtained on a novel, in situ renewable mercury microelectrode integrated into an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. Our approach is based on a fountain pen probe with appropriate dimensions enabling reversible filling with(nonwetting) mercury under changing the

  13. A rat model with an isolated bladder in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Olsen, P S; Grevstad, J U


    This paper describes our method for producing a rat model with an isolated bladder in situ in which the bladder makes no contact with urine. First, the right kidney was removed, then an external catheter was placed in the right ureter for bladder infusions, and next the left ureter was anatomosed...

  14. Historical perspective of in situ hybridization for the analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 29, 2010 ... In situ hybridization involves hybridization of DNA or RNA probes to the cytological preparations. The technique originally used auto-radiographic labeling to map both repetitive and low copy DNA sequences. The problem associated with this technique was its short half life, lack of safety and long exposure ...

  15. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater (United States)

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo


    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  16. Chemical Composition, in situ Degradability and in vitro Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the quality profile of tagasaste forage harvested at different re-growth stages by measuring the chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro gas production. Tagasaste re-growths after one year of establishment was harvested and the re-growths starting from the main rainy season (July) was ...

  17. In situ growth rate of Solen cylindraceus (Mollusca: Euheterodonta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth lines of this species are too indistinct and irregular to be of any use. This study, therefore, adopted a more direct method of monitoring the shell length of individuals, by caging them in situ. Shell measurements were taken from the individuals in cages and the surrounding environment at monthly intervals for one year.

  18. Electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical studies of gold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    as 1⋅6 μm. 2.4 Equipment and measurements. All the electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical experiments were performed in an EG&G PAR model. 283 potentiostat/galvanostat with Echem software and HP diode array spectrophotometer (Agilent technologies-. 8453) with HPchem software loaded computers.

  19. A review on in situ stiffness adjustment methods in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, M.L.C.; Perez Garza, H.H.; Herder, J.L.; Ghatkesar, M.K.


    In situ stiffness adjustment in microelectromechanical systems is used in a variety of applications such as radio-frequency mechanical filters, energy harvesters, atomic force microscopy, vibration detection sensors. In this review we provide designers with an overview of existing stiffness

  20. Heat exchanger life extension via in-situ reconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan


    A method of in-situ reconditioning a heat exchanger includes the steps of: providing an in-service heat exchanger comprising a precipitate-strengthened alloy wherein at least one mechanical property of the heat exchanger is degraded by coarsening of the precipitate, the in-service heat exchanger containing a molten salt working heat exchange fluid; deactivating the heat exchanger from service in-situ; in a solution-annealing step, in-situ heating the heat exchanger and molten salt working heat exchange fluid contained therein to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the coarsened precipitate; in a quenching step, flowing the molten salt working heat-exchange fluid through the heat exchanger in-situ to cool the alloy and retain a supersaturated solid solution while preventing formation of large precipitates; and in an aging step, further varying the temperature of the flowing molten salt working heat-exchange fluid to re-precipitate the dissolved precipitate.

  1. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck


    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  2. Designing in situ simulation in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Krogh, Kristian


    Baggrund: Dette interventionsstudie har til formål at forbedre patientsikkerheden gennem design af in situ simulation. Undersøgelsen fandt sted på en akut medicinsk stue i den centrale region i Danmark. Forskning tyder på, at mangelfuld handover kommunikation kan øge sandsynligheden for kritiske ...

  3. Supernumerary ring chromosome 20 characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langen, Irene M.; Otter, Mariëlle A.; Aronson, Daniël C.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.G.; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Leschot, Nico J.; Hoovers, Jan M.N.


    We report on a boy with mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay, in whom karyotyping showed an additional minute ring chromosome in 60% of metaphases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromere specific probe demonstrated that the ring chromosome contained the centromeric

  4. Current approaches for detection of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Olesen, Inge A; Jørgensen, Niels


    of carcinoma in situ (CIS). This review describes current possible approaches for the detection of CIS. At present, an open testicular biopsy is the only definitive way of establishing the presence of CIS. The tissue section should be of an adequate size, be properly fixed, and evaluation be supported...

  5. In-situ strain observation in high power laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Bosgra, J.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.


    The modern experimental technique - so called Digital Image Correlation - is applied during high power laser surface treatments for in-situ observation of displacements and strains near the processing area during and a short time after laser processing. An experimental setup has been designed and

  6. Injectable In Situ Forming Microparticles: A Novel Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical formulation research has recently been focusing on delivery systems which provide long therapeutic effects and reduced side effects, and involving simplified production stages and facilitated application process. In situ forming microparticle (ISM) systems, one of the latest approach in this field, offer a new ...

  7. In-Situ Investigation of Local Boundary Migration During Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andy; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    A combination of electron channeling contrast (ECC) and electron backscatter diffraction pattern (EBSP) techniques has been used to follow in situ the migration during annealing at 323 K (50 A degrees C) of a recrystallizing boundary through the deformed matrix of high-purity aluminum rolled to 8...

  8. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report (United States)

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...


    This in-situ vacuum extraction technology is a process for the removal and venting of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the vadose or unsaturated zone of soils. Often, these compounds can be removed from the vadose zone before they have a chance to contaminate groundwater. ...

  10. Immunohistochemical categorisation of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, P.; Peterse, J. L.; Antonini, N.; Rutgers, E. J. Th; van de Vijver, M. J.


    The aim of this study is to analyse whether immunohistochemistry (IHC) applying a broad set of markers could be used to categorise ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast in distinct subgroups corresponding to the recently defined molecular categories of invasive carcinoma.

  11. Novel in situ forming hydrogel microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. (United States)

    Sivaraman, Arunprasad; Banga, Ajay K


    Novel in situ forming hydrogel microneedles were evaluated for transdermal drug delivery using a biocompatible non-ionic triblock amphiphilic thermosensitive copolymer. The transition property of poloxamer from solution at room temperature to gel at skin temperature (32 °C) was utilized in preparation of in situ forming hydrogel microneedles. Methotrexate has been used to treat solid tumors, but because of its narrow safety margin, it requires sustained delivery within the therapeutic window. Formulations with and without poloxamer at different methotrexate concentrations were prepared and evaluated for drug permeation across skin using vertical Franz diffusion cell for 72 h. Sol-gel transition, skin resistance and thickness, microneedles geometry, microchannel depth, shape, formation and uniformity, viscoelasticity of skin, and in vitro drug permeation were characterized and tested. An average cumulative drug amount of 32.2 ± 15.76 and 114.54 ± 40.89 μg/cm(2) for porcine ear skin and 3.89 ± 0.60 and 10.27 ± 6.98 μg/cm(2) for dermatomed human skin from 0.2 % w/w and 0.4 % w/w methotrexate formulations was delivered by the in situ forming hydrogel microneedles. These in situ hydrogel microneedles embedded within the porated site of the skin provided a steady and sustained drug delivery.

  12. Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also implies that the in situ hydrological measurements of soil moisture and groundwater sufficiently characterise storage change in the semi-arid river basin. Change in soil moisture storage is less than that in saturated storage, suggesting that storage depletion in the basin is mainly in the saturated zone. Both the GRACE ...

  13. Interpretation of in situ tests as affected by soil suction. (United States)


    Soil moisture conditions are subject to change depending on the season in which they are tested. In : unsaturated soils the moisture at which a soil is tested can directly affect strength and stiffness of the : material. In situ testing is commonly u...

  14. Intrathecal Delivery of Ketorolac Loaded In Situ Gels for Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fabricated gels were evaluated for visual appearance, clarity, pH, gelling capacity, drug content, viscosity (using Brookfield viscometer), in vitro drug release (using a fabricated KC cell) and in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity (by intrathecal administration of in situ gel near the fractured vertebra in a rat ...

  15. In situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minor, Andrew M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This dissertation presents the development of the novel mechanical testing technique of in situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This technique makes it possible to simultaneously observe and quantify the mechanical behavior of nano-scale volumes of solids.

  16. In situ quantification of membrane foulant accumulation by reflectometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroen, C. G. P. H.; Roosjen, A.; Norde, W.; Boom, R. M.; Tang, K.


    In this paper, we present laser light reflectometry [1] (not to be mistaken with ultrasound reflectometry [2] that uses ultrasound waves) as a tool for quantitative investigation of (the initial stages of) fouling on membrane-like surfaces. Reflectometry allows in situ investigation of adsorption

  17. In-situ Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar in-situ calibration performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Østerild, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by mea...

  18. Clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma. (United States)

    Shin, Thuzar M; Etzkorn, Jeremy R; Sobanko, Joseph F; Margolis, David J; Gelfand, Joel M; Chu, Emily Y; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Shaikh, Waqas R; Miller, Christopher J


    Subclinical spread of in situ melanoma occurs at a wide frequency, ranging from 12% to 71%. To identify clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma. We used a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 674 consecutive in situ melanomas to examine 627 patients treated with Mohs surgery and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 immunostaining. The presence of subclinical spread was correlated with clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated significantly increased odds for subclinical spread of in situ melanomas when they were located on the head or neck, at acral sites, or on the pretibial leg (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.41-3.40); in persons with a history of prior treatment (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.74-4.420); melanomas of preoperative size >1 cm (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.23-2.46, P = .002); or in persons ≥60 years old (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = .042). A count prediction model demonstrated that the risk for subclinical spread increased with the number of clinical risk factors. We used a single-site, retrospective study design. Clarifying the risk factors for subclinical spread might help to refine triage of in situ melanomas to the appropriate surgical techniques for margin assessment prior to reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In Situ XPS Investigation of Transformations at Crystallographically Oriented MoS2 Interfaces. (United States)

    Kondekar, Neha P; Boebinger, Matthew G; Woods, Eric V; McDowell, Matthew T


    Nanoscale transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials, such as MoS2, exhibit promising behavior in next-generation electronics and energy-storage devices. TMDCs have a highly anisotropic crystal structure, with edge sites and basal planes exhibiting different structural, chemical, and electronic properties. In virtually all applications, two-dimensional or bulk TMDCs must be interfaced with other materials (such as electrical contacts in a transistor). The presence of edge sites vs basal planes (i.e., the crystallographic orientation of the TMDC) could influence the chemical and electronic properties of these solid-state interfaces, but such effects are not well understood. Here, we use in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate how the crystallography and structure of MoS2 influence chemical transformations at solid-state interfaces with various other materials. MoS2 materials with controllably aligned crystal structures (horizontal vs vertical orientation of basal planes) were fabricated, and in situ XPS was carried out by sputter-depositing three different materials (Li, Ge, and Ag) onto MoS2 within an XPS instrument while periodically collecting photoelectron spectra; these deposited materials are of interest due to their application in electronic devices or energy storage. The results showed that Li reacts readily with both crystallographic orientations of MoS2 to form metallic Mo and Li2S, while Ag showed very little chemical or electronic interaction with either type of MoS2. In contrast, Ge showed significant chemical interactions with MoS2 basal planes, but only minor chemical changes were observed when Ge contacted MoS2 edge sites. These findings have implications for electronic transport and band alignment at these interfaces, which is of significant interest for a variety of applications.

  20. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.


    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  1. In situ high temperature study of ZrO 2 ball-milled to nanometer sizes (United States)

    Gajović, A.; Furić, K.; Štefanić, G.; Musić, S.


    Nanostructured ZrO 2 was prepared by high-energy ball-milling under different conditions and sintered at high temperatures. Structural and microstructural changes during the ball-milling were monitored using Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The sintering process was monitored in situ at high temperature (300-1400 °C) by RS and XRD. The results of RS showed that the ball-milling had little or no influence on the transition from the starting monoclinic ZrO 2 to the high-temperature tetragonal ZrO 2. It was concluded that a partial transition from monoclinic to tetragonal polymorph, observed in some earlier ball-milling experiments, can be attributed to the stabilizing influence of impurities introduced due to the wearing of the milling media. In the present experiment ZrO 2 ball-milling assembly was used, which reduced the influence of an additional material. The results of the line broadening analysis, performed using Rietveld refinements of the ball-milling products with powder-to-ball weight ratio ( R) 1:10, indicated a decrease in the crystallite size and an increase in the microstrains with an increase in the ball-milling time up to 3 h. Further increase in the ball-milling time up to 10 h had a very small influence on the size and strain of the obtained m-ZrO 2 products. A difference between the results of in situ RS and XRD analysis of the samples subjected to prolonged ball-milling was attributed to the chemical and microstractural differences between the surface and the bulk of the ZrO 2 particles during the sintering at high temperatures.

  2. In situ carbon isotope analysis of Archean organic matter with SIMS (United States)

    Williford, K. H.; Ushikubo, T.; Lepot, K.; Hallmann, C.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Valley, J. W.


    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to μm). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 μm using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 μm spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4%, and 0.8% for analyses using 1 μm and 3 μm spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for 12C) and an electron multiplier (for 13C). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for μm-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (δ13C = -23.56 ± 0.1%, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a 13CH/13C measurement included in every analysis and a 12CH measurement made immediately after every analysis. The total range of the H/C effect observed for the Archean samples analyzed was anthracite. Samples from the ABDP-9 (n=3; Mount McRae Shale, ~2.5 Ga), RHDH2a (n=2; Carrawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Fm, ~2.6 Ga), WRL1 (n=3; Wittenoom Fm, Marra Mamba Iron Formation, and Jeerinah Fm

  3. Spatially Resolved, In Situ Carbon Isotope Analysis of Archean Organic Matter (United States)

    Williford, Kenneth H.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Lepot, Kevin; Hallmann, Christian; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Summons, Roger E.; Valley, John W.


    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to micron). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 micron using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 micron spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4 %, and 0.8 % for analyses using 1 micron and 3 micron spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for C-12) and an electron multiplier (for C-13). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for micron-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (delta C-13 = -23.56 +/- 0.1 %, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a C-13H/C-13 measurement included in every analysis. Matrix effects of variable C/SiO2 were evaluated by measuring mm to sub-micron graphite domains in quartzite from Bogala mine, Sri Lanka. Apparent instrumental bias and C-12 count rate are correlated in this case, but this may be related to a crystal orientation effect in graphite. Analyses of amorphous

  4. SR-Can. Data and uncertainty assessment. Matrix diffusivity and porosity in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinsong Liu; Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)


    and show beyond doubt that the electrical conductivity method using AC gives the expected information on transport properties (diffusivities) of the pores of crystalline rocks. The electrical conductivity method is much faster and can be used to measure large samples. It has recently been adopted for use in deep boreholes. Tens of thousands of measurements have been made at Simpevarp, Laxemar and Forsmark (Swedish sites) at depths of more than 1,000 m. The results of these measurements form the basis for our proposed diffusion values to be used in Performance Assessment (PA) for the candidate sites (Performance Assessment (PA) used in this report is synonymous to Safety Assessment (SA) sometimes used by other authors). The in situ data are obtained essentially in undisturbed rock and have not been subject to either stress release or disturbances due to sample preparation. The small disturbance nearest the borehole is negligible because the electrical conductivity method samples rock extending to more than a metre from the borehole. A large number of laboratory measurements have been analysed in order to ensure that other effects that cannot be controlled in the in situ measurements do not influence the down-hole data. No unexpected effects have been found. Rock matrix porosity in situ measurements are extremely scarce. However, it has been possible to use some of the in situ measurements to estimate the increase in porosity when taking up rock from its natural environment to the laboratory. One example of such an investigation is briefly discussed to show how this was done. In one in situ diffusion experiment performed at a depth of 60 m in granitic rock in Sweden the experimental conditions were such that it was ensured that any rock stress changes due to the presence of the drift and the presence of the borehole were avoided. The rock was thus subject to 'virgin stress'. Over-coring after exposure to tracers for three and a half years and detailed sampling

  5. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting

    KAUST Repository

    Pérez, Louis A.


    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Next-Generation Catalysis for Renewables: Combining Enzymatic with Inorganic Heterogeneous Catalysis for Bulk Chemical Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, Peter Nicolai Ravnborg; Christensen, C.H.; Pedersen, S.


    chemical platform under different conditions than those conventionally employed. Indeed, new process and catalyst concepts need to be established. Both enzymatic catalysis (biocatalysis) and heterogeneous inorganic catalysis are likely to play a major role and, potentially, be combined. One type...... of combination involves one-pot cascade catalysis with active sites from bio- and inorganic catalysts. In this article the emphasis is placed specifically on oxidase systems involving the coproduction of hydrogen peroxide, which can be used to create new in situ collaborative oxidation reactions for bulk...

  7. In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. (United States)

    Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P


    prevent dendrite formation. The in situ method was also applied to monitor (by (11)B NMR) electrochemical double-layer formation in supercapacitors in real time. Though this method is useful, it comes with challenges. The separation of the contributions from the different cell components in the NMR spectra is not trivial because of overlapping resonances. In addition, orientation-dependent NMR interactions, including the spatial- and orientation-dependent bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) effects, can lead to resonance broadening. Efforts to understand and mitigate these BMS effects are discussed in this Account. The in situ NMR investigation of fuel cells initially focused on the surface electrochemistry at the electrodes and the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and CO to CO2 on the Pt cathode. On the basis of the (13)C and (195)Pt NMR spectra of the adsorbates and electrodes, CO adsorbed on Pt and other reaction intermediates and complete oxidation products were detected and their mode of binding to the electrodes investigated. Appropriate design and engineering of the NMR hardware has allowed researchers to integrate intact direct methanol fuel cells into NMR probes. Chemical transformations of the circulating methanol could be followed and reaction intermediates could be detected in real time by either (2)H or (13)C NMR spectroscopy. By use of the in situ NMR approach, factors that control fuel cell performance, such as methanol cross over and catalyst performance, were identified.

  8. Charge collection in Si detectors irradiated in situ at superfluid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, Elena, E-mail: [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Eremin, Vladimir; Zabrodskii, Andrei [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Dehning, Bernd; Kurfürst, Christoph; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Egorov, Nicolai [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, 4 Passage 4806, Moscow, Zelenograd 124460 (Russian Federation); Härkönen, Jaakko [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 64 (Gustaf Hallströmin katu 2) FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)


    Silicon and diamond detectors operated in a superfluid helium bath are currently being considered for the upgrade of the LHC beam loss monitoring system. The detectors would be installed in immediate proximity of the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. We present here the results of the in situ irradiation test for silicon detectors using 23 GeV protons while keeping the detectors at a temperature of 1.9 K. Red laser (630 nm) Transient Current Technique and DC current measurements were used to study the pulse response and collected charge for silicon detectors irradiated to a maximum radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2}. The dependence between collected charge and irradiation fluence was parameterized using the Hecht equation and assumption of a uniform electric field distribution. The collected charge was found to degrade with particle fluence for both bias polarities. We observed that the main factor responsible for this degradation was related to trapping of holes on the donor-type radiation-induced defects. In contrast to expectations, along with formation of donors, acceptor-type defects (electron traps) are introduced into the silicon bulk. This suggests that the current models describing charge collection in irradiated silicon detectors require an extension for taking into account trapping at low temperatures with a contribution of shallow levels. New in situ irradiation tests are needed and planned now to extend statistics of the results and gain a deeper insight into the physics of low temperature detector operation in harsh radiation environment. - Highlights: • Si detectors irradiated in situ at 1.9 K by 23 GeV protons are further studied. • Trapping parameters are derived from the fits of collected charge vs. fluence data. • Acceptor-type defects are likely to be induced along with donor-type ones. • Trapping of holes has a dominating effect on the collected charge degradation. • New tests are planned to gain deeper insight

  9. In-Situ Preparation of Ytterbium-Barium - Superconducting Thin Films Using Pure Ozone Vapor Oxidation (United States)

    Berkley, Dale Dane

    A new process for preparing thin films of the YBa_2Cu_3O _{rm 7-x} high transition temperature superconducting oxide completely in-situ, without the need for a post-evaporation anneal has been developed. This work is a significant advancement in the effort to achieve a fully mature, high quality thin film-making process for scientific and technical applications. A pure ozone vapor, derived from the distilled liquid, is used to oxidize the co-evaporated metallic constituents during deposition to nucleate the superconducting phase in the vacuum chamber. Films exhibiting zero resistance transition temperatures at 85 K have been grown on strontium titanate substrates using a substrate temperature of 700 ^circC. Background evaporation pressures of 2 x 10^{-7}Torr are employed during film growth. Films prepared using this process contain primarily mixed a- and c-axis oriented grains which, as evidenced by Transmission Electron Microscopy, exhibit a high degree of epitaxial order with the substrate. Processing at lower substrate temperatures results in a depression of T _{rm c} consistent with the behavior observed for other in-situ techniques. It is unclear at this time whether this depression can be attributed to an oxygen deficiency or an expanded c-axis lattice parameter which is always associated with lower temperature processing. Measurements of the critical current of a prototype YBa_2Cu_3O _{rm 7-x}/Au/Pb proximity tunneling junction prepared in-situ using the ozone process do not exhibit the expected magnetic field and temperature dependence. This observation may be the result of a poorly defined tunneling geometry subject to the vagaries of edge effects or filamentary electrical shorts through the normal metal layer. Important implications for the investigation of an isotope effect in the high T_{rm c} superconductors is made possible by the development of the ozone technique. By distilling the ^{18}O gas into a "heavy ozone," thin films can be efficiently

  10. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm biopores by in situ soil zymography (United States)

    Thu Duyen Hoang, Thi; Razavi, Bahar. S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    Earthworms can strongly activate microorganisms, increase microbial and enzyme activities and consequently the turnover of native soil organic matter. In extremely dynamic microhabitats and hotspots as biopores made by earthworms, the in situ enzyme activities are a footprint of complex biotic interactions. The effect of earthworms on the alteration of enzyme activities inside biopores and the difference between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil was visualized by in situ soil zymography (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2014). For the first time, we prepared quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in biopores. Furthermore, we developed the zymography technique by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil to obtain better spatial resolution. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). Simultaneously, maize seed was sown in the soil. Control soil box with maize and without earthworm was prepared in the same way. After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworm, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine aminopeptidase) and phosphatase. Followed by non-destructive zymography, biopore samples and control soil were destructively collected to assay enzyme kinetics by fluorogenically labeled substrates method. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. These differences were further confirmed by fluorimetric microplate enzyme assay detected significant difference of Vmax in four above mentioned enzymes. Vmax of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores is 68%, 108%, 50% and 49% higher than that of control soil. However, no difference in cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase kinetics between biopores and control soil were detected. This indicated little effect of earthworms on protein and cellulose transformation in soil

  11. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  12. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat


    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH is a method that uses labeled complementary single strand DNA or RNA to localize specific DNA or RNA sequences in an intact cell or in a fixed tissue section. The main steps of ISH consist of: probe selection, tissue or sample preparation, pre-hybridization treatment, hybridization and washing, detection and control procedure. Probe selection is one of the important aspects of successful hybridization. ISH sensitivity and specificity can be influenced by: probe construct, efficiency of labeling, percentage of GC, probe length and signal detection systems. Different methods such as nick translation, random priming, end tailing and T4 DNA polymerase replacement are used for probe generation. Both radioactive and non-radioactive labels can be used in order to probe labeling. Nucleic acid maintenance in samples, prevention of morphological changes of samples and probe penetration into tissue section are the main aims of sample preparation step. Then, a small amount of solution containing probe, is added on slides containing tissue sections for hybridization process, then slides are incubated overnight. Next day, washes are carried out to remove the probes which are not bound to target DNA or RNA. Finally, in order to be sure that the observed labeling is specific to the target sequence, using several control procedures is very important. Various techniques based on ISH consist of: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (MFISH. One of the most common techniques of ISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. FISH can be used to: 1 detect small deletions and duplications that are not visible using microscope analysis, 2 detect how many chromosomes of a certain type are present in each cell and 3 confirm rearrangements that are

  13. Long-distance Dating: In situ geochronology for planetary missions (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Cohen, B. A.


    Isotopic dating is an essential tool to establish an absolute chronology for geological events. It enables a planet's crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration to be placed into the framework of solar system history. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for this crucial measurement to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. The capability of flight instruments to conduct in situ geochronology is called out in the NASA Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the NASA Technology Roadmap as needing development to serve the community's needs. Beagle 2 is the only mission launched to date with the explicit aim to perform in situ K-Ar isotopic dating [1], but it failed to communicate and was lost. The first in situ K-Ar date on Mars, using SAM and APXS measurements on the Cumberland mudstone [2], yielded an age of 4.21 ± 0.35 Ga and validated the idea of K-Ar dating on other planets, though the Curiosity method is not purpose-built for dating and requires many assumptions that degrade its precision. To get more precise and meaningful ages, multiple groups are developing dedicated in situ dating instruments [3-7], including the K-Ar Laser Experiment (KArLE) [5]. KArLE ablates a rock sample, measures K using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measures liberated Ar using mass spectrometry (MS), and relates the two by measuring the volume of the ablated pit with optical imaging. The KArLE breadboard tested planetary analog samples yielding ages with 25% uncertainty on very young samples (<50Ma) and 10% uncertainties on older samples. [1] Talboys, et al. (2009) Planetary and Space Science 57, 1237-1245, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.02.012. [2] Farley, et al. (2014) Science 343, doi:10.1126/science.1247166. [3] Anderson, et al. (2015) Rapid Comm. Mass Spec. 29, 191

  14. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    the software to meet our expectations for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of “off the shelf” hardware components which are widely available and easily replaced or expanded. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost...... a stable AV software that has be developed and implemented for an in situ simulation initiative. This version (1.3) is the first on released as Open Source (Copyleft) software (see QR tag). We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation...... environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for cancer-related studies. (United States)

    Kearney, Lyndal; Shipley, Janet


    Cytogenetic analysis of tumour material has been greatly enhanced over the past 30 years by the application of a range of techniques based around fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Fluorescence detection for in situ hybridization has the advantage of including the use of a multitude of fluorochromes to allow simultaneous specific detection of multiple probes by virtue of their differential labelling and emission spectra. FISH can be used to detect structural (translocation/inversion) and numerical (deletion/gain) genetic aberrations. This chapter will deal with FISH methods to detect and localize one or more complementary nucleic acid sequences (probes) within a range of different cellular targets including metaphase chromosomes, nuclei from cell suspension, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded FFPE tissue sections. Methods for the efficient localization of probes to FFPE tissue cores in tissue microarrays (TMAs) are also described.

  16. Digital shearography with in situ phase shift calibration (United States)

    Wu, Sijin; Zhu, Lianqing; Feng, Qibo; Yang, Lianxiang


    Precise measurement of the spatial derivative of displacement using digital shearography depends on well-calibrated phase shifts. However, due to time drift or a change in the position of the phase shifter, the previously calibrated results may not be applicable for the measurements. In this paper, we introduce a Michelson-interferometer-based digital shearographic setup, with an in situ phase shift calibration, that precisely measures the displacement derivatives. For the optical arrangement, a small number of optical parts are introduced into the existing Michelson interferometer to carry out the in situ calibration of the phase shifter. The calibration can be carried out anytime without changing the optical arrangement. This feature easily recalibrates the digital shearography, eliminating the influence of the phase shift error.

  17. Acoustic actuation of in situ fabricated artificial cilia (United States)

    Orbay, Sinem; Ozcelik, Adem; Bachman, Hunter; Huang, Tony Jun


    We present on-chip acoustic actuation of in situ fabricated artificial cilia. Arrays of cilia structures are UV polymerized inside a microfluidic channel using a photocurable polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer solution and photomasks. During polymerization, cilia structures are attached to a silane treated glass surface inside the microchannel. Then, the cilia structures are actuated using acoustic vibrations at 4.6 kHz generated by piezo transducers. As a demonstration of a practical application, DI water and fluorescein dye solutions are mixed inside a microfluidic channel. Using pulses of acoustic excitations, and locally fabricated cilia structures within a certain region of the microchannel, a waveform of mixing behavior is obtained. This result illustrates one potential application wherein researchers can achieve spatiotemporal control of biological microenvironments in cell stimulation studies. These acoustically actuated, in situ fabricated, cilia structures can be used in many on-chip applications in biological, chemical and engineering studies.

  18. A Nanoaquarium for in situ Electron Microscopy in Liquid Media

    CERN Document Server

    Grogan, Joseph M


    The understanding of many nanoscale processes occurring in liquids such as colloidal crystal formation, aggregation, nanowire growth, electrochemical deposition, and biological interactions would benefit greatly from real-time, in situ imaging with the nanoscale resolution of transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs). However, these imaging tools cannot readily be used to observe processes occurring in liquid media without addressing two experimental hurdles: sample thickness and sample evaporation in the high vacuum microscope chamber. To address these challenges, we have developed a nano-Hele-Shaw cell, dubbed the nanoaquarium. The device consists of a hermetically-sealed, 100 nm tall, liquid-filled chamber sandwiched between two freestanding, 50 nm thick, silicon nitride membranes. Embedded electrodes are integrated into the device. This fluid dynamics video features particle motion and aggregation during in situ STEM of nanoparticles suspended in liqui...

  19. Application of Genomic In Situ Hybridization in Horticultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Ramzan


    Full Text Available Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH techniques in horticultural plants.

  20. In situ and operando transmission electron microscopy of catalytic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crozier, Peter A.; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    Catalytic nanomaterials play a major role in chemical conversions and energy transformations. Understanding how materials control and regulate surface reactions is a major objective for fundamental research on heterogeneous catalysts. In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM......) is a powerful technique for revealing the atomic structures of materials at elevated temperatures in the presence of reactive gases. This approach can allow the structure-reactivity relations underlying catalyst functionality to be investigated. Thus far, ETEM has been limited by the absence of in situ...... measurements of gas-phase catalytic products. To overcome this deficiency, operando TEM techniques are being developed that combine atomic characterization with the simultaneous measurement of catalytic products. This article provides a short review of the current status and major developments...

  1. In situ study of hydrothermal MnO2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Shen, Yanbin; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Our group has designed and successfully implemented an experimental setup capable of in situ measurements of solvothermal reactions. The setup uses synchrotron radiation and a time resolution in the range 1-10 seconds can be acquired [1]. The experiments can be optimized either to measure powder X...... in supercapacitors and positive electrode material in lithium batteries (both primary and secondary) [4, 5]. In this study we investigate the hydrothermal formation of different phases of MnO2 in situ using the experimental setup described above. Alpha-, beta- and delta-MnO2 are synthesized from different aqueous...... precursor solutions at different temperatures ranging from subcritical to supercritical conditions. Measurements are done to obtain both PXRD and TS data. Therefore information about reaction mechanism from precursor solution (containing dissolved species) to final crystalline product can be extracted along...

  2. Monitoring Cocrystal Formation via In Situ Solid-State NMR. (United States)

    Mandala, Venkata S; Loewus, Sarel J; Mehta, Manish A


    A detailed understanding of the mechanism of organic cocrystal formation remains elusive. Techniques that interrogate a reacting system in situ are preferred, though experimentally challenging. We report here the results of a solid-state in situ NMR study of the spontaneous formation of a cocrystal between a pharmaceutical mimic (caffeine) and a coformer (malonic acid). Using (13)C magic angle spinning NMR, we show that the formation of the cocrystal may be tracked in real time. We find no direct evidence for a short-lived, chemical shift-resolved amorphous solid intermediate. However, changes in the line width and line center of the malonic acid methylene resonance, in the course of the reaction, provide subtle clues to the mode of mass transfer that underlies cocrystal formation.

  3. In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.


    The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

  4. Analysis of Applicability of Oil Shale for in situ Conversion


    Martemyanov, Sergey Mikhailovich; Bukharkin, Andrey Andreevich; Koryashov, Iliya Aleksandrovich; Ivanov, Aleksey Alekseevich


    There are only a few substantial oil shale industries in the world, mainly because of the high cost of oilshale development relative to coal, oil and natural gas. Innovative approaches to oil shale processing could change this situation. Underground (or in situ) conversion could become a very useful technology, once an efficient way is found to prepare oil shale deposits for heating and to transfer heat into them. A new electrophysical method, which uses electrical treeing breakdown and resis...

  5. Radio frequency heating for in-situ remediation of DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Woburn, MA (United States)


    In-situ radio frequency (RF) heating technology for treating soils contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is described. RF imparts heat to non-conducting materials through the application of carefully controlled RF transmissions, improving contaminant flow characteristics and facilitating separation and removal from subsurface soils. The paper outlines advantages and limitations of RF remediation, process operations, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, and costs. Two case histories of RF remediation are briefly summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  6. In situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of azobenzene monolayers on glassy carbon. (United States)

    Itoh, Takashi; McCreery, Richard L


    In situ Raman spectra of chemisorbed azobenzene (AB) monolayers on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were observed under potentiostatic conditions in acetonitrile (ACN) with tetrabutyl-ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBA-BF4). The Raman intensities of these spectra were high below -1000 mV, and this is attributed to the change in absorbance of AB on GC. In this paper, we describe chemisorbed AB molecules on GC electrode surfaces under potentiostatic conditions.

  7. Optic pit maculopathy after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Coleman, Hanna; Schiff, William M; Hwang, John C; Speaker, Mark G


    Optic disc pit is an embryological malformation of the optic nerve that occurs in less than one in 10,000 people. It is 10%-15% bilateral, and 25% to 70% of patients develop a neurosensory macular detachment within the 2nd to 4th decade. We report a case of unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy 2 months after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) revision.

  8. In-Situ Detection of Contaminant Plumes in Ground Water (United States)


    of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory In-Situ Detection of Contaminant Plumes in Ground Water W. Rudott Setz August 1990 U S APMY...immunochemnical methodis for system (Inmanect al. 1989). Another attractiv : approach tetryl. benizene. dieldrin and paria-chloroptienylm.-th- is to us. a...not been any further work on cyanide. censt complexes. Of the important metal mo conuamni- The Office of Naval Research has recently made the nairts

  9. Deposition kinetics of in-situ oxygen doped polysilicon film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalivaiko O. Yu.


    Full Text Available The influence of deposition conditions on composition of in-situ oxygen doped polysilicon films has been investigated. A kinetic model of adsorption-deposition process using concentrated silane and nitrous oxide has been developed. The range of optimal ratios of silane and nitrous oxide flows and deposition temperature, which provide the acceptable deposition rate, thickness uniformity, controllability of oxygen content in films and conformal deposition, have been determined.

  10. Combustion Synthesis Technology Applied to In-situ Resource Utilization (United States)


    only a solid reaction method but also a hydrothermal , plasma spray decomposition, sol-gel and combustion synthesis techniques. The long-duration...Functional materials, e.g. BaTiO3 , YBa2Cu3O7. Compared with conventional processes, main advantages of combustion synthesis are; The generation...REF: AOARD-05-4043 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Combustion Synthesis Technology Applied to In-situ Resource Utilization

  11. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium-recovery results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Arons, R.M.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.


    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system.

  12. In situ detection of the protein corona in complex environments


    Monica Carril; Daniel Padro; Pablo del Pino; Carolina Carrillo-Carrion; Marta Gallego; Wolfgang Parak


    Colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) are a versatile potential platform for in vivo nanomedicine. Inside blood circulation, NPs may undergo drastic changes, such as by formation of a protein corona. The in vivo corona cannot be completely emulated by the corona formed in blood. Thus, in situ detection in complex media, and ultimately in vivo, is required. Here we present a methodology for determining protein corona formation in complex media. NPs are labeled with 19F and their diffusion coefficient ...

  13. Development of Biomarkers for Assessing In Situ RDX Biodegradation Potential (United States)


    Feb 2012 – Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-12-C-0017 Development of Biomarkers for Assessing In Situ RDX...A. paludosum (Sherburne et al. 2005), Desulfitobacterium (all in the class Clostridia) and the Bacillus strains HPB2 and HPB3 (Singh et al. 2009...Sherburne et al. 2005) and the Bacillus strains HPB2 and HPB3 were isolated from industrial effluent from a factory in India (Singh et al. 2009). In

  14. In situ polimerizacija glicidil metakrilata v poli(metil metakrilatu)


    Kokol, Amadeja


    V okviru diplomske naloge smo in situ sintetizirali porozne polimerne materiale v poli(metil metakrilatnih) (PMMA) cevkah. Kot osnovo za polimer smo izbrali monomere glicidil metakrilat (GMA), metil metakrilat (MMA) in etilenglikol dimetakrilat (EGDMA). GMA smo izbrali zaradi njegove proste epoksi skupine, ki je primerna za nadaljnje funkcionalizacije z različnimi nukleofili, kot npr. amini, MMA smo izbrali zaradi njegovih dobrih mehanskih lastnosti in EGDMA zaradi njegovih vinilnih skupin, k...

  15. Echo decorrelation imaging of ex vivo HIFU and bulk ultrasound ablation using image-treat arrays (United States)

    Fosnight, Tyler R.; Hooi, Fong Ming; Colbert, Sadie B.; Keil, Ryan D.; Barthe, Peter G.; Mast, T. Douglas


    In this study, the ability of ultrasound echo decorrelation imaging to map and predict heat-induced cell death was tested using bulk ultrasound thermal ablation, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation, and pulse-echo imaging of ex vivo liver tissue by a custom image-treat array. Tissue was sonicated at 5.0 MHz using either pulses of unfocused ultrasound (N=12) (7.5 s, 50.9-101.8 W/cm2 in situ spatial-peak, temporal-peak intensity) for bulk ablation or focused ultrasound (N=21) (1 s, 284-769 W/cm2 in situ spatial-peak, temporal-peak intensity and focus depth of 10 mm) for HIFU ablation. Echo decorrelation and integrated backscatter (IBS) maps were formed from radiofrequency pulse-echo images captured at 118 frames per second during 5.0 s rest periods, beginning 1.1 s after each sonication pulse. Tissue samples were frozen at -80˚C, sectioned, vitally stained, imaged, and semi-automatically segmented for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. ROC curves were constructed to assess prediction performance for echo decorrelation and IBS. Logarithmically scaled mean echo decorrelation in non-ablated and ablated tissue regions before and after electronic noise and motion correction were compared. Ablation prediction by echo decorrelation and IBS was significant for both focused and bulk ultrasound ablation. The log10-scaled mean echo decorrelation was significantly greater in regions of ablation for both HIFU and bulk ultrasound ablation. Echo decorrelation due to electronic noise and motion was significantly reduced by correction. These results suggest that ultrasound echo decorrelation imaging is a promising approach for real-time prediction of heat-induced cell death for guidance and monitoring of clinical thermal ablation, including radiofrequency ablation and HIFU.

  16. In situ hydrogelation of photocurable gelatin and drug release. (United States)

    Okino, H; Nakayama, Y; Tanaka, M; Matsuda, T


    We devised an in situ tissue-adhesive, drug-release technology based on a photoreactive gelatin, which allows in situ drug-incorporated gel formation on living tissues and sustained drug release directly on diseased tissues. Styrene-derivatized gelatins, synthesized by condensation reaction of gelatin with 4-vinylbenzoic acid, were photopolymerized in the presence of a water-soluble camphorquinone derivative as a photoinitiator upon visible-light irradiation to form swollen gels. Using albumin as a drug model, gelation characteristics and drug-release characteristics easily were manipulated by material variables, formulation variables, and operation variables. Tissue adhesivity of the gel was superior to that of fibrin glue. The biologic response, which was evaluated by intraperitoneal implantation in rats, showed that the gel was biodegraded and biosorbed, without cytotoxicity, within a few months after implantation. An in situ processable tissue-adhesive local drug release system effectively may be used to help inhibit tumor recurrence. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 59: 233-245, 2002

  17. Thin-flap laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. (United States)

    Slade, Steven G


    Concerns regarding the increasing incidence of corneal ectasia following laser in situ keratomileusis procedures, together with increased understanding of the biomechanics of the cornea, has resulted in many refractive surgeons returning to surface ablation techniques such as photorefractive keratectomy. Even if surface ablation techniques offer a higher degree of safety than LASIK, they are associated with more pain and a slower visual recovery in the immediate postoperative period. This highlights the need for alternative procedures that offer the combined advantages of laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy. Sub-Bowman's keratomileusis is a new procedure that provides the biomechanical stability and associated safety of photorefractive keratectomy with the visual results and reduced pain experience of laser in situ keratomileusis. This technique involves the use of the femtosecond laser to create a customized corneal flap of between 90 and 110 mum with a diameter based on the requirements of the individual patient and the type of excimer laser being used. This review outlines the rationale for sub-Bowman's keratomileusis and describes the efficacy, tolerability and safety of the procedure compared with photorefractive keratectomy.

  18. Combining Remote Sensing with in situ Measurements for Riverine Characterization (United States)

    Calantoni, J.; Palmsten, M. L.; Simeonov, J.; Dobson, D. W.; Zarske, K.; Puleo, J. A.; Holland, K. T.


    At the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory we are employing a wide variety of novel remote sensing techniques combined with traditional in situ sampling to characterize riverine hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Surface currents were estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) using imagery from visible to infrared bands, from both fixed and airborne platforms. Terrestrial LIDAR has been used for subaerial mapping from a fixed platform. Additionally, LIDAR has been combined with hydrographic surveying (multibeam) in mobile scanning mode using a small boat. Hydrographic surveying (side scan) has also been performed using underwater autonomous vehicles. Surface drifters have been deployed in combination with a remotely operated, floating acoustic Doppler current profiler. Other fixed platform, in situ sensors, such as pencil beam and sector scanning sonars, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and water level sensors have been deployed. We will present an overview of a variety of measurements from different rivers around the world focusing on validation examples of remotely sensed quantities with more traditional in situ measurements. Finally, we will discuss long-term goals to use remotely sensed data within an integrated environmental modeling framework.

  19. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: FY 1994 program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. In an effort to focus resources and address priority needs, EM-50 introduced the concept of integrated programs (IPs) and integrated demonstrations (IDs). The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) focuses research and development on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. Using in situ remediation technologies to clean up DOE sites minimizes adverse health effects on workers and the public by reducing contact exposure. The technologies also reduce cleanup costs by orders of magnitude. This report summarizes project work conducted in FY 1994 under the ISR IP in three major areas: treatment (bioremediation), treatment (physical/chemical), and containment technologies. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized waste are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive waste, volatile and nonvolatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials.

  20. In situ visualization and data analysis for turbidity currents simulation (United States)

    Camata, Jose J.; Silva, Vítor; Valduriez, Patrick; Mattoso, Marta; Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.


    Turbidity currents are underflows responsible for sediment deposits that generate geological formations of interest for the oil and gas industry. LibMesh-sedimentation is an application built upon the libMesh library to simulate turbidity currents. In this work, we present the integration of libMesh-sedimentation with in situ visualization and in transit data analysis tools. DfAnalyzer is a solution based on provenance data to extract and relate strategic simulation data in transit from multiple data for online queries. We integrate libMesh-sedimentation and ParaView Catalyst to perform in situ data analysis and visualization. We present a parallel performance analysis for two turbidity currents simulations showing that the overhead for both in situ visualization and in transit data analysis is negligible. We show that our tools enable monitoring the sediments appearance at runtime and steer the simulation based on the solver convergence and visual information on the sediment deposits, thus enhancing the analytical power of turbidity currents simulations.

  1. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for in situ planetary mineralogy. (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Rossman, George R; Gleckler, Anthony


    Planetary mineralogy can be revealed through a variety of remote sensing and in situ investigations that precede any plans for eventual sample return. We briefly review those techniques and focus on the capabilities for on-surface in situ examination of Mars, Venus, the Moon, asteroids, and other bodies. Over the past decade, Raman spectroscopy has continued to develop as a prime candidate for the next generation of in situ planetary instruments, as it provides definitive structural and compositional information of minerals in their natural geological context. Traditional continuous-wave Raman spectroscopy using a green laser suffers from fluorescence interference, which can be large (sometimes saturating the detector), particularly in altered minerals, which are of the greatest geophysical interest. Taking advantage of the fact that fluorescence occurs at a later time than the instantaneous Raman signal, we have developed a time-resolved Raman spectrometer that uses a streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser to provide picosecond time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence spectra in minerals makes this technique ideal for exploration of diverse planetary environments, some of which are expected to contain strong, if not overwhelming, fluorescence signatures. We discuss performance capability and present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from several highly fluorescent and Mars-relevant minerals. In particular, we have found that conventional Raman spectra from fine grained clays, sulfates, and phosphates exhibited large fluorescent signatures, but high quality spectra could be obtained using our time-resolved approach.

  2. Regulation of in situ to invasive breast carcinoma transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min; Yao, Jun; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen, Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Violette, Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Bissell, Mina J.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia


    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  3. Regulation of In Situ to Invasive Breast CarcinomaTransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Min; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen,Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Bissell, Mina; Violette,Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia


    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  4. Development of the integrated in situ lasagna process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.; Athmer, C.; Sheridan, P. [Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others


    Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. Recently the use of electrokinetics as an in situ method for soil remediation has received increasing attention due to its unique applicability to low-permeability soils. Electrokinetics includes the transport of water (electroosmosis) as well as ions (electromigration) as a result of an applied electric field. For remedial applications, water is typically introduced into the soil at the anode to replenish the water flowing towards the cathode due to electroosmosis. The water flow is utilized to flush organic contaminants from the subsurface soil to the ground surface at the cathode region for further treatment or disposal. This report describes a treatment process under development termed the LASAGNA process which incorporates electrokinetics, along with the establishment of degradation zones, for pollutant removal.

  5. Neutron sources for in-situ planetary science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, M.S. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Ambrosi, R.M.; O' Brien, R.C. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)


    There are a number of future European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA planetary science missions that are in the planning or initial study phases, where the scientific objectives include determining the surface composition, measuring planetary surface heat flow and constraining planetary chronology. University of Leicester is developing instrumentation for geophysical applications that include {gamma}-ray spectroscopy, {gamma}-ray densitometry and radiometric dating. This paper describes the modelling of a geophysical package, with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, in order to determine the impact that a neutron source would have on in-situ composition measurements, radiometric dating and, in particular, trace element detection. The suitability of o 2.54x2.54 cm LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) detectors in the geophysical package for in-situ missions was examined. {sup 252}Cf, Am-Be and Pu-Be neutron sources were compared in a trade-off study to determine mission suitability, potential for thermal and electric power production, mass and shielding requirements. This study is linked to a parallel examination of the suitability of radioisotope thermal generators for in-situ planetary science applications. The aim of the modelling was to optimise the source type and detector geometry in order to measure the elemental peaks of interest with a precision of 10% or better based on the Poisson statistics of the detected counts above background.

  6. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. te Brake


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ≥ 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0–60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ΔV–ΔW relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5 and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5 and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616. Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ΔV–ΔW relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

  7. A Facile in Situ and UV Printing Process for Bioinspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. González Lazo


    Full Text Available A facile in situ and UV printing process was demonstrated to create self-cleaning synthetic replica of natural petals and leaves. The process relied on the spontaneous migration of a fluorinated acrylate surfactant (PFUA within a low-shrinkage acrylated hyperbranched polymer (HBP and its chemical immobilization at the polymer-air interface. Dilute concentrations of 1 wt. % PFUA saturated the polymer-air interface within 30 min, leading to a ten-fold increase of fluorine concentration at the surface compared with the initial bulk concentration and a water contact angle (WCA of 108°. A 200 ms flash of UV light was used to chemically crosslink the PFUA at the HBP surface prior to UV printing with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS negative template of red and yellow rose petals and lotus leaves. This flash immobilization hindered the reverse migration of PFUA within the bulk HBP upon contacting the PDMS template, and enabled to produce texturized surfaces with WCA well above 108°. The synthetic red rose petal was hydrophobic (WCA of 125° and exhibited the adhesive petal effect. It was not superhydrophobic due to insufficient concentration of fluorine at its surface, a result of the very large increase of the surface of the printed texture. The synthetic yellow rose petal was quasi-superhydrophobic (WCA of 143°, roll-off angle of 10° and its self-cleaning ability was not good also due to lack of fluorine. The synthetic lotus leaf did not accurately replicate the intricate nanotubular crystal structures of the plant. In spite of this, the fluorine concentration at the surface was high enough and the leaf was superhydrophobic (WCA of 151°, roll-off angle below 5° and also featured self-cleaning properties.

  8. The influence of physical state on shikimic acid ozonolysis: a case for in situ microspectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Steimer


    Full Text Available Atmospheric soluble organic aerosol material can become solid or semi-solid. Due to increasing viscosity and decreasing diffusivity, this can impact important processes such as gas uptake and reactivity within aerosols containing such substances. This work explores the dependence of shikimic acid ozonolysis on humidity and thereby viscosity. Shikimic acid, a proxy for oxygenated reactive organic material, reacts with O3 in a Criegee-type reaction. We used an environmental microreactor embedded in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM to probe this oxidation process. This technique facilitates in situ measurements with single micron-sized particles and allows to obtain near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectra with high spatial resolution. Thus, the chemical evolution of the interior of the particles can be followed under reaction conditions. The experiments show that the overall degradation rate of shikimic acid is depending on the relative humidity in a way that is controlled by the decreasing diffusivity of ozone with decreasing humidity. This decreasing diffusivity is most likely linked to the increasing viscosity of the shikimic acid–water mixture. The degradation rate was also depending on particle size, most congruent with a reacto-diffusion limited kinetic case where the reaction progresses only in a shallow layer within the bulk. No gradient in the shikimic acid concentration was observed within the bulk material at any humidity indicating that the diffusivity of shikimic acid is still high enough to allow its equilibration throughout the particles on the timescale of hours at higher humidity and that the thickness of the oxidized layer under dry conditions, where the particles are solid, is beyond the resolution of STXM.

  9. In-situ Polymerization of Styrene to Produce Polystyrene / Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahouari Mrah; Rachid Meghabar; Mohammed Belbachir


    .... CTAB-intercalated Mmt particles were easily dispersed and swollen in styrene monomer, PS/Mmt-CTAB nanocomposites were synthesized via in-situ polymerization, in-situ polymerization, this method...

  10. Rapid Optical Characterization Suite for in situ Target Analysis of Rock Surfaces Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROCSTAR is an in situ instrument suite that can accomplish rapid mineral and molecular identification without sample preparation for in situ planetary exploration;...

  11. In situ epicatechin-loaded hydrogel implants for local drug delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -inflammatory, and neuroprotective tea flavonoid, and characterise them in situ as a vehicle for prolonged and safer drug delivery in patients with post-traumatic spinal cord injury. Methods: Five in situ gel formulations were prepared using ...

  12. AirCore Reusable InSitu Sampler for CO2 and Trace Gas Measurements Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel design for an in situ air sampling sensor for CO2 and trace gases is proposed. The sensor, named AirCore, provides the advantages of existing in situ sensors...


    The in situ delivery of nutrients and oxygen in soil is a serious problem in implementing in situ biodegradation. Current technology requires ideal site conditions to provide the remediating organisms with the nutrients and oxygen required for their metabolism, but...

  14. Development of In Situ Infrared Spectroelectrochemical Techniques: Application to Lithium Intercalation Reactions in Electrode Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frech, Roger


    .... The transition between LiFePO4 and FePO4 could easily be followed in the in situ spectra. An industrially available coin cell was modified to facilitate routine in situ Raman measurements of lithium batteries...

  15. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  16. Parallel In Situ Indexing for Data-intensive Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng


    As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: indexing and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that indexing is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes indexing an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include indexes with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap indexes from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the indexes, we need to build them first. The index building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we adapt the in situ processing technology to generate the indexes, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build indexes in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the indexes can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the indexes, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.

  17. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  18. Biodiesel production through in situ transesterification of sunflower seeds by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis; Producao de biodiesel atraves de transesterificacao in situ de sementes de girassol via catalise homogenea e heterogenea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fama, Paola Ervatti; San Gil, Rosane Aguiar da Silva; Lachter, Elizabeth Roditi, E-mail: lachter@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    The objective of this work is to show the results of the in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol on basic homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for the production of biodiesel. In homogeneous catalysis, the activity of K{sub O}H and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were evaluated using the same oil:methanol ratio of 1:90. KOH showed to be more active than K2CO{sub 3}, leading to total conversion in biodiesel after 1h reaction time. In the heterogeneous catalysis the activity of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was comparable to the activity of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} bulk: 53.0 and 66.6% resp. The properties of samples of biodiesel produced by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis were evaluated and are in accordance with the recommended fuel properties. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH... Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4700 Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration... document entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Automated Fluorescence in situ...

  20. The Potential of in situ Rain Water Harvesting for Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of in situ rain water harvesting (RWH) in water resources conservation is well recognized in semiarid areas, ... Key words: In situ Rain water harvesting, Malaria, Anopheles arabiensis, Tigray, Ethiopia. 1. ... Haile, 2002) and as part of the world wide effort to combat climate change, in situ RWH, along with other SWC ...

  1. In situ KPFM imaging of local photovoltaic characteristics of structured organic photovoltaic devices. (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukuchi, Yasumasa; Fukasawa, Masako; Sassa, Takafumi; Kimoto, Atsushi; Tajima, Yusuke; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamashita, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Aoyama, Tetsuya


    Here, we discuss the local photovoltaic characteristics of a structured bulk heterojunction, organic photovoltaic devices fabricated with a liquid carbazole, and a fullerene derivative based on analysis by scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Periodic photopolymerization induced by an interference pattern from two laser beams formed surface relief gratings (SRG) in the structured films. The surface potential distribution in the SRGs indicates the formation of donor and acceptor spatial distribution. Under illumination, the surface potential reversibly changed because of the generation of fullerene anions and hole transport from the films to substrates, which indicates that we successfully imaged the local photovoltaic characteristics of the structured photovoltaic devices. Using atomic force microscopy, we confirmed the formation of the SRG because of the material migration to the photopolymerized region of the films, which was induced by light exposure through photomasks. The structuring technique allows for the direct fabrication and the control of donor and acceptor spatial distribution in organic photonic and electronic devices with minimized material consumption. This in situ KPFM technique is indispensable to the fabrication of nanoscale electron donor and electron acceptor spatial distribution in the devices.

  2. Universal, In Situ Transformation of Bulky Compounds into Nanoscale Catalysts by High-Temperature Pulse. (United States)

    Xu, Shaomao; Chen, Yanan; Li, Yiju; Lu, Aijiang; Yao, Yonggang; Dai, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanbin; Liu, Boyang; Lacey, Steven D; Pastel, Glenn R; Kuang, Yudi; Danner, Valencia A; Jiang, Feng; Fu, Kun Kelvin; Hu, Liangbing


    The synthesis of nanoscale metal compound catalysts has attracted much research attention in the past decade. The challenges of preparation of the metal compound include the complexity of the synthesis process and difficulty of precise control of the reaction conditions. Herein, we report an in situ synthesis of nanoparticles via a high-temperature pulse method where the bulk material acts as the precursor. During the process of rapid heating and cooling, swift melting, anchoring, and recrystallization occur, resulting in the generation of high-purity nanoparticles. In our work, the cobalt boride (Co2B) nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-20 nm uniformly anchored on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets were successfully prepared using the high temperature pulse method. The as-prepared Co2B/rGO composite displayed remarkable electrocatalytic performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We also prepared molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles, thereby demonstrating that the high-temperature pulse is a universal method to synthesize ultrafine metal compound nanoparticles.

  3. A dispenser-reactor apparatus applied for in situ XAS monitoring of Pt nanoparticle formation. (United States)

    Boita, Jocenir; Castegnaro, Marcus Vinicius; Alves, Maria do Carmo Martins; Morais, Jonder


    In situ time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements collected at the Pt L3-edge during the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution are reported. A specially designed dispenser-reactor apparatus allowed for monitoring changes in the XAS spectra from the earliest moments of Pt ions in solution until the formation of metallic nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 4.9 ± 1.1 nm. By monitoring the changes in the local chemical environment of the Pt atoms in real time, it was possible to observe that the NPs formation kinetics involved two stages: a reduction-nucleation burst followed by a slow growth and stabilization of NPs. Subsequently, the synthesized Pt NPs were supported on activated carbon and characterized by synchrotron-radiation-excited X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The supported Pt NPs remained in the metallic chemical state and with a reduced size, presenting slight lattice parameter contraction in comparison with the bulk Pt values.

  4. In situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles in exponentially-growing layer-by-layer films. (United States)

    Shen, Liyan; Rapenne, Laetitia; Chaudouet, Patrick; Ji, Jian; Picart, Catherine


    In situ synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) in polyelectrolytes multilayers (PEMs) has recently gained much attention. Due to the versatility of their composition, PEMs offer a unique opportunity to synthesize a variety of NPs. So far, mostly cationic precursors have been used and only few studies have investigated the possibility of using amine groups to bind anionic precursors. Here, we use exponentially growing poly(L-lysine)/hyaluronan (PLL/HA) films as a nanoreservoir to bind and sequester aurochlorate (AuCl(4)(-)) anions thanks to the large number of free amine groups. The polypeptide-polysaccharide reactive template enabled the formation in a spatially-confined environment of gold NP at a very high yield. The synthesized gold NPs were homogenous and well-dispersed in the nanocomposite. Importantly, there was no particular effect of the film-ending layer (either PLL or HA). The largest particles of ~9 nm and the largest amount of gold were obtained at acidic pH of 3. When the pH was increased, smaller and more numerous NPs were synthesized but the total amount of gold was lower. Based on UV-visible spectrometry, FTIR and TEM data, we finally propose a scheme for the mechanism of gold NPs formation, in which several groups of PLL and HA contribute to the binding of gold ions, the nucleation and growth of NPs, and their stabilization in the "bulk" of the film. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In situ X-ray Scattering and Dynamical Modeling of Pd Catalyst Nanoparticles Formed in Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan; Seifert, Sönke; Winans, Randall E.; Tolmachoff, Erik; Xin, Yuxuan; Chen, Dongping; Wang, Hai; Anderson, Scott L.


    It has previously been demonstrated that organopalladium precursors can break down under combustion conditions, forming nanoparticles that catalyze ignition. Here, we use in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to probe the formation and growth of palladium nanoparticles in an ethylene fl ame doped with 28 ppm (mol) of Pd(acetate) 2 . The particles appear to nucleate in the fl ame front and are observed by SAXS to grow in size and mass in the high-temperature region of the fl ame ( ~ 2200 K) with median diameters that evolve from 1.5 to 3.0 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of particles collected on a grid located outside the fl ame shows that the particles are metallic palladium with sizes comparable to those determined by SAXS. Molecular dynamics simulation of particles of selected sizes indicates that at the fl ame temperature the particles are molten and the average mass density of the particle material is notably smaller than that of bulk, liquid Pd at the melting point. Both experimental and computational results point to homogeneous nucleation and particle - particle coalescence as mechanisms for particle formation and growth. Aerosol dynamics simulation reproduces the time evolution of the particle size distribution and suggests that a substantial fraction of the particles must be electrically charged during their growth process.

  6. First genomic insights into members of a candidate bacterial phylum responsible for wastewater bulking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Sekiguchi


    Full Text Available Filamentous cells belonging to the candidate bacterial phylum KSB3 were previously identified as the causative agent of fatal filament overgrowth (bulking in a high-rate industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Here, we obtained near complete genomes from two KSB3 populations in the bioreactor, including the dominant bulking filament, using differential coverage binning of metagenomic data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted probes specific for the two populations confirmed that both are filamentous organisms. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction and microscopic observation of the KSB3 filaments in the presence of sugar gradients indicate that both filament types are Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic fermenters capable of non-flagellar based gliding motility, and have a strikingly large number of sensory and response regulator genes. We propose that the KSB3 filaments are highly sensitive to their surroundings and that cellular processes, including those causing bulking, are controlled by external stimuli. The obtained genomes lay the foundation for a more detailed understanding of environmental cues used by KSB3 filaments, which may lead to more robust treatment options to prevent bulking.

  7. In Situ Trace Element Measurements on Roda and the Origin of Diogenites (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.


    The origin of diogenites remains poorly understood. A recent model interprets many diogenites to have been formed from melts that were derived by remelting initial magma ocean cumulates, and these penultimate parent melts were then contaminated by melts derived from remelting of the basaltic (eucritic) crust to form the ultimate diogenite parent melts [1] (hereafter the remelting model). This is a very complicated petrogenesis that has profound implications for the geological evolution of 4 Vesta if correct. This model was developed based on trace element analyses of bulk rock samples that had been leached in acids to remove phosphates; the compositions of the residues were interpreted to be close to those of cumulus orthopyroxenes plagioclase, chromite and olivine [1]. In situ measurements of phases in diogenites can be used to test this model. We have begun a campaign of laser ablation ICP-MS of orthopyroxene grains in diogenites for this purpose. Here we report our first results on one diogenite, Roda. We have determined a suite of trace lithophile elements on nine, mm-sized pyroxene grains separated from Roda that have previously been studied [2, 3]. A key observation supporting the remelting model is the very low Eu/Eu* of leached residues; values too low to represent orthopyroxene that crystallized from melts with chondritic Sm/Eu and Gd/Eu [1]. (Eu* = Eu interpolated from REE diagrams.) Crustal remelts have low Sm/Eu and Gd/Eu, and orthopyroxenes that crystallized from parent melts contaminated by them would have very low Eu/Eu* [1]. Roda grains have Eu/Eu* of 0.243 to 0.026; the latter a value lower than any measured on bulk diogenite leached residues (0.041) [1]. There is a general negative correlation between Eu/Eu* and some incompatible elements (Zr, Nb, Hf), but not others (LREE). This appears inconsistent with the remelting model as it would suggest an evolving parent melt with La de-creasing as Zr increased and Eu/Eu* decreased. Grain R-15 includes

  8. In-situ observation of zinc electrodeposition on iron single crystal using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, M; Kawasaki, K


    Continuous in-situ observations of changes in crystal orientation during zinc electrodeposition were performed using novel electrolysis cell that secure uniform current distribution through thin electrolyte layer. It has been clarified that electrodeposition can be separated into the two regions. First one is epitaxial deposition region in which orientations of deposited zinc and substrate keep following relations; Fe(100)//Zn(10 centre dot 1) Fe(110)//Zn(00 centre dot 2), Fe(111)//Zn(00 centre dot 2). This region continued until the thickness of the deposit became about 0.5 mu m. Second one is bulk deposition region, in which the overpotential settled by electrolysis conditions determines the crystal orientation. Low overpotential leads to promoting Zn(00 centre dot 2) deposition, and higher overpotential Zn(10 centre dot 1) and Zn(11 centre dot 0). Influences of the current density changes on the crystal orientation were also clarified. The use of an adsorbing organic additive influences both on the epitaxi...

  9. Single nanowire electrode electrochemistry of silicon anode by in situ atomic force microscopy: solid electrolyte interphase growth and mechanical properties. (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Rui; Deng, Xin; Liu, Ran-Ran; Yan, Hui-Juan; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun


    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted great attention as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) on account of their high capacity and improved cyclability compared with bulk silicon. The interface behavior, especially the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), plays a significant role in the performance and stability of the electrodes. We report herein an in situ single nanowire atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to investigate the interface electrochemistry of silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrode. The morphology and Young's modulus of the individual SiNW anode surface during the SEI growth were quantitatively tracked. Three distinct stages of the SEI formation on the SiNW anode were observed. On the basis of the potential-dependent morphology and Young's modulus evolution of SEI, a mixture-packing structural model was proposed for the SEI film on SiNW anode.

  10. In-Situ Investigation of Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation Kinetics in an Austenitic Stainless Steel by Inductive Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Celada-Casero


    Full Text Available An inductive sensor developed by Philips ATC has been used to study in-situ the austenite (γ to martensite (α′ phase transformation kinetics during tensile testing in an AISI 301 austenitic stainless steel. A correlation between the sensor output signal and the volume fraction of α′-martensite has been found by comparing the results to the ex-situ characterization by magnetization measurements, light optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor has allowed for the observation of the stepwise transformation behavior, a not-well-understood phenomena that takes place in large regions of the bulk material and that so far had only been observed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  11. In Situ Irradiation and Measurement of Triple Junction Solar Cells at Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Conditions (United States)

    Harris, R.D.; Imaizumi, M.; Walters, R.J.; Lorentzen, J.R.; Messenger, S.R.; Tischler, J.G.; Ohshima, T.; Sato, S.; Sharps, P.R.; Fatemi, N.S.


    The performance of triple junction InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge space solar cells was studied following high energy electron irradiation at low temperature. Cell characterization was carried out in situ at the irradiation temperature while using low intensity illumination, and, as such, these conditions reflect those found for deep space, solar powered missions that are far from the sun. Cell characterization consisted of I-V measurements and quantum efficiency measurements. The low temperature irradiations caused substantial degradation that differs in some ways from that seen after room temperature irradiations. The short circuit current degrades more at low temperature while the open circuit voltage degrades more at room temperature. A room temperature anneal after the low temperature irradiation produced a substantial recovery in the degradation. Following irradiation at both temperatures and an extended room temperature anneal, quantum efficiency measurement suggests that the bulk of the remaining damage is in the (In)GaAs sub-cell


    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka


    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fi l (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and x-tra base (XB), and conventional control material X-Flow (XF). Composite samples (n=5) were polymerized for 20 s with Bluephase G2 curing unit. Vickers hardness was used to determine microhardness of each material at the surface, and at 2-mm and 4-mm depth. GSO on average recorded significantly higher microhardness values than bulk-fill materials (pcomposite XF revealed similar microhardness values as SDR, but significantly lower than XB (pmaterials was lower than microhardness of the conventional composite material (GSO). Surface microhardness of low-viscosity materials was generally even lower. The microhardness of all tested materials at 4 mm was not different from their surface values. However, additional capping layer was a necessity for low-viscosity bulk-fill materials due to their low microhardness.

  13. Effect of cyclic and in situ heating of the absolute permeabilities, elastic constants, and electrical resistivities of rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktan, T.; Farouq Ali, S.M.


    An experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of cyclic and in situ heating on the Young's moduli, bulk moduli, Poisson's ratios, resistivities and permeabilities of Berea, Boise, California, and Tennessee sandstones. Elastic moduli were calculated by measuring the longitudinal and shear-wave transit times of the cores subjected to triaxial pressure. Samples were loaded to 5,000 psi overburden pressure at 1,000 psi increments, and the confining pressure was kept at 60% of the overburden pressure. Cyclic heating and cooling runs were conducted by placing the cores in steel core holders and heating them at 550/sup 0/F and 2,000 psig pressure in a convection oven. Afterward, the cores were placed into the triaxial cell to measure the longitudinal and shear wave transit times. In situ heating experiments were conducted by simultaneously heating the core to 300/sup 0/F in the triaxial cell and measuring the elastic wave transit times. Permeabilities of dry and saturated cores were measured using the Ruska permeameter. Resistivities were calculated by determining the resistance of the 2% brine-saturated sandstones by the aid of a Wheatstone bridge. (18 refs.)

  14. Supercapacitor electrode of nano-Co3O4 decorated with gold nanoparticles via in-situ reduction method (United States)

    Tan, Yongtao; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Ran, Fen


    Nano-Co3O4 decorated with gold nanoparticles is synthesized by a simple method of in-situ reduction of HAuCl4 by sodium citrate for energy storage application, and the effect of gold content in the product on electrochemical performance is investigated in detail. Introducing gold nanoparticles into nano-Co3O4 bulk would contribute to reduce internal resistance of charge transmission. The results show that after in-situ reduction reaction gold nanoparticles imbed uniformly into nano-Co3O4 with irregular nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles decorated nano-Co3O4 exhibits specific capacitance of 681 F g-1 higher than that of pristine Co3O4 of 368 F g-1. It is interesting that a good cycle life with the specific capacitance retention of 83.1% is obtained after 13000 cycles at 5 A g-1, which recovers to initial specific capacitance value when the test current density is turned to 2 A g-1. In addition, the device of asymmetric supercapacitor, assembled with gold nanoparticles decorated nano-Co3O4 as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode, exhibits good energy density of 25 Wh kg-1, which is comparable to the asymmetric device assembled with normal nano-Co3O4, or the symmetric device assembled just with activated carbon.

  15. Estimation of the properties of silver nanoparticle ink during laser sintering via in-situ electrical resistance measurement. (United States)

    Lee, Dae Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae


    In this work, the in-situ properties of silver nanoparticle ink were estimated during laser sintering process. The silver nanoparticle ink was composed of 34 wt% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, and was deposited on a glass substrate via inkjet printing technology. A 532 nm continuous-wave laser was irradiated to the printed ink for 60 s under various laser intensities. During the laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to obtain the transient thermal conductivity of the silver nanoparticle ink using the Wiedemann Franz law. The 2-dimensional, transient heat-conduction equation was calculated to obtain the transient temperature of the silver nanoparticle ink. By coupling the calculated temperature with the measured, transient electrical conductance, the transient thermal conductivity of the ink during the laser sintering process was derived in the calculation. The calculated thermal conductivity of the ink sintered at a laser intensity of 467.9 W/cm2 with 598 K is 355.5 W/mK, which is 86.4% of the thermal conductivity of bulk silver, 411.4 W/mK, at that tempearture. The difference resulting from the porosity of the sintered ink has an effect on the thermal conductivity of the sintered ink.

  16. In-situ suspended aggregate microextraction of gold nanoparticles from water samples and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Choleva, Tatiana G; Kappi, Foteini A; Tsogas, George Z; Vlessidis, Athanasios G; Giokas, Dimosthenis L


    This work describes a new method for the extraction and determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental samples by means of in-situ suspended aggregate microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The method relies on the in-situ formation of a supramolecular aggregate phase through ion-association between a cationic surfactant and a benzene sulfonic acid derivative. Gold nanoparticles are physically entrapped into the aggregate phase which is separated from the bulk aqueous solution by vacuum filtration on the surface of a cellulose filter in the form of a thin film. The film is removed from the filter surface and is dissociated into an acidified methanolic solution which is used for analysis. Under the optimized experimental conditions, gold nanoparticles can be efficiently extracted from water samples with recovery rates between 81.0-93.3%, precision 5.4-12.0% and detection limits as low as 75femtomolL(-1) using only 20mL of sample volume. The satisfactory analytical features of the method along with the simplicity indicate the efficiency of this new approach to adequately collect and extract gold nanoparticle species from water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ seismic velocity changes in Southern Iceland (United States)

    Bjarnason, Ingi Th.; Menke, William; Þorbjarnardóttir, Bergþóra S.; Kjartansson, Einar; Guðmundsson, Gunnar


    Detecting in situ velocity changes in the crust of the earth before significant earthquakes (pre-seismic changes), for the purpose of predicting earthquakes, has been described as the Holy Grail of seismology, i.e. highly desirable goal but with elusive results. Pre-seismic signals of the order of 10-20%, reported in the 1960ies and 1970ies, have not been convincingly reproduced. Lower level (0.5-3.5%) coseismic and postseismic in situ changes have, however, repeatedly been reported. Due to lack of seismicity prior to significant earthquakes, adequate data are often lacking to test the hypothesis of pre-seismic signals. Using earthquake data in order to detect such signals, errors in earthquake locations and velocity models may give a false-positive temporal signals. For the detection of a low level ( 1.0%) pre-seismic change, good knowledge of seismic structure, high accuracy of earthquake locations, and a continuous high level of seismicity are important factors. The local seismic network of the Icelandic Meteorology Office, the SIL network, is in many respects ideal for studying in situ pre-seismic changes before significant earthquakes. Since the beginning of its operation in 1991, four earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 and greater have occurred in the region, which may have caused pre-seismic velocity changes in the crust. The original design of the network had a high clock accuracy (±1 ms). S-waves tend to be very clear, and successful 1D velocity model (SIL model) has been used to locate earthquakes in the area, suggesting relatively simple velocity structure in spite of active tectonic setting. Earthquakes in Southern Iceland during the period 1991 to 2000 are being analyzed. The period includes two large earthquakes in year 2000, both of them of the magnitude 6.5. The analysis involves improving earthquake locations in order to determine if in situ changes do exist in the area (down to 0.5% significance level), with the ultimate goal of locating them at

  18. In-situ neutron diffraction study of martensitic variant redistribution in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga alloy under cyclic thermo-mechanical treatment (United States)

    Li, Zongbin; Zhang, Yudong; Esling, Claude; Gan, Weimin; Zou, Naifu; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang


    The influences of uniaxial compressive stress on martensitic transformation were studied on a polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga bulk alloy prepared by directional solidification. Based upon the integrated in-situ neutron diffraction measurements, direct experimental evidence was obtained on the variant redistribution of seven-layered modulated (7M) martensite, triggered by external uniaxial compression during martensitic transformation. Large anisotropic lattice strain, induced by the cyclic thermo-mechanical treatment, has led to the microstructure modification by forming martensitic variants with a strong ⟨0 1 0⟩7M preferential orientation along the loading axis. As a result, the saturation of magnetization became easier to be reached.

  19. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of deformation behavior and load transfer in a Ti2Ni-NiTi composite (United States)

    Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Yinong; Ren, Yang; Huan, Yong; Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Shao, Yang; Ru, Yadong; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan


    The deformation behavior and load transfer of a dual-phase composite composed of martensite NiTi embedded in brittle Ti2Ni matrices were investigated by using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction during compression. The composite exhibits a stage-wise deformation feature and a double-yielding phenomenon, which were caused by the interaction between Ti2Ni and NiTi with alternative microscopic deformation mechanism. No load transfer occurs from the soft NiTi dendrites to the hard Ti2Ni matrices during the pseudoplastic deformation (detwinning) of NiTi, which is significantly different from that previously reported in bulk metallic glasses matrices composites.

  20. In situ oxygen dynamics in coral-algal interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wangpraseurt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs degrade globally at an alarming rate, with benthic algae often replacing corals. However, the extent to which benthic algae contribute to coral mortality, and the potential mechanisms involved, remain disputed. Recent laboratory studies suggested that algae kill corals by inducing hypoxia on the coral surface, through stimulated microbial respiration. METHODS/FINDINGS: We examined the main premise of this hypothesis by measuring in situ oxygen microenvironments at the contact interface between the massive coral Porites spp. and turf algae, and between Porites spp. and crustose coralline algae (CCA. Oxygen levels at the interface were similar to healthy coral tissue and ranged between 300-400 µM during the day. At night, the interface was hypoxic (~70 µM in coral-turf interactions and close to anoxic (~2 µM in coral-CCA interactions, but these values were not significantly different from healthy tissue. The diffusive boundary layer (DBL was about three times thicker at the interface than above healthy tissue, due to a depression in the local topography. A numerical model, developed to analyze the oxygen profiles above the irregular interface, revealed strongly reduced net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates at the coral-algal interface compared to unaffected tissue during the day and at night, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that hypoxia was not a consistent feature in the microenvironment of the coral-algal interface under in situ conditions. Therefore, hypoxia alone is unlikely to be the cause of coral mortality. Due to the modified topography, the interaction zone is distinguished by a thicker diffusive boundary layer, which limits the local metabolic activity and likely promotes accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic products (e.g., allelochemicals and protons. Our study highlights the importance of mass transfer phenomena and the need for direct in situ measurements of