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Sample records for bulk dielectric polarization

  1. Influence of system geometry and bulk dielectric polarization upon PD transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1996-01-01

    space charge in the void, and one related to changes in the polarization of the bulk dielectric. The latter is brought about by changes in the field external to the void due to the void space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge and its components are discussed with reference to a coaxial...

  2. Bulk dielectric and magnetic properties of PFW-PZT ceramics: absence of magnetically switched-off polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, M; Kamba, S; Savinov, M; Maryško, M; Frait, Z; Vaněk, P; Tomczyk, M; Vilarinho, P M

    2010-11-10

    We investigated ceramics samples of solid solutions of [PbFe(2/3)W(1/3)O(3)](x)-[PbZr(0.53)Ti(0.47)O(3)](1 - x) (PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), x = 0.2 and 0.3) by means of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and SQUID magnetometry. We did not confirm the observations of Kumar et al (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 382204), who reported on reversible suppression of ferroelectric polarization in polycrystalline PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films for magnetic fields above 0.5 T. We did not observe any change of ferroelectric polarization with external magnetic fields up to 3.2 T. Pirc et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 214114) developed a theory explaining the reported large magnetoelectric effect in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), taking into account relaxor magnetic and relaxor ferroelectric properties of the system. Our data revealed classical ferroelectric properties below 525 K and 485 K in samples with x = 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. Moreover, paramagnetic behavior was observed down to 4.5 K instead of previously reported relaxor magnetic behavior. It seems that the reported switching-off of ferroelectric polarization in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films is not an intrinsic property, but probably an effect of electrodes, interlayers, grain boundaries or second phases presented in polycrystalline thin films.

  3. Casimir effect in dielectrics Bulk Energy Contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, C E; Pérez-Mercader, J; Visser, M; Visser, Matt

    1997-01-01

    In a recent series of papers, Schwinger discussed a process that he called the Dynamical Casimir Effect. The key essence of this effect is the change in zero-point energy associated with any change in a dielectric medium. (In particular, if the change in the dielectric medium is taken to be the growth or collapse of a bubble, this effect may have relevance to sonoluminescence.) The kernel of Schwinger's result is that the change in Casimir energy is proportional to the change in volume of the dielectric, plus finite-volume corrections. Other papers have called into question this result, claiming that the volume term should actually be discarded, and that the dominant term remaining is proportional to the surface area of the dielectric. In this communication, which is an expansion of an earlier letter on the same topic, we present a careful and critical review of the relevant analyses. We find that the Casimir energy, defined as the change in zero-point energy due to a change in the medium, has at leading orde...

  4. AC Conductivity and Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Sb2S3 Bulk Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, K. F.; Darwish, A. A. A.; Qashou, Saleem I.; Hanafy, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Sb2S3 bulk material was used for next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Alternative current (AC) conductivity, dielectric properties and electric modulus of Sb2S3 have been investigated. The measurements were carried out in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 5 MHz and temperature range from 293 K to 453 K. The direct current (DC) conductivity, σ DC, shows an activated behavior and the calculated activation energy is 0.50 eV. The AC conductivity, σ AC, was found to increase with the increase of temperature and frequency. The conduction mechanism of σ AC was controlled by the correlated barrier hopping model. The behavior of the dielectric constant, ɛ', and dielectric loss index, ɛ'', reveal that the polarization process of Sb2S3 is dipolar in nature. The behavior of both ɛ' and ɛ'' reveals that bulk Sb2S3 has no ferroelectric or piezoelectric phase transition. The dielectric modulus, M, gives a simple method for evaluating the activation energy of the dielectric relaxation. The calculated activation energy from M is 0.045 eV.

  5. Towards all-dielectric, polarization-independent optical cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Fully enclosing, all-dielectric cloaks working for both E-z and H-z polarizations simultaneously are presented in this letter. The cloaks are effective for two antiparallel angles of incidence, and the layout of standard dielectric material in the cloak is determined by topology optimization...

  6. Magnetic effects on dielectric and polarization behavior of multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, Sandra; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2010-02-01

    PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3(PZT/LSMO) bilayer with surface roughness ˜1.8 nm thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3(LAO) substrates. High remnant polarization (30-54 μC/cm2), dielectric constant (400-1700), and well saturated magnetization were observed depending upon the deposition temperature of the ferromagnetic layer and applied frequencies. Giant frequency-dependent change in dielectric constant and loss were observed above the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic temperature. The frequency dependent dielectric anomalies are attributed to the change in metallic and magnetic nature of LSMO and also the interfacial effect across the bilayer; an enhanced magnetoelectric interaction may be due to the Parish-Littlewood mechanism of inhomogeneity near the metal-dielectric interface.

  7. Partial discharge transients and the influence of dielectric polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1996-01-01

    shape is considered. In the latter, the void shape is restricted to one of spherical form. For each system the magnitude of the induced charge is found to be strongly influenced by changes in the bulk polarization. In the former, the polarization component depends dramatically on void shape...

  8. Broadband highly-efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control

    CERN Document Server

    Kruk, Sergey; Kravchenko, Ivan; Miroshnichenko, Andrey; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    Metadevices based on dielectric nanostructured surfaces with both electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances have resulted in the best efficiency to date for functional flat optics with only one disadvantage: narrow operational bandwidth. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband transparent all-dielectric metasurfaces for highly efficient polarization manipulation. We utilize the generalized Huygens principle with a superposition of the scattering contributions from several electric and magnetic multipolar modes of the constituent meta-atoms to achieve destructive interference in reflection over a large spectral bandwidth. By employing this novel concept, we demonstrate reflectionless (~90% transmission) half-wave plates, quarter-wave plates, and vector beam q-plates that can operate across multiple telecom bands with ~99% polarization conversion efficiency.

  9. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured −10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62–3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85–3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz. PMID:27563897

  10. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-08-23

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62-3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85-3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz.

  11. Bulk magnetic terahertz metamaterials based on dielectric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindler, M; Kadlec, C; Dominec, F; Kužel, P; Elissalde, C; Kassas, A; Lesseur, J; Bernard, D; Mounaix, P; Němec, H

    2016-08-01

    Rigid metamaterials were prepared by embedding TiO2 microspheres into polyethylene. These structures exhibit a series of Mie resonances where the lowest-frequency one is associated with a strong dispersion in the effective magnetic permeability. Using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, we experimentally demonstrated the magnetic nature of the observed resonance. The presented approach shows a way for low-cost massive fabrication of mechanically stable terahertz metamaterials based on dielectric microresonators.

  12. PD-related stresses in the bulk dielectric and their evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton - Fratrådt, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1993-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic field theory to the subject of partial discharges shows that discharging in a void generates large field distortions within the bulk dielectric in the proximity of the void. Such inherent over-stressing of a dielectric could be the effect which triggers the onset...... of electrical treeing and other damaging processes, and which subsequently precipitates the breakdown of the insulation. If there were a train of partial discharge events per power frequency cycle, then, during each half period, these events would lead to cumulative stress levels within the solid dielectric...

  13. Concentration polarization, surface currents, and bulk advection in a microchannel

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Christoffer P

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of salt transport and overlimiting currents in a microchannel during concentration polarization. We have carried out full numerical simulations of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes problem governing the transport and rationalized the behaviour of the system. A remarkable outcome of the investigations is the discovery of strong couplings between bulk advection and the surface current; without a surface current, bulk advection is strongly suppressed. The numerical simulations are supplemented by analytical models valid in the long channel limit as well as in the limit of negligible surface charge. By including the effects of diffusion and advection in the diffuse part of the electric double layers, we extend a recently published analytical model of overlimiting current due to surface conduction.

  14. Electrical conduction mechanism in bulk ceramic insulators at high voltages until dielectric breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neusel, C.; Jelitto, H.; Schneider, G. A.

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop and verify a dielectric breakdown model for bulk insulators thicker than 100 μm, the knowledge of the dominating conduction mechanism at high electric fields, or respectively voltages, is necessary. The dielectric breakdown is the electrical failure of an insulator. In some existing breakdown models, ohmic conduction is assumed as dominating conduction mechanism. For verification, the dominating dc conduction mechanism of bulk insulators at room temperature was investigated by applying high voltages up to 70 kV to the insulator until dielectric breakdown occurs. Four conduction models, namely, ohmic, space charge limited, Schottky, and Poole-Frenkel conduction, were employed to identify the dominating conduction mechanism. Comparing the calculated permittivities from the Schottky and Poole-Frenkel coefficients with experimentally measured permittivity, Schottky and Poole-Frenkel conduction can be excluded as dominating conduction mechanism. Based on the current density voltage characteristics (J-V-curve) and the thickness-dependence of the current density, space charge limited conduction (SCLC) was identified to be the dominating conduction mechanism at high voltages leading to dielectric breakdown. As a consequence, breakdown models based on ohmic conduction are not appropriate to explain the breakdown of the investigated bulk insulators. Furthermore, the electrical failure of the examined bulk insulators can only be described correctly by a breakdown model which includes SCLC as conduction mechanism.

  15. Piezoelectric and dielectric characterization of corona and contact poled PZT-epoxy-MWCNT bulk composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Cook-Chennault, K. A.; Du, W.; Sundar, U.; Halim, H.; Tang, A.

    2016-11-01

    Three-phase lead zirconate titanate (PZT, PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3)-epoxy-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bulk composites were prepared, where the volume fraction of PZT was held constant at 30%, while the volume fraction of the MWCNTs was varied from 1.0%–10%. The samples were poled using either a parallel plate contact or contactless (corona) poling technique. The piezoelectric strain coefficient (d 33), dielectric constant (ε), and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of the samples were measured at 110 Hz, and compared as a function of poling technique and volume fraction of MWCNTs. The highest values for dielectric constant and piezoelectric strain coefficients were 465.82 and 18.87 pC/N for MWCNT volume fractions of 10% and 6%, respectively. These values were obtained for samples that were poled using the corona contactless method. The impedance and dielectric spectra of the composites were recorded over a frequency range of 100 Hz–20 MHz. The impedance values observed for parallel-plate contact poled samples are higher than that of corona poled composites. The fractured surface morphology and distribution of the PZT particles and MWCNTs were observed with the aid of electron dispersion spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope. The surface morphology of the MWCNTs was observed with the aid of a field emission transmission electron microscope.

  16. Determination of mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluch, Waldemar; Brzozowski, Ernest; Lysakowska, Magdalena; Sadura, Jolanta

    2011-11-01

    Mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal were determined. Mass density was obtained from the measured ratio of mass to volume of a cuboid. The dielectric constants were determined from the measured capacitances of an interdigital transducer (IDT) deposited on a Z-cut plate and from a parallel plate capacitor fabricated from this plate. The elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined by comparing the measured and calculated SAW velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients on the Z- and X-cut plates. The following new constants were obtained: mass density p = 5986 kg/m(3); relative dielectric constants (at constant strain S) ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 8.6 and ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 10.5, where ε(0) is a dielectric constant of free space; elastic constants (at constant electric field E) C(E)(11) = 349.7, C(E)(12) = 128.1, C(E)(13) = 129.4, C(E)(33) = 430.3, and C(E)(44) = 96.5 GPa; and piezoelectric constants e(33) = 0.84, e(31) = -0.47, and e(15) = -0.41 C/m(2).

  17. Dielectric polarization transients in biological tissue moving in a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Kari; Laakso, Ilkka

    2016-09-01

    Movement of a body in a static magnetic field gives rise to the Lorentz force that induces in the medium both electric currents and dielectric polarization. It is usually assumed that the conductivity of biological tissues is sufficiently high in order to neglect dielectric phenomenon arising from non-equilibrium of polarization charges. However, the permittivity of biological tissues is extremely high and the relaxation time of free charges is relatively low. In this study, we examined the effect of dielectric polarization on the electric field (EF) induced by human movements in a strong magnetic field (MF). Analytic equations for brain and bone equivalent spheres translating and rotating in a uniform MF were derived from Maxwell equations. Several examples were computed by using Fast Fourier Transform to examine transient dielectric effects in a time domain. The results showed that dielectric polarization transients do arise, but in the case of homogeneous medium, they are vanishingly small. In contrast, the local dielectric transients are not vanishingly small in heterogeneous medium. However, due to limited acceleration and deceleration of normal human movements, the transients are relatively small, at maximum a few dozen percent of the EF induced by the change of the magnetic flux. Taking into account the high uncertainty in numerical simulation, the dielectric transients can be neglected in the case of biological materials but not in the case of many non-biological materials of low conductivity. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:409-422, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dielectric process of space-charge polarization for an electrolytic cell with blocking electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Atsushi

    2008-08-14

    The dielectric process of space-charge polarization for an electrolytic cell with blocking electrodes is simulated considering bound charges externally supplied to the electrodes. A numerical calculation is performed to determine the distribution of mobile charges under an ac field satisfying Poisson's equation in which the dielectric constant varies with frequency. An exact frequency-dependent curve of the complex dielectric constant is obtained by including the contribution of bound charges induced by the space-charge polarization itself in Poisson's equation at every frequency. The present model of the space-charge polarization enables one to correctly understand the experimental results on the complex dielectric constant of electrolytic cells in low-frequency regions.

  19. Existence conditions for bulk large-wavevector waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.; Sipe, J. E.

    2014-05-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wavevector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in arbitrary subwavelength periodic multilayers structures. Treating the elementary excitation in the unit cell of the structure as a generalized resonance pole of reflection coefficient and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wavevector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metaldielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectricmultilayers tend to support high-k waves and explore the range of parameters, where this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The suggested formalism is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz (THz) and optical metamaterials, optical waveguide arrays, 2D plasmonic and acoustic metamaterials.

  20. Polarization-Independent and High-Efficiency Dielectric Metasurfaces Spanning 600-800 nm Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qi-Tong; Wang, Bo; Gan, Fengyuan; Chen, Jianjun; Chu, Weiguo; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Artificial metasurfaces are capable of completely manipulating the phase, amplitude, and polarization of light with high spatial resolutions. The emerging design based on high-index and low-loss dielectrics has led to the realization of novel metasurfaces with high transmissions, but these devices usually operate at the limited bandwidth, and are sensitive to the incident polarization. Here, for the first time we report experimentally the polarization-independent and high-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces spanning the visible wavelengths about 200 nm, which are of importance for novel flat optical devices operating over a broad spectrum. The diffraction efficiencies of the gradient metasurfaces consisting of the multi-fold symmetric nano-crystalline silicon nanopillars are up to 93% at 670 nm, and exceed 75% at the wavelengths from 600 to 800 nm for the two orthogonally polarized incidences. These dielectric metasurfaces hold great potential to replace prisms, lenses and other conventional optical elements.

  1. Dielectric interfaces in DC constructions: space charge and polarization phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshuis, P.H.F.; Bodega, R.; Fabiani, D.; Montanari, G.C.; Dissado, L.A; Smit, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Interfaces between dielectrics are considered one of the weakest parts of an insulation system but their behavior under electrical stress is not yet completely understood. In particular, when a dc voltage is applied, the electric field distribution at the interface is quite difficult to predict. Thi

  2. Concentration polarization, surface currents, and bulk advection in a microchannel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Peder; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of salt transport and overlimiting currents in a microchannel during concentration polarization. We have carried out full numerical simulations of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes problem governing the transport and rationalized the behavior of the system...

  3. Excitation of radiationless anapole mode of isotropic dielectric nanoparticles with tightly focused radially polarized beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Lei; Bhattacharya, Nandini; Urbach, H Paul

    2016-01-01

    A high index dielectric nano-sphere can be excited and yet remain radiationless. A method to excite the non-radiating anapole mode of a high index isotropic dielectric nanosphere is presented. With tightly focused radially polarized beam illumination, the main-contributing electric dipole mode and magnetic modes can be zero with only a weak electric quadruple contributing to the total scattering. Further, with a standing wave illumination formed by two counter-propagating focused radially polarized beam under $4\\pi$ configuration, the ideal radiationless ananpole can be excited.

  4. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Sipe, J E; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wavevector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell of the structure by a generalized resonance pole of a reflection coefficient, and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wavevector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal-dielectric, and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties, and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high-k waves and explore the range of parameters for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for mater...

  5. Comparing calorimetric and dielectric polarization modes in viscous 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Heiko; Wang, Li-Min; Schick, Christoph; Richert, Ranko

    2007-03-14

    Dielectric relaxation and dynamic heat capacity measurements are compared for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol near its glass transition temperature Tg in order to further clarify the origin of the prominent Debye-type loss peak observed in many monohydroxy alcohols and other hydrogen-bonding liquids. While the dielectric spectrum epsilon" displays two distinct polarization processes that are separated by a factor of 2000 in terms of the peak frequency, the heat capacity cp" shows only a single peak. The dielectric process with lower amplitude and higher peak frequency coincides with the calorimetric signal, whereas the large dielectric Debye signal is not associated with calorimetric modes. The authors conclude that the Debye process corresponds to a transition among states which differ in energy only in the case of an external electric field.

  6. Efficient polarization insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens' metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength-thin metasurfaces have shown great promises for the control of optical wavefronts, thus opening new pathways for the development of efficient flat optics. In particular, Huygens' metasurfaces based on all-dielectric resonant meta-atoms have already shown a huge potential for practical applications with their polarization insensitivity and high transmittance efficiency. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a polarization insensitive holographic Huygens' metasurface based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms capable of complex wavefront control at telecom wavelengths. Our metasurface produces a hologram image in the far-field with 82% transmittance efficiency and 40% imaging efficiency. Such efficient complex wavefront control shows that Huygens' metasurfaces based on resonant dielectric meta-atoms are a big step towards practical applications of metasurfaces in wavefront design related technologies, including computer-generated holograms, ultra-thin optics, security and data storage devices.

  7. Characteristics of Spontaneous Emission of Polarized Atoms in Metal-Dielectric Multiple Layer Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-Ming; GU Ben-Yuan; ZHOU Yun-Song

    2007-01-01

    The spontaneous emission (SE) progress of polarized atoms in a stratified structure ofair-dielectric(D0)-metal(M)-dielectric(D1)-air can be controlled effectively by changing the thickness of the D1 layer and rotating the polarized direction of atoms. It is found that the normalized SE rate of atoms located inside the D0 layer crucially depends on the atomic position and the thickness of the D1 layer. When the atom is located near the D0-M interface, the normalized atomic SE rate as a function of the atomic position is abruptly onset for the thin D1 layer. However, with the increasing thickness of the D1 layer, the corresponding curve profile exhibits plateau and stays nearly unchanged. The substantial change of the SE rate stems from the excitation of the surface plasmon polaritons in metal-dielectric interface, and the feature crucially depends on the thickness of D1 layer. If atoms are positioned near the D0-air interface, the substantial variation of the normalized SE rate appears when rotating the polarized direction of atoms. These findings manifest that the atomic SE processes can be flexibly controlled by altering the thickness of the dielectric layer D1 or rotating the orientation of the polarization of atoms.

  8. Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of transparent dielectrics: Confined micro-explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamaly, Eugene [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, the Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Luther-Davies, Barry [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, the Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Rode, Andrei [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, the Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Joudkazis, Saulius [CREST-JST and Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N-21-W10, CRIS Bldg., Kita-Ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Misawa, Hiroki [CREST-JST and Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N-21-W10, CRIS Bldg., Kita-Ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Hallo, Ludovic [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 CEA - CNRS - Universite Bordeaux 1, 33405 Talence, Cedex (France); Nicolai, Philippe [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 CEA - CNRS - Universite Bordeaux 1, 33405 Talence, Cedex (France); Tikhonchuk, Vladimir [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 CEA - CNRS - Universite Bordeaux 1, 33405 Talence, Cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    We present here the experimental and theoretical studies of drastic transformations induced by a single powerful femtosecond laser pulse tightly focused inside a transparent dielectric, that lead to void formation in the bulk. We show that the laser pulse energy absorbed within a volume of less than 1{mu}m{sup 3} creates the conditions with pressure and temperature range comparable to that formed by an exploding nuclear bomb. At the laser intensity above 6 x 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} the material within this volume is rapidly atomized, ionized, and converted into a tiny super-hot cloud of expanding plasma. The expanding plasma generates strong shock and rarefaction waves which result in the formation of a void. Our modelling indicates that unique states of matter can be created using a standard table-top laser in well-controlled laboratory conditions. This state of matter has temperatures {approx}10{sup 5} K, heating rate up to the 10{sup 18} K/s, and pressure more than 100 times the strength of any solid. The laser-affected sites in the bulk were detected ('read') by generation of white continuum using probe femtosecond pulses at much lower laser intensity of 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2} - 10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}. Post-examination of voids with an electron microscope revealed a typical size of the void ranges from 200 to 500 nm. These studies will find application for the design of 3D optical memory devices and for formation of photonic band-gap crystals.

  9. Wideband resonant polarizers made with ultra-sparse dielectric nanowire grids

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Polarizers are essential in diverse photonics applications including display [1], microscopy [2], polarimetric astrophysical observation [3], laser machining [4], and quantum information processing [5]. Whereas conventional polarizers based on natural crystals and multilayer thin films are commonplace, nanostructured polarizers offer compact integrability [6,7], thermal stability in high-power systems [4,8], and space-variant vector beam generation [9,10]. Here, we introduce a new class of reflectors and polarizers fashioned with dielectric nanowire grids that are mostly empty space. It is fundamentally extremely significant that the wideband spectral expressions presented can be generated in these minimal systems. We provide computed results predicting high reflection and attendant polarization extinction in multiple spectral regions. Experimental results with Si nanowire arrays show ~200-nm-wide band of total reflection for one polarization state and free transmission for the orthogonal state. These results...

  10. Bulk electronic, elastic, structural, and dielectric properties of the Weyl semimetal TaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, J.; Jevdokimovs, D.; Catlow, C. R. A.; Sokol, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    We present results of electronic structure calculations of the bulk properties of the Weyl semimetal TaAs. The emergence of Weyl (massless) fermions in TaAs, due to its electronic band structure, is indicative of a new state of matter in the condensed phase that is of great interest for fundamental physics and possibly new applications. Many of the physical properties of the material, however, are unknown. We have calculated the structural parameters, dielectric function, elastic constants, phonon dispersion, electronic band structure, and Born effective charges using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation, including spin-orbit coupling where necessary. Our results provide essential information on the material; and our calculations agree well with the relatively small number of experimental data available. Moreover, we have determined the relative stability of the ground state body-centered tetragonal phase with respect to other common binary phases as a function of pressure at the athermal limit, predicting a transition to the CsCl cubic structure at 23.3 GPa. Finally, we have determined the band structure using an unbiased hybrid density functional that includes 25% exact exchange, in order to refine the previously determined positions in k space of the Weyl points.

  11. Terahertz response of dipolar impurities in polar liquids: On anomalous dielectric absorption of protein solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matyushov, D V

    2009-01-01

    A theory of radiation absorption by dielectric mixtures is presented. The coarse-grained formulation is based on the wavevector-dependent correlation functions of molecular dipoles of the host polar liquid and a density-density structure factor of the positions of the solutes. A nonlinear dependence of the absorption coefficient on the solute concentration is predicted and originates from the mutual polarization of the liquid surrounding the solutes by the collective field of the solute dipoles aligned along the radiation field. The theory is applied to terahertz absorption of hydrated saccharides and proteins. While the theory gives an excellent account of the observations for saccharides without additional assumptions and fitting parameters, experimental absorption coefficient of protein solutions significantly exceeds theoretical calculations within standard dielectric models and shows a peak against the protein concentration. A substantial polarization of protein's hydration shell is required to explain t...

  12. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yefeng; Gong, Honghong; Xie, Yunchuan; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-02-01

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3-5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors.

  13. Molecular motion, dielectric response, and phase transition of charge-transfer crystals: acquired dynamic and dielectric properties of polar molecules in crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Jun; Ohtani, Masaki; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inabe, Tamotsu

    2015-04-08

    Molecules in crystals often suffer from severe limitations on their dynamic processes, especially on those involving large structural changes. Crystalline compounds, therefore, usually fail to realize their potential as dielectric materials even when they have large dipole moments. To enable polar molecules to undergo dynamic processes and to provide their crystals with dielectric properties, weakly bound charge-transfer (CT) complex crystals have been exploited as a molecular architecture where the constituent polar molecules have some freedom of dynamic processes, which contribute to the dielectric properties of the crystals. Several CT crystals of polar tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA) molecules were prepared using TBPA as an electron acceptor and aromatic hydrocarbons, such as coronene and perylene, as electron donors. The crystal structures and dielectric properties of the CT crystals as well as the single-component crystal of TBPA were investigated at various temperatures. Molecular reorientation of TBPA molecules did not occur in the single-component crystal, and the crystal did not show a dielectric response due to orientational polarization. We have found that the CT crystal formation provides a simple and versatile method to develop molecular dielectrics, revealing that the molecular dynamics of the TBPA molecules and the dielectric property of their crystals were greatly changed in CT crystals. The TBPA molecules underwent rapid in-plane reorientations in their CT crystals, which exhibited marked dielectric responses arising from the molecular motion. An order-disorder phase transition was observed for one of the CT crystals, which resulted in an abrupt change in the dielectric constant at the transition temperature.

  14. Broadbanding of circularly polarized patch antenna by waveguided magneto-dielectric metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mi Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Design of bandwidth-enhanced circularly polarized (CP patch antenna using artificial magneto-dielectric substrate was investigated. The artificial magneto-dielectric material adopted here takes the form of waveguided metamaterial (WG-MTM. In particular, the embedded meander line (EML structure was employed as the building element of the WG-MTM. As verified by the retrieved effective medium parameters, the EML-based waveguided magneto-dielectric metamaterial (WG-MDM exhibits two-dimensionally isotropic magneto-dielectric property with respect to TEM wave excitations applied in two orthogonal directions. A CP patch antenna loaded with the EML-based WG-MDM (WG-MDM antenna has been proposed and its design procedure is described in detail. Simulation results show that the impedance and axial ratio bandwidths of the WG-MDM antenna have increased by 125% and 133%, respectively, compared with those obtained with pure dielectric substrate offering the same patch size. The design of the novel WG-MDM antenna was also validated by measurement results, which show good agreement with their simulated counterparts.

  15. Inter-atomic bonding and dielectric polarization in Gd3+ incorporated Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R. A.; Desai, S. S.; Patange, S. M.; Jadhav, S. S.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2017-04-01

    A series of ferrite with a chemical composition Co0.7Zn0.3GdxFe2-xO4 (where x=0.0 to x=0.1) were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern were used to determine the crystal structure and phase formation of the prepared samples. Scanning electron microscopy is used to study the surface morphology of the prepared samples. Elastic properties were determined from the infrared spectroscopy. Debye temperature, wave velocities, elastic constants found to increase with the increase in Gd3+ substitution. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of Gd3+ substitution and frequency. Dielectric constant decreased with the increase in frequency and Gd3+ substitution. Behavior of dielectric properties was explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization which in accordance with Koops phenomenological theory. Real and imaginary part of impedance was studied as a function of resistance and Gd3+ substitution. The behavior of impedance is systematically discussed on the basis of resistance-capacitance circuit.

  16. Gigahertz Dielectric Polarization of Single-atom Niobium Substituted in Graphitic layers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have synthesized two Nb@C composites with an order of magnitude difference in the density of single-atom niobium substituted into graphitic layers. The concentration and sites of single-atom Nb are identified using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory. Comparing the complex permittivity spectra show that the representative dielectric resonance at ~16 GHz originates from the intrinsic polarization of single-atom Nb sites, confirmed by ...

  17. Armstrong effect as a tool for structural elucidation of liquid polar dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Yu. A.

    2014-04-01

    The effect that appears when high-voltage electric field is applied to liquid polar dielectrics was described. The effect was suggested to be called the Armstrong effect after the name of the scientist who discovered it. Experimental data on the Armstrong effect in pure water were considered. The possible composition of megaclusters of liquid water was evaluated. The potential applications of the effect were suggested.

  18. To a Method of Polarization-Depolarization Currents for Diagnosis of Dielectric Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrozevich, S. A.; Sibatov, R. T.; Uchaikin, D. V.; Morozova, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Fractional derivative formalism is proposed as the mathematical foundation of the polarization-depolarization current method for the diagnosis of dielectric isolation. Physical basis of the new approach is the observed deviation of the long-term relaxation from the Debye exponential law. We found that this behavior is consistent with the solution of the fractional differential equation: exponential behavior turns into the power dependence in the long-time asymptotics, and this part of the relaxation curve is more sensitive to the material state. The results of calculations for the polarization-depolarization currents in an oil-paper capacitor are in agreement with the specially performed experiments.

  19. Polarization Dependence of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Dielectric Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our measurements of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS on Ga2O3 dielectric nanowires (NWs core/silver composites indicate that the SERS enhancement is highly dependent on the polarization direction of the incident laser light. The polarization dependence of the SERS signal with respect to the direction of a single NW was studied by changing the incident light angle. Further investigations demonstrate that the SERS intensity is not only dependent on the direction and wavelength of the incident light, but also on the species of the SERS active molecule. The largest signals were observed on an NW when the incident 514.5 nm light was polarized perpendicular to the length of the NW, while the opposite phenomenon was observed at the wavelength of 785 nm. Our theoretical simulations of the polarization dependence at 514.5 nm and 785 nm are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Quantum beats in the polarization response of a dielectric to intense few-cycle laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Korbman, Michael; Yakovlev, Vladislav S

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the polarization response of a dielectric to intense few-cycle laser pulses with a focus on interband tunnelling. Once charge carriers are created in an initially empty conduction band, they make a significant contribution to the polarization response. In particular, the coherent superposition of conduction- and valence-band states results in quantum beats. We investigate how the quantum-beat part of the polarization response is affected by excitation dynamics and the attosecond-scale motion of charge carriers in an intense laser field. We find that, with the onset of tunnelling and Bloch oscillations, the nonlinear polarization response becomes sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase of a laser pulse.

  1. Triband Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Top-Loaded Alford Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A triband omnidirectional circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna with a top-loaded modified Alford loop for GSM, WLAN, and WiMAX applications is proposed. Fed by an axial probe, the DRA (dielectric resonator antenna radiates like a vertically polarized electric monopole. The top-loaded modified Alford loop provides an equivalent horizontally polarized magnetic dipole mode at triband. Omnidirectional CP (circular polarized fields can be obtained when the two orthogonally polarized fields are equal in amplitude with phase quadrature. The antenna has been successfully simulated, fabricated, and measured. The experimental and numerical results exhibit that the antenna can obtain usable CP bandwidths of 1.925–1.955 GHz, 2.36–2.48 GHz, and 3.502–3.53 GHz with return loss larger than 10 dB and axial ratio less than 3 dB. In addition, over the three bands, the antenna obtains very good omnidirectional CP radiation patterns in the azimuth plane. Moreover, an average CP gain in the azimuth plane of 1.2, 1.6, and −1.5 dBic for the lower, middle, and upper bands has been obtained.

  2. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, J. E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-10-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wave-vector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell of the structure by a generalized resonance pole of a reflection coefficient and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wave-vector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal-dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high-k waves and explore the range of parameteres for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The approach is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz, and optical metamaterials.

  3. Effects of "natural" water and "added" water on prediction of moisture content and bulk density of shelled corn from microwave dielectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O; Lewis, Micah A

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric properties of samples of shelled corn of "natural" water content and those prepared by adding water were measured in free space at microwave frequencies and 23 degrees C. Results of measurements of attenuation, phase shift and dielectric constant and loss factor at 9 GHz show no difference between the samples with "natural" water and those in which water was added artificially. Bulk densities and moisture contents predicted from calibration equations expressed in terms of dielectric properties of both natural and added water samples agreed closely, and standard errors were less than 1% for moisture content and relative error for bulk density was less than 5%.

  4. Polarized neutron powder diffraction studies of antiferromagnetic order in bulk and nanoparticle NiO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Erik; Lefmann, Kim; Deen, Pascale P.;

    2015-01-01

    surface contribution to the magnetic anisotropy. Here we explore the potential use of polarized neutron diffraction to reveal the magnetic structure in NiO bulk and nanoparticle powders by applying the XYZ-polarization analysis method. Our investigations address in particular the spin orientation in bulk...... NiO and platelet-shaped NiO nanoparticles with thickness from greater than 200 nm down to 2.0 nm. The advantage of the applied method is that it is able to clearly separate the structural, the magnetic, and the spin-incoherent scattering signals for all particle sizes. For platelet-shaped particles......In many materials it remains a challenge to reveal the nature of magnetic correlations, including antiferromagnetism and spin disorder. Revealing the spin structure in magnetic nanoparticles is further complicated by the large incoherent neutron scattering cross section from water adsorbed...

  5. Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, Luca; Monroy, E; Gérard, J M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors which are insensitive to the polarization of the incident light is investigated. By using high-refractive-index dielectrics, the index mismatch between the nanowire and the surrounding media is reduced. This enhances the absorption of light with electric field vector perpendicular to the nanowire segments, which is generally hindered in this kind of detectors. Building on this principle and focusing on NbTiN nanowire devices, we present several easy-to-realize cavity architectures which allow high absorption efficiency (in excess of 90%) and polarization insensitivity simultaneously. Designs based on ultranarrow nanowires, for which the polarization sensitivity is much more marked, are also presented. Finally, we briefly discuss the specific advantages of this approach in the case of WSi or MoSi nanowires.

  6. Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, L.; Zwiller, V.; Monroy, E.; Gérard, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the design of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors which are insensitive to the polarization of the incident light is investigated. By using high-refractive-index dielectrics, the index mismatch between the nanowire and the surrounding media is reduced. This enhances the absorption of light with electric field vector perpendicular to the nanowire segments, which is generally hindered in these kind of detectors. Building on this principle and focusing on NbTiN nanowire devices, we present several easy-to-realize cavity architectures which allow high absorption efficiency (in excess of 90%) and polarization insensitivity simultaneously. Designs based on ultranarrow nanowires, for which the polarization sensitivity is much more marked, are also presented. Finally, we briefly discuss the specific advantages of this approach in the case of WSi or MoSi nanowires.

  7. Mean-field energy-level shifts and dielectric properties of strongly polarized Rydberg gases

    CERN Document Server

    Zhelyazkova, V; Hogan, S D

    2016-01-01

    Mean-field energy-level shifts arising as a result of strong electrostatic dipole interactions within dilute gases of polarized helium Rydberg atoms have been probed by microwave spectroscopy. The Rydberg states studied had principal quantum numbers $n=70$ and 72, and electric dipole moments of up to 14050 D, and were prepared in pulsed supersonic beams at particle number densities on the order of $10^{8}$ cm$^{-3}$. Comparisons of the experimental data with the results of Monte Carlo calculations highlight effects of the distribution of nearest-neighbor spacings in the pulsed supersonic beams, and the dielectric properties of the strongly polarized Rydberg gases, on the microwave spectra. These observations reflect the emergence of macroscopic electrical properties of the atomic samples when strongly polarized.

  8. Mean-field energy-level shifts and dielectric properties of strongly polarized Rydberg gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkova, V.; Jirschik, R.; Hogan, S. D.

    2016-11-01

    Mean-field energy-level shifts arising as a result of strong electrostatic dipole interactions within dilute gases of polarized helium Rydberg atoms have been probed by microwave spectroscopy. The Rydberg states studied had principal quantum numbers n =70 and 72, and electric dipole moments of up to 14 050 D, and were prepared in pulsed supersonic beams at particle number densities on the order of 108 cm-3. Comparisons of the experimental data with the results of Monte Carlo calculations highlight effects of the distribution of nearest-neighbor spacings in the pulsed supersonic beams, and the dielectric properties of the strongly polarized Rydberg gases, on the microwave spectra. These observations reflect the emergence of macroscopic electrical properties of the atomic samples when strongly polarized.

  9. Polarization-independent broadband dielectric bilayer gratings for spectral beam combining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxin; Liu, Quan; Chen, Junming; Wang, Leilei; Jin, Yunxia; Yang, Yifeng; Shao, Jianda

    2017-02-01

    We report on a polarization-independent all-dielectric trapezoidal bilayer grating with broadband and high diffraction efficiency. The bilayer trapezoidal grating ridge on a reflector consists of an HfO2 layer and a SiO2 layer. The theoretical -1st order efficiencies of the grating are more than 95% with wavelength range from 1010 nm to 1080 nm for both TE and TM polarizations. The fabrication tolerances depending on the HfO2 and SiO2 layer grating ridge depths are enough to obtain the designed grating using current craft. The fabricated grating with exceeding 94% efficiency from 1000 nm to 1085 nm measured by a non-polarization laser has been fabricated and applied in a spectral beam combining external cavity to combine eight beams into one beam output with 10.77 kW.

  10. Polarization and angle insensitive dual-band bandpass frequency selective surface using all-dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Du, Hongliang; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a dual-band bandpass all-dielectric frequency selective surface (FSS), the building elements of which are high-permittivity ceramic particles rather than metallic patterns. With proper structural design and parameter adjustment, the resonant frequency can be tuned at will. Dual-band bandpass response can be realized due to the coupling between electric and magnetic resonances. As an example, a dual-band bandpass FSS is designed in Ku band, which is composed of two-dimensional periodic arrays of complementary quatrefoil structures (CQS) cut from dielectric plates. Moreover, cylindrical dielectric resonators are introduced and placed in the center of each CQS to broaden the bandwidth and to sharpen the cut-off frequency. Theoretical analysis shows that the bandpass response arises from impedance matching caused by electric and magnetic resonances. In addition, effective electromagnetic parameters and dynamic field distributions are presented to explain the mechanism of impedance matching. The proposed FSS has the merits of polarization independence, stable transmission, and sharp roll-off frequency. The method can also be used to design all-dielectric FSSs with continuum structures at other frequencies.

  11. Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale Phase Transformations, Domain Morphology, and Crystal Structure Modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priya, Shashank [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Viehland, Dwight [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale phase transformations, domain morphology, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain morphologies that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy

  12. Existence conditions for bulk large-wavevector waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei;

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wavevector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in arbitrary subwavelength periodic multilayers structures. Treating the elementary excitation in the unit cell...... of the structure as a generalized resonance pole of reflection coefficient and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wavevector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal...

  13. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of bulk tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nahass, M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Ali, H.A.M., E-mail: hend2061@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Saadeldin, M.; Zaghllol, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2012-11-15

    AC conductivity and dielectric properties of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) in a pellet form were studied in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 5 MHz with a variation of temperature in the range from 303 K to 463 K. AC conductivity, {sigma}{sub ac}({omega}) was found to be a function of {omega}{sup s} where {omega} is the angular frequency and s is the frequency exponent. The values of s were found to be less than unity and decrease with increasing temperature, which supports the correlated barrier hopping mechanism (CBH) as the dominant mechanism for the conduction in WO{sub 3}. The dielectric constant ({epsilon} Prime ) and dielectric loss ({epsilon} Double-Prime ) were measured. The Cole-Cole diagram determined complex impedance for different temperatures.

  14. Modeling of dielectric barrier discharge excimer lamp excited by mono polar voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Oda, Akinori; Sakai, Yosuke

    2007-10-01

    Filametal discharges in Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) excimer lamp excited by mono polar voltage pulses has been simulated using two dimensional fluid model. And the differences of the filament discharges formations between mono polar case and bipolar case [1] have been examined. Xe gas was used and its pressure is 300Torr. Simulated region is 1cm (gap length) x 3cm (radial length). Periodical boundary conditions are assumed for the radial direction boundaries. The both electrodes are covered with dielectrics and their thickness is 0.2cm. Applied voltage is 5kV trapezoid shape with 50% duty ratio waveform and its repetition rate is 200kpps. First a small amount of electron-ion pair is provided in the middle of the gap for initial condition. Then the voltage starts to apply. In the case of bipolar excitation, the discharge starts from one filament (streamer discharge), and finally, 5 filaments are obtained self-consistently. In the case of mono polar case, as first, similar to bipolar case, the discharge starts from one filament, however, only 3 filaments have been obtained. This result is similar to that of 100kHz bipolar voltage case. [1] H. Akashi et al, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, Vol.33, No.2 (2005) pp.308-309

  15. Dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules under giga hertz electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Dutta; S K Sit; S Acharyya

    2001-10-01

    The dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules chloral and ethyltrichloroacetate () in benzene, -hexane and -heptane () under 4.2, 9.8 and 24.6 GHz electric fields at 30°C are studied to show the possible existence of double relaxation times 2 and 1 for rotations of the whole and the flexible parts of molecules. The probability of showing double relaxation is more in aliphatic solvents indicating their nonrigidity. The symmetric and asymmetric distribution parameters and are obtained from $'_{ij}/_{0ij}$ and $''_{ij}/_{0ij}$ at $w_{j}→ 0$ where $'_{ij}$ and $''_{ij}$ are real and imaginary parts of the complex orientational susceptibility $^{*}_{ij}$ and $_{0ij}$ is the low frequency susceptibility which is real. $_{ij}$’s are involved with the measured dielectric relative permittivities $'_{ij}$, $''_{ij}$, $_{0ij}$ and $_{∞ ij}$ of solutions. The theoretical weighted contributions $c_{1}$ and $c_{2}$ towards dielectric dispersions by Fröhlich’s method are compared with the experimental ones obtained from the graphical variation of $'_{ij}/_{0ij}$ and $''_{ij}/_{0ij}$ with weight fractions $w_{j}$’s at $w_{j}→ 0$. The measured dipole moments $_{2}$ and $_{1}$ of the whole and the flexible part of a polar molecule in terms of the linear coefficients 's of $'_{ij}$’s with $w_{j}$’s and the estimated $_{2}$ and $_{1}$ reveal their associations with aliphatic solvents. The theoretical dipole moments $_{\\text{theo}}$’s from the available bond angles and bond moments of the substituent polar groups of the molecules with the estimated ’s suggest the mesomeric, inductive and electromeric effects in them under GHz electric field.

  16. Theory of the temperature dependent dielectric function of semiconductors: from bulk to surfaces. Application to GaAs and Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkrebtii, Anatoli I.; Teatro, Timothy; Henderson, Laura [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Simcoe Street North 2000, L1H 7K4 Oshawa (Canada); Ibrahim, Zahraa A. [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Simcoe Street North 2000, L1H 7K4 Oshawa (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Toronto, M5S 1A7, Toronto (Canada); Richter, Wolfgang [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome (Italy); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Lee, Martin J.G. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, M5S 1A7, Toronto (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    A novel, efficient method for calculating the temperature dependencies of the linear dielectric functions of semiconductor systems and its application are presented. The method follows an intuitive and natural path with ab-initio finite temperature molecular dynamics providing the thermally perturbed atomic configurations, which are used as structural inputs for calculating the dielectric function. The effect of lattice dynamics, including quantum zero point vibration, on the electronic bands and dielectric function of crystalline (c-) GaAs and Si as well as hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) is discussed. Our theoretical results for bulk c-GaAs and c-Si in the range from 0 to 1000 K are in good overall agreement with highly accurate ellipsometric measurements. The implementation of the method resolves a serious discrepancy in energy and line shape between experiment and the latest optical models, all of which neglect lattice dynamics, and provides information on the indirect gap and indirect optical transitions in c-Si. For a-Si:H, the calculated temperature dependent optical response combined with the vibrational spectroscopy provides detailed insight into electronic, dynamical properties, and stability of this important prototypical amorphous semiconductor material. At semiconductor surfaces, dynamical effects are expected to be even more pronounced due to reduced atom coordination and reconstruction. This is demonstrated for C(111) 2 x 1, an intensively studied but controversial surface of the quantum diamond crystal. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Temperature-dependent dielectric function of bulk SrTiO3: Urbach tail, band edges, and excitonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar; Schmidt, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We report the temperature-dependent complex dielectric function of pristine bulk SrTiO3 between 4.2 and 300 K within the energy range of 0.6-6.5 eV determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Fundamental indirect and direct band-gap energies have been extracted and are discussed with regard to existing state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the dielectric function around the fundamental direct gap is analyzed by considering excitonic states. The excitonic effects, including the Coulomb enhancement of the continuum, are characterized using an extension of the Elliott's formula considering both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function. The Urbach tail below the indirect edge shows an unconventional temperature-dependent behavior correlated to the microstructural changes near the structural phase transition around 105 K from the low-temperature tetragonal phase to the cubic phase. The temperature-dependent characterization reveals that the fundamental indirect edge as well as the Urbach tail are affected conspicuously by the structural phase transition while the fundamental direct edge is not. Moreover, the indirect edge follows Varshni's rule only in the cubic phase and the direct edge exhibits an anomalous linear increase with increasing temperature.

  18. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen...... are subsequently employed in a seven-element phased array. The array performance is analyzed with respect to scan loss and main beam directivity as a function of scan angle and frequency, and the influence of element separation is investigated....

  19. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.

    2016-07-01

    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  20. Evolution of nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge for negative polarity of a voltage pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, V. R.; Krivtsov, V. M.; Shcherbanev, S. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge, initiated by a high-voltage pulse of negative polarity in atmospheric pressure air, is studied numerically and experimentally. At a pulse duration of a few tens of nanoseconds, two waves of optical emission propagate from the high-voltage electrode corresponding to the leading and trailing edges of the high-voltage pulse. It is shown by means of numerical modeling that a glow-like discharge slides along the surface of the dielectric at the leading edge of the pulse, slowing down on the plateau of the pulse. When the trailing edge of the pulse arrives to the high-voltage electrode, a second discharge starts and propagates in the same direction. The difference is that the discharge corresponding to the trailing edge is not diffuse and demonstrates a well-pronounced streamer-like shape. The 2D (in numerical modeling) streamer propagates above the dielectric surface, leaving a gap of about 0.05 mm between the streamer and the surface. The calculated and experimentally measured emission picture, waveform of the electrical current, and deposited energy, qualitatively coincide. The sensitivity of the numerical solution to unknown physical parameters of the model is discussed.

  1. Constrained Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Dielectric Response in Polar Polyethylene Analogs and Poly(vinylidene flouride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calame, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    A simplified molecular dynamics formalism for polymers, having united atoms with constrained bond lengths and bond angles along the backbone but allowing torsional motion, has been developed to model the dielectric response and ferroelectricity in polymers with permanent dipoles. Analytic relations existing on the backbone geometry and associated dihedral motion allow elimination of many dot and cross product evaluations. Also, constraint error correcting forces, symplectic integration with velocity prediction, random force excitation with damping and a momentum-conserving thermostat, and rapid neighbor list and long range force computation allow efficient computation and time steps as large as 20 fs to enable the study of relatively long time scale dielectric phenomena. Studies are performed on non-polar polyethylene for benchmarking, followed by a model system (polar polyethylene) which retains the molecular structure, dihedral potentials, and non-bonded interactions of polyethylene, except artificial partial charges are placed on the united atoms. The modeling is extended to poly(vinylidene fluoride) by changes to the molecular structure, potentials, and charges. Heterogeneous systems containing crystalline and amorphous arrangements of polymer chains are studied. Work supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research.

  2. Modelling and experimental verification of tip-induced polarization in Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements on dielectric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Popok, Vladimir; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy is a widely used technique for measuring surface potential distributions on the micro- and nanometer scale. The data are, however, often analyzed qualitatively, especially for dielectrics. In many cases, the phenomenon of polarization and its influence on the measured...... signals is disregarded leading to misinterpretation of the results. In this work, we present a model that allows prediction of the surface potential on a metal/polymer heterostructure as measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy by including the tip-induced polarization of the dielectric that arises...

  3. Monolithic integrated system with an electrowetting-on-dielectric actuator and a film-bulk-acoustic-resonator sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menglun; Cui, Weiwei; Chen, Xuejiao; Wang, Chao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Although digital microfluidics has shown great potential in a wide range of applications, a lab-on-a-chip with integrated digital droplet actuators and powerful biochemical sensors is still lacking. To address the demand, a fully integrated chip with electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) and a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) sensor is introduced, where an EWOD actuator manipulates digital droplets and the FBAR sensor detects the presence of substances in the droplets, respectively. The piezoelectric layer of the FBAR sensor and the dielectric layer of the EWOD share the same aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film, which is a key factor to achieve the full integration of the two completely different devices. The liquid droplets are reliably managed by the EWOD actuator to sit on or move off the FBAR sensor precisely. Sessile drop experiments and limit of detection (LOD) experiments are carried out to characterize the EWOD actuator and the FBAR sensor, respectively. Taking advantage of the digital droplet operation, a ‘dry sensing mode’ of the FBAR sensor in the lab-on-a-chip microsystem is proposed, which has a much higher signal to noise ratio than the conventional ‘wet sensing mode’. Hg2+ droplets with various concentrations are transported and sensed to demonstrate the capability of the integrated system. The EWOD-FBAR chip is expected to play an important role in many complex lab-on-a-chip applications.

  4. Polarity Determination using Opinion Mining in Stocks and Shares-advertising Unsolicited Bulk e-mails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jatinderkumar R. Saini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available e-mail has become an important means of electronic communication but the viability of its usage is marred by Un-solicited Bulk e-mail (UBE messages. UBE consists of many types like pornographic, virus infected messages, ‘cry-for-help’ messages as well as fake and fraudulent offers/advertisements/promotions of stocks and shares, jobs, winnings, and medicines. UBE poses technical and socio-economic challenges to usage of e-mails. To meet this challenge and combat this menace, we need to understand UBE. Towards this end, a content-based textual analysis of more than 3100 stocks and shares-advertising unstructured UBE documents is presented. The paper is aimed at polarity determination of such UBE through its sentiment analysis. Technically, this is an application of Opinion Mining approached with help of Text Parsing, Tokenization, BOW and VSDM techniques. Sentiment Analysis is used to determine the polarity of the document because such UBE contain opinion of the spammer about specific stock symbol of share market. The Sentiment-depicting words are analyzed in the UBE corpus, scaled and extremes of positive and negative opinions are identified. An attempt has been made for polarity-based distribution of such UBE. It has been found that for almost 50�0of cases, the opinions expressed through such UBE have positive polarity, almost 30�0cases are negatively opined whereas almost 20�0cases contain neutral opinion. To the best knowledge and based on review of related literature, determination of UBE polarity using Opinion Mining for understanding spammer behaviour is a new concept.

  5. Tailoring the Dielectric Layer Structure for Enhanced Performance of Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Use of a Sandwiched Polar Dielectric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiao Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the origins of hydroxyl groups in a polymeric dielectric and its applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, a polar polymer layer was inserted between two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA dielectric layers, and its effect on the performance as an organic field-effect transistor (OFET was studied. The OFETs with a sandwiched dielectric layer of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA or poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP containing hydroxyl groups had shown enhanced characteristics compared to those with only PMMA layers. The field-effect mobility had been raised more than 10 times in n-type devices (three times in the p-type one, and the threshold voltage had been lowered almost eight times in p-type devices (two times in the n-type. The on-off ratio of two kinds of devices had been enhanced by almost two orders of magnitude. This was attributed to the orientation of hydroxyl groups from disordered to perpendicular to the substrate under gate-applied voltage bias, and additional charges would be induced by this polarization at the interface between the semiconductor and dielectrics, contributing to the accumulation of charge transfer.

  6. 2 MeV electron irradiation effects on bulk and interface of atomic layer deposited high-k gate dielectrics on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, H., E-mail: hecgar@ele.uva.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Castán, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Campabadal, F.; Rafí, J.M.; Zabala, M.; Beldarrain, O. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ohyama, H.; Takakura, K.; Tsunoda, I. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Kumamoto National College of Technology, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    2 MeV electron irradiation effects on the electrical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}-based metal–insulator–semiconductor capacitors have been studied. High-k dielectrics were directly grown on silicon by atomic layer deposition. Capacitors were exposed to three different electron irradiation doses of 0.025, 0.25 and 2.5 MGy. Capacitance–voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy, conductance transients, flat-band voltage transients and current–voltage techniques were used to characterize the defects induced or activated by irradiation on the dielectric bulk and on the interface with silicon substrate. In all cases, positive charge is trapped in the dielectric bulk after irradiation indicating the existence of hole traps in the dielectric. When the samples are exposed to 2 MeV electron beam (e-beam) irradiation, electron–hole pairs are created and holes are then captured by the hole traps. Insulator/semiconductor interface quality slightly improves for low irradiation doses, but it is degraded for high doses. Irradiation always degrades the dielectric layers in terms of gate leakage current: the trapped holes are mobile charge which can contribute to leakage current by hopping from trap to trap. - Highlights: ► Positive charge accumulates inside dielectrics after electron irradiation. ► Irradiation improves oxide/semiconductor interface for low doses. ► Irradiation increases gate leakage current.

  7. Extraction of Water from Polar Lunar Permafrost with Microwaves - Dielectric Property Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 10 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. The dielectric properties of lunar soil will determine the hardware requirements for extraction processes. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured.

  8. Compensating for electrode polarization in dielectric spectroscopy studies of colloidal suspensions: theoretical assessment of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, Claire; Dubois, Emmanuelle; Jiménez, María Luisa; van der Ploeg, Jacques; Turnhout, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy can be used to determine the dipole moment of colloidal particles from which important interfacial electrokinetic properties, for instance their zeta potential, can be deduced. Unfortunately, dielectric spectroscopy measurements are hampered by electrode polarization (EP). In this article, we review several procedures to compensate for this effect. First EP in electrolyte solutions is described: the complex conductivity is derived as function of frequency, for two cell geometries (planar and cylindrical) with blocking electrodes. The corresponding equivalent circuit for the electrolyte solution is given for each geometry. This equivalent circuit model is extended to suspensions. The complex conductivity of a suspension, in the presence of EP, is then calculated from the impedance measured. Different methods for compensating for EP are critically assessed, with the help of the theoretical findings. Their limit of validity is given in terms of characteristic frequencies. We can identify with one of these frequencies the frequency range within which data uncorrected for EP may be used to assess the dipole moment of colloidal particles. In order to extract this dipole moment from the measured data, two methods are reviewed: one is based on the use of existing models for the complex conductivity of suspensions, the other is the logarithmic derivative method. An extension to multiple relaxations of the logarithmic derivative method is proposed.

  9. Dielectric relaxation of binary polar liquid mixture measured in benzene at 10 GHz frequency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahoo; K Dutta; S Acharyya; S K Sit

    2008-03-01

    The dielectric relaxation times 's and dipole moments 's of the binary () polar liquid mixture of N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) and acetone (Ac) dissolved in benzene (i) are estimated from the measured real ′ and imaginary ″ parts of complex high frequency conductivity * of the solution for different weight fractions 's of 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mole fractions of Ac and temperatures (25, 30, 35 and 40°C) respectively under 9.88 GHz electric field. 's are obtained from the ratio of slopes of ″ - and ′ - curves at → 0 as well as linear slope of ″ - ′ curves of the existing method (Murthy et al, 1989) in order to eliminate polar-polar interaction in the latter case. The calculated 's are in excellent agreement with the reported 's due to Gopalakrishna's method. 's are also estimated from slopes 's of total conductivity - curves at → 0 and the values agree well with the reported 's from G.K. method. The variation of 's and 's with of Ac reveals that solute-solute molecular association occurs within 0.0-0.3 of Ac beyond which solute-solvent molecular association is predicted. The theoretical dipole moments theo's are calculated from bond angles and bond moments to have exact 's only to show the presence of inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects in the substituent polar groups. The thermodynamic energy parameters are estimated from ln () against 1/ linear curve from Eyring's rate theory to know the molecular dynamics of the system and to establish the fact that the mixture obeys the Debye-Smyth relaxation mechanism.

  10. Polarized neutron imaging and three-dimensional calculation of magnetic flux trapping in bulk of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treimer, Wolfgang; Ebrahimi, Omid; Karakas, Nursel; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2012-05-17

    Polarized neutron radiography was used to study the three-dimensional magnetic flux distribution inside of single-crystal and polycrystalline Pb cylinders with large (cm3) volume and virtually zero demagnetization. Experiments with single crystals being in the Meissner phase (Tbulk Meissner expulsion in single crystals and bulk flux trapping with nearly-Bean-model profiles due to flux pinning in polycrystalline samples.

  11. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna with a Multiple-Circular-Sector Dielectric Resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-11-03

    This paper presents the design of a wideband circularly polarized antenna using a multiple-circular-sector dielectric resonator (DR). The DR is composed of twelve circular-sector DRs with identical central angles of 30 ∘ but with different radii. A genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the radii of the twelve circular-sector DRs to realize wideband circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited using an aperture-coupled feeding technique through a narrow rectangular slot etched onto the ground plane. An antenna prototype is experimentally verified. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidths are 31.39% (1.88-2.58 GHz) and 19.30% (2.06-2.50 GHz), respectively, covering the operating bands of the following systems: UMTS-2100 (2.145 GHz), WiMAX (2.3 GHz), and Wi-Fi (2.445 GHz). A measured peak gain of 7.65 dBic at 2.225 GHz and gain variation of less than 2.70 dBic within the measured 3 dB AR bandwidth are achieved. In addition, the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are presented and discussed.

  12. Spontaneous Polarization and Bulk Photovoltaic Effect Driven by Polar Discontinuity in LaFeO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kagawa, F; Tanigaki, T; Park, H S; Matsuda, T; Shindo, D; Tokura, Y; Kawasaki, M

    2016-04-15

    Structurally coherent and chemically abrupt interfaces formed between polar and nonpolar perovskite oxides provide an ideal platform for examining the purely electronic reconstruction known as the polar catastrophe and the emergence of mobile or bound charges at the interface. The appearance of mobile charges induced by the polar catastrophe is already established in the LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} heterojunctions. Although not experimentally verified, the polar catastrophe can also lead to the emergence of spontaneous polarization. We report that thin films of originally nonpolar LaFeO_{3} grown on SrTiO_{3} are converted to polar as a consequence of the polar catastrophe. The induced spontaneous polarization evokes photovoltaic properties distinct from conventional p-n junctions, such as a switching of the photocurrent direction by changing the interfacial atomic sequence. The control of the bulk polarization by engineering the interface demonstrated here will expand the possibilities for designing and realizing new polar materials with photovoltaic functions.

  13. Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ju, Zhengang; Tiam Tan, Swee; Ji, Yun; Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Liancheng; Wei Sun, Xiao, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Volkan Demir, Hilmi, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics, Department of Physics, and UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, TR-06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-16

    InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the polar orientations significantly suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) caused by the strong polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells, which is a fundamental problem intrinsic to the III-nitrides. Here, we show that the QCSE is self-screened by the polarization induced bulk charges enabled by designing quantum barriers. The InN composition of the InGaN quantum barrier graded along the growth orientation opportunely generates the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barrier, which well compensate the polarization induced interface charges, thus avoiding the electric field in the quantum wells. Consequently, the optical output power and the external quantum efficiency are substantially improved for the LEDs. The ability to self-screen the QCSE using polarization induced bulk charges opens up new possibilities for device engineering of III-nitrides not only in LEDs but also in other optoelectronic devices.

  14. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. Polarization and Dielectric Study of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Film to Reveal its Nonferroelectric Nature under Solar Cell Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Yang, Mengjin; Li, Zhen; Islam, Nazifah; Pan, Xuan; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-07-08

    Researchers have debated whether methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), with a perovskite crystal structure, is ferroelectric and therefore contributes to the current--voltage hysteresis commonly observed in hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We thoroughly investigated temperature-dependent polarization, dielectric, and impedance spectroscopies, and we found no evidence of ferroelectric effect in a MAPbI3 thin film at normal operating conditions. Therefore, the effect does not contribute to the hysteresis in PSCs, whereas the large component of ionic migration observed may play a critical role. Our temperature-based polarization and dielectric studies find that MAPbI3 exhibits different electrical behaviors below and above ca. 45 degrees C, suggesting a phase transition around this temperature. In particular, we report the activation energies of ionic migration for the two phases and temperature-dependent permittivity of MAPbI3. This study contributes to the understanding of the material properties and device performance of hybrid perovskites.

  16. Calculation of polarization and bound charge density inside a dielectric material in triboelectric nanogenerators: Analytical and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeongMin; Ha, Jaewook; Kim, Jin-Baek

    2016-11-01

    We analytically calculated polarization and bound charge density inside the dielectric material in metal-to-dielectric-mode triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) where the transferred charges are collected on the bottom metal via electrostatic induction from the triboelectric charges that are generated by frictional contact. This bound charge density is associated with the surface density of states (DOS), overline{Ns(E)}. Two cases are considered here: i) for overline{Ns(E)} ≫ 1, it is calculated that the bound charge density is proportional to the dielectric constant and the work function difference between the two materials, but inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric material (ɛ0(ɛ2-1) (E0-W)/e \\cdot d2); ii) for overline{Ns(E)} ≪ 1 with constant overline{Ns(E)}, the bound charge density is mostly proportional to the work function difference between the materials, and inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric material ((ɛ2-1)x/d_{2+\\varepsilon2\\cdot x} \\cdot Ns(E)\\cdot e\\cdot (E0-W)).

  17. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryno, Sean M; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-08

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  18. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean M.

    2016-05-16

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  19. Microwave Dielectric Sensing of Moisture Content in Shelled Peanuts Independent of Bulk Density and with Temperature Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dielectric method for rapid and nondestructive sensing of moisture content in shelled peanuts from free space measurement of attenuation, phase shift, and their corresponding dielectric properties at microwave frequencies is presented. Results of moisture prediction with three density-independent...

  20. Large dielectric permittivity and possible correlation between magnetic and dielectric properties in bulk BaFeO{sub 3−δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagdeo, Archna; Gautam, Kamini; Singh, M. N.; Sinha, A. K.; Ghosh, Haranath; Ganguli, Tapas; Chakrabarti, Aparna [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 13 (India); Sagdeo, P. R. [Discipline of Physics and MSE, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore 17 (India); Gupta, S. M. [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 13 (India); Nigam, A. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 05 (India); Rawat, Rajeev [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 17 (India)

    2014-07-28

    We report structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of oxygen deficient hexagonal BaFeO{sub 3−δ}. A large dielectric permittivity comparable to that of other semiconducting oxides is observed in BaFeO{sub 3−δ}. Magnetization measurements indicate magnetic inhomogeneity and the system shows a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition at ∼160 K. Remarkably, the temperature, at which paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition occurs, around this temperature, a huge drop in the dissipation factor takes place and resistivity shoots up; this indicates the possible correlation among magnetic and dielectric properties. First principle simulations reveal that some of these behaviors may be explained in terms of many body electron correlation effect in the presence of oxygen vacancy present in BaFeO{sub 3−δ} indicating its importance in both fundamental science as well as in applications.

  1. Quasi 2D electronic states with high spin-polarization in centrosymmetric MoS2 bulk crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlmann, Mathias; Aguilera, Irene; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Młyńczak, Ewa; Eschbach, Markus; Döring, Sven; Gospodarič, Pika; Cramm, Stefan; Kardynał, Beata; Plucinski, Lukasz; Blügel, Stefan; Schneider, Claus M

    2016-06-01

    Time reversal dictates that nonmagnetic, centrosymmetric crystals cannot be spin-polarized as a whole. However, it has been recently shown that the electronic structure in these crystals can in fact show regions of high spin-polarization, as long as it is probed locally in real and in reciprocal space. In this article we present the first observation of this type of compensated polarization in MoS2 bulk crystals. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we directly observed a spin-polarization of more than 65% for distinct valleys in the electronic band structure. By additionally evaluating the probing depth of our method, we find that these valence band states at the point in the Brillouin zone are close to fully polarized for the individual atomic trilayers of MoS2, which is confirmed by our density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, we show that this spin-layer locking leads to the observation of highly spin-polarized bands in ARPES since these states are almost completely confined within two dimensions. Our findings prove that these highly desired properties of MoS2 can be accessed without thinning it down to the monolayer limit.

  2. Quasi 2D electronic states with high spin-polarization in centrosymmetric MoS2 bulk crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlmann, Mathias; Aguilera, Irene; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Młyńczak, Ewa; Eschbach, Markus; Döring, Sven; Gospodarič, Pika; Cramm, Stefan; Kardynał, Beata; Plucinski, Lukasz; Blügel, Stefan; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-06-01

    Time reversal dictates that nonmagnetic, centrosymmetric crystals cannot be spin-polarized as a whole. However, it has been recently shown that the electronic structure in these crystals can in fact show regions of high spin-polarization, as long as it is probed locally in real and in reciprocal space. In this article we present the first observation of this type of compensated polarization in MoS2 bulk crystals. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we directly observed a spin-polarization of more than 65% for distinct valleys in the electronic band structure. By additionally evaluating the probing depth of our method, we find that these valence band states at the point in the Brillouin zone are close to fully polarized for the individual atomic trilayers of MoS2, which is confirmed by our density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, we show that this spin-layer locking leads to the observation of highly spin-polarized bands in ARPES since these states are almost completely confined within two dimensions. Our findings prove that these highly desired properties of MoS2 can be accessed without thinning it down to the monolayer limit.

  3. A New Dual Circularly Polarized Feed Employing a Dielectric Cylinder-Loaded Circular Waveguide Open End Fed by Crossed Dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new dual circularly polarized feed that provides good axial ratio over wide angles and low cross-polarized radiation in backward direction. A circular waveguide open end is fed with two orthogonally polarized waves in phase quadrature by a pair of printed crossed dipoles and a compact connectorized quadrature hybrid coupler. The waveguide aperture is loaded with a dielectric cylinder to reduce the cross-polarization beyond 90 degrees off the boresight. The fabricated feed has, at 5.5 GHz, 6.33-dBic copolarized gain, 3-dB beamwidth of 106°, 10-dB beamwidth of 195°, 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth of 215°, maximum cross-polarized gain of −21.4 dBic, and 27-dB port isolation. The reflection coefficient of the feed is less than −10 dB at 4.99–6.09 GHz.

  4. Influence of specific intermolecular interactions on the thermal and dielectric properties of bulk polymers: atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of Nylon 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasheva, N V; Tolmachev, D A; Nazarychev, V M; Kenny, J M; Lyulin, S V

    2017-01-04

    Specific intermolecular interactions, in particular H-bonding, have a strong influence on the structural, thermal and relaxation characteristics of polymers. We report here the results of molecular dynamics simulations of Nylon 6 which provides an excellent example for the investigation of such an influence. To demonstrate the effect of proper accounting for H-bonding on bulk polymer properties, the AMBER99sb force field is used with two different parametrization approaches leading to two different sets of partial atomic charges. The simulations allowed the study of the thermal and dielectric properties in a wide range of temperatures and cooling rates. The feasibility of the use of the three methods for the estimation of the glass transition temperature not only from the temperature dependence of structural characteristics such as density, but also by using the electrostatic energy and dielectric constant is demonstrated. The values of glass transition temperatures obtained at different cooling rates are practically the same for the three methods. By proper accounting for partial charges in the simulations, a reasonable agreement between the results of our simulations and experimental data for the density, thermal expansion coefficient, static dielectric constant and activation energy of γ and β relaxations is obtained demonstrating the validity of the modeling approach reported.

  5. Field history dependence of nonlinear dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} ceramics under bias electric field: Polarization behavior of polar nano-regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaofei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xu Qing, E-mail: xuqing@whut.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu Hanxing; Chen Wen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Min; Kim, Bok-Hee [Faculty of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    Nonlinear dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} ceramics prepared by citrate method were investigated under bias electric field with respect to field history. X-ray diffraction analysis and temperature dependence of the dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) confirmed a macroscopically paraelectric state for the specimen at room temperature. A slim polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop of the specimen at room temperature indicated the existence of polar nano-regions (PNRs) superimposed on the paraelectric background. The nonlinear dielectric properties in continuous cycles of bias field sweep displayed a strong sensitivity to the field history. This phenomenon was qualitatively explained in terms of an irreversible polarization evolution of the PNRs under the bias fields. A considerable decline of the tunability with the cycle number suggests an appreciable contribution of the PNRs to the dielectric nonlinearity. The polarization and size of the PNRs were determined by fitting the dielectric constants to a multipolarization mechanism model.

  6. Experimental demonstration of an on-chip polarization splitter in a submicron asymmetric dielectric-coated metal slit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianjun, E-mail: jjchern@pku.edu.cn; Sun, Chengwei; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Li, Hongyun [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-09

    A submicron asymmetric dielectric-coated metal slit with a Fabry–Perot (FP) nano-resonator is experimentally fabricated to realize an ultra-small on-chip polarization splitter. In the hybrid plasmonic structure, both of the transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes can be efficiently generated on the front metal surface. Based on the quite different resonant conditions and the different field confinements of the two orthogonal polarization modes in the FP resonator, the TM and TE modes are generated to propagate in the opposite directions along the metal surface. In this device, there are no coupling waveguide regions, and the excitation and the splitting of the TE and TM modes are integrated into the same asymmetric nano-slit. This considerably shrinks the device dimension to only about 850 nm (about one wavelength). In such a submicron asymmetric slit, the measured extinction ratios for the two opposite directions can reach up to (η{sub L}/η{sub R}){sup TM} ≈ 1:14 and (η{sub L}/η{sub R}){sup TE} ≈ 11:1 at λ = 820 nm. This on-chip submicron polarization splitter is of importance in highly integrated photonic circuits.

  7. Temperature-dependent microwave dielectric relaxation studies of hydrogen bonded polar binary mixtures of propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwam, T; Parvateesam, K; Sreeharisastry, S; Murthy, V R K

    2013-10-01

    The molecular interaction between the polar systems of propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde for various mole fractions at different temperatures were studied by determining the frequency dependent complex dielectric permittivity by using the open-ended coaxial probe technique method in the microwave frequency range from 20 MHz to 20 GHz. The geometries are optimized at HF, B3LYP and MP2 with 6-311G and 6-311G+ basis sets. Dipole moments of the binary mixtures are calculated from the dielectric data using Higasi's method and compared with the theoretical results. Conformational analysis of the formation of hydrogen bond between the propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde is supported by the FT-IR and molecular polarizability calculations. The average relaxation times are calculated from their respective Cole-Cole plots. The activation entropy, activation enthalpy and Kirkwood correlation 'g' factor, excess permittivity (ε(E)), excess inverse relaxation time (1/τ)(E), Bruggeman parameter (f(B)) have also been determined for propan-1-ol and propionaldehyde and the results were correlated.

  8. Improved linearity in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors with nonlinear polarization dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Tao [Fundamental Science on EHF Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 611731 (China); Science and Technology on Monolithic Integrated Circuits and Modules Laboratory, Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016 (China); Xu, Ruimin [Fundamental Science on EHF Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 611731 (China); Kong, Yuechan, E-mail: kycfly@163.com; Zhou, Jianjun; Kong, Cen; Dong, Xun; Chen, Tangsheng [Science and Technology on Monolithic Integrated Circuits and Modules Laboratory, Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate highly improved linearity in a nonlinear ferroelectric of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})-gated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT). Distinct double-hump feature in the transconductance-gate voltage (g{sub m}-V{sub g}) curve is observed, yielding remarkable enhancement in gate voltage swing as compared to MIS-HEMT with conventional linear gate dielectric. By incorporating the ferroelectric polarization into a self-consistent calculation, it is disclosed that in addition to the common hump corresponding to the onset of electron accumulation, the second hump at high current level is originated from the nonlinear polar nature of ferroelectric, which enhances the gate capacitance by increasing equivalent dielectric constant nonlinearly. This work paves a way for design of high linearity GaN MIS-HEMT by exploiting the nonlinear properties of dielectric.

  9. Localized states in advanced dielectrics from the vantage of spin- and symmetry-polarized tunnelling across MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, F.; Halisdemir, U.; Lacour, D.; Gallart, M.; Boukari, S.; Schmerber, G.; Davesne, V.; Panissod, P.; Halley, D.; Majjad, H.; Henry, Y.; Leconte, B.; Boulard, A.; Spor, D.; Beyer, N.; Kieber, C.; Sternitzky, E.; Cregut, O.; Ziegler, M.; Montaigne, F.; Beaurepaire, E.; Gilliot, P.; Hehn, M.; Bowen, M.

    2014-08-01

    Research on advanced materials such as multiferroic perovskites underscores promising applications, yet studies on these materials rarely address the impact of defects on the nominally expected materials property. Here, we revisit the comparatively simple oxide MgO as the model material system for spin-polarized solid-state tunnelling studies. We present a defect-mediated tunnelling potential landscape of localized states owing to explicitly identified defect species, against which we examine the bias and temperature dependence of magnetotransport. By mixing symmetry-resolved transport channels, a localized state may alter the effective barrier height for symmetry-resolved charge carriers, such that tunnelling magnetoresistance decreases most with increasing temperature when that state is addressed electrically. Thermal excitation promotes an occupancy switchover from the ground to the excited state of a defect, which impacts these magnetotransport characteristics. We thus resolve contradictions between experiment and theory in this otherwise canonical spintronics system, and propose a new perspective on defects in dielectrics.

  10. Improving Dielectric Properties of PVDF Composites by Employing Surface Modified Strong Polarized BaTiO₃ Particles Derived by Molten Salt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hou, Yudong; Zheng, Mupeng; Wei, Qiaoyi; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2015-11-11

    BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (BT/PVDF) is the extensive reported composite material for application in modern electric devices. However, there still exists some obstacles prohibiting the further improvement of dielectric performance, such as poor interfacial compatibility and low dielectric constant. Therefore, in depth study of the size dependent polarization and surface modification of BT particle is of technological importance in developing high performance BT/PVDF composites. Here, a facile molten-salt synthetic method has been applied to prepare different grain sized BT particles through tailoring the calcination temperature. The size dependent spontaneous polarizationof BT particle was thoroughly investigated by theoretical calculation based on powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement data. The results revealed that 600 nm sized BT particles possess the strong polarization, ascribing to the ferroelectric size effect. Furthermore, the surface of optimal BT particles has been modified by water-soluble polyvinylprrolidone (PVP) agent, and the coated particles exhibited fine core-shell structure and homogeneous dispersion in the PVDF matrix. The dielectric constant of the resulted composites increased significantly, especially, the prepared composite with 40 vol % BT loading exhibited the largest dielectric constant (65, 25 °C, 1 kHz) compared with the literature values of BT/PVDF at the same concentration of filler. Moreover, the energy storage density of the composites with tailored structure was largely enhanced at the low electric field, showing promising application as dielectric material in energy storage device. Our work suggested that introduction of strong polarized ferroelectric particles with optimal size and construction of core-shell structured coated fillers by PVP in the PVDF matrix are efficacious in improving dielectric performance of composites. The demonstrated approach can also be applied to the design and preparation of other polymers

  11. Formation of Polarized Beams in Chains of Dielectric Spheres and Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    refractive indices from 2 p to 2. We show that high degrees of polarization ( DOP ), ∼0.9, can be obtained in 10-sphere long chains using different...directional properties between cases (i) and (ii). The DOP Pr is defined as the ratio of the (averaged) intensity of the polarized portion of the...beam to its total (averaged) intensity, both taken at the same point [24]. This rigorous and unambiguous definition of the DOP is, however, sometimes

  12. Influence of moieties for the phase stability, spontaneous polarization and dielectric relaxations in an achiral ferroelectric bent liquid crystal, PBUOB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalapathi, P.V. [Department of Physics, A.K.R.G. College of Engineering and Technology, Nallajerla 534112 (India); Srinivasulu, M. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Pisipati, V.G.K.M. [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, R and D Division, KL-University, Vaddeswaram (India); Satyanarayana, Ch. [Department of Computers Science Engineering, University College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University: Kakinada, Kakinada 533003 (India); Potukuchi, D.M., E-mail: potukuchidm@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University: Kakinada, Kakinada 533003 (India)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence of ferroelectric phases and influence of chemical moieties in the area of supra-molecular achiral Bent core Liquid Crystals (BLCs) are reviewed. Synthesis of an intermediate/higher homolog of PBnOB series (for n=11), PBUOB, viz. 1,3-Phenyline-Bis(4-UndecylOxy Benzoate), is presented. Smectic LC phases exhibited by PBUOB are characterized by Polarized Optical Microscopy (POM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Spontaneous Polarization (P{sub S}) techniques. Observations infer a bi-variant FE LC smectic phase occurrence, viz., isotropic{yields}B{sub 2}(FE){yields}B{sub 5}(FE){yields}solid phases in cooling and solid{yields}B{sub 5{yields}}isotropic phases in heating scans. Occurrence of B{sub 2} phase is monotropic (in cooling), while B{sub 5} phase is enantiotropic. I-B{sub 2} and B{sub 2}-B{sub 5} phase transitions are found to be of first order nature. The FE phases possess a moderate P{sub S} value of {approx}40 nC cm{sup -2}. Transition temperatures from dielectric studies agree with those from TM and DSC. Two modes of relaxations are observed, viz., a slow scissor mode at {approx}1 kHz and a fast mode at {approx}1 MHz. Anisotropic Dipolar Model is proposed to explain the reorientation mechanism. Arrhenius shifts of Relaxation Frequency (f{sub R}) show differing activation energies for two modes, i.e., 0.11 and 0.98 eV; 0.25 and 1.18 eV in B{sub 2} and B{sub 5} phases, respectively. Temperature variation of dielectric increment {Delta}{epsilon} and {alpha}-parameter LC phases reveals the relative fixture of dipole moment in polar smectic layers. An analytical study for the thermal stability, P{sub S} and f{sub R} in the FE phases is presented with respect to the constitution and configuration of moieties in BLCs.

  13. Shift current bulk photovoltaic effect in polar materials—hybrid and oxide perovskites and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z.; Zheng, Fan; Young, Steve M.; Wang, Fenggong; Liu, Shi; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-08-01

    The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE) refers to the generation of a steady photocurrent and above-bandgap photovoltage in a single-phase homogeneous material lacking inversion symmetry. The mechanism of BPVE is decidedly different from the typical p-n junction-based photovoltaic mechanism in heterogeneous materials. Recently, there has been renewed interest in ferroelectric materials for solar energy conversion, inspired by the discovery of above-bandgap photovoltages in ferroelectrics, the invention of low bandgap ferroelectric materials and the rapidly improving power conversion efficiency of metal halide perovskites. However, as long as the nature of the BPVE and its dependence on composition and structure remain poorly understood, materials engineering and the realisation of its true potential will be hampered. In this review article, we survey the history, development and recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of BPVE, with a focus on the shift current mechanism, an intrinsic BPVE that is universal to all materials lacking inversion symmetry. In addition to explaining the theory of shift current, materials design opportunities and challenges will be discussed for future applications of the BPVE.

  14. Determination of the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface by the inversion of light scattering data in p-polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvi, J. B.; Simonsen, I.; Maradudin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient from the in-plane, co-polarized scattering of p- polarized light from a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface is used to invert scattering data to obtain the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of the surface. Within phase perturbation theory this contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient possesses singularities (poles) when the polar scattering angle θs equals +/-θB= +/- tan-1√E, where E is the dielectric constant of the dielectric medium and θB is the Brewster angle. Nevertheless, we show in this paper that if the mean differential reflection coefficient is measured only in the angular range |θs| inversion scheme. This approach also yields the rms height of the surface roughness, and the dielectric constant of the scattering medium if it is not known in advance. The input data used in this minimization procedure consist of computer simulation results for surfaces defined by exponential and Gaussian surface height correlation functions, without and with the addition of multiplicative noise. The proposed inversion scheme is computationally efficient.

  15. Cavity perturbation techniques for measurement of the microwave conductivity and dielectric constant of a bulk semiconductor material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldumiati, I. I.; Haddad, G. I.

    1972-01-01

    Cavity perturbation techniques offer a very sensitive and highly versatile means for studying the complex microwave conductivity of a bulk material. A knowledge of the cavity coupling factor in the absence of perturbation, together with the change in the reflected power and the cavity resonance frequency shift, are adequate for the determination of the material properties. This eliminates the need to determine the Q-factor change with perturbation which may lead to appreciable error, especially in the presence of mismatch loss. The measurement accuracy can also be improved by a proper choice of the cavity coupling factor prior to the perturbation.

  16. Multiwavelength polarization insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces are nano-structured devices composed of arrays of subwavelength scatterers (or meta-atoms) that manipulate the wavefront, polarization, or intensity of light. Like other diffractive optical devices, metasurfaces suffer from significant chromatic aberrations that limit their bandwidth. Here, we present a method for designing multiwavelength metasurfaces using unit cells with multiple meta-atoms, or meta-molecules. Transmissive lenses with efficiencies as high as 72% and numerical apertures as high as 0.46 simultaneously operating at 915 nm and 1550 nm are demonstrated. With proper scaling, these devices can be used in applications where operation at distinct known wavelengths is required, like various fluorescence microscopy techniques.

  17. Dynamics of polar aromatic molecules confined in a nanocavity of δ-phase of syndiotactic polystyrene as studied by dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Urakawa, Osamu; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Inoue, Tadashi

    2016-11-01

    Rotational dynamics was examined in detail for four polar aromatic molecules, benzonitrile (BN), p-methylbenzonitrile (p-MBN), o-methylbenzonitrile (o-MBN), and m-methylbenzonitrile (m-MBN), accommodated in a nano-cavity regularly arranged inside the crystalline region (δ-form) of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) by means of dielectric relaxation measurements. Except for m-MBN, for which the co-crystalline structure was monoclinic δ-intercalate and no dielectric relaxation process arising from the crystalline region appeared, other three polar guests in the monoclinic δ-clathrate form exhibited the specific dielectric relaxation process. The relaxation times of o-MBN, BN, and p-MBN at room temperature were ranged from 10-7 s to 10-1 s, and in the order of o-MBN < BN < p-MBN. From the analysis of dielectric intensity data as functions of temperature, new insights about the stable and quasi-stable states of the guest molecules inside the cavity were obtained based on the two site model.

  18. Universal solvation model based on solute electron density and on a continuum model of the solvent defined by the bulk dielectric constant and atomic surface tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenich, Aleksandr V; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-05-07

    We present a new continuum solvation model based on the quantum mechanical charge density of a solute molecule interacting with a continuum description of the solvent. The model is called SMD, where the "D" stands for "density" to denote that the full solute electron density is used without defining partial atomic charges. "Continuum" denotes that the solvent is not represented explicitly but rather as a dielectric medium with surface tension at the solute-solvent boundary. SMD is a universal solvation model, where "universal" denotes its applicability to any charged or uncharged solute in any solvent or liquid medium for which a few key descriptors are known (in particular, dielectric constant, refractive index, bulk surface tension, and acidity and basicity parameters). The model separates the observable solvation free energy into two main components. The first component is the bulk electrostatic contribution arising from a self-consistent reaction field treatment that involves the solution of the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation for electrostatics in terms of the integral-equation-formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM). The cavities for the bulk electrostatic calculation are defined by superpositions of nuclear-centered spheres. The second component is called the cavity-dispersion-solvent-structure term and is the contribution arising from short-range interactions between the solute and solvent molecules in the first solvation shell. This contribution is a sum of terms that are proportional (with geometry-dependent proportionality constants called atomic surface tensions) to the solvent-accessible surface areas of the individual atoms of the solute. The SMD model has been parametrized with a training set of 2821 solvation data including 112 aqueous ionic solvation free energies, 220 solvation free energies for 166 ions in acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, 2346 solvation free energies for 318 neutral solutes in 91 solvents (90 nonaqueous

  19. Dielectric properties of tissues and biological materials: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K R; Schwan, H P

    1989-01-01

    We critically review bulk electrical properties of tissues and other biological materials, from DC to 20 GHz, with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the properties. We summarize the classical principles behind dielectric relaxation and critically review recent developments in this field. Special topics include a summary of the significant recent advances in theories of counterion polarization effects, dielectric properties of cancer vs. normal tissues, properties of low-water-content tissues, and macroscopic field-coupling considerations. Finally, the dielectric properties of tissues are summarized as empirical correlations with tissue water content in other compositional variables; in addition, a comprehensive table is presented of dielectric properties. The bulk electrical properties of tissues are needed for many bioengineering applications of electric fields or currents, and they provide insight into the basic mechanisms that govern the interaction of electric fields with tissue.

  20. The effect of dielectric constant on binding energy and impurity self-polarization in a GaAs-Ga1- x Al x As spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mese, A. I.; Cicek, E.; Erdogan, I.; Akankan, O.; Akbas, H.

    2017-03-01

    The ground state, 1s, and the excited state, 2p, energies of a hydrogenic impurity in a GaAs-Ga1- x Al x As spherical quantum dot, are computed as a function of the donor positions. We study how the impurity self-polarization depends on the location of the impurity and the dielectric constant. The excited state anomalous impurity self-polarization in the quantum dot is found to be present in the absence of any external influence and strongly depends on the impurity position and the radius of the dot. Therefore, the excited state anomalous impurity self-polarization can give information about the impurity position in the system. Also, the variation of E_{b1s} and E_{b2p} with the dielectric constant can be utilized as a tool for finding out the correct dielectric constant of the dot material by measuring the 1s or 2p state binding energy for a fixed dot radius and a fixed impurity position.

  1. Spontaneous polarization and dielectric relaxation dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals derived from 2(S)-[2(S)-ethylhexyolxy] propionic acid and its (S, R)-diastereomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei-Ching; Fu, Chao-Ming, E-mail: chaomingfu@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2015-09-15

    The spontaneous polarization and molecular dynamics of four ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) with two different kinds of core rings and two types of diastereomeric structures were investigated in this study. The FLCs with a biphenyl ring core structure showed higher spontaneous polarization than the FLCs with a naphthalene ring core structure. The complex dielectric spectra exhibited the Goldstone mode in the ferroelectric (SmC*) phase for all FLCs. The complex dielectric spectra of the four FLCs can be optimally fitted by the Debye model and the Cole–Cole model. Moreover, the Goldstone mode was enhanced under low DC bias fields for the FLCs with the (S, R)- diastereomeric structure, whereas the mode was suppressed for the FLCs with the (S, S)- diastereomeric structure. A microscopic molecular dynamic model is proposed to describe the underlying mechanism of the particular enhancement of the Goldstone mode. The experimental results of dielectric spectra and spontaneous polarization are explained in the discussion of the mesomorphic properties related to the FLC molecular structure.

  2. Spontaneous polarization and dielectric relaxation dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals derived from 2(S)-[2(S)-ethylhexyolxy] propionic acid and its (S, R)-diastereomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei-Ching; Fu, Chao-Ming

    2015-09-01

    The spontaneous polarization and molecular dynamics of four ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) with two different kinds of core rings and two types of diastereomeric structures were investigated in this study. The FLCs with a biphenyl ring core structure showed higher spontaneous polarization than the FLCs with a naphthalene ring core structure. The complex dielectric spectra exhibited the Goldstone mode in the ferroelectric (SmC*) phase for all FLCs. The complex dielectric spectra of the four FLCs can be optimally fitted by the Debye model and the Cole-Cole model. Moreover, the Goldstone mode was enhanced under low DC bias fields for the FLCs with the (S, R)- diastereomeric structure, whereas the mode was suppressed for the FLCs with the (S, S)- diastereomeric structure. A microscopic molecular dynamic model is proposed to describe the underlying mechanism of the particular enhancement of the Goldstone mode. The experimental results of dielectric spectra and spontaneous polarization are explained in the discussion of the mesomorphic properties related to the FLC molecular structure.

  3. Far Infrared Optical Properties of Bulk Wurtzite Zinc Oxide Semiconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pohkok Ooi; Saicheong Lee; Shashiong Ng; Zainuriah Hassan; Haslan Abu Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Polarized far infrared (FIR) reflectance technique was applied to study the optical properties of a bulk wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystal. Room temperature polarized FIR reflectance spectra were taken at various angles of incidence, from 20° to 70°. The theoretical polarized FIR reflectance spectra were simulated based on the anisotropic dielectric function model. Good agreement was achieved between the experimental and the theoretical FIR reflectance spectra. Through this work, a complete set of reststrahlen parameters of a bulk wurtzite ZnO at the Brillouin zone centre was obtained. Additionally, other FIR optical properties such as the real and the imaginary parts of the complex dielectric function, real and imaginary parts of the refractive index, the absorption coefficient and the reciprocal of the absorption coefficient were also obtained by using numerical calculation.

  4. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  5. Charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kilbey, S Michael

    2012-06-21

    Understanding the effect of inhomogeneity on the charge regulation and dielectric properties, and how it depends on the conformational characteristics of the macromolecules is a long-standing problem. In order to address this problem, we have developed a field-theory to study charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes. The theory is used to study a polyacid brush, which is comprised of chains end-grafted at the solid-fluid interface, in equilibrium with a bulk solution containing monovalent salt ions, solvent molecules, and pH controlling acid. In particular, we focus on the effects of the concentration of added salt and pH of the bulk in determining the local charge and dielectric function. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the dipole moment of the ion-pairs formed as a result of counterion adsorption on the chain backbones play a key role in affecting the local dielectric function. For polyelectrolytes made of monomers having dipole moments lower than the solvent molecules, dielectric decrement is predicted inside the brush region. However, the formation of ion-pairs (due to adsorption of counterions coming from the dissociation of added salt) more polar than the solvent molecules is shown to increase the magnitude of the dielectric function with respect to its bulk value. Furthermore, an increase in the bulk salt concentration is shown to increase the local charge inside the brush region.

  6. Role of anisotropy, spatially-varying effective mass, and dielectric constant on self-polarization effect of doped quantum dots in presence of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas

    2017-04-01

    The profiles of self-polarization effect (SPE) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) have been investigated under the governance of variable effective mass, variable dielectric constant and anisotropy of the system. Presence of noise has also been considered to inspect how it interplays with above parameters in modulating SPE. Noise term possesses a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. The spatially-varying effective mass and spatially-varying dielectric constant mainly affect SPE quantitatively in comparison with the fixed ones. A changing anisotropy of the system also affects SPE. However, the extent to which SPE is being affected evidently depends on presence/absence of noise and also on the pathway through which noise has been applied. The findings of the study reveal authentic routes to tailor the SPE of doped QD system through the interplay between noise, anisotropy and spatially-varying effective mass and dielectric constant of the system.

  7. Ultra-broadband near perfect absorption of visible light based on one-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal grating for TM polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minghui; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Linsen; Ye, Yan; Shen, Su; Wu, Shangliang

    2016-10-01

    We numerically and analytically report an ultra-broadband near perfect absorber based on one-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal grating at visible light for TM polarization. A unit cell of this design is composed of metal-dielectric-metal grating, where the bottom metallic layer and the upper metallic coating are separated from each other by the intermediate dielectric grating. The absorber exhibits an average absorption of over 90% in the range 400-700nm. Moreover, they remain very high over a wide range of incident angle up to 45°.The electromagnetic field distributions are investigated, which reveals that this broadband absorption behavior is ascribed to the combination of surface plasmon resonance and cavity resonance. Furthermore, impedance calculations were carried out to explain the absorption behavior. The ultra-broadband near-perfect angle-robust absorber can be a good candidate for many fascinating applications, including solar-energy harvesting as well as producing artificial colors on a large scale substrate.

  8. Dielectric Enhancement from Non-Insulating Particles with Ideally Polarized Interfaces and Zero $\\zeta$-Potential I: Exact Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    We solve exactly the dielectric response of a non-insulating sphere of radius $a$ suspended in symmetric, univalent electrolyte solution, with ideally-polarizable interface but without significant $\\zeta$-potential. We then use this solution to derive the dielectric response of a dilute random suspension of such spheres, with volume fraction $f\\ll1$, within the Maxwell-Garnett Effective Medium Approximation. Surprisingly, we discover a huge dielectric enhancement in this bare essential model of dielectric responses of solids in electrolyte solution: at low frequency $\\omega\\tau_D \\ll (\\lambda/a) / (\\sigma_w / \\sigma_s+1/2)$, the real part of the effective dielectric constant of the mixture is $1-(3f/2)+(9f/4)(a/\\lambda)$. Here $\\sigma_{w/s}$ is the conductivity of the electrolyte solution/solids, $\\lambda$ is the Debye screening length in the solution, $\\tau_D=\\lambda^2/D$ is the standard time scale of diffusion and $D$ is the ion diffusion coefficient. As $\\lambda$ is of the order nm even for dilute electrol...

  9. Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Lee, Junsu; Koo, Joonhoi; Chung, Hojai; Lee, Ju Han

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a linearly polarized, passively Q-switched, erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser using a saturable absorber (SA) based on a composite consisting of a bulk-structured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator (TI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The SA was constructed on a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber ferrule platform, which had a sandwich structure. Its saturation intensity and modulation depth were measured to be ˜ and ˜4.1%, respectively. Using the prepared Bi2Te3/PVA SA in a PM Er-doped fiber ring laser, stable Q-switched pulses with a degree of polarization of ˜98.6% and an azimuth angle of ˜-0.34 deg were demonstrated. The minimum pulse width was measured to be ˜1.58 μs at a repetition rate of 47.1 kHz. This experimental demonstration verifies that a thin film based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI can fit into a sandwich-structured SA based on PM fiber ferrules.

  10. Significance of the double-layer capacitor effect in polar rubbery dielectrics and exceptionally stable low-voltage high transconductance organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Kong, Desheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Schweicher, Guillaume; Nakajima, Reina; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Wu, Hung-Chin; Lopez, Jeffery; Diao, Ying; Gu, Xiaodan; Himmelberger, Scott; Niu, Weijun; Matthews, James R.; He, Mingqian; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-12-01

    Both high gain and transconductance at low operating voltages are essential for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we describe the significance of the double-layer capacitance effect in polar rubbery dielectrics, even when present in a very low ion concentration and conductivity. We observed that this effect can greatly enhance the OFET transconductance when driven at low voltages. Specifically, when the polar elastomer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVDF-HFP) was used as the dielectric layer, despite a thickness of several micrometers, we obtained a transconductance per channel width 30 times higher than that measured for the same organic semiconductors fabricated on a semicrystalline PVDF-HFP with a similar thickness. After a series of detailed experimental investigations, we attribute the above observation to the double-layer capacitance effect, even though the ionic conductivity is as low as 10-10 S/cm. Different from previously reported OFETs with double-layer capacitance effects, our devices showed unprecedented high bias-stress stability in air and even in water.

  11. Dynamics of a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes vs the Bulk Liquid: 2D IR and Polarized IR Pump-Probe Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Yoon; Yamada, Steven A; Fayer, Michael D

    2017-01-11

    Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are membranes that have ionic liquids impregnated in their pores. SILMs have been proposed for advanced carbon capture materials. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective IR pump-probe (PSPP) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of reorientation and spectral diffusion of the linear triatomic anion, SeCN(-), in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membranes and room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EmimNTf2). The dynamics in the bulk EmimNTf2 were compared to its dynamics in the SILM samples. Two PES membranes, PES200 and PES30, have pores with average sizes, ∼300 nm and ∼100 nm, respectively. Despite the relatively large pore sizes, the measurements reveal that the reorientation of SeCN(-) and the RTIL structural fluctuations are substantially slower in the SILMs than in the bulk liquid. The complete orientational randomization, slows from 136 ps in the bulk to 513 ps in the PES30. 2D IR measurements yield three time scales for structural spectral diffusion (SSD), that is, the time evolution of the liquid structure. The slowest decay constant increases from 140 ps in the bulk to 504 ps in the PES200 and increases further to 1660 ps in the PES30. The results suggest that changes at the interface propagate out and influence the RTIL structural dynamics even more than a hundred nanometers from the polymer surface. The differences between the IL dynamics in the bulk and in the membranes suggest that studies of bulk RTIL properties may be poor guides to their use in SILMs in carbon capture applications.

  12. Substrate-induced dielectric polarization in thin films of lead-free (Sr0.5Bi0.5)2Mn2-xTixO6-δ perovskites grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Serrano, I.; Ruiz de Larramendi, I.; López, M. L.; Veiga, M. L.

    2017-03-01

    Thin films of SrBiMn2-xTixO6-δ have been fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition on SrTiO3 [100] and [111] substrates. Their texture, width, homogeneity and morphology are evaluated by means of XRD, SEM, XPS, whereas complex impedance spectroscopy is employed to analyze their electrical response. The thickness values range between 80 and 900 nm depending on the experimental conditions. The epitaxial growing could be interpreted in terms of two contributions of microstructural origin: a matrix part and some polycrystalline surface formations (hemi-spheres). Texture studies suggest a fiber-type orientated morphology coherently with the Scanning Electron Microscopy images. XPS analyses indicate a segregation regarding A-sublattice cations, which features depend on the substrate orientation. This segregation could be connected to the development of nanopolar regions. Impedance data show the electrical polarization in the samples to be enhanced compared to bulk response of corresponding powdered samples. A relaxor behavior which fits a Vogel-Fulcher law is obtained for x = 0.50 whereas an almost frequency-independent relaxor ferroelectric behavior is registered for the thinnest film of x = 0.25 composition grown on SrTiO3 [111] substrate. The influence of compositional and structural aspects in the obtained dielectric response is analyzed.

  13. The critical behavior of the dielectric constant in the polar + polar binary liquid mixture nitromethane + 3-pentanol: An unusual sign of its critical amplitude in the one-phase region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Jan; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Troncoso, Jacobo; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Dielectric constant measurements have been carried out in the one- and two-phase regions near the critical point of the polar + polar binary liquid mixture nitromethane + 3-pentanol. In the two-phase region, evidence for the |t|2β singularity in the coexistence-curve diameter has been detected, thus confirming the novel predictions of complete scaling theory for liquid-liquid criticality. In the one-phase region, an "unusual" negative sign for the amplitude of the |t|1 - α singularity has been encountered for the first time in an upper critical solution temperature type of binary liquid mixture at atmospheric pressure. Mass density measurements have also been carried out to provide additional information related to such experimental finding, which entails an increase of the critical temperature Tc under an electric field.

  14. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  15. Thickness and dielectric constant determination of thin dielectric layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Helene E.; Minor, Marcel; Kooyman, Rob P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    We derive a method for the determination of the dielectric constant and thickness of a thin dielectric layer, deposited on top of a thick dielectric layer which is in turn present on a metal film. Reflection of p- and s-polarized light from the metal layer yields minima for certain angles of inciden

  16. A theory of flexoelectricity with surface effect for elastic dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shengping; Hu, Shuling

    2010-05-01

    The flexoelectric effect is very strong for nanosized dielectrics. Moreover, on the nanoscale, surface effects and the electrostatic force cannot be ignored. In this paper, an electric enthalpy variational principle for nanosized dielectrics is proposed concerning with the flexoelectric effect, the surface effects and the electrostatic force. Here, the surface effects contain the effects of both surface stress and surface polarization. From this variational principle, the governing equations and the generalized electromechanical Young-Laplace equations are derived and can account for the effects of flexoelectricity, surface and the electrostatic force. Moreover, based on this variational principle, both the generalized bulk and surface electrostatic stresses can be obtained and are composed of two parts: the Maxwell stress corresponding to the polarization and strain and the remainder relating to the polarization gradient and the strain gradient. The theory developed in this paper provides the underlying framework for the analyses and computational solutions of electromechanical problems in nanodielectrics.

  17. Chain length effect on dynamical structure of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)–polar solvent mixtures in dilute solution of dioxane studied by microwave dielectric relaxation measurement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R J Sengwa; Sonu Sankhila

    2006-08-01

    Dielectric relaxation study of the binary mixtures of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) (Mw = 24000, 40000 and 360000 g mol-1) with ethyl alcohol (EA) and poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) (Mw = 200 and 400 g mol-1) in dilute solutions of dioxane were carried out at 10.1 GHz and 35°} C. The relaxation time of PVP–EA mixtures was interpreted by the consideration of a wait-and-switch model in the local structure of self-associated ethyl alcohol molecules and also the PVP chain length as a geometric constraint for the reorientational motion of ethyl alcohol molecules. The formation of complexes and effect of PVP chain length on the molecular dynamics, chain flexibility and stretching of PEG molecules in PVP–PEG mixtures were explored from the comparative values of dielectric relaxation time. Further, relaxation time values in dioxane and benzene solvent confirm the viscosity independent molecular dynamics in PVP–EA mixtures but the values vary significantly with the non-polar solvent environment.

  18. Dielectric relaxation of amides and tetrahydrofuran polar mixture in C$_{6}$H$_{6}$ from conductivity measurement under 9.90 GHz electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S SAHOO; S K SIT

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation studies of binary ($jk$) polar mixtures of tetrahydrofuran with $N$-methyl acetamide, $N,N$-dimethyl acetamide, $N$-methyl formamide and $N,N$-dimethyl formamide dissolved in benzene(i) for different weight fractions ($w_{jk}$’s) of the polar solutes and mole fractions ($x_{j}$ ’s) of tetrahydrofuran at 25◦C are attempted by measuring the conductivity of the solution under 9.90 GHz electric field using Debye theory. The estimated relaxation time ($\\tau_{jk}$’s) and dipole moment ($\\mu_{jk}$’s) agree well with the reported values signifying the validity of the proposed methods. Structural and associational aspects are predicted from the plot of $\\tau_{jk}$ and $\\mu_{jk}$ against $x_{j}$ of tetrahydrofuran to arrive at solute–solute (dimer) molecular association upto $x_{j} = 0.3$ of tetrahydrofuran and thereafter solute–solvent (monomer) molecular association upto $x_{j} = 1.0$ for all systems except tetrahydrofuran + $N,N$-dimethyl acetamide.

  19. Studies of linear correlation factor of dielectric polarization and excess dipolar free energies of amides in apolar solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Malathi; R Sabesan; S Krishnan

    2005-09-01

    The Kirkwood–Frohlich correlation factor (), Eyring's parameters and * and the dipolar excess free energies of dilute solutions of formamide, acetamide, -methyl acetamide, , -dimethyl formamide and , -dimethyl acetamide in 1,4-dioxan/benzene were obtained from a measurement of their static dielectric permittivities at 308 K. The fluid structure of these amides is discussed. Both in formamide and acetamide a dimeric linear chain with the individual dipoles more or less parallely oriented is preferred. In -methyl acetamide, the antiparallel orientation of dipoles at lower concentrations turns into a parallel orientation with increase of concentration. In tertiary amides, with increase of concentration, parallel orientation of dipoles with global value of tending to unity is observed. The dipolar excess free energy of mixing in a given solvent is of the order primary amide > secondary amide > tertiary amide.

  20. Maximizing the dielectric response of molecular thin films via quantum chemical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Henry M; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A

    2014-12-23

    Developing high-capacitance organic gate dielectrics is critical for advances in electronic circuitry based on unconventional semiconductors. While high-dielectric constant molecular substances are known, the mechanism of dielectric response and the fundamental chemical design principles are not well understood. Using a plane-wave density functional theory formalism, we show that it is possible to map the atomic-scale dielectric profiles of molecule-based materials while capturing important bulk characteristics. For molecular films, this approach reveals how basic materials properties such as surface coverage density, molecular tilt angle, and π-system planarity can dramatically influence dielectric response. Additionally, relatively modest molecular backbone and substituent variations can be employed to substantially enhance film dielectric response. For dense surface coverages and proper molecular alignment, conjugated hydrocarbon chains can achieve dielectric constants of >8.0, more than 3 times that of analogous saturated chains, ∼2.5. However, this conjugation-related dielectric enhancement depends on proper molecular orientation and planarization, with enhancements up to 60% for proper molecular alignment with the applied field and an additional 30% for conformations such as coplanarity in extended π-systems. Conjugation length is not the only determinant of dielectric response, and appended polarizable high-Z substituents can increase molecular film response more than 2-fold, affording estimated capacitances of >9.0 μF/cm2. However, in large π-systems, polar substituent effects are substantially attenuated.

  1. Experimental study on the dielectric properties of polyacrylate dielectric elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Junhua; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo

    2012-02-01

    The dielectric constant of elastomeric dielectric material is an essential physical parameter, whose value may affect the electromechanical deformation of a dielectric elastomer actuator. Since the dielectric constant is influenced by several external factors as reported before, and no certain value has been confirmed to our knowledge, in the present paper, on the basis of systematical comparison of recent past literature, we conducted extensive works on the measurement of dielectric properties of VHB films, involving five influencing factors: prestretch (both equal and unequal biaxial), electrical frequency, electrode material, stress relaxation time and temperature. Experimental results directly show that the dielectric response changes according to these factors, based on which we investigate the significance of each factor, especially the interaction of two external conditions on the dielectric constant of deformable dielectric, by presenting a physical picture of the mechanism of polarization.

  2. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  3. Dielectric relaxation of ethanol and -methyl acetamide polar mixture in C6H6 at 9.90 GHz

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahoo; T R Middya; S K Sit

    2014-10-01

    Debye relaxation times $(_{jk})$ and dipole moments $(_{jk})$ of binary ($jk$) polar mixtures of ethanol (EtOH) and -methyl acetamide (NMA) dissolved in benzene(i) are studied by studying conductivity of solution at 9.90 GHz for different temperatures, different mole fractions ($x_j$) of ethanol and different weight fractions $(w_{jk})$ of the mixtures, respectively. The variation of $_{jk}−x_j$ from linear slope of imaginary ($''_{ijk}$) against real ($'_{ijk}$) part of total conductivity ($^{*}_{ijk}$) curve reveals solute–solute (dimer) or solute–solvent (monomer) molecular associations up to $x_j$ = 0.0−0.3 and thereafter, solute–solvent molecular associations. $_{jk}$s from the ratio of slopes of $''_{ijk}$−w_{jk}$ and $'_{ijk}$−w_{jk}$ curves exhibit solute–solvent molecular association for all $x_j$s which are consistent with the $_{jk}−x_j$ curves at all temperatures except at 35°C. This signifies the validity of both the proposed methods in estimating and . The molecular dynamics of the polar mixture are ascertained from Eyring rate theory. Theoretical dipole moments from bond angles and bond moments ($_{\\text{theo}}$) are also calculated to predict associational aspects.

  4. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Arora; Vipul Patel; Brijesh Amin; Anjana Kothari

    2004-04-01

    Strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) crystals have been grown in silica hydrogel. Various polarization mechanisms such as atomic polarization of lattice, orientational polarization of dipoles and space charge polarization in the grown crystals have been understood using results of the measurements of dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (tan ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type polarization is seen in the temperature range 75–180°C, and above 180°C, there is interfacial polarization for relatively lower frequency range. One observes dielectric dispersion at lower frequency presumably due to domain wall relaxation.

  5. Microstructural and dielectric susceptibility effects on predictions of dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, K.F.; Exarhos, G.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Risser, S.M. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    In modeling the dielectric properties of inhomogeneous materials, the treatment of the electric field interactions differentiate the usual modeling formalisms (such as the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman effective medium methods) and their accuracy. In this paper, we show that the performance of effective medium methods is dependent upon a number of variables - defect concentration, alignment, and the dielectric constant of the material itself. Using our previously developed finite element model of an inhomogeneous dielectric, we have developed models for a number of dielectric films of varying dielectric constant and microstructures. Alignment of defects parallel to the applied field and the larger defect aspect ratios increase the overall dielectric constant. The extent of these effects is dependent on the dielectric constant of the bulk component.

  6. Dielectric analysis on phase transition and micelle shape of polyoxyethylene trisiloxane surfactant in dilute aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Wen Zhou; Wei Zhou; Fu Han; Bao Cai Xu

    2011-01-01

    The cloudy Silwet L-77 aqueous solution on the concentration range from 0.5% to 50% was investigated by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The concentration dependence of phase microstructure was confirmed by means of analyzing the dielectric parameters of bulk solution. The relaxation behavior was assigned to the interfacial polarization between the micelle and the medium, and the relaxation distribution parameter was used to figure the shape transition from sphere to ellipsoid with the concentration increasing. The synchronous reduction of permittivity and conductivity indicated the formation of the lamellar phase. As compensation, the quantity of the surfactant liquid phase gradually decreased, whose shape constantly kept ellipsoidal.

  7. Effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanism in Ba{sub 0.90}Sr{sub 0.10}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, C.R.K.; Dey, Ranajit; Patel, Shiv P.; Pandey, R.K.; Sharma, M.P.; Bajpai, P.K., E-mail: bajpai.pk1@gmail.com

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Paper demonstrates that high energy ion beams can be used to tune the bulk properties in polar dielectrics. • Impedance analysis inferred the resistive grain boundaries after irradiation. - Abstract: The effects of 100 MeV O{sup 8+} ion beam irradiation on the structural and dielectric behavior of Ba{sub 0.90}Sr{sub 0.10}TiO{sub 3} ceramics have been analyzed. Ion irradiation does not change the crystalline structure, however the tetragonal distortion increases. The low frequency dielectric dispersion especially at high temperatures increases significantly after ion irradiation. The dielectric relaxation phenomenon has been probed through complex impedance and electric modulus approaches. The observed dielectric relaxation has distributed relaxation times and is a thermally activated process. Ion irradiation enhances the cationic disordering. The contributions of grains and grains boundaries towards impedance have been separated. It is inferred that the grain boundaries become more resistive due to ion irradiation and is associated to oxygen vacancies annihilation. Ion irradiation also decreases the bulk ferroelectric polarization demonstrating that the surface or near surface modifications may tune the bulk properties in polar dielectrics.

  8. Interfacial Energy Alignment at the ITO/Ultra-Thin Electron Selective Dielectric Layer Interface and Its Effect on the Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Saka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the photovoltaic properties of an inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cell in a device with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/electron selective layer (ESL)/P3HT:PCBM active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered structure. The insertion of only single layer of poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) cationic polymer film (or poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) polymeric interfacial dipole layer) and titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) films as an ESL effectively improved cell performance. Abnormal S-shaped curves were observed in the inverted BHJ cells owing to the contact resistance across the ITO/active layer interface and the ITO/PDDA/TN/active layer interface. The series resistance across the ITO/ESL interface in the inverted BHJ cell was successfully reduced using an interfacial layer with a positively charged surface potential with respect to ITO base electrode. The positive dipole in PEI and the electronic charge phenomena at the electrophoretic deposited TN (ED-TN) films on ITO contributed to the reduction of the contact resistance at the electrode interface. The surface potential measurement revealed that the energy alignment by the transfer of electronic charges from the ED-TN to the base electrodes. The insertion of the ESL with a large positive surface potential reduced the potential barrier for the electron injection at ITO/TN interface and it improved the photovoltaic properties of the inverted cell with an ITO/TN/active layer/MoOx/Ag structure.

  9. Oxide or carbide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in liquids and their structural, optical, and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaltianos, N. G.; Friedt, J.-M.; Chassagnon, R.; Moutarlier, V.; Blondeau-Patissier, V.; Combe, G.; Assoul, M.; Monteil, G.

    2016-05-01

    Laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in deionized (DI) water, ethanol, or toluene was carried out for the production of nanoparticles' colloidal solutions. Due to the interaction of the ablation plasma plume species with the species which are produced by the liquid decomposition at the plume-liquid interface, hafnia (HfO2) nanoparticles are synthesized in DI water, hafnium carbide (HfC) nanoparticles in toluene, and a mixture of these in ethanol. The hafnia nanoparticles are in the monoclinic low temperature phase and in the tetragonal and fcc high temperature phases. Their size distribution follows log-normal function with a median diameter in the range of 4.3-5.3 nm. Nanoparticles synthesized in DI water have band gaps of 5.6 and 5.4 eV, in ethanol 5.72 and 5.65 eV (using low and high pulse energy), and in toluene 3 eV. The values for the relative permittivity in the range of 7.74-8.90 were measured for hafnia nanoparticles' thin films deposited on substrates by drop-casting (self-assembled layers) in parallel plate capacitor structures.

  10. Dielectric properties of conductive ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robert James

    Ion and polymer dynamics of ion-containing polymers were investigated, with the majority of results obtained from application of a physical model of electrode polarization (EP) to dielectric spectroscopy data. The physical model of MacDonald, further developed by Coelho, was extended for application to tan delta (the ratio of dielectric loss to dielectric constant) as a function of frequency. The validity of this approach was confirmed by plotting the characteristic EP time as a function of thickness and comparing the actual and predicted unrelaxed dielectric constant for a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based ionomer neutralized by lithium, sodium, and cesium. Results were obtained for ion mobility and mobile ion concentration for a neat PEO-based ionomer, two (methoxyethoxy-ethoxy phosphazene) (MEEP) -based ionomers, two MEEP-based salt-doped polymers, sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) neutralized by sodium with a high sulfonation fraction, and SPS neutralized by zinc with a low sulfonation fraction. Additionally, the conductivity parameters of six plasticized forms of a neat PEO-based ionomer were characterized, but the method apparently failed to correctly evaluate bulk ionic behavior. In all cases except the SPS ionomers ion mobility follows a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) temperature dependence. In all cases, mobile ion concentration follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Fitting parameters from these two relationships yielded direct information about the state of ionic diffusion and ion pairing in each system. Combination of these two functionalities predicts a relationship for conductivity that is significantly different than the VFT relation typically used in the literature to fit conductivity. The most outstanding result was the extremely small fraction of ions found to be mobile. For ionomers it can be concluded that the primary reason for low conductivities arises from the low fraction of mobile ions. The local and segmental dynamics of the neat and

  11. A HIGH SENSITIVE MICROWAVE MEASURING DEVICE OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT IN THE NON-POLAR DIELECTRIC LIQUIDS BASED ON AN INHOMOGENEOUS STEP COAXIAL RESONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rudakov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Objective is to create a moisture meter for non-polar liquid dielectrics with low volumetric moisture content of more than 10‑3 %. Methodology. Moisture measuring is based on dielcometric method. It is implemented as a resonant method of determining a capacitance measuring transducer. Measuring transducer capacitive type has a working and parasitic capacitance. It was suggested the definition of moisture on four of resonance frequencies: when the measuring transducer is turned off, one by one filled with air, «dry» and investigated liquid, to determine the parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and the parasitic capacitance of the measuring transducer and humidity. Measurement frequency was increased up to microwave range to increase the sensitivity. Measuring transducer with distributed parameters representing a step heterogeneous coaxial resonator is used by. This measuring transducer has a zero stray capacitance, because the potential electrode has a galvanic connection with an external coaxial electrode. Inductive ties loop is used to neglect parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and to increase the quality factor of the system. Measuring moisture is reduced to measuring the two frequencies of resonance frequency and «dry» and investigated liquid. Resonant characteristics transducer in a step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator have been investigated to determine the quality factor of filled with air and transformer oil, and experiments to measure the moisture content in transformer oil have been conducted. Results. Measuring transducer of distributed type is developed and researched – it is step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator. It has a smaller geometric length and larger scatter of the first and second resonant frequencies. Expression is obtained for determination of moisture on the basis of two resonant frequencies. The formula of the two frequencies to determine the moisture is correct. Resonant

  12. Controlling birefringence in dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Aaron J.; Tyc, Tomáš; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Birefringence, from the very essence of the word itself, refers to the splitting of light rays into two parts. In natural birefringent materials, this splitting is a beautiful phenomenon, resulting in the perception of a double image. In optical metamaterials, birefringence is often an unwanted side effect of forcing a device designed through transformation optics to operate in dielectrics. One polarization is usually implemented in dielectrics, and the other is sacrificed. Here we show, with techniques beyond transformation optics, that this need not be the case, that both polarizations can be controlled to perform useful tasks in dielectrics, and that rays, at all incident angles, can even follow different trajectories through a device and emerge together as if the birefringence did not exist at all. A number of examples are shown, including a combination Maxwell fisheye/Luneburg lens that performs a useful task and is achievable with current fabrication materials.

  13. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  14. Generalized Brewster-Kerker effect in dielectric metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Paniagua-Dominguez, Ramon; Miroschnichenko, Andrey E; Krivitsky, Leonid A; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Valuckas, Vytautas; Gonzaga, Leonard; Toh, Yeow Teck; Kay, Anthony Yew Seng; Luk'yanchuk, Boris; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I

    2015-01-01

    Polarization is one of the key properties defining the state of light. It was discovered in the early 19th century by Brewster, among others, while studying light reflected from materials at different angles. These studies led to the first polarizers, based on Brewster's effect. One of the most active trends in photonics now is devoted to the study of miniaturized, sub-wavelength devices exhibiting similar, or even improved, functionalities compared to those achieved with bulk optical elements. In the present work, it is theoretically predicted that a properly designed all-dielectric metasurface exhibits a generalized Brewster effect potentially for any angle, wavelength and polarization of choice. The effect is experimentally demonstrated for an array of silicon nanodisks at visible wavelengths. The underlying physics of this effect can be understood in terms of the suppressed scattering at certain angles that results from the interference between the electric and magnetic dipole resonances excited in the na...

  15. Introduction to the special issue on the joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    The joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics took place in Edinburgh from August 9-12, 2010. The conference was attended by 390 delegates from more than 40 different countries. There were 4 plenary speakers, 56 invited speakers, and a further 222 contributed oral presentations in 7 parallel session. In addition there were 215 poster presentations. Key topics addressed at the conference included piezoelectric materials, leadfree piezoelectrics, and multiferroics.

  16. The Role of Boundary Layer Capacitance at Blocking Electrodes in the Interpretation of Dielectric Cure Data in Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-31

    Microdielectrometry, dielectric constant, epoxy resins, DGEBA , conduc:ivi:v-, permittivity, loss factor, polarization, blocking layer. 20. A@STRACT...larger than the actual bulk permittivity of the matetal under measurement. Data are presented which demonstrate this effect with a DGEBA resin in the...with a DGEBA resin in the presence of blocking layers that vary in thickness from .0023 to 1.5 pm. The implications for the interpretation of data

  17. Dielectric properties of tetragonal tungsten bronze films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeux, Romain; Michau, Dominique; Josse, Michaël; Maglione, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) films have been synthesised on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates from Ba2LnFeNb4O15 ceramics (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) by RF magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction measurements evidenced the multi-oriented nature of films with some degrees of preferential orientation along (111). The dependence of the dielectric properties on temperature and frequency has been investigated. The dielectric properties of the films are similar to those of the bulk, i.e., ɛ ˜150 and σ ˜10-6 Ω-1 cm-1 at 1 MHz and room temperature. The films exhibit two dielectric anomalies which are attributed to Maxwell Wagner polarization mechanism and relaxor behaviour. Both anomalies are sensitive to post-annealing under oxygen atmosphere and their activation energies are similar Ea ˜0.30 eV. They are explained in terms of electrically heterogeneous contributions in the films.

  18. Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David

    -induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric......The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision...

  19. Cu-Induced Dielectric Breakdown of Porous Low-Dielectric-Constant Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Lung; Lee, Chih-Yen; Huang, Yao-Liang; Sun, Chung-Ren; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Chen, Giin-Shan; Fang, Jau-Shiung; Phan, Bach Thang

    2017-02-01

    Dielectric breakdown induced by Cu ion migration in porous low-k dielectric films has been investigated in alternating-polarity bias conditions using a metal-insulator-metal capacitor with Cu top metal electrode. The experimental results indicated that Cu ions migrated into the dielectric film under stress with positive polarity, leading to weaker dielectric strength and shorter time to failure (TTF). In the alternating-polarity test, the measured TTFs increased with decreasing stressing frequency, implying backward migration of Cu ions during reverse-bias stress. Additionally, compared with a direct-current stress condition, the measured TTFs were higher as the frequency was decreased to 10-2 Hz. The electric-field acceleration factor for porous low-k dielectric film breakdown in the alternating-polarity test was also found to increase. This Cu backward migration effect is effective when the stressing time under negative polarity is longer than 0.1 s.

  20. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-05-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  1. Tiny cause with huge impact: polar instability through strong magneto-electric-elastic coupling in bulk EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuvekamp, Patrick; Caslin, Kevin; Guguchia, Zurab; Keller, Hugo; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Simon, Arndt; Köhler, Jürgen; Bussmann-Holder, Annette

    2015-07-01

    EuTiO3 exhibits strong magneto-electric coupling at the onset of antiferromagnetic order below TN = 5.7 K. The dielectric permittivity drops at TN by 7% and recovers to normal values with increasing magnetic field. This effect is shown to stem from tiny lattice effects as seen in magnetostriction data which directly affect the soft optic mode and its polarizability coordinate. By combining experimental results with theory we show that marginal changes in the lattice parameter of the order of 0.01% have a more than 1000% effect on the transverse optic soft mode of ETO and thus easily induce a ferroelectric instability.

  2. Giant flexoelectric polarization in a micromachined ferroelectric diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2012-08-14

    The coupling between dielectric polarization and strain gradient, known as flexoelectricity, becomes significantly large on the micro- and nanoscale. Here, it is shown that giant flexoelectric polarization can reverse remnant ferroelectric polarization in a bent Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 (PZT) diaphragm fabricated by micromachining. The polarization induced by the strain gradient and the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field are investigated by observing the electromechanical coupling of the diaphragm. The method allows determination of the absolute zero polarization state in a PZT film, which is impossible using other existing methods. Based on the observation of the absolute zero polarization state and the assumption that bending of the diaphragm is the only source of the self-polarization, the upper bound of flexoelectric coefficient of PZT film is calculated to be as large as 2.0 × 10-4 C m -1. The strain gradient induced by bending the diaphragm is measured to be on the order of 102 m-1, three orders of magnitude larger than that obtained in the bulk material. Because of this large strain gradient, the estimated giant flexoelectric polarization in the bent diaphragm is on the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dielectric studies of wheat in powder form at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Jain, Ritu; Bhargava, Nidhi; Sharma, Ritu; Sharma, K S

    2010-10-01

    Dielectric constant and loss factor of Raj-4120 variety of Indian wheat were determined in powder form (grain size 125 to 150 micron) at room temperature. Microwaves at three different frequencies were employed in C-band, X-band and Ku-band respectively for investigating frequency dependence of dielectric parameters of the sample. Bulk dielectric values of the sample were determined by employing the dielectric mixture relations, such as, half power mixture equation, Landau and Lifshitz, Looyenga equation etc.

  4. New Insights into the Dynamics of Zwitterionic Micelles and Their Hydration Waters by Gigahertz-to-Terahertz Dielectric Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    George, Deepu K; Hull, Olivia A; Mishra, Archana; Capelluto, Daniel G S; Mitchell-Koch, Katie R; Vinh, Nguyen Q

    2016-01-01

    Gigahertz-to-terahertz spectroscopy of macromolecules in aqueous environments provides an important approach for identifying their global and transient molecular structures, as well as directly assessing hydrogen-bonding. We report dielectric properties of zwitterionic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles in aqueous solutions over a wide frequency range, from 50 MHz to 1.12 THz. The dielectric relaxation spectra reveal different polarization mechanisms at the molecular level, reflecting the complexity of DPC micelle-water interactions. We have made a deconvolution of the spectra into different components and combined them with the effective-medium approximation to separate delicate processes of micelles in water. Our measurements demonstrate reorientational motion of the DPC surfactant head groups within the micelles, and two levels of hydration water shells, including tightly- and loosely-bound hydration water layers. From the dielectric strength of bulk water in DPC solutions, we found that the number of wa...

  5. Dielectric properties of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium iron niobate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoom, Kachaporn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Sri Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok, 10400 (Thailand); Pengpat, Kamonpan; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Tunkasiri, Tawee [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Rujijanagul, Gobwute [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Sri Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok, 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Ga-doped BaFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}){sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) ceramics were fabricated and their properties were investigated. All ceramics showed perovskite structure with cubic symmetry and the solubility of Ga in BFN ceramics had a limit at x = 0.2. Examination of the dielectric spectra indicated that all ceramic samples presented high dielectric constants that were frequency dependent. The x = 0.2 ceramic showed a very high dielectric constant (ε{sub r} > 240 000 at 1 kHz) while the x = 0.4 sample exhibited high thermal stability of dielectric constant with low loss tangent from room temperature (RT) to 100 C with ε{sub r} > 28 000 (at 1 kHz) when compared to other samples. By using a complex impedance analysis technique, bulk grain, grain boundary, and electrode response were found to affect the dielectric behavior that could be related to the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Temperature dependent dielectric and electric modulus properties of ZnS nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan; Falak, Attia; Rafiq, M. A.; Khan, Usman; Karim, Shafqat; Nairan, Adeela; Jing, Tang; Sun, Yue; Sun, Sibai; Qian, Chenjiang; Xu, Xiulai

    2017-03-01

    A comprehensive study of the dielectric and electric modulus properties of Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) semiconductor nanoparticles has been conducted using impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 200 Hz to 2 MHz and over the temperature range of 300 K to 400 K. Microscopic analysis confirms the formation of spherical nanoparticles with an average size of ∼20 nm. Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization is responsible for the increase in dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss at lower frequencies. Increase in dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss has been observed with a rise in temperature. The electric modulus complex plane plot reveals the presence of the grain (bulk) effect and non-Debye type relaxation processes in the material. The non-Debye type processes have also been confirmed by the asymmetric relaxation peaks of the imaginary part of the electric modulus. The frequency dependent maximum of the imaginary part of the electric modulus follows the Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 0.13 eV. The modulus analysis also establishes that the hopping mechanism is responsible for electrical conduction in the ZnS nanoparticles.

  7. All-dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  8. All-dielectric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  9. Electrical Conduction and Dielectric Breakdown Characteristics of Alkyl Ester Dielectric Fluids obtained from Palm Kernel Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmalik, A. A.; Fothergill, J; Dodd, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring palm kernel oil (PKO) and its ester derivatives are being considered as sustainable alternatives to synthetic oils for use as dielectric fluids. This paper reports on their dielectric properties, which have been studied and compared to BS148 mineral oil. The low frequency complex dielectric response of the PKO and its derivatives are related to ionic conduction and electrode polarization phenomena. The purified PKO has an electrical conductivity of 3.04 ?? 10-12 Sm-1 at 30...

  10. Dielectric materials and electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallot-Lavalle, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    An introduction to the physics of electrical insulation, this book presents the physical foundations of this discipline and the resulting applications. It is structured in two parts. The first part presents a mathematical and intuitive approach to dielectrics; various concepts, including polarization, induction, forces and losses are discussed. The second part provides readers with the keys to understanding the physics of solid, liquid and gas insulation. It comprises a phenomenological description of discharges in gas and its resulting applications. Finally, the main electrical properties

  11. Optical signatures of the Charge of a Dielectric Particle in a Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Heinisch, R L; Fehske, H

    2013-01-01

    With an eye on dust particles immersed into an ionized gas, we study the effect of a negative charge on the scattering of light by a dielectric particle with a strong transverse optical phonon resonance in the dielectric constant. Surplus electrons alter the scattering behavior of the particle by their phonon limited conductivity in the surface layer (negative electron affinity) or in the bulk of the particle (positive electron affinity). We identify a charge-dependent increase of the extinction efficiency for low frequencies, a shift of the extinction resonance above the transverse optical phonon frequency, and a rapid variation of the polarization angles over this resonance. These effects could be used for non-invasive optical measurements of the charge of the particle.

  12. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO{sub 3} bulk ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samantaray, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, D.K. [Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, S ‘O’ A University, Bhubaneswar 751030, Odisha (India); Pradhan, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B.R. [Institue of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Behera, Debdhyan [Advanced Materials Technology Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Rout, P.P.; Das, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Sahu, D.R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Roul, B.K., E-mail: ims@iopb.res.in [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India)

    2013-08-15

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO{sub 3} (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO{sub 3}. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO{sub 3} at room temperature as multifunctional materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of single-phasic polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3} sample by the solid state sintering route. • Observation of square type P–E hysteresis loop with higher saturation and remnant polarization. • Observation of antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K in polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3}. • Possibility of room temperature application of GdMnO{sub 3} as multifunctional material.

  13. Chain relaxation in thin polymer films: turning a dielectric type-B polymer into a type-A' one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Mathieu; Paul, Wolfgang

    2017-02-22

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of chain relaxation in a thin polymer film is presented, studying the dielectric response of a random copolymer of cis and trans 1,4-polybutadiene, a type B polymer without net chain dipole moment, confined between graphite walls. We stress the orientational effect of the attractive walls, inducing polarization in the vicinity of the walls, while the center of the film stays bulk-like. This polarization leads to a net dipole moment of the adsorbed chains, which is perpendicular to their end-to-end vector, which we termed as type A' behavior. In this situation, the dipole moment relaxes only upon desorption of the chains from the wall, a dynamic process which occurs on timescales much longer than the bulk relaxation time of the polymer.

  14. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  15. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-06-22

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar density and vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  16. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory (MDFT) of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: ($i$) a scalar density and a vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and ($ii$) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  17. Disorder driven structural and dielectric properties of silicon substituted strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugu, Sita; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Sharma, Yogesh; Scott, James F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study on structural, microstructural, optical, dielectric, and electrical properties of phase-pure silicon-modified SrTiO3 polycrystalline electroceramics synthesized using high energy solid state reaction techniques is presented. The asymmetry and splitting in the x-ray diffractometer spectra and the observation of first order transverse optical TO2 and longitudinal optical LO4 modes in Raman spectra (nominally forbidden) revealed the distortion in the cubic lattice as a result of breaking of inversion symmetry due to doping. A bandgap Eg of 3.27 eV was determined for the sample by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A high dielectric constant of ˜400 and very low dielectric loss of ˜0.03 were obtained at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The temperature dependence of the dielectric data displayed features of high temperature relaxor ferroelectric behavior as evidence of existence of polar nano-regions. The ac conductivity as a function of frequency showed features typical of universal dynamic response and obeyed a power law σ a c = σ d c + A ω n . The temperature dependent dc conductivity followed an Arrhenius relation with activation energy of 123 meV in the 200-500 K temperature range. The linear dielectric response of Pt/SrSi0.03Ti0.97O3/Pt dielectric capacitors was well characterized. The measured leakage current was exceptionally low, 13 nA/cm2 at 8.7 kV/cm, revealing an interface blocked bulk conduction mechanism.

  18. High numerical aperture all-dielectric metasurface micro-lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Gerini, G.; Pisano, E.; Galdi, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the design principles and the sensitivity analysis needed for the realization of a high numerical aperture metasurface micro-lens are presented. The metasurface micro-lens is realized defining a surface with spatially-variant dielectric resonators embedded in a dielectric bulk. The de

  19. Dielectric properties of Ni substituted Li-Zn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soibam, Ibetombi, E-mail: ibetombi_phys@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Manipur 795 003 (India); Phanjoubam, Sumitra [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Manipur 795 003 (India); Radhapiyari, L. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, New Delhi 110 054 (India)

    2010-05-01

    Li{sub 0.4-0.5x}Zn{sub 0.2}Ni{sub x} Fe{sub 2.4-0.5x}O{sub 4} ferrites with x varying from 0.02 to 0.1 in steps of 0.02 have been synthesized by the citrate precursor method and investigated for their dielectric properties. A decrease in the value of room temperature dielectric constant is observed with the increase in Ni concentration. It has been explained in terms of space charge polarization and Koop's two layer model. The variation in dielectric constant with frequency shows dispersion while a resonance peak could be seen in the variation of dielectric loss with frequency. With increase in temperature the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increased, which have been discussed in terms of polarization and the Debye-type of dispersion. Possible mechanism contributing to the above process is discussed.

  20. Effective attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules via Lifshitz theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈来文; 李椿萱

    2001-01-01

    A general theory of Van der Waals forces developed by Lifshitz based on quantum electrodynamics theory is applied in the range Rλ0 (where the Casimir effects may be neglected) to construct Van der Waals attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules in rarefied media in order that the effective attractive potential between the like-molecules (including the repeat units) is offered. A closed form solution for the integral formulation of the attractive potential between like-particles is first obtained based on certain assumptions made in this work. On the basis of the theory of electric polarization, the derived expression in terms of bulk properties is then compared with the well-known London formula, the former differs from the latter only by the factor (4)/(π)or (4)/(π)(ε∞+2)/(3)2. The validity of the effective potential can be verified by testing cases composed of several types of dielectric materials. The computed results are presented in this paper, and comparisons with the results computed by London dispersion formula, as well as the recommended values in virtue of the experimental and theoretical techniques, are also presented. The effective potential of polyethylene is also computed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model, and it is found that the computed well depth fall within a reasonable range of accuracy.

  1. Transmission of THz wave by liquid dielectric waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The absorption and dispersion of several non-polar organic solvents from 0.2 to 2.5 THz are measured with the method of time-domain spectroscopy.Based on the result,we believe that liquid paraffin might be a proper choice for liquid dielectric waveguide.Transmitting performance of THz liquid dielectric waveguide at 98 GHz is tested.

  2. Dielectric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jason

    While plasmonics metasurfaces have seen much development over the past several years, they still face throughput limitations due to ohmic losses. On the other hand, dielectric resonators and associated metasurfaces can eliminate the issue of ohmic loss while still providing the freedom to engineer the optical properties of the composite. In this talk, I will present our recent efforts to harness this freedom using metasurfaces formed from silicon and fabricated using CMOS-compatible techniques. Operating in the telecommunications band, I will discuss how we have used this platform to realize a number of novel functionalities including wavefront control, near-perfect reflection, and high quality factor resonances. In many cases the optical performance of these silicon-based metasurfaces can surpass their plasmonic counterparts. Furthermore, for some cases the surfaces are more amenable to large-area fabrication techniques.

  3. Microscopic versus macroscopic calculation of dielectric nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M.; Kliem, H.

    2008-12-01

    The issue of nanodielectrics has recently become an important field of interest. The term describes nanometric dielectrics, i. e. dielectric materials with structural dimensions typically smaller than 100 run. In contrast to the behaviour of a bulk material the nanodielectrics can behave completely different. With shrinking dimensions the surface or rather boundary effects outweigh the volume effects. This leads to a different observable physics at the nanoscale. A crucial point is the question whether a continuum model for the calculation of dielectric properties is still applicable for these nanomaterials. In order to answer this question we simulated dielectric nanospheres with a microscopic local field method and compared the results to the macroscopic mean field theory.

  4. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Prince, James M [Kennewick, WA

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  5. Infrared and THz spectroscopy of nanostructured dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Petzelt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Results achieved using the infrared/THz spectroscopy of various inhomogeneous dielectrics in the Department of Dielectrics, Institute of Physics, Prague, during the last decade are briefly reviewed. The discussion concerns high-permittivity ceramics with inevitable low-permittivity dead layers along the grain boundaries, relaxor ferroelectrics with highly anisotropic polar nano-regions, classical matrix-type composites, core-shell composites, filled nanoporous glasses, polycrystalline and epitaxial thin films, heterostructures and superlattices on dielectric substrates. The analysis using models based on the effective medium approach is discussed. The importance of depolarizing field and of the percolation of components on the effective ac dielectric response and the excitations contributing to it are emphasized.

  6. Dielectric Measurements of Millimeter-Wave Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, M. N.

    1984-12-01

    It is no longer necessary to use extrapolated microwave dielectric data when designing millimeter-wave components, devices, and systems. Precision measurements can now be made to generate highly accurate millimeter-wave (5 to 1/2 mm) continuous spectra on complex refractive index, complex dielectric permittivity, and loss tangent for a variety of materials such as common ceramics, semiconductors, crystalline, and glassy materials. The continuous spectra reveal an increase in dielectric loss with increase in frequency in this wavelength range for most materials. Reliable measurements also reveal that the method of preparation of nominally identical specimens can change the dielectric losses by many factors. These broad-band measurements were carried out employing dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy applied to a modular two-beam polarization interferometer. Data obtained with Fabry-Perot open resonator methods at wavelengths of 5 mm and longer will also be compared.

  7. Electroelastodynamics of flexoelectric energy conversion and harvesting in elastic dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Adriane G.; Erturk, Alper

    2017-02-01

    Flexoelectricity is the generation of electric polarization by the application of a non-uniform mechanical strain field, i.e., a strain gradient. This phenomenon is exhibited by all elastic dielectrics, but is expected to be significant only at very small scales. Energy harvesting is a potential future application area of flexoelectricity to enable next-generation ultra-low-power MEMS/NEMS devices by converting ambient vibrations into electricity. In this paper, an electroelastodynamic framework is presented and analyzed for flexoelectric energy harvesting from strain gradient fluctuations in centrosymmetric dielectrics, by accounting for the presence of a finite electrical load across the surface electrodes as well as two-way electromechanical coupling, and capturing the size effect. The flexoelectric energy harvester model is based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and it assumes the main source of polarization to be static bulk flexoelectricity. Following recent efforts on the converse flexoelectric effect in finite samples, the proposed model properly accounts for thermodynamically consistent, symmetric direct and converse coupling terms. The transverse mode flexoelectric coupling coefficient (k) is obtained analytically as a direct measure of energy conversion; its dependence on the cantilever thickness and a material Figure of Merit (FoM) is shown. Size effects are further demonstrated by simulations of the electromechanical frequency response for a Strontium Titanate (STO) energy harvester at different geometric scales. It is obtained that the flexoelectric coupling coefficient of an STO cantilever for the fundamental bending mode increases from k ≈3.5 ×10-7 to k ≈0.33 as the thickness is reduced from mm- to nm-level. A critique of the experimentally identified large flexoelectric coefficient for Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) from the literature is also given with a coupling coefficient perspective.

  8. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    de Sousa, N; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  9. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of highly oriented (Pb,Nb)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 thin films grown by a sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwei, Zhai; Cheung, M. H.; Xu, Zheng Kui; Li, Xin; Chen, Haydn; Colla, Eugene V.; Wu, T. B.

    2002-11-01

    Antiferroelectric (Pb,Nb)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 thin films were deposited via a sol-gel process on LaNiO3-coated silicon substrates. Films showed a strong (001) preferred orientation upon annealing at 500-700 degC for 30 min. The dependence of electrical properties on film thickness has been studied, with the emphasis placed on field-induced phase switching from the antiferroelectric to the ferroelectric state. The decrease of film thickness led to an increase of the phase-switching field along with the appearance of remanent polarization. However, the dielectric constant and maximum polarization decreased with the reduction of film thickness. Saturation polarization was 35 muC/cm2, which is equal to that observed in bulk samples.

  10. Epoxy-based hydrogels investigated by high-frequency dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakovský, Ivan; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Ryuta

    2013-11-14

    Using high-frequency dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, nanophase-separated structures of epoxy-based hydrogels were investigated as a function of water content at 25 °C. The dielectric spectra resulting from the hydrogels were reasonably decomposed into two Debye-type and two Cole-Cole-type relaxation modes. The fastest Debye-type mode, found at 8.3 ps, was attributed to the rotational relaxation process of free water molecules in the bulk state. The other Debye-type mode, at ca. 20-34 ps, originates from the exchange process of water molecules that are hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic epoxy network portions for free bulk ones. The first Cole-Cole-type mode observed, at ca. 20-370 ps, was assigned to the complicated dynamics for electric dipole moments of the hydrophilic groups in the epoxy networks (mainly monomeric oxyethylene units). The slowest major Cole-Cole-type mode, at 5-29 ns, was attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization process and confirmed the presence of the nanophase-separated structures as revealed by the previous small-angle neutron scattering experiments.

  11. Modification of Absorption of a Bulk Material by Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席永刚; 王昕; 胡新华; 刘晓晗; 资剑

    2002-01-01

    We show theoretically that it is possible to modify absorption of a bulk absorbing material by inserting another non-absorbing dielectric slab periodically to form one-dimensional photonic crystals. It is found that, for fre- quencies within photonic bandgaps, absorption is always suppressed. For frequencies located at photonic bands, absorption can be suppressed or enhanced, which depends on the relative values of the real refractive index of the absorbing and non-absorbing dielectric layers.

  12. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = IRCP ‑ ILCP) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = IRCP/ILCP) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform.

  13. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = IRCP − ILCP) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = IRCP/ILCP) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:28139753

  14. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  15. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the diel...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  16. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms.

  17. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-02

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of 'polarization twist', which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms.

  18. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824

  19. Systematic effects induced by a flat isotropic dielectric slab

    CERN Document Server

    Macculi, C; Cortiglioni, S; Peverini, O A; Tascone, R; Zannoni, M; Carretti, Ettore; Cortiglioni, Stefano; Macculi, Claudio; Peverini, Oscar Antonio; Tascone, Riccardo; Zannoni, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The instrumental polarization induced by a flat isotropic dielectric slab in microwave frequencies is faced. We find that, in spite of its isotropic nature, such a dielectric can produce spurious polarization either by transmitting incoming anisotropic diffuse radiation or emitting when it is thermally inhomogeneous. We present evaluations of instrumental polarization generated by materials usually adopted in Radioastronomy, by using the Mueller matrix formalism. As an application, results for different slabs in front of a 32 GHz receiver are discussed. Such results are based on measurements of their complex dielectric constant. We evaluate that a 0.33 cm thick Teflon slab introduces negligible spurious polarization ($< 2.6 \\times 10^{-5}$ in transmission and $< 6 \\times 10^{-7}$ in emission), even minimizing the leakage ($< 10^{-8}$ from $Q$ to $U$ Stokes parameters, and viceversa) and the depolarization ($\\sim 1.3 \\times 10^{-3}$).

  20. Coupling of phonon-polariton modes at dielectric-dielectric interfaces by the ATR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoletzi, G. H.; Olvera Hernández, J.; Martínez Montes, G.

    1989-08-01

    We report the calculated ATR dispersion relation of the interface phonon-polariton modes in the prism-dielectric-dielectric configuration. Comparison of electromagnetic dispersion relations (EMDR) with the ATR dispersion relations are presented for three different interfaces: I) GaAs/GaP, II) CdF2/CaF2 and III) CaF2/GaP in two propagation windows, using the Otto and Kretschmann geometries for p-polarized light. We have studied the three cases using angle and frequency scans for each window and geometry. The results indicate that it is possible to excite and detect phonon-polariton modes at the dielectric-dielectric interface.

  1. Atomic-scale microstructures, Raman spectra and dielectric properties of cubic pyrochlore-typed Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 dielectric ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2014-07-01

    Single-phase cubic pyrochlore-typed Bi1.5MgNb 1.5O7 (BMN) dielectric ceramics were synthesized at temperatures of 1050-1200 °C by solid-state reaction method. Their atomic-scale microstructures and dielectric properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the BMN ceramics had an average cubic pyrochlore structure, whereas the Raman spectra indicated that they had an essentially cubic symmetry with small local deviations at the A and O\\' sites of the cubic pyrochlore structure. This was confirmed by selected electron area diffraction (SAED) patterns, where the reflections of {442} (not allowed in the cubic pyrochlore with Fd3̄m symmetry) were clearly observed. SEM and TEM images revealed that the average grain size was increased with the sintering temperature, and an un-homogeneous grain growth was observed at high temperatures. HRTEM images and SAED patterns revealed the single-crystalline nature of the BMN ceramic grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping studies indicated that the compositional distributions of Bi, Mg, Nb and O elements in the ceramic grains were homogenous, and no elemental precipitation was observed at the grain boundary. Quantitative EDS data on ceramic grains revealed the expected cationic stoichiometry based on the initial composition of Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7. Dielectric constants of all the BMN samples exhibited almost frequency independent characteristic in the frequency range of 102-106 Hz, and the highest value was 195 for the BMN ceramics sintered at sintered at 1150 °C with the highest bulk density. The dielectric losses were stable and less than 0.002 in the frequency range of 102-105 Hz. The high dielectric constants of the present BMN samples can be ascribed to the local atomic deviations at the A and O\\' sites from the ideal atomic positions of the pyrochlore structure, which affect the different polarization mechanisms in the BMN ceramics, and which in turn enhance the dielectric

  2. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  3. Dielectric Properties of Nanosized ZnFe2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvejić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results concerning the dielectric properties of the nanosized ZnFe2O4. Dielectric permittivity, the loss factor, as well as the conductivity, were measured in the temperature range 300-630 K and at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz frequencies. Signifi cant improvements in permittivity, loss factor and ionic conductivity comparing to bulk samples have been observed.

  4. Microwave Nondestructive Sensing of Moisture Content in Shelled Peanuts Independent of Bulk Density with Temperature Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric methods for rapid and nondestructive sensing of moisture content in shelled peanuts from free-space measurement of attenuation and phase shift, and their corresponding dielectric properties at 10 GHz, are presented. These methods provide moisture content independent of bulk density and c...

  5. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Human Blood

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, M; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric spectra of human blood reveal a rich variety of dynamic processes. Achieving a better characterization and understanding of these processes not only is of academic interest but also of high relevance for medical applications as, e.g., the determination of absorption rates of electromagnetic radiation by the human body. The dielectric properties of human blood are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, systematically investigating the dependence on temperature and hematocrit value. By covering a frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 GHz, information on all the typical dispersion regions of biological matter is obtained. We find no evidence for a low-frequency relaxation (alpha-relaxation) caused, e.g., by counterion diffusion effects as reported for some types of biological matter. The analysis of a strong Maxwell-Wagner relaxation arising from the polarization of the cell membranes in the 1-100 MHz region (beta-relaxation) allows for the test of model predictions and the determination of variou...

  6. Dielectric and specific heat relaxations in vapor deposited glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, A., E-mail: angeline.kasina@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: wubbenhorst@fys.kuleuven.be; Putzeys, T.; Wübbenhorst, M., E-mail: angeline.kasina@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: wubbenhorst@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft Matter and Biophysics Section, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-12-28

    Recently [S. Capponi, S. Napolitano, and M. Wübbenhorst, Nat. Commun. 3, 1233 (2012)], vapor deposited glasses of glycerol have been found to recover their super-cooled liquid state via a metastable, ordered liquid (MROL) state characterized by a tremendously enhanced dielectric strength along with a slow-down of the relaxation rate of the structural relaxation. To study the calorimetric signature of this phenomenon, we have implemented a chip-based, differential AC calorimeter in an organic molecular beam deposition setup, which allows the simultaneous measurement of dielectric relaxations via interdigitated comb electrodes and specific heat relaxation spectra during deposition and as function of the temperature. Heating of the as-deposited glass just above the bulk T{sub g} and subsequent cooling/reheating revealed a step-wise increase in c{sub p} by in total 9%, indicating unambiguously that glycerol, through slow vapour deposition, forms a thermodynamically stable glass, which has a specific heat as low as that of crystalline glycerol. Moreover, these glasses were found to show excellent kinetic stability as well as evidenced by both a high onset-temperature and quasi-isothermal recovery measurements at −75 °C. The second goal of the study was to elucidate the impact of the MROL state on the specific heat and its relaxation to the super-cooled state. Conversion of “MROL glycerol” to its “normal” (ordinary liquid, OL) state revealed a second, small (∼2%) increase of the glassy c{sub p}, a little gain (<10%) in the relaxed specific heat, and no signs of deviations of τ{sub cal} from that of normal “bulk” glycerol. These findings altogether suggest that the MROL state in glycerol comprises largely bulk-type glycerol that coexist with a minor volume fraction (<10%) of PVD-induced structural anomalies with a crystal-like calorimetric signature. Based on the new calorimetric findings, we have proposed a new physical picture that assumes the

  7. Nonlinear electroelastic deformations of dielectric elastomer composites: II - Non-Gaussian elastic dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Victor; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework to construct approximate homogenization solutions for the macroscopic elastic dielectric response - under finite deformations and finite electric fields - of dielectric elastomer composites with two-phase isotropic particulate microstructures. The central idea consists in employing the homogenization solution derived in Part I of this work for ideal elastic dielectric composites within the context of a nonlinear comparison medium method - this is derived as an extension of the comparison medium method of Lopez-Pamies et al. (2013) in nonlinear elastostatics to the coupled realm of nonlinear electroelastostatics - to generate in turn a corresponding solution for composite materials with non-ideal elastic dielectric constituents. Complementary to this analytical framework, a hybrid finite-element formulation to construct homogenization solutions numerically (in three dimensions) is also presented. The proposed analytical framework is utilized to work out a general approximate homogenization solution for non-Gaussian dielectric elastomers filled with nonlinear elastic dielectric particles that may exhibit polarization saturation. The solution applies to arbitrary (non-percolative) isotropic distributions of filler particles. By construction, it is exact in the limit of small deformations and moderate electric fields. For finite deformations and finite electric fields, its accuracy is demonstrated by means of direct comparisons with finite-element solutions. Aimed at gaining physical insight into the extreme enhancement in electrostriction properties displayed by emerging dielectric elastomer composites, various cases wherein the filler particles are of poly- and mono-disperse sizes and exhibit different types of elastic dielectric behavior are discussed in detail. Contrary to an initial conjecture in the literature, it is found (inter alia) that the isotropic addition of a small volume fraction of stiff (semi

  8. Surface band bending and band alignment of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on Ga- and N-face gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialing; Eller, Brianna S.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of surface pretreatment, dielectric growth, and post deposition annealing on interface electronic structure and polarization charge compensation of Ga- and N-face bulk GaN were investigated. The cleaning process consisted of an ex-situ wet chemical NH4OH treatment and an in-situ elevated temperature NH3 plasma process to remove carbon contamination, reduce oxygen coverage, and potentially passivate N-vacancy related defects. After the cleaning process, carbon contamination decreased below the x-ray photoemission spectroscopy detection limit, and the oxygen coverage stabilized at ˜1 monolayer on both Ga- and N-face GaN. In addition, Ga- and N-face GaN had an upward band bending of 0.8 ± 0.1 eV and 0.6 ± 0.1 eV, respectively, which suggested the net charge of the surface states and polarization bound charge was similar on Ga- and N-face GaN. Furthermore, three dielectrics (HfO2, Al2O3, and SiO2) were prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition on Ga- or N-face GaN and annealed in N2 ambient to investigate the effect of the polarization charge on the interface electronic structure and band offsets. The respective valence band offsets of HfO2, Al2O3, and SiO2 with respect to Ga- and N-face GaN were 1.4 ± 0.1, 2.0 ± 0.1, and 3.2 ± 0.1 eV, regardless of dielectric thickness. The corresponding conduction band offsets were 1.0 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1, and 2.3 ± 0.1 eV, respectively. Experimental band offset results were consistent with theoretical calculations based on the charge neutrality level model. The trend of band offsets for dielectric/GaN interfaces was related to the band gap and/or the electronic part of the dielectric constant. The effect of polarization charge on band offset was apparently screened by the dielectric-GaN interface states.

  9. An ultra-narrowband absorber with a dielectric-dielectric-metal structure based on guide-mode resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-narrowband absorber with a dielectric-dielectric-metal (DDM) tri-layer structure which is composed of a dielectric grating as the top layer, a dielectric spacer and a metal substrate. The simulation results show that, we can get an ultra-narrowband absorber with the absorption bandwidth less than 0.05 nm and the absorption rate more than 0.99 within an ultra-narrow angle for TE polarization (electric field is parallel to grating grooves). The results also show that the ultra-narrowband absorption for TE polarization is originated from guide-mode resonance and low power loss in the metal substrate. This ultra-narrowband absorber is a good candidate for application in coherent emission of light by thermal source.

  10. ARTICLES: Time-Dependent Stokes Shift from Solvent Dielectric Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Quan-de; Zhu, Quan; Fu, Ke-xiang; He, Fu-cheng; Li, Xiang-yuan

    2010-06-01

    The Stokes shift response function, which is related to the time dependent solvation energy, is calculated with the dielectric response function and a novel expression of nonequilibrium solvation energy. In the derivation, relationship between the polarization and the dielectric response function is used. With the dipole-in-a-sphere model applied to the system coumarin 343 and water as the solvent, encouraging agreement with the experimental data from Jimenez et al. is obtained [Nature 369, 471 (1994)].

  11. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  12. A Review of Magneto/Dielectric Techniques Applied to the Study of Venezuelan Stratigraphic and Archeological Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2008-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (Caracas, Venezuela), has combined rock magnetic and dielectric properties (thermally stimulated depolarization currents or TSDC) of fossil- poor sedimentary rocks (eastern and western Venezuela) in order to set up new physical markers that could be used as alternative means for stratigraphic correlations. These magneto/dielectric characterizations have also proven useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently, this two-fold technique has been applied to archeological materials (potsherds) to track down clay sources and find out about different methods of pottery craftsmanship. Rock magnetic characterizations include the measurement of bulk properties that provide information about nature, concentration and granulometries of magnetic minerals. Rock dielectric characterizations examine the thermal relaxation to equilibrium of electrically polarizable entities that are affected by their molecular surroundings and therefore by the type of material analyzed. Thermal remanent magnetic acquisitions and TSDC analyses are based on two distinct physical properties albeit similar process of polarization and thermal relaxation to equilibrium.

  13. The application of dielectric constant in rapid test of total polar compounds in frying oils%介电常数在煎炸油极性组分快速检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李徐; 刘睿杰; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2014-01-01

    There is a high correlation between dielectric constant and deterioration of frying oils and thus the dielectric constant can be used to measure the quality changes of frying oils, which has the advantages such as fast detection, easy operation and food grade safety. The review described test principle of dielectric property on liquid and dielectric property of frying oils including correlation fitting model between TPC and dielectric constant. Three rapid test kits:FOS, FOM 310 and Testo 270 were evaluated with their structure, operation and data reliability. Then the main factors affecting the accuracy of detection were analyzed to be oil variety, cali-bration, suspended solids and operation. Finally, two future trends in this technology including specific optimi-zation for signal parameters and combination with data processing technique or infrared testing technique were prospected.%介电常数与煎炸油中极性组分含量有较好相关性,用于评价煎炸油品质,具有快速、便捷、安全等优点。本文分析了液体介电特性的测试原理和煎炸油介电特性机制,列出极性组分和介电常数的相关性拟合模型。以商业化应用广泛的FOS、FOM 310、Testo 270三类快速检测仪器为对象,对其内部构造、仪器操作和数据可靠性进行评价,结合餐饮业实践经验总结了影响其检测准确度的主要因素,包括煎炸油品种、校准体系、悬浮物、操作规范性。最后,提出此快速检测技术未来的两大发展方向:对信号处理参数的特异性优化和对数据处理技术或红外在线检测技术的引入结合。

  14. Dielectric and electromechanical properties of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, N. J.; Catalan, G.; Morros, C.; Bowman, R. M.; Gregg, J. M.

    2003-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was used to grow thin films of several compositions from the Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) solid solution as dielectric layers in thin film capacitor structures. They were found to display functional behavior characteristic of relaxors, with the only significant difference between thin film and bulk being a severely reduced dielectric permittivity. Room temperature polarization loops showed a general increase in both the remanent polarization and absolute magnitude of the polarization for a given field with PT content. The electric field-induced strain was primarily examined by in situ x-ray diffraction and although fields greater than 20 MV m-1 were applied to the films, the maximum observed strain was only ˜0.3%, considerably less than the 1.4% seen in single crystal samples. Piezo-response atomic force microscopy studies were consistent in that the macroscopic effective piezoelectric coefficient d33, was found to differ from single crystal measurements by an order of magnitude. However, electrostrictive coefficients (Q33), were found to be comparable to published values for both PMN-PT single crystals and ceramics, ranging between 1 and 9×10-2 C-4 cm2. Consequently, it seems that the relatively poor strain response in these thin films is intimately linked to the reduced permittivity and not to a fundamental difference in the electrostrictive coefficients between bulk and thin film.

  15. Ion Structure Near a Core-Shell Dielectric Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manman; Gan, Zecheng; Xu, Zhenli

    2017-02-01

    A generalized image charge formulation is proposed for the Green's function of a core-shell dielectric nanoparticle for which theoretical and simulation investigations are rarely reported due to the difficulty of resolving the dielectric heterogeneity. Based on the formulation, an efficient and accurate algorithm is developed for calculating electrostatic polarization charges of mobile ions, allowing us to study related physical systems using the Monte Carlo algorithm. The computer simulations show that a fine-tuning of the shell thickness or the ion-interface correlation strength can greatly alter electric double-layer structures and capacitances, owing to the complicated interplay between dielectric boundary effects and ion-interface correlations.

  16. LOW-FREQUENCY DIELECTRIC RELAXATION IN SILVER STEARATE LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov, A.P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The low-frequency dielectric relaxation process in silver stearate layers was studied. The increasing of dielectric permittivity with frequency decreasing and temperature increasing in studied sample are associated with the dipole-relaxation polarization mechanisms. The dispersion of loss factor could be connected with the contribution of relaxation mechanism and conductivity. The shape of the Cole-Cole diagram shows that silver stearate is a non-Debye dielectric material characterized by a wide distribution of relaxators, according to the Cole-Cole relaxation model.

  17. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  18. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable refra

  19. Dielectric material for dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, P.R.; Podgorsak, E.; Fullerton, G.D.; Fuller, G.E.

    1976-01-27

    A RITAD dosimeter is described having a dielectric material such as sapphire wherein the efficiency as measured by mean drift distance and trapping efficiency is increased by making use of a dielectric material in which the total active impurity does not exceed 50 ppm and in which any one active impurity does not exceed 10 ppm.

  20. Contemporary dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with experimental results of the physical characterization of several important, dielectric materials of great current interest. The experimental tools used for the analysis of these materials include X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, magnetic measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer, optical measurements using a UV-Visible spectrometer etc.

  1. The Influence of Dielectric Decrement on Electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhai, Shengjie

    2013-06-01

    We treat the dielectric decrement induced by excess ion polarization as a source of ion specificity and explore its impact on electrokinetics. We employ a modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations accounting for the dielectric decrement. The dielectric decrement is determined by the excess ion polarization parameter α and when α = 0 the standard PNP model is recovered. Our model shows that ions saturate at large zeta potentials (ζ). Because of ion saturation, a condensed counterion layer forms adjacent to the charged surface, introducing a new length scale, the thickness of the condensed layer (lc ). For the electro-osmotic mobility, the dielectric decrement weakens the electro-osmotic flow owing to the decrease of the dielectric permittivity. At large ζ, when α ≠ 0, the electro-osmotic mobility is found to be proportional to ζ/2, in contrast to ζ predicted by the standard PNP model. This is attributed to ion saturation at large ζ. In terms of the electrophoretic mobility Me , we carry out both an asymptotic analysis in the thin-double-layer limit and solve the full modified PNP model to compute Me . Our analysis reveals that the impact of the dielectric decrement is intriguing. At small and moderate ζ, the dielectric decrement decreases Me with an increasing α. At large ζ, it is well known that the surface conduction becomes significant and plays an important role in determining Me . It is observed that the dielectric decrement effectively reduces the surface conduction. Hence in stark contrast, Me increases as α increases. Our predictions of the contrast dependence of the mobility on α at different zeta potentials qualitatively agree with experimental results on the dependence of the mobility among ions and provide a possible explanation for such ion specificity. Finally, the comparisons between the thin-double-layer asymptotic analysis and the full simulations of the modified PNP model suggest that at large ζ the validity of the thin

  2. Phenomenological thermodynamic potentials for bulk and thin-film Ba (Zr0.08 Ti 0.92 ) O 3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J. L.; Li, Q.; Shan, D. L.; Pan, K.; Yu, G. S.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2016-05-01

    Phenomenological thermodynamic analysis is an important theoretical investigation method for ferroelectric materials, however, it cannot be implemented for Ba ( Zr x Ti 1 - x ) O 3 due to the lack of thermodynamic potential coefficients. In this paper, we have constructed a phenomenological thermodynamic potential for bulk Ba ( Zr 0.08 Ti 0.92 ) O 3 single crystals, which reproduces the three phase transition temperatures, dielectric and piezoelectric constants of bulk Ba ( Zr 0.08 Ti 0.92 ) O 3 single crystals well, suggesting that the constructed thermodynamic potential is reliable. Then the thermodynamic potential with appropriate modification is applied to predict misfit strain-temperature phase diagram and electromechanical properties of Ba ( Zr 0.08 Ti 0.92 ) O 3 thin films. It is found that compressive strain favors the tetragonal c phase with an out-of-plane polarization component, while tensile misfit strain favors orthorhombic aa phase with an in-plane polarization component. It also reveals that Ba ( Zr 0.08 Ti 0.92 ) O 3 thin films under appropriate compressive strain show higher piezoelectric coefficient d15 than that of their bulk counterpart. The constructed thermodynamic potential opens a new avenue to theoretical analysis on Ba ( Zr 0.08 Ti 0.92 ) O 3 .

  3. On the dielectric curie-weiss law and diffuse phase transition in ferroelectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple derivation of parabolic 1/εr-T curves is obtained by reconsidering the origin of the dielectric Curie-Weiss law. The only assumption needed is the introduction of a non-linear temperature dependance of the macroscopic dielectric polarization in the macroscopic Clausius-Mossotti equation

  4. Polarized infrared reflectance study of free standing cubic GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C., E-mail: saicheonglee86@yahoo.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Novikov, S.V.; Foxon, C.T.; Kent, A.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Optical properties of free standing cubic gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy system are investigated by a polarized infrared (IR) reflectance technique. A strong reststrahlen band, which reveals the bulk-like optical phonon frequencies, is observed. Meanwhile, continuous oscillation fringes, which indicate the sample consists of two homogeneous layers with different dielectric constants, are observed in the non-reststrahlen region. By obtaining the first derivative of polarized IR reflectance spectra measured at higher angles of incidence, extra phonon resonances are identified at the edges of the reststrahlen band. The observations are verified with the theoretical results simulated based on a multi-oscillator model. - Highlights: • First time experimental studies of IR optical phonons in bulk like, cubic GaN layer. • Detection of extra phonon modes of cubic GaN by polarized IR reflectance technique. • Revelation of IR multiphonon modes of cubic GaN by first derivative numerical method. • Observation of multiphonon modes requires very high angle of incidence. • Resonance splitting effect induced by third phonon mode is a qualitative indicator.

  5. On the Dielectric Study of Se80- x Te20Pb x ( x = 0, 1 and 2) Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anjali; Patial, Balbir Singh; Thakur, Nagesh

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper, the dielectric parameters such as the dielectric constant ɛ'( ω), dielectric loss ɛ″( ω) and alternating current (ac) conductivity have been investigated for bulk amorphous chalcogenide Se80- x Te20Pb x ( x = 0, 1 and 2) glasses in the frequency range 10 Hz to 500 kHz and within the temperature range from 300 K to 320 K. Dielectric constant ɛ'( ω) and dielectric loss ɛ″( ω) are found to be highly frequency ( ω) and temperature dependent, and this behavior is interpreted on the basis of Guintini's theory of dielectric dispersion. The ac conductivity ( σ ac) is found to be temperature independent and obey the power law ω s , where s composition dependence of the dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity are also discussed and reported here.

  6. Interaction corrections to the polarization function of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The first-order interaction correction to the irreducible polarization function of pristine graphene is studied at arbitrary relation between momentum and frequency. The results are used to calculate the dielectric function and the dynamical conductivity of graphene beyond the standard random-phase approximation. The computed static dielectric constant compares favorably with recent experiments.

  7. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  8. Solid state dielectric screening versus band gap trends and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ram; Wang, Alan X.; Wager, John F.

    2016-10-01

    High-frequency (optical) and low-frequency (static) dielectric constant versus band gap trends, as well as index of refraction versus band gap trends are plotted for 107 inorganic semiconductors and insulators. These plots are describable via power-law fitting. Dielectric screening trends that emerge from this analysis have important optical and electronic implications. For example, barrier lowering during Schottky emission, phonon-assisted or Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, or Frenkel-Poole emission from a trap is found to be significantly more pronounced with increasing band gap due to a reduction in the optical dielectric constant with increasing band gap. The decrease in the interface state density with increasing band gap is another optical dielectric constant trend. The tendency for a material with a wider band gap to be more difficult to dope is attributed to an increase in the ionization energy of the donor or acceptor dopant, which in turn, depends on the optical dielectric constant and the effective mass. Since the effective mass for holes is almost always larger than that for electrons, p-type doping is more challenging than n-type doping in a wide band gap material. Finally, the polar optical phonon-limited mobility depends critically upon the reciprocal difference of the optical and the static dielectric constant. Consequently, electron and hole mobility tend to decrease with increasing band gap in a polar material.

  9. Thermal and Dielectric Studies On Ge10se69tl21 Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Madhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk Ge10Se69Tl21 chalcogenide glass is prepared by melt quenching technique. Thermal analysis of bulk Ge10Se69Tl21 glass has been undertaken using temperature modulated Alternating Differential Scanning Calorimetry (ADSC. The Ge10Se69Tl21 glass is found to exhibit single glass transition temperature (Tg and double stage crystallization reactions (Tc1 & Tc2. The dependence of dielectric properties such as dielectric loss tangent (tanδ, dielectric constant (ε’ and dielectric loss factor (ε’’ on the frequency has been studied at the room temperature in the frequency range 10 kHz to 5 MHz. The dielectric parameters tanδ, ε’and ε’’ are found to decrease with the increase in the frequency. Further, resistance of the Ge10Se69Tl21 sample is also found to decrease with the increase in the frequency.

  10. Short range ferromagnetic, magneto-electric, and magneto-dielectric effect in ceramic Co3TeO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harishchandra; Ghosh, Haranath; Chandrasekhar Rao, T. V.; Sharma, G.; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report observation of magneto-electric and magneto-dielectric couplings along with short range ferromagnetic order in ceramic Cobalt Tellurate (Co3TeO6, CTO) using magnetic, structural, dielectric, pyroelectric, and polarization studies. DC magnetization along with dielectric constant measurements indicate a coupling between magnetic order and electrical polarization. A strong anomaly in the dielectric constant at ˜17.4 K in zero magnetic field indicates spontaneous electric polarization, consistent with a recent neutron diffraction study. Observation of weak short range ferromagnetic order at lower temperatures is attributed to the Griffiths-like ferromagnetism. Furthermore, magnetic field dependence of the ferroelectric transition follows earlier theoretical predictions, applicable to single crystal CTO. Finally, combined dielectric, pyroelectric, and polarization measurements suggest that the ground state of CTO may possess spontaneous symmetry breaking in the absence of magnetic field.

  11. Local dielectric permittivity profiles of sapphire/polypropylene interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Ranjan, V.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.; Bernholc, J.

    2009-03-01

    Recently, the need for high-power-density capacitors has stimulated research to develop composite dielectric materials with high-k nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix. In these materials, surfaces and interfaces may play an important role in determining the overall dielectric properties. We present first-principles investigations of the dielectric permittivity profiles across slabs and interfaces of sapphire(α-Al2O3)/isotactic-polypropylene(iPP). Our results indicate that the permittivity profile at interface strongly depends on the nanoscale averaging procedure. We propose an averaging model that ensures near-locality of the dielectric function. We find that: (i) the dielectric permittivity approaches the corresponding bulk value just a few atomic layers away from the interface or surface; (ii) the dielectric constant is enhanced at the surfaces of the isolated α-Al2O3 slabs, while no enhancement is observed at the iPP slab surfaces; and (iii) the dielectric transition at the αAl2O3/iPP is mainly confined in the αAl2O3 side.

  12. Dielectric materials for electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Vega, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 is particularly concerned with physical properties, electrical ageing and modeling with topics such as the physics of charged dielectric materials, conduction mechanisms, dielectric relaxation, space charge, electric ageing and life end models and dielectric experimental characterization. Part 2 concerns some applications specific to dielectric materials: insulating oils for transformers, electrorheological fluids, electrolytic capacitors, ionic membranes, photovoltaic conversion, dielectric thermal control coatings for geostationary satellites, plastics recycling and piezoelectric poly

  13. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  14. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of acrylic dielectric elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Junjie; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; Chang, Longfei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2013-02-15

    The dielectric constant is an essential electrical parameter to the achievable voltage-induced deformation of the dielectric elastomer. This paper primarily focuses on the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (within the range of 173 K to 373 K) for the most widely used acrylic dielectric elastomer (VHB 4910). First the dielectric constant was investigated experimentally with the broadband dielectric spectrometer (BDS). Results showed that the dielectric constant first increased with temperature up to a peak value and then dropped to a relative small value. Then by analyzing the fitted curves, the Cole-Cole dispersion equation was found better to characterize the rising process before the peak values than the Debye dispersion equation, while the decrease process afterward can be well described by the simple Debye model. Finally, a mathematical model of dielectric constant of VHB 4910 was obtained from the fitted results which can be used to further probe the electromechanical stability of the dielectric elastomers. (orig.)

  15. Dielectric spectroscopy in agrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skierucha, W.; Wilczek, A.; Szypłowska, A.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents scientific foundation and some examples of agrophysical applications of dielectric spectroscopy techniques. The aim of agrophysics is to apply physical methods and techniques for studies of materials and processes which occur in agriculture. Dielectric spectroscopy, which describes the dielectric properties of a sample as a function of frequency, may be successfully used for examinations of properties of various materials. Possible test materials may include agrophysical objects such as soil, fruit, vegetables, intermediate and final products of the food industry, grain, oils, etc. Dielectric spectroscopy techniques enable non-destructive and non-invasive measurements of the agricultural materials, therefore providing tools for rapid evaluation of their water content and quality. There is a limited number of research in the field of dielectric spectroscopy of agricultural objects, which is caused by the relatively high cost of the respective measurement equipment. With the fast development of modern technology, especially in high frequency applications, dielectric spectroscopy has great potential of expansion in agrophysics, both in cognitive and utilitarian aspects.

  16. Dielectric spectroscopy of high aspect ratio graphene-polyurethane nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Abbassi, Hina; Amir, Shahid

    2015-03-01

    High aspect ratio graphene nanosheets (GNS), prepared via liquid exfoliation, are homogeneously dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). Dielectric spectroscopy results are reported for these nanocomposites (up to 0.55 vol. % GNS) in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz. The as-prepared GNS increased the AC conductivity 10-1000 times across the given frequency range. The dielectric constant is increased 5-6 times at 100 Hz for the maximum loading of GNS when compared with the pristine TPU, with subsequently high dielectric loss making them a suitable candidate for high energy dissipation applications such as EMI shielding. The temperature effects on the dielectric characteristics of 0.55 vol. % GNS/TPU nanocomposites beyond 400 K are more pronounced due to the interfacial and orientation polarization. Mechanical characteristics evaluation of GNS/TPU composites shows a marked increase in the ultimate tensile strength without compromising their ductility and stiffness. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  18. Phases confirmation of cloudy Silwet L-77 aqueous solution by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei

    2010-01-01

    The phase transition of Silwet L-77 (a kind of siloxane surfactant) dilute aqueous solution with temperature was investigated by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. In the initial heating process, a dielectric relaxation was found at about 106 Hz, which was considered as the interface polarization ascribed to the interface between water and liquid phases (Wand L1). With the temperature increasing further, a new dielectric relaxation was observed at about 104 Hz, which was assigned to the appearance of liquid crystal phase (Lα). According to the dielectric parameters fitted by Cole-Cole equation, the coexistence temperature of W, L1 and Lα was determined at about 37.0℃.

  19. Dielectric behavior of antiferroelectric liquid crystals in presence of flexoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Deblal; Mandal, Pravash; Majumder, Tapas Pal, E-mail: tpm@klyuniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, West Bengal (India)

    2015-06-15

    We studied theoretically the effect of flexoelectricity on the behavior of dielectric fluctuations of antiferroelectric liquid crystals (AFLCs) influenced by the mechanical distortion associated with flexoelectric effect. By using the appropriate free energy and the Landau-Ginzburg equation, we found an approximate expression of dielectric permittivity, which was strongly influenced by the existence of flexoelectric polarization for both in-phase and anti-phase motions. Consequently, the corresponding dielectric strength for both in-phase and anti-phase motions were varied due to the existence of flexoelectric polarization. (author)

  20. Dielectric Behavior of Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals in Presence of Flexoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deblal; Mandal, Pravash; Pal Majumder, Tapas

    2015-06-01

    We studied theoretically the effect of flexoelectricity on the behavior of dielectric fluctuations of antiferroelectric liquid crystals (AFLCs) influenced by the mechanical distortion associated with flexoelectric effect. By using the appropriate free energy and the Landau-Ginzburg equation, we found an approximate expression of dielectric permittivity, which was strongly influenced by the existence of flexoelectric polarization for both in-phase and anti-phase motions. Consequently, the corresponding dielectric strength for both in-phase and anti-phase motions were varied due to the existence of flexoelectric polarization.

  1. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chun-Ying; SHI Jin-Hui; YUAN Li-Bo

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter(PBS)and a non-polarizing beam splitter(NPBS)based on a photonic crystal(PC)directional coupler are demonstrated.The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap.The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion(PWE)method.The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain(FDTD)method.

  2. A single dielectric nanolaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Yu; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2016-09-01

    To conquer Ohmic losses from metal and enhance pump absorption efficiency of a nanolaser based on surface plasmon polariton, we theoretically calculate the first magnetic and electric scattering coefficient of a dielectric sphere under a plane wave excitation with a dielectric constant of around 12. From this calculation, we could retrieve both negative effective permittivity and permeability of the sphere simultaneously at frequencies around 153 THz in the aids of Lewin's theory and the power distribution clearly demonstrate the expected negative Goos-Hänchen effect, which usually occurred in a negative refractive waveguide, thus creating two energy vortices to trap incident energy and then promoting the pump absorption efficiency. Meanwhile, a magnetic lasing mode at 167.3 THz is demonstrated and reveals a magnetic dipole resonance mode and a circulating energy flow within the dielectric sphere, providing a possible stopped light feedback mechanism to enable the all-dielectric nanolaser. More importantly, the corresponding mode volume is reduced to 0.01λ3 and a gain threshold of 5.1×103 is obtained. To validate our design of all-dielectric nanolaser, we employ finite-difference-time-domain simulation software to examine the behavior of the nanolaser. From simulation, we could obtain a pinned-down population inversion of 0.001 and a lasing peak at around 166.5 THz, which is very consistent with the prediction of Mie theory. Finally, according to Mie theory, we can regard the all-dielectric nanolaser as the excitation of material polariton and thus could make an analogue between lasing modes of the dielectric and metallic nanoparticles.

  3. Some New Band Characteristics in One-Dimensional Plasma Dielectric Photonic Crystals%Some New Band Characteristics in One-Dimensional Plasma Dielectric Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laxmi SHIVESHWARI

    2011-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals, the superlattice structure consisting of alternating plasma and dielectric materials, is studied theoretically for oblique incidence by using the transfer matrix method. Our results show that complete photonic band gaps for all polarizations can be obtained in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals. These structures can exhibit a new type of band or gap, for the incidence other than the normal one, near frequencies where the electric permittivity of the plasma layer changes sign. This new band or gap arises, from the dispersive properties of the plasma layer, only for transverse magnetic polarized waves, and its width increases with the increase in incident angle. This differential behavior under polarization can be utilized in the design of an efficient polarization splitter. The existence of both photonic gaps and resonance transmission bands is demonstrated for experimentally realizable structures such as double electromagnetic barriers.

  4. The thickness dependence of dielectric permittivity in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Ivan A.; Starkov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the physical properties of thin films depend on their thickness. For a description of such dependences, it is proposed to use a classical model taking into account the presence of film interfaces. A dielectric ball near the half-space was chosen to adopt the approach. The dependence of the effective permittivity of the ball on geometrical and physical parameters of the system is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the dielectric constant of a film can be presented as a sum of the constant of a bulk material and the interface term.

  5. Plasmonic Route to Reconfigurable Polarization Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Tang, X M; Wang, S M; Wang, Q J; Zhu, S N

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) as a bounded mode on a metal/dielectric interface intrinsically has a definite transverse magnetic (TM) polarization that usually lacks further manipulations. However, the in-plane longitudinal components of SPP field can produce versatile polarization states when two orthogonal propagating SPP interfere with each other. Here, we demonstrated a plasmonic polarization router by designing appropriate nanohole arrays that can selectively scatter the interfered SPP fields to desired light beams. It is well proved that our device is able to reconfigure a certain input polarization to all kinds of states with respect to a scattered light. Accompanied with a composite phase modulation by diffractions, multiple focusing beams with different polarization states are simultaneously achieved, promising the possibility in polarization multiplexing and related signal processing. Our design offers a new route for achieving full control of the optical polarizations as well as the optical spin-...

  6. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes and dimen......We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...... and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we...

  7. Optical hyperpolarization of nitrogen donor spins in bulk diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretz, M.; Takahashi, H.; Segawa, T. F.; Boss, J. M.; Degen, C. L.

    2017-02-01

    We report hyperpolarization of the electronic spins associated with substitutional nitrogen defects in bulk diamond crystals. Hyperpolarization is achieved by optical pumping of nitrogen vacancy centers followed by rapid cross relaxation at the energy level matching condition in a 51 mT bias field. The maximum observed donor spin polarization is 0.9 % , corresponding to an enhancement of 25 compared to the thermal Boltzmann polarization. A further accumulation of polarization is impeded by an anomalous optical saturation effect that we attribute to charge state conversion processes. Hyperpolarized nitrogen donors may form a useful resource for increasing the efficiency of diamond-based dynamic nuclear polarization devices.

  8. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  9. Dielectric behaviour of Zn substituted Cu nano-ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, Jyoti, E-mail: phyjyoti.2@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Saxena, V.K.; Jyoti; Bhatnagar, Deepak [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Sharma, K.B. [Department of Physics, S.S. Jain Subodh P.G. College, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Herein, the dielectric properties such as permittivity (real part ε′ and imaginary part ε′′) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) are reported for Zn substituted Cu ferrites (Cu{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; 0≤x≤1) composite using the sol–gel auto-combustion method. The variations of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ and AC conductivity (σ{sub ac}) are studied at room temperature in the frequency range of 100 Hz–120 MHz. The real part of dielectric constant decrease with increasing frequency and the imaginary part (ε′′) varies with frequency showing the characteristic peak for each sample. The relation of tan δ with frequency shows relaxation spectra. Further, the σ{sub ac} tended to increase with increase in frequency. The variation in dielectric constant may be explained on the basis of space charge polarization, according to Maxwell and Wagner two-layer model. The dielectric constant and tan δ as a function of temperature are also studied with different temperatures ranging from 323 K to 583 K. - Highlights: • Zn substituted Cu nano-ferrite samples bearing formula Cu{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(0≤x≤1) are synthesized by the sol–gel auto combustion method. • The variation of real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) and AC conductivity with frequency are reported in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 120 MHz at room temperature. • The real part of dielectric constant (ε′) decreases with increasing frequency where as the AC conductivity (σ{sub ac}) increases with increase in frequency. The relation of tan δ with frequency shows relaxation spectra. • The variation in dielectric constant may be explained on the basis of space charge polarization, according to Maxwell and Wagner two-layer model. • Dielectric constant as a function of temperature is studied at different temperatures ranging from 323 K to 583 K.

  10. Dielectric study on membrane adsorption and release:Relaxation mechanism and diffusion dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YuHong; ZHAO KongShuang; HAN Ying

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric monitoring of the adsorption or release process of salicylic acid (SA) by chitosan membrane shows that the dielectric spectra of the chitosan membrane/SA solution systems change regularly in the adsorption or release process. By analyzing the regularity, a new mechanism for the relaxations is proposed. The concentration polarization layer (CPL) caused by SA adsorption or release is confirmed to be essential for the dielectric relaxations. The changes of the spectra with time are explained by account of the relationship between CPL properties and dielectric strength. Based on this relaxation mechanism, a theoretical method can be established to calculate dynamical parameters of inner structure of the adsorption or release systems from their dielectric spectra. Therefore, dielectric spec-troscopy is demonstrated to be a promising method for estimating interfacial distribution of ionic sub-stances and their binding to membrane in a non-invasive way.

  11. Dielectric study on membrane adsorption and release: Relaxation mechanism and diffusion dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric monitoring of the adsorption or release process of salicylic acid (SA) by chitosan membrane shows that the dielectric spectra of the chitosan membrane/ SA solution systems change regularly in the adsorption or release process. By analyzing the regularity, a new mechanism for the relaxations is proposed. The concentration polarization layer (CPL) caused by SA adsorption or release is confirmed to be essential for the dielectric relaxations. The changes of the spectra with time are explained by account of the relationship between CPL properties and dielectric strength. Based on this relaxation mechanism, a theoretical method can be established to calculate dynamical parameters of inner structure of the adsorption or release systems from their dielectric spectra. Therefore, dielectric spec- troscopy is demonstrated to be a promising method for estimating interfacial distribution of ionic sub- stances and their binding to membrane in a non-invasive way.

  12. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  13. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  14. Absorption in dielectric models

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J

    2015-01-01

    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  15. Measurement of electric fields and estimation of dielectric susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Kiyomitsu; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2013-05-01

    We describe a method of measuring the spatial structures of electric fields produced by charge distributions such as those on strip electrodes, small disk electrodes, and long double-plate electrodes. An electric-field sensor with high sensitivity to ac fields is fabricated for the measurement using a thin copper sheet. The reliability of the sensor is confirmed using a parallel-plate capacitor. The electric fields are oscillated at a frequency of 300 kHz to operate the electric-field sensor successfully. The structures of the measured fields coincide well with those of theoretical fields derived from Coulomb's law. When a dielectric is inserted in an electric field, polarization charges appear on the surface of the dielectric and modify the electric field in empty space. We measure the modified field and confirm the well-known linear relation between the polarization of a dielectric and the electric field. Dielectric susceptibilities are estimated from the linear relation for four types of dielectric.

  16. PECVD of low-dielectric constant films for ULSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    1998-10-01

    We studied the reduction mechanism of the dielectric constant of F-doped silicon oxide films prepared by PECVD from SiH_4/N_2O/CF4 mixture. From the estimation of the dielectric constant at various frequencies, ranging from 1MHz to 100THz, using CV measurement, Kramers-Kronig relation and the square of the refractive index, we suggest that the dielectric constant due to ionic and electronic polarization is not the dominant factor in decreasing the dielectric constant. It is important to remove -OH in films to obtain very low dielectric constant F-doped silicon oxide films, because Si-OH is the main factor of the orientational polarization in silicon oxide films made by PECVD. To investigate the reaction mechanism which controls the film structure, we changed the residence time of gas in chamber by varying the flow rate. When the residence time in chamber decreases, the film deposition rate increases. We tried to explain flow rate dependency of the deposition rate using a simple CSTR (continuous stirred tank reactor) model. It can be concluded that there are two paths to deposit the films. One route is a deposition by the precursors with poor step coverage profile, and the other route is deposition through intermediates formed by gas phase reactions that contribute to have better step coverage. The overall gas phase reaction rate constant was estimated from these kinetic studies. Same approach was also carried out on the PECVD of C:F film deposition.

  17. Microwave dielectric properties of horticultural peat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ayalew

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The microwave dielectric properties of horticultural peat and compost peat were measured with a HP85107C network analyser in conjunction with a HP85070B open-ended coaxial dielectric probe for the frequency range 0.5–20 GHz. Loose samples had volumetric water contents ranging from 0.11 to 0.24 Mg m-3. For analysis, samples were compressed to 1.0× (no compression, 1.2×, 1.5× and 2.0× original bulk density, giving volumetric water contents ranging from 0.11 to 0.48 Mg m-3. The raw relative permittivity data exhibited a high degree of variability, but rank-based removal of outlier measurements helped to improve their coherence with volumetric water content. The difference between horticultural peat and compost peat was insignificant in terms of both the dielectric constant and the loss factor. The results suggest that relative permittivity data after the removal of outliers can be of sufficiently high quality for sensing applications in the horticultural peat industry such as dedicated water content monitoring, nutrient management, and foreign body detection systems for health and safety purposes, given the low-precision requirements that are appropriate for horticultural and compost peat as high-volume, low-value and non-critical commodities.

  18. Kinetic analysis of spin current contribution to spectrum of electromagnetic waves in spin-1/2 plasma, Part I: Dielectric permeability tensor for magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric permeability tensor for spin polarized plasmas is derived in terms of the spin-1/2 quantum kinetic model in six-dimensional phase space. Expressions for the distribution function and spin distribution function are derived in linear approximations on the path of dielectric permeability tensor derivation. The dielectric permeability tensor is derived the spin-polarized degenerate electron gas. It is also discussed at the finite temperature regime, where the equilibrium distribution function is presented by the spin-polarized Fermi-Dirac distribution. Consideration of the spin-polarized equilibrium states opens possibilities for the kinetic modeling of the thermal spin current contribution in the plasma dynamics.

  19. Investigation of structure-dielectric property relationships in zirconium oxide, tantalum pentoxide, and oxide-polymer laminate films for high energy density capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Guneet

    of generally greater than 100 between the constituents. Low and high field dielectric properties were characterized for both laminate composites. All the dielectric films were characterized by impedance spectroscopy at frequencies ranging from 10 mHz to 1 MHz at different temperatures. Complex impedance and modulus analyses were used to resolve the contributions of individual microstructural features (such as grain, grain boundary & interface) from the overall film and composite electrical properties. Activation energies related to electro-active regions (grain boundary ˜1.1 eV, grain ˜0.5 eV) in the film structure were also determined from the temperature dependent impedances. The overall polarization of composite was higher by at least 25% than the sum of the polarizations from the individual layers for all composites. Plasma processed Ta2O5-Polypropylene laminate composite resulted in breakdown strength of ˜870 MV/m, which approximately 10% higher breakdown strength than its highest breakdown constituent (˜775 MV/m). These improved properties were attributed to bulk polymer modification, interface charge blocking/trapping and impedance contrast within the composite. The effect of impedance contrast on breakdown strength was modeled through permittivity contrast using Monte Carlo method. The breakdown model explored the electrostatic effects of adding a high permittivity barrier within an existing dielectric on the breakdown tree. The model also provided knowledge on various breakdown tree characteristics such as speed and shape. The Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that the experimentally observed impedance contrast of 1000 between the layers of the laminate composite can result in improved breakdown strength.

  20. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  1. Interactions of carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles: the effects of solvent dielectric constant and temperature on controlled assembly of superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, G A; Khlobystov, A N

    2014-05-28

    The effects of solvent dielectric constant and temperature on the non-covalent interactions between gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes have been explored. Our experiments have shown that fewer nanoparticles are adsorbed onto nanotubes in high dielectric assembly environments. This has been correlated with an increase in the differential capacitance of nanoparticles relative to the bulk solvent resulting in more local charge on nanoparticles and thus heightened repulsive electrostatic interactions in higher polarity organic solvents. Furthermore, our temperature-dependent measurements have demonstrated for the first time that (i) the apparent activation barrier to adsorption of nanoparticles on nanotubes of Ea = 9.6 kJ mol(-1) lies clearly within the range expected for non-covalent interactions and (ii) the adsorption of nanoparticles onto nanotubes is reversible and may represent an equilibrium process sensitive to temperature according to Le Chatelier's principle. Thus, we further demonstrate that modulation of non-covalent interactions can be harnessed for the precision derivatisation of nanocarbons with noble metals.

  2. Processing effects for integrated PZT: Residual stress, thickness, and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ryan Jason

    This dissertation focuses on the integration of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films on Pt/Ti/SiO2//Si, and the effect of on properties. Direct deposition of PZT on Si will lead to on-chip power capacitors, non-volatile memory cells, and vibration sensors. However, previous research indicates that the dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric response characteristics for the devices are often inferior to bulk specimens. Property variations have been attributed to changes in several major variables including, chemical composition, phase content, grain size, crystallographic orientation, film thickness, and stress, each of which, in turn, can depend on processing. The first goal of this work was to design a sol-gel processing methodology to control all major variables except film thickness and stress, thus isolating their respective effects on properties. All specimens were verified to be of the Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 composition, in the perovskite structure, with a constant grain size of 110nm, and with (111) fiber texture. PZT film thickness was varied from 95nm to 500nm and residual stress was measured to be either 150 or 180MPa, biaxial tensile, depending on thickness. These specimens allowed for new insights into the fundamental differences between bulk materials and thin films. A series-capacitor model accounted for the observed dilution in room-temperature K from >900 to ˜600 as film thickness decreased, but could not account for the absence of the expected dielectric anomaly at high temperatures. Instead, a stress-induced distributed phase transformation related to the polycrystalline nature of the film was proposed to account for the observed behavior. Residual stress reduced the spontaneous polarization values in these specimens to 32muC/cm 2 from the predicted stress-free value of 50muC/cm2. An increase in coercive field was attributed to interfacial capacitance and residual stress, whereas a decrease of 30MPa tensile stress resulted in an increase of d33

  3. Plasmonic and Dielectric Metasurfaces: Design, Fabrication and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional metasurfaces are widely focused on for their ability for flexible light manipulation (phase, amplitude, polarization over sub-wavelength propagation distances. Most of the metasurfaces can be divided into two categories by the material type of unit structure, i.e., plasmonic metasurfaces and dielectric metasurfaces. For plasmonic metasurfaces, they are made on the basis of metallic meta-atoms whose optical responses are driven by the plasmon resonances supported by metallic particles. For dielectric metasurfaces, the unit structure is constructed with high refractive index dielectric resonators, such as silicon, germanium or tellurium, which can support electric and magnetic dipole responses based on Mie resonances. The responses of plasmonic and dielectric metasurfaces are all relevant to the characteristics of unit structure, such as dimensions and materials. One can manipulate the electromagnetic field of light wave scattered by the metasurfaces through designing the dimension parameters of each unit structure in the metasurfaces. In this review article, we give a brief overview of our recent progress in plasmonic and dielectric metasurface-assisted nanophotonic devices and their design, fabrication and applications, including the metasurface-based broadband and the selective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM carrying vector beams, N-fold OAM multicasting using a V-shaped antenna array, a metasurface on conventional optical fiber facet for linearly-polarized mode (LP11 generation, graphene split-ring metasurface-assisted terahertz coherent perfect absorption, OAM beam generation using a nanophotonic dielectric metasurface array, as well as Bessel beam generation and OAM multicasting using a dielectric metasurface array. It is believed that metasurface-based nanophotonic devices are one of the devices with the most potential applied in various fields, such as beam steering, spatial light modulator, nanoscale

  4. Polarization Fatigue in Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆; K.H.WONG; 吴文彬

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue problem in ferroelectric thin films is investigated based on the switched charge per unit area versus switching cycles. The temperature, dielectric permittivity, voltage bias, frequency and defect valence dependent switching polarization properties are calculated quantitatively with an extended Dawber-Scott model. The results are in agreement with the recent experiments.

  5. Optics of dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    and photonic crystal microcavity. In chapter 4 a general theory based on a Green's tensor formalism is put forward for spontaneous emission in active dielectric microstructures, and an example is given whre the method is applied to a fiber amplifier. The Green's tensor in chapter 4 is constructed a a summation...

  6. Dielectric elastomer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  7. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T J [School of Informatics, University of Wales Bangor, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL70 9PX (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-21

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  8. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  9. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  10. Analysis of the temporal electric fields in lossy dielectric media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent electric fields associated with lossy dielectric media are examined. The analysis illustrates that, with respect to the basic time constant, these lossy media can take a considerable time to attain a steady-state condition. Time-dependent field enhancement factors are considered......, and inherent surface-charge densities quantified. The calculation of electrostatic forces on a free, lossy dielectric particle is illustrated. An extension to the basic analysis demonstrates that, on reversal of polarity, the resultant tangential field at the interface could play a decisive role...

  11. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdagni, Pooja, E-mail: j.poojaa1228@gmail.com; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, 160014 (India); Thakur, Anil [Physics Department, Govt. Collage Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India,173212 (India)

    2015-05-15

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices.

  12. The general dielectric tensor for bi-kappa magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaelzer, Rudi; Meneses, Anelise Ramires

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we derive the dielectric tensor for a plasma containing particles described by an anisotropic superthermal (bi-kappa) velocity distribution function. The tensor components are written in terms of the two-variables kappa plasma special functions, recently defined by Gaelzer and Ziebell [Phys. Plasmas 23, 022110 (2016)]. We also obtain various new mathematical properties for these functions, which are useful for the analytical treatment, numerical implementation and evaluation of the functions and, consequently, of the dielectric tensor. The formalism developed here and in the previous paper provides a mathematical framework for the study of electromagnetic waves propagating at arbitrary angles and polarizations in a superthermal plasma.

  13. Relaxation and resonances in fluctuating dielectric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Colin, L. S.; del Castillo, L. F.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper we show how the ideas behind extended irreversible thermodynamics are used to generate a systematic treatment of the relaxation and resonance phenomena in the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic energy in dielectric materials in a nonequilibrium state. Two cases are discussed: the first, in which the forced oscillations arising from the correlation between the fluctuations of the polarization vector and the electric field are neglected, and the second, in which this term is taken into account. In both cases we show how the main equations serve to make a connection between the macroscopic approach followed here and a number of results obtained for both, gases and polar liquids using molecular models. The results obtained here are compared with previous work on this problem, and new effects arising from the second case are pointed out.

  14. Measurements on polar liquids at a microwave frequency – evaluation of molecular parameters – a new method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B R Murthy; B S Dyasagar; R L Patil

    2003-10-01

    A simple method of estimating the dipole moment () and relaxation time () of polar molecules in liquid state, from a single set of dielectric measurements at high frequency, is proposed by using the concept of dielectric virial coefficients and employing Onsager model. The proposed method is tested in a number of polar liquids and the results are discussed.

  15. Dielectric Properties of Rhombohedral PbNb2O6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Ranjan Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric materials are needed in many electrical and electronic applications. So, basic characterizations need to be done for all dielectrics. PbNb2O6 (PN is ferroelectric and piezoelectric only in its orthorhombic phase, with potential high temperature applications. So, its rhombohedral phase, frequently formed as an undesirable impurity in the preparation of orthorhombic PN, has been ignored with respect to possible dielectric characterizations. Here, essentially single phase rhombohedral PN has been prepared, checking structure from XRD Rietveld Analysis, and the real and imaginary parts of permittivity measured in an Impedance Spectrometer (IS up to ~700∘C and over 20 Hz to 5.5 MHz range, for heating and some cooling runs. Variations, with temperature, of relaxation time constant (τ, AC and DC conductivity, bulk resistance, activation energy and capacitance have been explored from our IS data.

  16. Dielectric behavior of manganese titanate in the paraelectric phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Truptimayee; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2015-11-01

    Rhombohedral MnTiO3 powder has been synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The formation of single-phase compound is confirmed through XRD, Rietveld refinement and FTIR analysis. The optical band in MnTiO3 obtained from the UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been analyzed. The study of SEM micrographs suggested that the prepared material has good sinter ability and high density with homogeneous grain distribution on the surface and in the bulk. From the impedance and dielectric measurements, the electrical parameters were obtained. It was found that the magnitude of relative dielectric constant ( ɛ r) was relatively high with low dielectric loss. The study of frequency dependence of AC conductivity suggests that the material obeys Jonscher's universal power law. The variation of DC conductivity with inverse of absolute temperature follows the Arrhenius relation.

  17. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...... the generic family of so-called nested structures. Such designs allow keeping the cubic symmetry of the unit cell along with the electric and magnetic responses showed by different parts in separate. For extraction of effective parameters we employ homemade wave propagation retrieving method free from...... ambiguity generic to the standard S-parameters retrieval method. Accurateness of the method is highlighted by a set of numerical checks. To fabricate smooth metal three-dimensional structures we develop an electroless chemical technique. We present the results of silver deposition on the surface of a 30...

  18. Polarization Invariants and Retrieval of Surface Parameters Using Polarization Measurements in Remote Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shestopaloff, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Using polarization measurements in remote sensing and optical studies allows retrieving more information. We consider relationship between the reflection coefficients of plane and rough surfaces for linearly polarized waves. Certain polarization properties of reflected waves and polarization invariants, in particular at incident angle of forty five degrees, allow finding amplitude and phase characteristics of reflected waves. Based on this study, we introduce methods for finding dielectric permittivity, temperature and geometrical characteristics of observed surfaces. Experimental results prove that these methods can be used for different practical purposes in technological and remote sensing applications, in a broad range of electromagnetic spectrum.

  19. Computational study of filler microstructure and effective property relations in dielectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu U.; Tan, Daniel Q.

    2011-05-01

    Phase field modeling and computer simulation is employed to study the relations between filler microstructures and effective properties of dielectric composites. The model solves electrostatic equations in terms of polarization vector field in reciprocal space using a fast Fourier transform technique and parallel computing algorithm. Composites composed of linear constituent phases of different dielectric constants are considered. Interphase boundary conditions are automatically taken into account without explicitly tracking interphase interfaces in the composites. Various factors associated with filler microstructures are systematically investigated, including dielectric constant mismatch between fillers and matrix, particle size, shape, orientation, volume fraction, and spatial arrangement as well as directional alignment. Heterogeneous distributions of polarization, charge density, and local electric field are calculated for each composite microstructure, based on which effective dielectric constant and dielectric anisotropy of the composites are determined. It is found that electrostatic interactions among high-dielectric-constant fillers embedded in low-dielectric-constant matrix play critical roles in determining the composite properties, which sensitively depend on filler arrangement and, especially, directional alignment into fibrous microstructures (chains). Such microstructurally engineered composites, whose fillers are not randomly dispersed, exhibit strong dielectric anisotropy despite all constituent components being isotropic.

  20. Electronic relaxation of deep bulk trap and interface state in ZnO ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yan; Li Sheng-Tao; Ding Can; Cheng Peng-Fei

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the electronic relaxation of deep bulk trap and interface state in ZnO ceramics based on dielectric spectra measured in a wide range of temperature, frequency and bias, in addition to the steady state response. It discusses the nature of net current flowing over the barrier affected by interface state, and then obtains temperature-dependent barrier height by approximate calculation from steady Ⅰ-Ⅴ (current-voltage) characteristics. Additional conductance and capacitance arising from deep bulk trap relaxation are calculated based on the displacement of the cross point between deep bulk trap and Fermi level under small AC signal. Prom the resonances due to deep bulk trap relaxation on dielectric spectra, the activation energies are obtained as 0.22 eV and 0.35 eV, which are consistent with the electronic levels of the main defect interstitial Zn and vacancy oxygen in the depletion layer. Under moderate bias, another resonance due to interface relaxation is shown on the dielectric spectra. The DC-like conductance is also observed in high temperature region on dielectric spectra, and the activation energy is much smaller than the barrier height in steady state condition, which is attributed to the displacement current coming from the shallow bulk trap relaxation or other factors.

  1. Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on hybrid plasmonic/dielectric nanoantennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heiko Linnenbank; Yevgen Grynko; Jens F(o)rstner; Stefan Linden

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoantennas provide unprecedented opportunities to concentrate light fields in subwavelength-sized volumes.By placing a nonlinear dielectric nanoparticle in such a hot spot,one can hope to take advantage of beth the field enhancement provided by nanoantennas and the large,nonlinear optical susceptibility of dielectric nanoparticles.To test this concept,we combine gold gap nanoantennas with second-order,nonlinear zinc sulfide nanoparticles,and perform second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy onthe combined hybrid dielectric/plasmonic nanoantennas as well as on the individual constituents.We find that SHG from the bare gold nanoantennas,even though it should be forbidden due to symmetry reasons,is several orders of magnitude larger than that of the bare zinc sulfide nanoparticles.Even stronger second harmonic signals are generated by the hybrid dielectric/plasmonic nanoantennas.Control experiments with nanoantennas containing linear lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles reveal;however,that the increased SHG efficiency of the hybrid dielectric/plasmonic nanoantennas does not depend on the nonlinear optical susceptibility of the dielectric nanoparticles but is an effect of the modification of the dielectric environment.The combination of a hybrid dielectric/plasmonic nanoantenna,which is only resonant for the incoming pump light field,with a second nanoantenna,which is resonant for the generated second harmonic light,allows for a further increase in the efficiency of SHG.As the second nanoantenna mediates the coupling of the second harmonic light to the far field,this double-resonant approach also provides us with control over the polarization of the generated light.

  2. Preparation, Characterization and Dielectric Properties of Epoxy and Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Mason, Ralf; Stevens, Gary

    Two very different kinds of polymer nanocomposites have been prepared, characterized and investigated by dielectric spectroscopy to investigate the effects of polymer-nanofiller matrix difference on the dielectric response of nanodielectric composites. Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is a non-polar thermoplastic which has a high viscosity even in the melt phase and bisphenol-A epoxy resin with an anhydride hardener is a polar low viscosity thermosetting resin. Nanometric sized aluminium oxide filler was chosen as the common inorganic phase for both nanodielectrics. Generally, nanoparticles aggregate easily and are difficult to separate due to strong surface interactions. In this study various mixing methods were employed from ultrasonic liquid processing to controlled shear flow mixing to investigate the dispersion of the nanofillers. The resultant epoxy and polyethylene nanocomposites were characterized with SEM, TEM, and DSC. The dielectric properties and frequency response of the nanocomposites were measured in the frequency domain from 10-2 Hz to 106 Hz at different temperatures. In polyethylene nanocomposites, significant interfacial polarization is clearly seen. However, in epoxy nanocomposites, no obvious interfacial polarization is found. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in the electrical characteristics of the interfacial region between the polymers and the nano-alumina.

  3. Optimization of structural and dielectric properties of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) polymer in a desired frequency and temperature window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Chetna, E-mail: ctyagi05@gmail.com; Sharma, Ambika, E-mail: ambikasharma2004@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Sciences, The NorthCap University (Formerly ITM University), Gurgaon, 122017 Haryana (India)

    2016-01-07

    In the present paper, investigations of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) nanocomposites and pure PDADMAC synthesized by wet chemical technique have been carried out. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis have been performed to reveal the structural details of pure polymer and polymer nanocomposite (PNC). The dielectric behavior of pure polymer and PNC has been recorded, which results in higher value of the real and imaginary part of dielectric constant for PNC, as compared with pure PDADMAC. The increase is attributed to the addition of CdSe quantum dots to the pure polymer. The contribution of ionic and electronic polarization has been observed at higher frequency. The theoretical fitting of Cole-Cole function to the experimental data of dielectric constant of PNC and pure PDADMAC results in the determination of relaxation time and conductivity of space charge carriers. The CdSe loaded polymer nanocomposite has been used as an electrolyte in the battery fabrication with configuration Al/PNC/Ag{sub 2}O. The ac conductivity measurements have been carried out for both samples in a frequency window of 1 kHz–5 MHz and at different temperatures varying from 298 K to 523 K. Activation energy (E{sub a}) has been determined for pure polymer as well as PNC and is found to be less for PNC, as compared with pure polymer. Further, impedance measurement at different temperatures results in two frequency ranges corresponding to ionic conduction and blocking electrode effect. The value of bulk resistance for pure polymer and PNC has been found to be 3660 Ω and 442 Ω, respectively, at 298 K temperature. Electric modulus has been determined and is observed to support the dielectric constant data; it further reveals the deviation from Debye behavior at a higher frequency.

  4. Optimization of structural and dielectric properties of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) polymer in a desired frequency and temperature window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, investigations of CdSe loaded poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) nanocomposites and pure PDADMAC synthesized by wet chemical technique have been carried out. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis have been performed to reveal the structural details of pure polymer and polymer nanocomposite (PNC). The dielectric behavior of pure polymer and PNC has been recorded, which results in higher value of the real and imaginary part of dielectric constant for PNC, as compared with pure PDADMAC. The increase is attributed to the addition of CdSe quantum dots to the pure polymer. The contribution of ionic and electronic polarization has been observed at higher frequency. The theoretical fitting of Cole-Cole function to the experimental data of dielectric constant of PNC and pure PDADMAC results in the determination of relaxation time and conductivity of space charge carriers. The CdSe loaded polymer nanocomposite has been used as an electrolyte in the battery fabrication with configuration Al/PNC/Ag2O. The ac conductivity measurements have been carried out for both samples in a frequency window of 1 kHz-5 MHz and at different temperatures varying from 298 K to 523 K. Activation energy (Ea) has been determined for pure polymer as well as PNC and is found to be less for PNC, as compared with pure polymer. Further, impedance measurement at different temperatures results in two frequency ranges corresponding to ionic conduction and blocking electrode effect. The value of bulk resistance for pure polymer and PNC has been found to be 3660 Ω and 442 Ω, respectively, at 298 K temperature. Electric modulus has been determined and is observed to support the dielectric constant data; it further reveals the deviation from Debye behavior at a higher frequency.

  5. Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.

  6. Short range ferromagnetic, magneto-electric, and magneto-dielectric effect in ceramic Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harishchandra, E-mail: singh85harish@gmail.com, E-mail: singh85harish@rrcat.gov.in; Ghosh, Haranath [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Chandrasekhar Rao, T. V. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, G.; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-01-28

    We report observation of magneto-electric and magneto-dielectric couplings along with short range ferromagnetic order in ceramic Cobalt Tellurate (Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}, CTO) using magnetic, structural, dielectric, pyroelectric, and polarization studies. DC magnetization along with dielectric constant measurements indicate a coupling between magnetic order and electrical polarization. A strong anomaly in the dielectric constant at ∼17.4 K in zero magnetic field indicates spontaneous electric polarization, consistent with a recent neutron diffraction study. Observation of weak short range ferromagnetic order at lower temperatures is attributed to the Griffiths-like ferromagnetism. Furthermore, magnetic field dependence of the ferroelectric transition follows earlier theoretical predictions, applicable to single crystal CTO. Finally, combined dielectric, pyroelectric, and polarization measurements suggest that the ground state of CTO may possess spontaneous symmetry breaking in the absence of magnetic field.

  7. Glass transition and dynamics in BSA-water mixtures over wide ranges of composition studied by thermal and dielectric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulou, A; Kyritsis, A; Sabater I Serra, R; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Shinyashiki, N; Pissis, P

    2011-12-01

    Protein-water dynamics in mixtures of water and a globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was studied over wide ranges of composition, in the form of solutions or hydrated solid pellets, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermally stimulated depolarization current technique (TSDC) and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). Additionally, water equilibrium sorption isotherm (ESI) measurements were performed at room temperature. The crystallization and melting events were studied by DSC and the amount of uncrystallized water was calculated by the enthalpy of melting during heating. The glass transition of the system was detected by DSC for water contents higher than the critical water content corresponding to the formation of the first sorption layer of water molecules directly bound to primary hydration sites, namely 0.073 (grams of water per grams of dry protein), estimated by ESI. A strong plasticization of the T(g) was observed by DSC for hydration levels lower than those necessary for crystallization of water during cooling, i.e. lower than about 0.3 (grams of water per grams of hydrated protein) followed by a stabilization of T(g) at about -80°C for higher water contents. The α relaxation associated with the glass transition was also observed in dielectric measurements. In TSDC a microphase separation could be detected resulting in double T(g) for some hydration levels. A dielectric relaxation of small polar groups of the protein plasticized by water, overlapped by relaxations of uncrystallized water molecules, and a separate relaxation of water in the crystallized water phase (bulk ice crystals) were also recorded.

  8. Radiative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X

    2001-01-01

    Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.

  9. Interfacial effects in oxide-polymer laminar composite thin film dielectrics for capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Pratyush

    enhanced segmental chain mobility or reduced degree of co-operative chain motion in comparison to Parylene C itself. These effects were found to be more pronounced for Parylene C in the vicinity of SiO2. AC electric field dependant impedance spectroscopy analysis of SiO 2-Parylene C laminar composites showed gradual reduction in segmental chain motion relaxation rate in Parylene C with an increase in AC oscillation amplitude. Reduced segmental chain motion relaxation rate at a fixed temperature, suggesting higher stability of glassy phase at high AC oscillation amplitude, was explained based on its similar dependence on external pressure, previously shown for polyisoprene and PMMA. Lesser effect of AC oscillation amplitude on interfacial polymer segmental chain motion relaxation rate in comparison to bulk polymer was found to be consistent with reported higher activation energy for segmental chain motion for thicker film in comparison to thinner. With an increase in AC oscillation amplitude a new sub-ohmic AC conduction mechanism associated with minority carrier injection was found to be dominant at lower frequency. The relaxation associated minority carrier injection was found to be strongly coupled with AC electric field amplitude. Thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements (TSDC) of SiO 2-Parylene C laminar composites revealed the presence of interfacial dipolar energy state with activation energy in the range of 1.05 to 1.30 eV. Surface functionalization of thermally grown SiO2 with various organosilane was carried out to control the polarity of SiO2 surface and modify interfacial characteristics of laminar composites. Shift in TSDC interfacial peak maxima, signifying presence of deeper interfacial state, with surface functionalization was found to be directly related to surface polarity of functionalized SiO2. Overall increase in polarizibility of SiO2-Parylene C laminar composite dielectric with surface functionalization was found to be controlled by

  10. Polarization Dependence of Linewidth Enhancement Factor in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Its Implication for Nonlinear Polarization Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shuang; WU Chong-Qing; WANG Yong-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Linewidth enhancement factors (LEFs) of the transverse electric mode and the transverse magnetic mode in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers are measured using the nonlinear optical loop mirror method and the principal state of polarization vector method.The polarization dependence of LEFs plays an important role in the nonlinear polarization rotation.The relationship between the polarization-dependence of LEFs and nonlinear polarization rotation in the Stokes space is demonstrated.

  11. Extraordinary Transmission through Metallic Grating with Subwavelength Slits for S-Polarization Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guang-Hui; WANG Pei; ZHANG Dou-Guo; JIAO Xiao-Jin; MIN Chang-Jun; MING Hai

    2007-01-01

    Based on the rigorous coupled-wave analysis algorithm, we have systematically analysed the effect of the geometrical parameters of a dielectric film coated metallic grating with subwavelength slits on extraordinary optical transmission for s-polarization illumination. Results show that the dielectric Glm which sustains a waveguide electromagnetic mode on the top of the metallic lamellar grating can strongly enhance the transmittance, the positions of the transmission peaks are mainly determined by the period of the metallic grating, the thickness and refractive index of the dielectric Glm. This structure shows potential applications in excellent polarizers or polarization-isotropic devices at infrared spectral range by appropriately choosing the geometrical parameters.

  12. Gold Photoluminescence Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Sebastian K H; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we develop a simple model that faithfully reproduces all features observed in our experiments showing also good quantitative agreement for the PL enhancement

  13. Broadband Polarizers Based on Graphene Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Tianjing

    2016-01-01

    We present terahertz (THz) metasurfaces based on aligned rectangular graphene patches placed on top of a dielectric layer to convert the transmitted linearly polarized waves to circular or elliptical polarized radiation. Our results lead to the design of an ultrathin broadband THz quarter-wave plate. In addition, ultrathin metasurfaces based on arrays of L-shaped graphene periodic patches are demonstrated to achieve broadband cross-polarization transformation in reflection and transmission. The proposed metasurface designs have tunable responses and are envisioned to become the building blocks of several integrated THz systems.

  14. Broadband local dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A route to extend the measurement bandwidth of local dielectric spectroscopy up to the MHz range has been devised. The method is based on a slow amplitude modulation at a frequency Ω of the excitation field oscillating at a frequency ω and the coherent detection of the modulated average electric force or force gradient at Ω. The cantilever mechanical response does not affect the measurement if Ω is well below its resonant frequency; therefore, limitations on the excitation field frequency are strongly reduced. Demonstration on a thin poly(vinyl acetate) film is provided, showing its structural relaxation spectrum on the local scale up to 45 °C higher than glass temperature, and nanoscale resolution dielectric relaxation imaging near conductive nanowires embedded in the polymer matrix was obtained up to 5 MHz frequency, with no physical reason to hinder further bandwidth extension.

  15. Modifications of the Dielectric Properties of Biological Membranes by Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Savescu, S B

    2004-01-01

    Biological cell suspensions are known to show dielectric dispersions due to the Maxwell-Wagner mechanism. Many examples are summarized in a number of papers by Schwan [7, 9, 10]. By the application of an appropriate analysis to the dielectric dispersion, it is possible to estimate electrical phase parameters related to protoplasm and cell membrane. A dielectric theory of interfacial polarization for a suspension of conducting particles (protoplasm) covered with poorly conducting shells (plasma membrane) was developed by Pauly and Schwan [7], and was satisfactory applied for low volume fractions of suspended particles (less than about 0.2). The purpose of this paper is to examine the change in yeast plasma membrane permittivity after heating treatment, by using the Pauly and Schwan's theory.

  16. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 above Tc similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  17. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Gang, E-mail: baigang@njupt.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Zhiguo [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie, Qiyun; Guo, Yanyan; Li, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yan, Xiaobing [College of Electronic and information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC) and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}TiO{sub 3} above T{sub c} similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  18. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    energy of electric storage devices, from [14] The greatest problem faced by current capacitors is size . The space needed for a capacitor bank to fire...increases as size decreases. The ultimate objective of capacitors for energy storage applications is to increase capacitance and maximize energy ...an optimal thickness ~2.6 mm. Finally, despite their large dielectric constant, SDM capacitors have a small energy due to their size . 48

  19. Dielectric spectroscopy of polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, R.D.; Matveeva, E.M. [Polytechnical Univ. of Valencia, (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    Polyaniline films (PANI) are being considered as attractive new galvanic sources, electrochromic displays, chemical sensors, etc. So far much work has been done to study their optical, electrochemical and electrical properties. However, there are still doubts about the basic electric conductivity mechanisms of PANI. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of water molecules and acid anions on the properties of PANI films by dielectric spectroscopy.

  20. Graphene-based magnetless converter of terahertz wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Veronica S.; Polischuk, Olga V.; Popov, Vyacheslav V.

    2016-04-01

    The polarization conversion of terahertz radiation by the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons located at the surface of a high-refractive-index dielectric substrate (terahertz prism) is studied theoretically. Giant polarization conversion at the plasmon resonance frequencies takes place without applying external DC magnetic field. It is shown that the total polarization conversion can be reached at the total internal reflection of THz wave from the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons even at room temperature.

  1. Improvements of dielectric properties of Cu doped LaTiO3 þδ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Chen; Jianxun Xu; Yimin Cui; Guangyi Shang; Jianqiang Qian; Jun-en Yao

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic composites of Cu-doped La1?xCuxTiO3þδ (x¼0.05, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5) were synthesized by con-ventional solid-state reaction. The complex dielectric properties of the composites were investigated as a function of temperature (77 KrTr320 K) and frequency (100 Hzrfr1 MHz) separately. In all com-posites, the dielectric constants increase monotonously and the dielectric loss undulates with tem-perature. And it is clearly observed that extraordinarily high low-frequency dielectric constant ( ? 104) appear at room temperature in La0.5Cu0.5TiO3þδ, which is ?100 times larger than that of La0.95Cu0.05TiO3 þδ. Interestingly, the dielectric constants increase remarkably with the doped Cu con-tents, meanwhile the dielectric loss for all samples is ideal lower than 1 at room temperature in the measured frequency range. By means of complex impedance analysis, the improvements of dielectric properties are attributed to both bulk contribution and grain boundary effect, in which the bulk polaronic relaxation and the Maxwell–Wagner relaxation due to grain boundary response are heightened re-markably with the high doped Cu contents.

  2. Tunable dielectric properties of ferrite-dielectric based metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, K; Huang, K; Zeng, L Y; Zhou, M H; Wang, Q M; Wang, Y G; Lei, M

    2015-01-01

    A ferrite-dielectric metamaterial composed of dielectric and ferrite cuboids has been investigated by experiments and simulations. By interacting with the electromagnetic wave, the Mie resonance can take place in the dielectric cuboids and the ferromagnetic precession will appear in the ferrite cuboids. The magnetic field distributions show the electric Mie resonance of the dielectric cuboids can be influenced by the ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboids when a certain magnetic field is applied. The effective permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results is demonstrated, which confirms that these metamaterials can be used for tunable microwave devices.

  3. Skin dominance of the dielectric-electronic-phononic-photonic attribute of nanoscaled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Likun; Xu, Shiqing; Liu, Xinjuan; Qin, Wei; Sun, Zhuo; Zheng, Weitao; Sun, Chang Q.

    2013-11-01

    Nanoscaled or porous silicon (p-Si) with and without surface passivation exhibits unusually tunable properties that its parent bulk does never show. Such property tunability amplifies the applicability of Si in the concurrent and upcoming technologies. However, consistent understanding of the fundamental nature of nanoscaled Si remains a high challenge. This article aims to address the recent progress in this regard with focus on reconciling the tunable dielectric, electronic, phononic, and photonic properties of p-Si in terms of skin dominance. We show that the skin-depth bond contraction, local quantum entrapment, and electron localization is responsible for the size-induced property tunability. The shorter and stronger bonds between undercoordinated skin atoms result in the local densification and quantum entrapment of the binding energy and the bonding electrons, which in turn polarizes the dangling bond electrons. Such local entrapment modifies the Hamiltonian and associated properties such as the band gap, core level shift, Stokes shift (electron-phonon interaction), phonon and dielectric relaxation. Therefore, given the known trend of one property change, one is expected to be able to predict the variation of the rest based on the notations of the bond order-length-strength correlation and local bond average approach (BOLS-LBA). Furthermore, skin bond reformation due to Al, Cu, and Ti metallization and O and F passivation adds another freedom to enhance or attenuate the size effect. The developed formulations, spectral analytical methods, and importantly, the established database and knowledge could be of use in engineering p-Si and beyond for desired functions.

  4. Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Exfoliated Graphite/Polyimide Composite Films with Low Percolation Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Zhang, Yi-He; Shang, Jiwu; Ke, Shan-Ming; Tong, Wang-shu; Shen, Bo; Huang, Hai-Tao

    2012-09-01

    Exfoliated graphite/polyimide composite films were synthesized by in situ polymerization. The electrical and dielectric properties of composite films with different volume fraction of exfoliated graphite were investigated over the frequency range from 103 Hz to 3 × 106 Hz. The dielectric behavior of the composite films was investigated by percolation theory and a microcapacitor model. A low percolation threshold f c ≈ 3.1 vol.% was obtained due to the high aspect ratio of the exfoliated graphite. Both the dielectric constant and alternating-current (AC) conductivity showed an abrupt increase in the vicinity of the percolation threshold. The ultralarge enhancement of the dielectric constant near and beyond the percolation threshold was due to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization between the exfoliated graphite and polyimide and interface polarization between the composite film and electrode.

  5. Decomposition of the Total Electromagnetic Momentum in a Linear Dielectric into Field and Matter Components

    CERN Document Server

    Crenshaw, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing resolution of the Abraham--Minkowski electromagnetic momentum controversy is predicated on a decomposition of the total momentum of a closed continuum electrodynamic system into separate field and matter components. Using a microscopic model of a simple linear dielectric, we derive Lagrangian equations of motion for the electric dipoles and show that the dielectric can be treated as a collection of stationary simple harmonic oscillators that are driven by the electric field and produce a polarization field in response. The macroscopic energy and momentum are defined in terms of the electric, magnetic, and polarization fields that travel through the dielectric together as a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. We conclude that both the macroscopic energy and the macroscopic momentum are entirely electromagnetic in nature for a simple linear dielectric in the absence of significant reflections.

  6. Scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasue, Kohei, E-mail: yamasue@riec.tohoku.ac.jp; Cho, Yasuo [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Measuring spontaneous polarization and permanent dipoles on surfaces and interfaces on the nanoscale is difficult because the induced electrostatic fields and potentials are often influenced by other phenomena such as the existence of monopole fixed charges, screening charges, and contact potential differences. A method based on tip-sample capacitance detection and bias feedback is proposed which is only sensitive to polarization- or dipole-induced potentials, unlike Kelvin probe force microscopy. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by simultaneously measuring topography and polarization-induced potentials on a reconstructed Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface with atomic resolution.

  7. Scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Kohei; Cho, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    Measuring spontaneous polarization and permanent dipoles on surfaces and interfaces on the nanoscale is difficult because the induced electrostatic fields and potentials are often influenced by other phenomena such as the existence of monopole fixed charges, screening charges, and contact potential differences. A method based on tip-sample capacitance detection and bias feedback is proposed which is only sensitive to polarization- or dipole-induced potentials, unlike Kelvin probe force microscopy. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by simultaneously measuring topography and polarization-induced potentials on a reconstructed Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface with atomic resolution.

  8. Scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Kohei; Cho, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    Measuring spontaneous polarization and permanent dipoles on surfaces and interfaces on the nanoscale is difficult because the induced electrostatic fields and potentials are often influenced by other phenomena such as the existence of monopole fixed charges, screening charges, and contact potential differences. A method based on tip-sample capacitance detection and bias feedback is proposed which is only sensitive to polarization- or dipole-induced potentials, unlike Kelvin probe force microscopy. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by simultaneously measuring topography and polarization-induced potentials on a reconstructed Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface with atomic resolution.

  9. Dielectric loss determination using perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrawis, Madeleine Y.

    1991-01-01

    A dielectric filled cavity structure is currently being used to estimate the dielectric constant and loss factor over a wide range of frequencies of a dielectric material which fills the cavity structure [Saed, 1987]. A full field analysis is used to compute the effective complex permittivity of the sample material based on reflection coefficient measurements of the cavity structure and associated geometrical dimensions. The method has previously been used successfully to de...

  10. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wojcieszak

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass pol

  11. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  12. Phase field modeling of flexoelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. T.; Zhang, S. D.; Soh, A. K.; Yin, W. Y.

    2015-07-01

    A phase field model is developed to study the flexoelectricity in nanoscale solid dielectrics, which exhibit both structural and elastic inhomogeneity. The model is established for an elastic homogeneous system by taking into consideration all the important non-local interactions, such as electrostatic, elastic, polarization gradient, as well as flexoelectric terms. The model is then extended to simulate a two-phase system with strong elastic inhomogeneity. Both the microscopic domain structures and the macroscopic effective piezoelectricity are thoroughly studied using the proposed model. The results obtained show that the largest flexoelectric induced polarization exists at the interface between the matrix and the inclusion. The effective piezoelectricity is greatly influenced by the inclusion size, volume fraction, elastic stiffness, and the applied stress. The established model in the present study can provide a fundamental framework for computational study of flexoelectricity in nanoscale solid dielectrics, since various boundary conditions can be easily incorporated into the phase field model.

  13. Dielectric constant of NiO and LDA+U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin-Hui; Luo, Ning; Peng, Lian-Mao; Weinert, M.; Freeman, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    The local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximations (GGA) of density functional theory systematically overestimate the electronic polarizability of materials. We calculate the dielectric constant of NiO by the direct method and find, contrary to previous suggestions, that the LDA+U method reduces the polarization such that ɛ∞ decreases monotonically with increasing U. We illustrate the existence of a linear term in the effective exchange-correlation potential that counteracts the external electric field, thus demonstrating that the decrease of ɛ∞ is intrinsic to the LDA+U correction. The reduction of the polarization is due mostly to reduced orbital mixing between the unoccupied eg states and the occupied 2p states. Our work establishes LDA+U as a viable method for calculating the dielectric constants of correlated materials.

  14. Large negative Goos-Hänchen shift from a weakly absorbing dielectric slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Gang; Chen, Hong; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2005-11-01

    It is theoretically shown that the negative Goos-Hänchen shifts near resonance, Re[k(z)d] = m pi, can be an order of magnitude larger than the wavelength for both TE- and TM-polarized beams reflected from a weakly absorbing dielectric slab if the absorption of the slab is sufficiently weak, which is different from the case for a lossless dielectric slab [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 133903 (2003)].

  15. The effect of external factors on dielectric permittivity of Rochelle salt: humidity, annealing, stresses, electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.Slivka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of external factors, such as dessicating/wetting, thermal annealing, uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure, on the dielectric permittivity of Rochelle salt crystals is investigated. The obtained results are compared with the available literature data and analyzed within the phenomenological Landau approach. A significant effect of the internal polar point defects in crystals and storage conditions on the dielectric permittivity is shown.

  16. Dielectric normal and segmental relaxation modes by extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Calleja, Ricardo; Compan, Vicente; Riande, E

    2004-06-15

    The time rate change of the polarization vector of an isotropic polymer containing dipoles along the chain contour under an electric field is studied using the extended irreversible thermodynamics formalism. The analysis leads to the formulation of phenomenological equations of Havriliak-Negami for the dielectric permittivity that give a good account of the dielectric {alpha} and normal mode peaks associated, respectively, with the segmental modes and the motion of the whole chain.

  17. Ferroelectric polymer networks with high energy density and improved discharged efficiency for dielectric energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanchaitit, Paisan; Han, Kuo; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; Wang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers are being actively explored as dielectric materials for electrical energy storage applications. However, their high dielectric constants and outstanding energy densities are accompanied by large dielectric loss due to ferroelectric hysteresis and electrical conduction, resulting in poor charge-discharge efficiencies under high electric fields. To address this long-standing problem, here we report the ferroelectric polymer networks exhibiting significantly reduced dielectric loss, superior polarization and greatly improved breakdown strength and reliability, while maintaining their fast discharge capability at a rate of microseconds. These concurrent improvements lead to unprecedented charge-discharge efficiencies and large values of the discharged energy density and also enable the operation of the ferroelectric polymers at elevated temperatures, which clearly outperforms the melt-extruded ferroelectric polymer films that represents the state of the art in dielectric polymers. The simplicity and scalability of the described method further suggest their potential for high energy density capacitors.

  18. Low-κ' dielectric properties of UV-treated bi-axially oriented polypropylene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervos, C. T.; Tarantili, P. A.; Athanassopoulou, M. D.

    2009-07-01

    A 40 µm multilayer bi-axially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film, was fabricated by the tenter process and its dielectric response was investigated after applying combined action of UV, humidity and heat. Dissipation factor (tan δ) and relative dielectric constant measurements were performed via the capacitance method for frequencies 20Hz-1 GHz. These results show that the relative dielectric constant (κ') reduces towards ultra low values (1.8) with an increasing number of applied UV-condensation cycles without any subsequent increase in the dielectric loss. Having no added physical porosity and absence of fluorine atoms, the irradiated BOPP structures offer significant advantages over poly(tetrafluoroethylene) PTFE due to reduced polarization effects, lower dielectric constant values and chemical stability to the adjacent copper or aluminium conductors. Possible application fields are dry type high-voltage capacitors and insulation within electronic components.

  19. Comparative study of low frequency dielectric properties of Hexyloxybenzylidine hexylaniline and Heptyloxybenzylidine hexylaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. N.; Gogoi, B.; Dubey, R.; Singh, N. M.; Sharma, H. B.; Alapati, P. R.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a comparative study of low frequency dielectric properties of two Alkyloxybenzylidine alkylaniline compounds—Hexyloxybenzylidine hexylaniline (6O.6) and Heptyloxybenzylidine hexylaniline (7O.6). Dielectric study is made by using cells with ITO coated surface pretreated with polyvinyl alcohol as the aligning layer. We have found that the switching of dielectric anisotropy from negative to positive value is related to the change in orientation of alkyloxy dipole. It indicates 6O.6 (and lower members) to be negative dielectric anisotropic material while 7O.6 (and higher members) to be positive dielectric anisotropic materials. Further comparative study on the interfacial polarization between the two types of interfaces (PVA-6O.6 and PVA-7O.6) with different relaxation times support the differences of the two liquid crystal samples. The dc electric field characteristics of the two samples are drastically different in behaviour and can be explained satisfactorily on the interplay between the dipole orientation and the ionic motion.

  20. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  1. Study of Dielectric Behavior and Charge Conduction Mechanism of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA)-Copper (Cu) and Gold (Au) Nanocomposites as a Bio-resorbable Material for Organic Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendia, Suman; Goyal, Parveen Kumar; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Chahal, Rishi Pal; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-10-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) embedded with varying concentrations of chemically synthesized copper (Cu) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using ex situ sol-gel casting method. The addition of almost the same concentration of CuNPs in PVA improves the conducting properties, while that of AuNPs improves the dielectric nature of composite films. It has been found that addition of AuNPs up to ˜0.4 wt.% concentration enhaneces the capacitive nature due to the formation of small Coulomb tunneling knots as internal capacitors. The dielectric studies suggest the Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization as the dominant dielectric relaxation process, whereas the I- V characteristics indicate bulk limited Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages as the dominant charge transport mechanism operating at room temperature in all specimens. These novel features lead to the conclusion that addition of a small quantity of metal nanoparticles can help tune the properties of PVA for desired applications in bio-compatible polymer-based organic electronic devices.

  2. Controlled opacity in a class of nonlinear dielectric media

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; De Lorenci, Vitorio A; Klippert, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by new technologies on designing and tailoring metamaterials, we seek for properties of certain classes of nonlinear optical materials that allow room for a reversibly controlled opacityto-transparency phase transition through the application of external electromagnetic fields. We examine some mathematically simple models for the dielectric parameters of the medium, and compute the relevant geometric quantities that describe the speed and polarization of light rays.

  3. Magnetic field tunable capacitive dielectric:ionic-liquid sandwich composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2016-03-01

    We examined the tunability of the capacitance for GaFeO3-ionic liquid-GaFeO3 composite material by external magnetic and electric field. Up to 1.6 folds of capacitance tunability could be achieved at 957 kHz with voltage 4 V and magnetic field 0.02 T applied. We show that the capacitance enhancement is due to the polarization coupling between dielectric layer and ionic liquid layer.

  4. Dipole-on-dielectric model for infrared lithographic spiral antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreman, G.D. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Dogariu, A. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Christodoulou, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Kotter, D. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin Corporation, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    We present a dipole-on-dielectric model for lithographic antennas used for bolometer coupling in the infrared. The predicted antenna patterns show good agreement with measurements of Au-on-Si spiral antennas at 9.5-{mu}m wavelength. Angle- and polarization-resolved measurements are proposed, which will further probe the behavior of these antenna structures and facilitate refinement of the analytical models. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  5. Reflectors and resonators for high-k bulk Bloch plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We propose proof-of-concept designs of Bragg reflectors and Fabry-Pe´rot resonators for large wave vector waves (Bloch bulk plasmon polaritons) in multilayer metal-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials. The designs are based on hybrid multilayers having both subwavelength and wavelength...

  6. Microwave sensing of moisture content and bulk density in flowing grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content and bulk density were determined from measurement of the dielectric properties of flowing wheat kernels at a single microwave frequency (5.8 GHz). The measuring system consisted of two high-gain microwave patch antennas mounted on opposite sides of rectangular chute and connected to...

  7. Enhanced dielectric performance in polymer composite films with carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide hybrid filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, TaeYoung; Suk, Ji Won; Chou, Harry; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Kholmanov, Iskandar N; Akinwande, Deji; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-08-27

    The electrical conductivity and the specific surface area of conductive fillers in conductor-insulator composite films can drastically improve the dielectric performance of those films through changing their polarization density by interfacial polarization. We have made a polymer composite film with a hybrid conductive filler material made of carbon nanotubes grown onto reduced graphene oxide platelets (rG-O/CNT). We report the effect of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler on the dielectric performance of the composite film. The composite film had a dielectric constant of 32 with a dielectric loss of 0.051 at 0.062 wt% rG-O/CNT filler and 100 Hz, while the neat polymer film gave a dielectric constant of 15 with a dielectric loss of 0.036. This is attributed to the increased electrical conductivity and specific surface area of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler, which results in an increase in interfacial polarization density between the hybrid filler and the polymer.

  8. Dielectric Behaviour of Binary Mixture of 2-Chloroaniline with 2-Methoxyethanol and 2-Ethoxyethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh G. Nemmaniwar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Densities, viscosities, refractive indices, dielectric constant (ε' and dielectric loss (ε'' of 2-chloroaniline (2CA + 2-methoxyethanol (2ME and 2-chloroaniline (2CA + 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE for different mole fractions of 2-chloroaniline in binary mixture have been measured at single microwave frequency 10.985 GHz at 300C by Surber method using microwave X-band. The values of dielectric parameters (ε' and ε''   have been used to evaluate the molar polarization (P12 loss tangent (tanδ, viscosity (η, activation energy (Ea, excess permittivity (Δε', excess dielectric loss (Δε'', excess viscosities (Δη, excess polarization (ΔP12 and excess activation energy (ΔEa  have also been estimated. These parameters have been used to explain the formation of complexes in the system. It is found that dielectric constant (ε', dielectric loss (ε'', loss tangent (tanδ, molar polarization (P12 varies non-linearly but activation energy (Ea , viscosity (η ,density (ρ, and refractive index (n varies linearly with increasing mole fraction in binary mixture of 2-chloroaniline (2-CA + 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME and 2-chloroaniline (2-CA + 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE. Hence, solute-solvent molecular associations have been reported. 

  9. Hybrid surface waves in semi-infinite metal-dielectric lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Miret, Juan J; Jaksic, Zoran; Vukovic, Slobodan; Belic, Milivoj R

    2012-01-01

    We investigate surface waves at the boundary between a semi-infinite layered metal-dielectric nanostructure cut normally to the layers and a semi-infinite dielectric. Spatial dispersion properties of such a nanostructure can be dramatically affected by coupling of surface plasmons polaritons at different metal-dielectric interfaces. As a consequence, the effective medium approach is not applicable in general. It is demonstrated that Dyakonov-like surface waves with hybrid polarization can propagate in an angular range substantially enlarged compared to conventional birefringent materials. Our numerical simulations for an Ag-GaAs stack in contact with glass show a low to moderate influence of losses.

  10. Pure Azimuthal Shear of an Elastic Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of polarization for the problem of pure azimuthal shear of an elastic dielectric material. The present problem is investigated in context of finite deformation theory. In this paper, the author studied the effect of polarization on the stresses for Neoprene rubber and compare the results with elastic material (Mooney-Rivlin material graphically. Twisting of a rigid cylinder in an infinite elastic medium is considered as a special case in this research.

  11. Birefringence induced polarization-independent and nearly all-angle transparency through a metallic film

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Dong-Liang; Gao, Lei; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We propose an birefringence route to perfect electromagnetic (EM) wave tunneling through a metallic film which relies on homogeneous birefringent coatings with moderate and positive parameters only. EM transparency is achieved in such an birefringent-metal-birefringent (BMB) structure for both polarizations and over nearly all incident angles. The stringent restrictions in conventional dielectric-metal-dielectric media, i.e., dielectrics with extremely negative permittivity, high magnetic fie...

  12. Variational principles and governing equations in nano-dielectrics with the flexoelectric effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The flexoelectric effect is very strong and coupled with large strain gradients for nanoscale dielectrics. At the nanoscale, the electrostatic force cannot be ignored. In this paper, we have established the electric enthalpy variational principle for nanosized dielectrics with the strain gradient and the polarization gradient effect, as well as the effect of the electrostatic force. The complete governing equations, which include the effect of the electrostatic force, are derived from this variational principle, and based on the principle the generalized electrostatic stress is obtained, the generalized electrostatic stress contains the Maxwell stress corresponding to the polarization and strain, and stress related to the polarization gradient and strain gradient. This work provides the basis for the analysis and computations for the electromechanical problems in nanosized dielectric materials.

  13. Image method for induced surface charge from many-body system of dielectric spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan J.; Freed, Karl F.

    2016-09-01

    Charged dielectric spheres embedded in a dielectric medium provide the simplest model for many-body systems of polarizable ions and charged colloidal particles. We provide a multiple scattering formulation for the total electrostatic energy for such systems and demonstrate that the polarization energy can be rapidly evaluated by an image method that generalizes the image methods for conducting spheres. Individual contributions to the total electrostatic energy are ordered according to the number of polarized surfaces involved, and each additional surface polarization reduces the energy by a factor of (a/R)3ɛ, where a is the sphere radius, R the average inter-sphere separation, and ɛ the relevant dielectric mismatch at the interface. Explicit expressions are provided for both the energy and the forces acting on individual spheres, which can be readily implemented in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable charged spheres, thereby avoiding costly computational techniques that introduce a surface charge distribution that requires numerical solution.

  14. The contribution of 180° domain wall motion to dielectric properties quantified from in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fancher, C.M.; Brewer, S.; Chung, C.C.; Röhrig, S.; Rojac, T.; Estevesa, G.; Deluca, M.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.; Jones, J.L. (Mat. Cent. Leoben); (NCSU); (Joseph Stefan Inst.); (GIT)

    2017-03-01

    The contribution of 180° domain wall motion to polarization and dielectric properties of ferroelectric materials has yet to be determined experimentally. In this paper, an approach for estimating the extent of (180°) domain reversal during application of electric fields is presented. We demonstrate this method by determining the contribution of domain reversal to polarization in soft lead zirconate titanate during application of strong electric fields. At the maximum applied field, domain reversal was determined to account for >80% of the measured macroscopic polarization. We also apply the method to quantify the contribution of domain reversal to the weak-field dielectric permittivity of BaTiO3. The results of this analysis determined that domain reversal accounts for up to ~70% of the macroscopic dielectric permittivity in BaTiO3. These results demonstrate the predominance of domain reversal to high and low-field dielectric response in ferroelectric polycrystalline materials.

  15. Inorganic optical dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, John A.

    1996-07-01

    Dielectric coatings have been in use for a very long time, yet today they represent a steadily growing wold-wide industry. A wide range of materials, and applications from the near ultraviolet into the infrared are in use, or under development. This paper is a brief survey, including references to the literature, and a discussion of materials diagnostics. Discussed is the microstructure, optical constants and their relationship as determined especially by optical measurements. This paper emphasizes the materials science aspects rather than applications.

  16. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  17. Treatment of polycarbonate by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, K. G.; Hamia, Y. A. A.; Mota, R. P.; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Nascente, P. A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Generally most plastic materials are intrinsically hydrophobic, low surface energy materials, and thus do not adhere well to other substances. Surface treatment of polymers by discharge plasmas is of great and increasing industrial application because it can uniformly modify the surface of sample without changing the material bulk properties and is environmentally friendly. The plasma processes that can be conducted under ambient pressure and temperature conditions have attracted special attention because of their easy implementation in industrial processing. Present work deals with surface modification of polycarbonate (PC) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. The treatment was performed in a parallel plate reactor driven by a 60Hz power supply. The DBD plasmas at atmospheric pressure were generated in air and nitrogen. Material characterization was carried out by contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energy of the polymer surface was calculated from contact angle data by Owens-Wendt method using distilled water and diiodomethane as test liquids. The plasma-induced chemical modifications are associated with incorporation of polar oxygen and nitrogen containing groups on the polymer surface. Due to these surface modifications the DBD-treated polymers become more hydrophilic. Aging behavior of the treated samples revealed that the polymer surfaces were prone to hydrophobic recovery although they did not completely recover their original wetting properties.

  18. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  19. Probing bulk defect energy bands using generalized charge pumping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuduzzaman, Muhammad; Weir, Bonnie; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2012-04-01

    The multifrequency charge pumping (CP) technique has long been used to probe the density of defects at the substrate-oxide interface, as well as in the bulk of the oxide of MOS transistors. However, profiling the energy levels of the defects has been more difficult due to the narrow scanning range of the voltage of a typical CP signal, and the uncertainty associated with the defect capture cross-section. In this paper, we discuss a generalized CP method that can identify defect energy bands within a bulk oxide, without requiring separate characterization of the defect capture cross-section. We use the new technique to characterize defects in both fresh and stressed samples of various dielectric compositions. By quantifying the way defects are generated as a function of time, we gain insight into the nature of defect generation in a particular gate dielectric. We also discuss the relative merits of voltage, time, and other variables of CP to probe bulk defect density, and compare the technique with related characterization approaches.

  20. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  1. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  2. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  3. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  4. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  5. Polarizing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  6. Dielectric laser accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  7. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  8. Light trapping above the light cone in one-dimensional array of dielectric spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate bound states in the first TE and TM diffraction continua (BSC) in a linear periodic array of dielectric spheres in air above the light cone. We classify the BSCs according to the symmetry specified by the azimuthal number $m$, the Bloch wave vector $\\beta$ directed along the array, and polarization. The most simple symmetry protected TE and TM polarized BSCs have $m=0$ and $\\beta=0$ and occur in a wide range of the radius of the spheres and dielectric constant. More complicated BSCs with $m\

  9. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric constant of semiconducting glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Burghate; V S Deogaonkar; S B Sawarkar; S P Yawale; S V Pakade

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the results of thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric constant for 40PbO–60Bi2O3 glass thermoelectrets are presented. Measurements of TSDC and dielectric constant, $\\varepsilon'$, have been carried out in the temperature range 30–300°C. The thermoelectrets were prepared at different polarizing fields. The various observed peaks in the thermograms are discussed on the basis of space charge polarization. The trap energy is evaluated from the Garlick–Gibson plot of initial rise method. Similarly other parameters such as relaxation time, charge release etc are evaluated.

  10. Dielectric properties of polyacrylate thick films used in sensors and actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Sylvestre, A.; Basrour, S.; Chaillout, J.-J.

    2010-07-01

    Dielectric polymers are emerging electro-active materials used in high performance applications such as micropumps, robots and artificial muscles. The development of such applications requires the use of models taking into account the electrical parameters of the material. However, there is still some controversy over the dielectric constant of the most widely used dielectric polymer (VHB 4910, 3M, USA). In this paper, we present an exhaustive study relating to changes in the dielectric constant of VHB 4910 over wide frequency and temperature ranges. We found that the permittivity was a function of: frequency, temperature, the nature of the electrodes and the pre-stress applied to material. Mechanisms of dielectric polarization (β-relaxation) explain the behaviour in temperature and frequency of this parameter. The use of silver grease-compliant electrodes induces an increase in the dielectric constant which moves to a value of 5.4 (against 4.7 with gold electrodes). A pre-strain applied to the material shows a reduction up to 15% in the value of the dielectric constant. Short-range dipolar relaxation, local mechanical constraints in the material and a possible crystallization of material induced by the stretching are suggested to explain these behaviours. Analytic equations of the dielectric constant according to the temperature and pre-strain are then proposed and used to validate the behaviour of these materials for actuator and scavenger devices.

  11. Performance of dielectric nanocomposites: matrix-free, hairy nanoparticle assemblies and amorphous polymer-nanoparticle blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Christopher A; Koerner, Hilmar; Meth, Jeffrey S; Dang, Alei; Hui, Chin Ming; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Bockstaller, Michael R; Durstock, Michael F; Vaia, Richard A

    2014-12-10

    Demands to increase the stored energy density of electrostatic capacitors have spurred the development of materials with enhanced dielectric breakdown, improved permittivity, and reduced dielectric loss. Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs), consisting of a blend of amorphous polymer and dielectric nanofillers, have been studied intensely to satisfy these goals; however, nanoparticle aggregates, field localization due to dielectric mismatch between particle and matrix, and the poorly understood role of interface compatibilization have challenged progress. To expand the understanding of the inter-relation between these factors and, thus, enable rational optimization of low and high contrast PNC dielectrics, we compare the dielectric performance of matrix-free hairy nanoparticle assemblies (aHNPs) to blended PNCs in the regime of low dielectric contrast to establish how morphology and interface impact energy storage and breakdown across different polymer matrices (polystyrene, PS, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA) and nanoparticle loadings (0-50% (v/v) silica). The findings indicate that the route (aHNP versus blending) to well-dispersed morphology has, at most, a minor impact on breakdown strength trends with nanoparticle volume fraction; the only exception being at intermediate loadings of silica in PMMA (15% (v/v)). Conversely, aHNPs show substantial improvements in reducing dielectric loss and maintaining charge/discharge efficiency. For example, low-frequency dielectric loss (1 Hz-1 kHz) of PS and PMMA aHNP films was essentially unchanged up to a silica content of 50% (v/v), whereas traditional blends showed a monotonically increasing loss with silica loading. Similar benefits are seen via high-field polarization loop measurements where energy storage for ∼15% (v/v) silica loaded PMMA and PS aHNPs were 50% and 200% greater than respective comparable PNC blends. Overall, these findings on low dielectric contrast PNCs clearly point to the performance benefits of

  12. Measurement of the Dielectric Properties of Volcanic Scoria and Basalt at 9370 MHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongchun; WANG Shijie; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Xiongyao

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric data for volcanic scoria and basalt on the earth at microwave frequency are extremely sparse, and also crucial for volcanic terrains imaging, and development. In consideration of their similarity to lunar regolith (soils and rocks) in chemical and mineral composition, the dielectric data is significative for passive and active microwave remote sensing on the Moon. This study provides the data about the dielectric properties of three kinds of scoria and two kinds of basalt in China. The method put forward in this paper is also applicable for measuring the dielectric properties of dry rocks and other granular ground materials with low complex dielectric constants. Firstly, the authors measured the ε' and tanδvalues of strip specimens prepared from the mixture of scoria or basalt powder and polythene with the resonant cavity perturbation method at 9370 MHz. Secondly, from the ε' and tanδ values of the mixture, the ε's and ranδs values of solid scoria and basalt were calculated using Lichtenecker's mixture formulae. Finally, the effective complex dielectric constants, ε'e and tanδe, of scoria at different bulk densities were calculated. The results have shown that the ε's and tancδs values of all solid basaltic materials measured (both solid basaltic scoria or basalt) are approximately 7 and 0.05, respectively. With increasing bulk density of scoria, the ε'e and tanδe values of scoria increase significantly.

  13. Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric metasurfaces are two-dimensional structures composed of nano-scatterers that manipulate phase and polarization of optical waves with subwavelength spatial resolution, enabling ultra-thin components for free-space optics. While high performance devices with various functionalities, including some that are difficult to achieve using conventional optical setups have been shown, most demonstrated components have a fixed functionality. Here we demonstrate highly tunable metasurface devices based on subwavelength thick silicon nano-posts encapsulated in a thin transparent elastic polymer. As proof of concept, we demonstrate a metasurface microlens operating at 915 nm, with focal distance tuning from 600 $\\mu$m to 1400 $\\mu$m through radial strain, while maintaining a diffraction limited focus and a focusing efficiency above 50$\\%$. The demonstrated tunable metasurface concept is highly versatile for developing ultra-slim, multi-functional and tunable optical devices with widespread applications ranging f...

  14. Dielectric sample with two-layer charge distribution for space charge calibration purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Rasmussen, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper is described a dielectric test sample with two very narrow concentrations of bulk charges, achieved by two internal electrodes not affecting the acoustical properties of the sample, a fact important for optimal application of most space charge measuring systems. Space charge...

  15. Dielectric screening in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Walter A.; Klepeis, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Intra-atomic and interatomic Coulomb interactions are incorporated into bond-orbital theory, based upon universal tight-binding parameters, in order to treat the effects of charge redistribution in semiconductor bonds. The dielectric function ɛ(q) is obtained for wave numbers in a [100] direction. The screening of differences in average hybrid energy across a heterojunction is calculated in detail, indicating that the decay length for the potential depends upon the relative values of Madelung and intra-atomic Coulomb terms. The parameters used here predict an imaginary decay length and thus an oscillating potential near the interface. The same theory is applied to point defects by imbedding a cluster in a matrix lattice, taking charges in that lattice to be consistent with continuum theory. Illustrating the theory with a phosphorus impurity in silicon, it is seen that the impurity and its neighboring atoms have charges on the order of only one-tenth of an electronic charge, alternating in sign from neighbor to neighbor as for planar defects. Although there are shifts in the term values on the order of a volt, the difference in these shifts for neighboring atoms is much smaller so that the effect on the bonds is quite small. This behavior is analogous to the response of a dielectric continuum to a point charge: The medium is locally neutral except at the center of the cluster and there are slowly varying potentials e2/ɛr. Because of this slow variation, free-atom term values should ordinarily suffice for the calculation of bond properties and bond lengths at impurities. Corrections are larger for homovalent substitutions such as carbon in silicon.

  16. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  17. Dielectric constant of liquids confined in the extended nanospace measured by a streaming potential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Kyojiro; Kazoe, Yutaka; Mawatari, Kazuma; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2015-02-01

    Understanding liquid structure and the electrical properties of liquids confined in extended nanospaces (10-1000 nm) is important for nanofluidics and nanochemistry. To understand these liquid properties requires determination of the dielectric constant of liquids confined in extended nanospaces. A novel dielectric constant measurement method has thus been developed for extended nanospaces using a streaming potential method. We focused on the nonsteady-state streaming potential in extended nanospaces and successfully measured the dielectric constant of liquids within them without the use of probe molecules. The dielectric constant of water was determined to be significantly reduced by about 3 times compared to that of the bulk. This result contributes key information toward further understanding of the chemistry and fluidics in extended nanospaces.

  18. Thermal kinetic and dielectric parameters of acenaphthene crystal grown by vertical Bridgman technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppusamy, S.; Dinesh Babu, K.; Nirmal Kumar, V.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2016-05-01

    The bulk acenaphthene crystal was grown in a single-wall ampoule by vertical Bridgman technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the orthorhombic crystal system of title compound with space group Pcm21. Thermal behavior of compound was studied using thermogravimetry—differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Thermal kinetic parameters like activation energy, frequency factor, Avrami exponent, reaction rate and degree of conversion were calculated using Kissingers and Ozawa methods under non-isothermal condition for acenaphthene crystal and reported for the first time. The calculated thermal kinetic parameters are presented. Dielectric studies were performed to calculate the dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity, and activation energy from Arrhenius plot.

  19. Temperature and directional dependences of the infrared dielectric function of free standing silicon nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazan, M.; Bruyant, A.; Sedaghat, Z.; Arnaud, L.; Blaize, S.; Royer, P. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, CNRS FRE 2848, 12 Rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    An approach to calculate the infrared dielectric function of semiconductor nanostructures is presented and applied to silicon (Si) nanowires (NW's). The phonon modes symmetries and frequencies are calculated by means of the elastic continuum medium theory. The modes strengths and damping are calculated from a model for lattice dynamics and perturbation theory. The data are used in anisotropic Lorentz oscillator model to generate the temperature and directional dependences of the infrared dielectric function of free standing Si NW's. Our results showed that in the direction perpendicular to the NW axis, the complex dielectric function is identical to that of bulk Si. However, along the NW axis, the infrared dielectric function is a strong function of the wavelength. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Effective dielectric and elastic properties of nanoporous low-k media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, H.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematically defined characterization of random porous media including random self-similarity and surface fractality. The initial two-phase structure is transformed into a three-phase system by introducing the internal surface layer as the third phase. Effective medium theories are utilized to calculate macroscopic dielectric and elastic properties. The dependence of both the static dielectric constant and Young's modulus on geometrical parameters is analyzed for different combinations of bulk and interface properties. It is shown that the modification of the properties of the internal surface layer is a promising way to improve the effective constants of the materials. The obtained analytical expressions are also used to determine confined regions in the space of structural parameters where pre-specified property combinations are realized. The results are discussed in terms of possible applications of nanometer-scale porous interlayer dielectrics with an ultralow dielectric constant and sufficient mechanical stiffness for future semiconducting devices.

  1. Tunable dielectric properties of ferrite-dielectric based metamaterial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bi

    Full Text Available A ferrite-dielectric metamaterial composed of dielectric and ferrite cuboids has been investigated by experiments and simulations. By interacting with the electromagnetic wave, the Mie resonance can take place in the dielectric cuboids and the ferromagnetic precession will appear in the ferrite cuboids. The magnetic field distributions show the electric Mie resonance of the dielectric cuboids can be influenced by the ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboids when a certain magnetic field is applied. The effective permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results is demonstrated, which confirms that these metamaterials can be used for tunable microwave devices.

  2. Spectral characterization of dielectric materials using terahertz measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jeffrey M.

    The performance of modern high frequency components and electronic systems are often limited by the properties of the materials from which they are made. Over the past decade, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new, high performance dielectrics for use in high frequency systems. The development of these materials requires novel broadband characterization, instrumentation, and extraction techniques, from which models can be formulated. For this project several types of dielectric sheets were characterized at terahertz (THz) frequencies using quasi-optical (free-space) techniques. These measurement systems included a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS, scalar), a Time Domain Spectrometer (TDS, vector), a Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA), and a THz Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Using these instruments the THz spectral characteristics of dielectric samples were obtained. Polarization based anisotropy was observed in many of the materials measured using vector systems. The TDS was the most informative and flexible instrument for dielectric characterization at THz frequencies. To our knowledge, this is the first such comprehensive study to be performed. Anisotropy effects within materials that do not come into play at microwave frequencies (e.g. ~10 GHz) were found, in many cases, to increase measured losses at THz frequencies by up to an order of magnitude. The frequency dependent properties obtained during the course of this study included loss tangent, permittivity (index of refraction), and dielectric constant. The results were largely consistent between all the different systems and correlated closely to manufacturer specifications over a wide frequency range (325 GHz-1.5 THz). Anisotropic behavior was observed for some of the materials. Non-destructive evaluation and testing (NDE/NDT) techniques were used throughout. A precision test fixture was developed to accomplish these measurements. Time delay, insertion loss, and S-parameters were

  3. Characterization, Microstructure, and Dielectric properties of cubic pyrochlore structural ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2013-05-01

    The (BMN) bulk materials were sintered at 1050°C, 1100°C, 1150°C, 1200°C by the conventional ceramic process, and their microstructure and dielectric properties were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including the X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry EDS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM) and dielectric impedance analyzer. We systematically investigated the structure, dielectric properties and voltage tunable property of the ceramics prepared at different sintering temperatures. The XRD patterns demonstrated that the synthesized BMN solid solutions had cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure when sintered at 1050°C or higher, and the lattice parameter (a) of the unit cell in BMN solid solution was calculated to be about 10.56Å. The vibrational peaks observed in the Raman spectra of BMN solid solutions also confirmed the cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure of the synthesized BMN. According to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, the grain size increased with increasing sintering temperature. Additionally, it was shown that the densities of the BMN ceramic tablets vary with sintering temperature. The calculated theoretical density for the BMN ceramic tablets sintered at different temperatures is about 6.7521 . The density of the respective measured tablets is usually amounting more than 91% and 5 approaching a maximum value of 96.5% for sintering temperature of 1150°C. The microstructure was investigated by using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Combined with the results obtained from the STEM and XRD, the impact of sintering temperature on the macroscopic and microscopic structure was discussed. The relative dielectric constant ( ) and dielectric loss ( ) of the BMN solid solutions were measured to be 161-200 and (at room temperature and 100Hz-1MHz), respectively. The BMN solid

  4. Piezoelectric, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of 0-3 ceramic/cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Jun, Chang; Zongjin, Li

    2007-05-01

    The sulphoaluminate cement and a piezoelectric ceramic, 0.08Pb(Li1/4Nb3/4)O3.0.47PbTiO3.0.45PbZrO3[P(LN)ZT], were used to fabricate 0-3 cement based piezoelectric composites. The piezoelectric, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the composites were mainly investigated. The results indicate that the piezoelectric strain factor d33 increases as the P(LN)ZT volume fraction increases, which follows the cube model well. The dielectric constant ɛx and dielectric loss tan δ show similar trends with the d33. In the frequency range of 40-100 kHz, the dielectric constants of the composites decrease sharply, which is mainly attributed to interfacial polarization in the composite. Above 200 kHz, the cement-based piezoelectric composites exhibit good dielectric-frequency stability. Hysteresis measurements indicate that the composites exhibit typical ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature. The remanent polarization Pr and the coercive field Ec of the composites increase as the P(LN)ZT volume fraction increases. Meanwhile, the remnant polarizations Pr shows little asymmetric characterization.

  5. Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Complex Perovskite Ceramics Under Compressive Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of complex perovskite PZT-PZN ceramic system were investigated under the influence of the compressive stress. The results showed that the dielectric properties, i.e. dielectric constant ( εr ) and dielectric loss ( tan δ), and the ferroelectric characteristics, i.e. the area of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops, the saturation polarization ( P(sat) ), and the remnant polarization (Pr) changed significantly with increasing compressive stress. These changes depended strongly on the ceramic compositions. The experimental results on the dielectric properties could be explained by both intrinsic and extrinsic domain-related mechanisms involving domain wall motions, as well as the de-aging phenomenon. The stress-induced domain wall motion suppression and non-180° ferroelectric domain switching processes were responsible for the changes observed in the ferroelectric parameters. In addition,a significant decrease in those parameters after a cycle of stress was observed and attributed to the stress induced decrease in switchable part of spontaneous polarization. This study clearly show that the applied stress had significant influence on the electrical properties of complex perovskite ceramics.

  6. Towards all-dielectric metamaterials and nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnok, Alexander; Petrov, Mikhail; Savelev, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    We review a new, rapidly developing field of all-dielectric nanophotonics which allows to control both magnetic and electric response of structured matter by engineering the Mie resonances in high-index dielectric nanoparticles. We discuss optical properties of such dielectric nanoparticles, methods of their fabrication, and also recent advances in all-dielectric metadevices including couple-resonator dielectric waveguides, nanoantennas, and metasurfaces.

  7. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-09-15

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of non- relativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk-viscosity effects of a weakly interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles.

  8. Brane Couplings from Bulk Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi, Howard; Grant, Aaron K.; Hailu, Girma

    2000-01-01

    We compute loop corrections to the effective action of a field theory on a five-dimensional $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold. We find that the quantum loop effects of interactions in the bulk produce infinite contributions that require renormalization by four-dimensional couplings on the orbifold fixed planes. Thus bulk couplings give rise to renormalization group running of brane couplings.

  9. Poling-Written Ferroelectricity in Bulk Multiferroic Double-Perovskite BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Davide; Mezzadri, Francesco; Gilioli, Edmondo; Solzi, Massimo; Calestani, Gianluca; Bolzoni, Fulvio; Cabassi, Riccardo

    2016-06-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the electrical properties of bulk polycrystalline BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, a double perovskite synthesized in high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 shows an antiferromagnetic character with TN = 288 K overlapped with an intrinsic antiferroelectricity due to the Bi(3+) stereochemical effect. Beyond this, the observation of a semiconductor-insulator transition at TP ≈ 140 K allows one to define three distinct temperature ranges with completely different electrical properties. For T > TN, electric transport follows an ordinary thermally activated Arrhenius behavior; the system behaves as a paramagnetic semiconductor. At intermediate temperatures (TP perovskite. Finally, for T < TP, the material becomes a dielectric insulator, showing very unusual poling-induced soft ferroelectricity with high saturation polarization, similar to the parent compound BiFeO3. Under external electric poling, the system irreversibly evolves from antiferroelectric to polar arrangement.

  10. Strain tunability of dielectric and ferroelectric properties in epitaxial lead titanate thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Many distinguished properties of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films can be tunable through the misfit strain.The strain tunability of ferroelectric and dielectric properties in epitaxial lead titanate ultrathin films is numerically investigated by using a phase field model,in which the surface effect of polarization is taken into account.The response of polarization to the applied electric field in the thickness direction is examined with different misfit strains at room temperature.It is found that a co...

  11. Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab-initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both type of dielectric liquid is shown ...

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biomaterials: Agrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia El Khaled

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Being dependent on temperature and frequency, dielectric properties are related to various types of food. Predicting multiple physical characteristics of agri-food products has been the main objective of non-destructive assessment possibilities executed in many studies on horticultural products and food materials. This review manipulates the basic fundamentals of dielectric properties with their concepts and principles. The different factors affecting the behavior of dielectric properties have been dissected, and applications executed on different products seeking the characterization of a diversity of chemical and physical properties are all pointed out and referenced with their conclusions. Throughout the review, a detailed description of the various adopted measurement techniques and the mostly popular equipment are presented. This compiled review serves in coming out with an updated reference for the dielectric properties of spectroscopy that are applied in the agrophysics field.

  13. Electromagnetic identification of dielectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Yanenko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic features and parameters of dielectric materials, which are used in light industry and stomatology. The results of measuring are analyzed and the method of authentication is offered.

  14. Modeling of dielectric viscoelastomers with application to electromechanical instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuolun; Decker, Martina; Henann, David L.; Chester, Shawn A.

    2016-10-01

    Soft dielectrics are electrically-insulating elastomeric materials, which are capable of large deformation and electrical polarization, and are used as smart transducers for converting between mechanical and electrical energy. While much theoretical and computational modeling effort has gone into describing the ideal, time-independent behavior of these materials, viscoelasticity is a crucial component of the observed mechanical response and hence has a significant effect on electromechanical actuation. In this paper, we report on a constitutive theory and numerical modeling capability for dielectric viscoelastomers, able to describe electromechanical coupling, large-deformations, large-stretch chain-locking, and a time-dependent mechanical response. Our approach is calibrated to the widely-used soft dielectric VHB 4910, and the finite-element implementation of the model is used to study the role of viscoelasticity in instabilities in soft dielectrics, namely (1) the pull-in instability, (2) electrocreasing, (3) electrocavitation, and (4) wrinkling of a pretensioned three-dimensional diaphragm actuator. Our results show that viscoelastic effects delay the onset of instability under monotonic electrical loading and can even suppress instabilities under cyclic loading. Furthermore, quantitative agreement is obtained between experimentally measured and numerically simulated instability thresholds. Our finite-element implementation will be useful as a modeling platform for further study of electromechanical instabilities and for harnessing them in design and is provided as online supplemental material to aid other researchers in the field.

  15. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  16. Dielectric and structural properties of ferroelectric betaine arsenate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Yurko, E. I.; Svinarev, F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ferroelectric films of betaine arsenate and partially deuterated betaine arsenate have been grown by evaporation on LiNbO3, α-Al2O3, and NdGaO3 substrates with a preliminarily deposited structure of interdigitated electrodes, as well as on the Al/glass substrate. This paper presents the results of the examination of the block structure of the films in a polarizing microscope, the X-ray diffraction analysis of their crystal structure, and the investigation of the dielectric properties in a measuring field oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film. The transition of the films to the ferroelectric state at T = T c is accompanied by anomalies of the capacitance of the structure, an increase in the dielectric loss, and the appearance of dielectric hysteresis loops. The growth of the films from a solution of betaine arsenate in a heavy water leads to an increase in the ferroelectric transition temperature from T c = 119 K in the films without deuterium to T c = 149 K, which corresponds to the degree of deuteration of approximately 60-70%. The dielectric and structural properties of the films are compared with those of the betaine arsenate single crystals and the previously studied films of betaine phosphite and glycine phosphite.

  17. Ionic mobility in DNA films studied by dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahouli, Abdelkader; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Garden, Jean-Luc; Peyrard, Michel

    2014-09-01

    Double-helix DNA molecules can be found under different conformational structures driven by ionic and hydration surroundings. Usually, only the B-form of DNA, which is the only form stable in aqueous solution, can be studied by dielectric measurements. Here, the dielectric responses of DNA molecules in the A- and B-form, oriented co-linearly within fibres assembled in a film have been analyzed. The dielectric dispersion, permittivity and dissipation factor, have been measured as a function of frequency, strength voltage, time, temperature and nature of the counter-ions. Besides a high electrode polarization component, two relaxation peaks have been observed and fitted by two Cole-Cole relaxation terms. In the frequency range that we investigated (0.1 Hz to 5 ·10(6) Hz) the dielectric properties are dominated by the mobility and diffusivity of the counter-ions and their interactions with the DNA molecules, which can therefore be characterized for the A- and B-forms of DNA.

  18. Polarized Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Susan Resneck

    1991-01-01

    On college campuses, the climate is polarized because of intolerance and discrimination, censorship, factionalism, and anger among students and faculty. As a result, the campus is in danger of becoming dominated by political issues and discouraging the exchange of ideas characteristic of a true liberal arts education. (MSE)

  19. Theory of dielectric loss in Graphene-on-substrate: A tight- binding model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sivabrata; Panda, S. K.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene-on-substrate exhibits interesting dielectric behaviour due to screening of coulomb interaction induced by many body effects. In this communication we attempt to study the dielectric loss property of graphene within tight-binding model approach. The Hamiltonian consisting of electron hopping upto third-nearest-neighbour's with impurities in two in equivalent sub-lattices. The graphene-on-substrate raises the energy +Δ at one sub lattice and reduces energy -Δ at other sub lattice. Further we introduced coulomb interaction between π - electrons at the two sub lattices separately with the same effective coulomb interaction. We calculate polarization function Π(q, ω) which is a two particle Green's function arising due to charge-charge correlation by using Zubarev's Green's function technique. Finally we calculate dielectric function of graphene i.e. ε(q, ω) =1+Π(q,ω) at arbitrary wave vector q and frequency ra. The dielectric loss in graphene calculated from the imaginary part of dielectric function which is a measure of absorption spectrum. Only a few Fragmentary theoretical attempts have been made to utilize the full frequency and wave vector dependent dielectric function. We compute numerically the frequency dependent dielectric loss function for 100x100 momentum grid points. We observe a low energy Plasmon resonance peak and a high energy flat peak arising due to absorption of optical energy at substrate induced gap. With increase of small Plasmon wave vector, both low and high energy peaks approach each other. The dielectric loss at low energies exhibits a parabolic curve, but it exhibit a clear peak on introduction of higher order electron hopping's. The Coulomb interaction suppresses induced gap in graphene and decreases the optical energy absorption spectra. The increase of substrate induced gap shifts the high energy flat peak to higher energies and enhances the dielectric loss throughout the frequency range. Finally the effect of doping on

  20. Bound Modes in Dielectric Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, P M; Lenstra, D

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate how exactly bound cavity modes can be realized in dielectric structures other than 3d photonic crystals. For a microcavity consisting of crossed anisotropic layers, we derive the cavity resonance frequencies, and spontaneous emission rates. For a dielectric structure with dissipative loss and central layer with gain, the beta factor of direct spontaneous emission into a cavity mode and the laser threshold is calculated.

  1. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  2. Ultraviolet-visible bulk optical properties of randomly distributed soot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, J B; Hadamcik, E; Brogniez, C; Berthet, G; Worms, J C; Chartier, M; Pirre, M; Ovarlez, J; Ovarlez, H

    2001-12-20

    The presence of soot in the lower stratosphere was recently established by in situ measurements. To isolate their contribution to optical measurements from that of background aerosol, the soot's bulk optical properties must be determined. Laboratory measurements of extinction and polarization of randomly distributed soot were conducted. For all soot, measurements show a slight reddening extinction between 400 and 700 nm and exhibit a maximum of 100% polarization at a scattering angle of 75 +/- 5 degrees. Such results cannot be reproduced by use of Mie theory assumptions. The different optical properties of soot and background stratospheric aerosol could allow isolation of soot in future analyses of stratospheric measurements.

  3. Dielectric relaxation and pinning phenomenon of (Sr,Pb)TiO3 ceramics for dielectric tunable device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian-Xiong; Zhang, Tian-Fu; Tang, Xin-Gui; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Feng, Zu-Yong; Zhou, Qi-Fa

    2016-09-01

    The behavior of ferroelectric domain under applied electric field is very sensitive to point defects, which can lead to high temperature dielectric relaxation behaviors. In this work, the phases, dielectric properties and ferroelectric switching behavior of strontium lead titanate ceramics were investigated. The structural characterization is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The high dielectric tunability and high figure of merit of ceramics, especially Sr0.7Pb0.3TiO3 (SPT), imply that SPT ceramics are promising materials for tunable capacitor applications. Oxygen vacancies induced dielectric relaxation phenomenon is observed. Pinched shape hysteresis loops appeared in low temperature, low electric field or high frequency, whereas these pinched hysteresis loops also can become normal by rising temperature, enhancing electric field or lowering frequency. The pinning and depinning effect can be ascribed to the interaction between oxygen vacancies and domain switching. A qualitative model and a quantitative model are used to explain this phenomenon. Besides, polarization and oxygen treated experiment can exert an enormous influence on pinning effect and the machanisms are also discussed in this work.

  4. Log-periodic corrections to the Cole-Cole expression in dielectric relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzin, A. A.; Nigmatullin, R. R.; Popov, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    A model of the self-similar process of relaxation is given, and a method of derivation of the kinetic equations for the total polarization based on the ideas of fractional kinetics is suggested. The derived kinetic equations contain integro-differential operators having non-integer order. They lead to the Cole-Cole expression for the complex dielectric permittivity. It is shown rigorously that the power-law exponent α in the Cole-Cole expression coincides with the dimension of the mixed space-temporal fractal ensemble. If the discrete scale invariance for the temporal-space structure of the dielectric medium considered becomes important, then the expression for the complex dielectric permittivity contains log-periodic corrections (oscillations) and, hence, it generalizes the conventional Cole-Cole expression. The corrections obtained in this model suggest another way of interpretation and analysis of dielectric spectra for different complex materials.

  5. Structural, dielectric and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline zinc substituted magnesium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jyoti,, E-mail: jyotijoshi.phy2008@gmail.com; Parashar, Jyoti; Saxena, V. K.; Dolia, S. N.; Bhatnagar, D. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India); Kumar, S. [Department of Physics, Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, K. B. [Department of Physics, S. S. Jain Subodh P. G. College, Jaipur (India)

    2015-06-24

    Zinc substituted magnesium ferrites Zn{sub 0.2}Mg{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Zn{sub 0.4}Mg{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method. Rietveld profile refinement of the XRD patterns confirms the formation of a cubic spinel structure in single phase. The dielectric properties viz. dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent tanδ increase with increasing temperature. The dielectric behavior is explained by using the mechanism of polarization process, which is correlated to that of electron exchange interaction. The saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization decreases appreciably with increase in Zn which could be attributed to change in cation distribution.

  6. Dielectric response of capacitor structures based on PZT annealed at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenshchikov, Mikhail V.; Solnyshkin, Alexander V.; Pronin, Igor P.

    2016-12-01

    Dielectric response of thin-film capacitor structures of Pt/PZT/Pt deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering method and annealed at temperatures of 540-570 °C was investigated. It was found that dielectric properties of these structures depend on the synthesis temperature. Stability of a polarized state is considered on the basis of the analysis of hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The contribution of the domain mechanism in the dielectric response of the capacitor structure comprising a ferroelectric is discussed. Extreme dependences of electrophysical characteristics of PZT films on their synthesis temperature were observed. Correlation of dielectric properties with microstructure of these films is found out.

  7. Comparison effects and dielectric properties of different dose methylene-blue-doped hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, O; Coşkun, R; Okutan, M; Öztürk, M

    2013-08-01

    The dielectric properties of methylene blue (MB)-doped hydrogels were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The real part (ε') and the imaginary part (ε") of the complex dielectric constant and the energy loss tangent/dissipation factor (tan δ) were measured in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 MHz at room temperature for pH 5.5 value. Frequency variations of the resistance, the reactance, and the impedance of the samples have also been investigated. The dielectric permittivity of the MB-doped hydrogels is sensitive to ionic conduction and electrode polarization in low frequency. Furthermore, the dielectric behavior in high-frequency parts was attributed to the Brownian motion of the hydrogen bonds. The ionic conduction for MB-doped samples was prevented for Cole-Cole plots, while the Cole-Cole plots for pure sample show equivalent electrical circuit. The alternative current (ac) conductivity increases with the increasing MB concentration and the frequency.

  8. Dielectric Performance of Porous Methyl Silsesquioxane/Triacetyl-β-Cyclodextrin Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yi-Fan; FU Dan-Rong; ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Fan; TANG Ting

    2007-01-01

    Porous methyl silsesquioxane thin films with low dielectric constant are successfully synthesized by means of the sol-gel spin-coating method. The precursor solutions are prepared by properly mixing the polymer as a matrix with different contents of triacetyl-β-cyclodextrin (TABCD) as a porogen. The chemical structure, dielectric constants, optical constants and void fraction are investigated by the ellipsometric porosimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and other methods. Influences of TABCD and methyl trimethoxysilane (MTMS) on the dielectric properties are discussed. For those samples with higher porogen loading, orientation and electronic polarizations are lower in low and high frequency regions, respectively, because of a considerably smaller number of polar molecules. The FTIR results suggest that high R value (molar ratio of H2 O to MTMS) is more advantageous for formation of cage structures and the cage/network structural ratio increases with the increasing R value.

  9. The Effect of Bulk Density on Emission Behavior of Soil at Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric constant and dielectric loss (ε′ and ε″ of different soil samples with bulk densities varying from 1.3 to 2.0 gm/cm3 are determined at a single microwave frequency 9.78 GHz and at temperature 37.0°C. Different bulk densities of same soil are achieved by filling the wave guide cell with an equal volume but a different mass of soil. Further, ε′ and ε″ of these soil samples are also estimated by semiempirical model and compared with the experimental results. The values of ε′ and ε″ increase as bulk density of the soil increases. In view of microwave remote sensing, the Fresnel reflectivity of soil is computed from the knowledge of the complex dielectric constant and the surface boundary condition. Using Kirchhoff’s reciprocity theorem the microwave emissivity is estimated from Fresnel reflectivity of the surface. It is observed that the microwave emission from the soil surface inhibits as bulk density of soil increases. Further, the roughness of soil surface has been taken into consideration in the emissivity computation and observed that the emissivity increases with increasing roughness of the soil surface.

  10. Modeling of electrode polarization for electrolytic cells with a limited ionic adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Atsushi

    2013-09-01

    Dilute electrolytic cells filled with chlorobenzene containing small amounts of tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate show anomalous dielectric dispersions in low-frequency regions. We propose a new model for electrode polarization in order to analyze the dielectric behavior of the dilute electrolytic cells. The model comprises two capacitive components: One is the space-charge polarization accompanied with a specific ionic adsorption on electrodes, and the other is the electrode capacitance which is brought about by an electronic spillover from the electrode surface. This model can primarily explain the anomalous frequency-dependent dielectric behavior of the electrolytic cells not only with low electrolyte concentrations, but also with high concentrations and can correctly describe the characteristics of the electrode polarization reflected in the dielectric spectra.

  11. Self-organized plasmas formed by accumulated charge in dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have been widely applied to various research fields, such as bio-medical treatment, toxic decomposition and so on. However, the details of DBD have not been understood yet. Because the phenomena occur in nanosecond time scale under atmospheric pressure. It is known that DBDs are significantly affected by accumulated charges on dielectrics, but the distributions and development of accumulated charges are not known for years. To clarify the distributions and the developments of accumulated charges on dielectrics and electron behavior in the vicinity of dielectrics, DBDs in atmospheric pressure oxygen have been simulated using a two dimensional fluid model with relatively high electron emission coefficient. In this condition, DBD simulation results are obtained in so called self-organized form. As a result, the locations of highly accumulated charges are at where the primary streamers reached in a half cycle. And the charges on the dielectrics become almost zero by the electrons after the change of discharge voltage polarity. The electron distribution in the vicinity of the dielectric forms similar to that of accumulated charges to compensate the charges. Excess electrons in front of dielectric become the seed electrons for next half cycle. This continuation makes discharge in self-organized form.

  12. Dielectric optical invisibility cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J.; Tamma, V. A.; Park, W.; Summers, C. J.

    2010-08-01

    Recently, metamaterial cloaks for the microwave frequency range have been designed using transformative optics design techniques and experimentally demonstrated. The design of these structures requires extreme values of permittivity and permeability within the device, which has been accomplished by the use of resonating metal elements. However, these elements severely limit the operating frequency range of the cloak due to their non-ideal dispersion properties at optical frequencies. In this paper we present designs to implement a simpler demonstration of cloaking, the carpet cloak, in which a curved reflective surface is compressed into a flat reflective surface, effectively shielding objects behind the curve from view with respect to the incoming radiation source. This approach eliminates the need for metallic resonant elements. These structures can now be fabricated using only high index dielectric materials by the use of electron beam lithography and standard cleanroom technologies. The design method, simulation analysis, device fabrication, and near field optical microscopy (NSOM) characterization results are presented for devices designed to operate in the 1400-1600nm wavelength range. Improvements to device performance by the deposition/infiltration of linear, and potentially non-linear optical materials, were investigated.

  13. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  14. Electrical conductivity and dielectric measurements of CoMTPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nahass, M.M., E-mail: prof_nahhas@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy Square 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Atta, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy Square 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 888 (Saudi Arabia); El-Zaidia, E.F.M.; Farag, A.A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy Square 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Ammar, A.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy Square 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, Taibah University, Al-Ola (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-15

    Results of X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) show that the powder of 5,10, 15,20-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine cobalt(II) (CoMTPP) has polycrystalline nature with triclinic structure. Miller's indices, (hkl), values for each diffraction peak in XRD spectrum are calculated. The electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of bulk CoMTPP have been investigated in the frequency range 42 Hz–5 MHz and in the temperature range 298–413 K. The frequency dependence of electrical conductivity, σ (ω, Τ), follows the Jonscher's universal dynamic law. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model, which is well adapted to CoMTPP semiconductor material. Complex impedance data are obtained at different frequency and temperature. The best fitting for the Cole–Cole plots can be represented by an equivalent circuit element composed of RQC. The conductivity in the direct regime, σ{sub dc}, is described by the variable range hopping (VRH). The values of dielectric constant, ε{sup ′} (ω), and dielectric loss, ε″ (ω), are found to be decrease with increasing frequency due to the interface states capacitance. - Highlights: • Investigation of the structural characterization of CoMTPP thin films using XRD. • The applicability of the CBH model to CoMTPP films. • Impedance spectroscopy is a very useful technique in solid state electronic system. • Dielectric constant and dielectric loss values decrease by increasing frequency.

  15. Analog Optical Computing Based on Dielectric Meta-reflect-array

    CERN Document Server

    Chizari, Ata; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we realize the concept of analog computing using an array of engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks in combination with fused silica spacer and silver ground plane realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage $2\\pi$ degrees as well as amplitude range $0$ to $1$. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems which circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properti...

  16. Characterizing Dielectric Materials using Monostatic Transmission- and Reflection-Ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowski, Jan; Rolfes, Ilona

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of dielectric materials at microwave frequencies can be done by various measurement principles. Free space methods are a commonly used approach if the material under test (MUT) has to be characterized in-situ or in a non-destructive manner. Since the transmission and reflection parameters of a finite sized dielectric slab typically depend on its thickness, accurate knowledge about this parameter is of high importance. The ellipsometric approach presented in this paper eliminates the thickness dependence and thus allows to reduce a major source of error. This is achieved by performing four measurements. These measure the transmission and reflection factors of the MUT in both polarizations at an incident angle of 45°. The high stability of the measurement allows a simple monostatic setup utilizing a single antenna. The measurements in this paper are performed using Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Polyvinylchloride (PVC) blocks in the frequency range from 22 GHz to 26 GHz.

  17. A Free-Space Measurement Technique of Terahertz Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiansheng; Chang, Tianying; Cui, Hong-Liang; Sun, Zhonglin; Yang, Chuanfa; Yang, Xiuwei; Liu, Lingyu; Fan, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The free-space method for material dielectric characterization in the microwave band is extended to terahertz frequencies. By analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the relative permittivity of the transmission/reflection method for non-magnetic materials, a fast calculation method using a transmission-only method is proposed. Based on the convergence analysis of the algorithm, a method to estimate the initial value is also proposed. Finally, through measurements of the permittivity of high-density polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polymethyl methacrylate in the 325-500 GHz band, we verify the rationality of the algorithm and demonstrate its applicability. Through the combination of the two methods, the terahertz dielectric properties of a majority of flat non-conducting solid materials and non-polar liquid materials can be measured.

  18. Dynamics and Morphology of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers by Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alicia; Wang, Wenqin; Winey, Karen I.; Runt, James

    2009-03-01

    The dynamics of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers, in both the acid and neutralized forms, were investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The influences of acid content, counterion type (Zn, Na and Cs), degree of neutralization, and microphase separated morphology on segmental and local dynamics, as well as on Maxwell -- Wagner -- Sillars interfacial polarization, were examined. Ionomers prepared from SPS containing 1.9 mol% sulfonic acid species exhibit a broader segmental process indicative of a considerably broader distribution of local environments, as compared to those in unneutralized SPS. Moreover, multiple segmental relaxations were identified in the dielectric spectra of Zn and Na neutralized SPS (1.9 mol%) ionomers, likely indicating two distinct environments arising from ion clustering. A combination of STEM imaging and X-ray scattering confirmed the presence of monodisperse spherical ionic aggregates that were homogeneously distributed in the polymer matrix.

  19. Efficient manipulation of graphene absorption by a simple dielectric cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ting-Hui; Gan, Lin; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-07-27

    We theoretically study the absorption property of graphene manipulated by a dielectric cylinder through an analytical method. The distinctive absorption properties of incident waves with different polarizations (TM and TE) are analyzed and they are strongly correlated with the structure resonance and material dispersion. Besides, the characteristics of graphene absorption tuned by the cylinder radius and refractive index as well as the chemical potential of graphene are systematically investigated. It is found that enhancement and continuous tunability of graphene absorption can be achieved by utilizing the whispering gallery mode produced in the dielectric cylinder and harnessing the graphene optical conductivity via tuning its chemical potential by exterior electrical grating. The theoretical studies open up a simple while efficient means to manipulate the absorption of graphene in a broad frequency range via the geometric and physical configuration of hybrid graphene-microstructures.

  20. Spatial solitons in periodic semiconductor-dielectric nano-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbach, A V

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the existence and stability of TE and TM nonlinear guided modes in one-dimensional sub-wavelength periodic semiconductor-dielectric structures is done using the full vector nonlinear Maxwell equations. Linear spectra for both light polarizations gradually transform towards those of a quasi-homogeneous medium with decreasing structure period. The properties of TE solitons change accordingly, so that for small enough periods, TE solitons stop feeling the presence of the structure. However TM sotitons are demonstrated to sustain inhomogeneous field distribution for any small period of the structure, developing strong intensity peaks inside dielectric slots. Qualitative transfomation in the structure of TM solitons occurs as the structure period is decreased, and is accompained by the change in their stability properties. This is linked to the corresponding qualitative changes in the linear modes structure, related to the Brewster condition.

  1. Fifty years of Szigeti's dielectric theory – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D B Sirdeshmukh; L Sirdeshmukh; K G Subhadra

    2007-10-01

    During the period 1949–1961 Szigeti published four seminal papers on the dielectric behaviour of crystals. Szigeti's theory is applicable to isotropic and anisotropic, ionic and covalent crystals with different structures. Szigeti's theory connects dielectric, spectroscopic and elastic properties. An important outcome of Szigeti's theory is the concept of the effective ionic charge (). It is pointed out that correlates with a number of physical properties and is a measure of ionicity of the interatomic bond. Since Szigeti's work, several theoretical models have been proposed to account for the fact that < 1. These models provide an insight into the complex polarization mechanisms in solids. This review summarizes Szigeti's work and the work that followed; the implications and applications of Szigeti's theory are discussed. Some new results are also included.

  2. Thermal, dynamic mechanical, and dielectric analyses of some polyurethane biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macocinschi, Doina; Filip, Daniela; Vlad, Stelian; Cristea, Mariana; Musteata, Valentina; Ibanescu, Sorin

    2012-08-01

    Polymer biocomposites based on segmented poly(ester urethane) and extracellular matrix components have been prepared for the development of tissue engineering applications with improved biological characteristics of the materials in contact with blood and tissues for long periods. Thermal, dynamical, and dielectrical analyses were employed to study the molecular dynamics of these materials and the influence of changing the physical network morphology and hydrogen bond interactions accompanied by phase transitions, interfacial effects, and polarization or conductivity. All phenomena that concur in the tested materials are evaluated by cross-examination of the dynamic mechanical characteristic properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor) and dielectric properties (relative permittivity, relative loss factor, and loss tangent) as a function of temperature. Comparative aspects were elucidated by calculating the apparent activation energies of multiplex experiments.

  3. Polar Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free. Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  4. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.

  5. Stiff, strong, yet tough free-standing dielectric films of graphene nanosheets-polyurethane nanocomposites with very high dielectric constant and loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    In this study, graphene nanosheets (GNS) prepared through a liquid exfoliation technique are dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) at a volume fraction (Vf) of up to 0.19. Then, the electrical and mechanical properties of the obtained composites are characterized. The dielectric spectroscopy shows an excessive variation in dielectric constant (1.1 to 3.53 × 107) and dielectric tangent loss (0.03 to 2515) with varying Vf over the frequency range of 25 kHz to 5 MHz. A considerable enhancement in electrical conductivity (DC) is found, from 3.87 × 10-10 S/m (base polymer) to 53.5 S/m for the 0.19 Vf GNS-TPU nanocomposite. The GNS-TPU composites are mechanically robust, with a considerable increase in stiffness (˜4-fold) and strength (almost twice), maintaining its ductility up to 0.09 Vf GNS. The high dielectric constant at lower frequencies is attributed to the well-established Maxwell-Wagner polarization effect, whereas the high dielectric tangent loss is due to leakage currents as a physical conducting network is formed at high filler loadings. The layered structure, high aspect ratio, and improved dispersion of GNS are the main reasons for the improvement in both the dielectric characteristics and the mechanical properties of the host polymer. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Effect of Fungicide Treatment on Dielectric Properties of Few Coarse-Cereals Over the Frequency Range of 0.01 to 10 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh CHANDEL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fungicides’ (thiram, carbendazim, captan, bagalol treatment on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of a few coarse-cereals seeds, namely the sorghum, maize, barley and pearl millet at given moisture content and bulk densities were examined using Hewlett-Packard (HP-4194A impedance/gain phase analyzer over the frequency range of 0.01 to 10 MHz and temperature range of 30 - 45 °C. Julabo (temperature controller, F-25, Germany was used for keeping the temperature of seeds constant. The study showed that fungicide treatment caused considerable change in the dielectric parameters namely the dielectric constant and dielectric loss. These changes cannot be ignored when precise and accurate determination of dielectric parameters is required for agricultural technology.

  7. Dielectric properties of nanocrystalline Co-Mg ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Jyoti, E-mail: jyotijoshi.phy2008@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Sharma, Neha [Department of Physics, VEC Lakhanpur, Sarguja University, Ambikapur (C.G.) (India); Parashar, Jyoti; Saxena, V.K.; Bhatnagar, D. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Sharma, K.B. [Department of Physics, S. S. Jain Subodh P. G. College, Jaipur (India)

    2015-11-15

    Nanocrystalline powder samples with chemical formula Co{sub x}Mg{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) have been synthesized by sol–gel auto combustion method using citric acid as fuel agent. The rietveld refinement study of x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the spinel single phase formation for all samples. Dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) and AC conductivity of Co{sub x}Mg{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles have been measured at room temperature in the frequency range from 1000 Hz to 120 MHz. The dielectric dispersion observed at lower frequency region is attributed to Maxwell–Wagner two layer model, which is in agreement with Koops phenomenological theory. The observed results have been explained by polarization which is attributed to the electron exchange between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The temperature variation of ε′ and tanδ for some particular frequencies were studied. The rapid increase in ε′ and tan δ has been explained using thermally activated electron exchange between Fe{sup 2+} ↔ Fe{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ↔ Co{sup 3+} ions at adjacent octahedral sites. The role of interfacial polarization has been focused to explain the high dispersion in ε′ and tanδ with temperature observed at low frequencies. - Graphical abstract: (a) TEM image of Co{sub 0.4}Mg{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} shows the nano size of the synthesized ferrite particles and (b) Dielectric constant behavior with frequency of Co{sub x}Mg{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite.

  8. Modeling the Kelvin polarization force actuation of Micro- and Nanomechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Hierold, C.; Boisen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Polarization forces have become of high interest in micro- and nanomechanical systems. In this paper, an analytical model for a transduction scheme based on the Kelvin polarization force is presented. A dielectric beam is actuated by placing it over the gap of two coplanar electrodes. Finite elem...

  9. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-04-01

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that, bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of nonrelativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk viscosity effects of a weakly-interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Photonic Band Modulation in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal with a ne-Dimensional Periodic Dielectric Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-Xing; ZHANG Yan; SHI Jun-Jie

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional photonic crystal with a one-dimensional periodic dielectric background is proposed. The photonic band modulation effects due to the periodic background are investigated based on the plane wave expansion method. We find that periodic modulation of the dielectric background greatly alters photonic band structures, especially for the E-polarization modes. The number, width and position of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) sensitively depend on the structure parameters (the layer thicknesses and dielectric constants) of the one-dimensional periodic background.

  11. Dielectric and Pyroelectric Characteristics of the Infrared Sensitive(Pb_(1-x)Sr_x)TiO_3 Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maoxiang; SHU Qing; MU Zhichun; JIAN Yuliang

    2009-01-01

    PST ferroelectric ceramics were fabricated successfully by a two-step method,i e first,PbTiO_3 and SrTiO_3 were sintered respectively,then mixed and sintered together.The process and characteristics of PST ferroelectric ceramics were introduced and researched.Their dielectric and pyroelectric characteristics are as follows dielectric constant 10~4 order,low dielectric loss(lower than 3.0%in the working frequency range of 1-1 000 kHz),saturation polarization intensity 10~(―1)C/m~2 order,and pyroelectric coefficient 10~(―3)C/m~2·K order.

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopy Analyses of SrBi4Ti4O15 Films Obtained from Soft Chemical Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Simões

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBTi thin films were deposited by the polymeric precursor method on Pt bottom electrodes. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and dielectric spectroscopy analyses. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics of perovskite thin film showed normal ferroelectric behavior. The remanent polarization and coercive fields were 5.4 μC/cm2 and 85 kV/cm, respectively. Dielectric spectroscopy was employed to examine the polycrystalline behavior of ferroelectric material and the mechanisms responsible for the dielectric performance of the thin film.

  13. Comparative Study Between Dispersive and Non-Dispersive Dielectric Permittivity in Spectral Remittances of Chiral Sculptured Zirconia Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Babaei, Ferydon; 10.1016/j.optcom.2008.02.012

    2010-01-01

    The transmission and reflection spectra from a right-handed chiral sculptured zirconia thin film are calculated using the piecewise homogeneity approximation method and the Bruggeman homogenization formalism by considering that the propagation of both dispersive and non-dispersive dielectric function occurs for axial and non-axial states. The comparison of spectral results shows that the dispersion of the dielectric function has a considerable effect on the results. In axial excitation of cross-polarized reflectances and co-polarized transmittances the dispersion effect becomes more pronounced at wavelengths further away from the homogenization wavelength. This is also true in case of non-axial excitation of circular transmittances, while there are considerable differences for cross-polarized reflectances where (wavelength) the first Bragg peak occurs. At wavelengths in the vicinity of the homogenization wavelength the dispersion effect of the dielectric function in becomes more significant.

  14. In-package inhibition of E.coli 0157:H7 on bulk romaine lettuce using cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment was evaluated for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, surface morphology, color, carbon dioxide generation, and weight loss of bulk Romaine lettuce in a commercial plastic clamshell container. The lettuce samples were pa...

  15. In-package inhibition of E. Coli 0157:H7 on bulk Romaine lettuce using cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) has been investigated as an innovative method for in-package decontamination of fresh produce. However, while data is available for treatment of single leaves, data is lacking for the effect of ACP on the microbial decontamination of bulk le...

  16. Engineering the propagation of high-k bulk plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials by multiscale structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sipe, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of large-wavevector bulk plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) with two levels of structuring is theoretically studied. It is shown that when the parameters of a subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayer (substructure) are modulated (superstructured) on a large...

  17. Dielectric properties of tetragonal tungsten bronze films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Bodeux, Romain; Michau, Dominique; Josse, Michaël; Maglione, Mario

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) films have been synthesised on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates from Ba2LnFeNb4O15 ceramics (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) by RF magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction measurements evidenced the multi-oriented nature of films with some degrees of preferential orientation along (111). The dependence of the dielectric properties on temperature and frequency has been investigated. The dielectric properties of the films are similar to those of the bulk,...

  18. Compound surface-plasmon-polariton waves guided by a thin metal layer sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric material and a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric material

    CERN Document Server

    Chiadini, Francesco; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-01-01

    Multiple p- and s-polarized compound surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves at a fixed frequency can be guided by a structure consisting of a metal layer sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric (HID) material and a periodic multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material. For any thickness of the metal layer, at least one compound SPP wave must exist. It possesses the p-polarization state, is strongly bound to the metal/HID interface when the metal thickness is large but to both metal/dielectric interfaces when the metal thickness is small. When the metal layer vanishes, this compound SPP wave transmutes into a Tamm wave. Additional compound SPP waves exist, depending on the thickness of the metal layer, the relative permittivity of the HID material, and the period and the composition of the PMLID material. Some of these are p polarized, the others being s polarized. All of them differ in phase speed, attenuation rate, and field profile, even though all are excitable at the same frequency. The...

  19. On the c-Si surface passivation mechanism by the negative-charge-dielectric Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoex, B.; Gielis, J. J. H.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Al2O3 is a versatile high-κ dielectric that has excellent surface passivation properties on crystalline Si (c-Si), which are of vital importance for devices such as light emitting diodes and high-efficiency solar cells. We demonstrate both experimentally and by simulations that the surface passivation can be related to a satisfactory low interface defect density in combination with a strong field-effect passivation induced by a negative fixed charge density Qf of up to 1013 cm-2 present in the Al2O3 film at the interface with the underlying Si substrate. The negative polarity of Qf in Al2O3 is especially beneficial for the passivation of p-type c-Si as the bulk minority carriers are shielded from the c-Si surface. As the level of field-effect passivation is shown to scale with Qf2, the high Qf in Al2O3 tolerates a higher interface defect density on c-Si compared to alternative surface passivation schemes.

  20. High permittivity gate dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    "The book comprehensively covers all the current and the emerging areas of the physics and the technology of high permittivity gate dielectric materials, including, topics such as MOSFET basics and characteristics, hafnium-based gate dielectric materials, Hf-based gate dielectric processing, metal gate electrodes, flat-band and threshold voltage tuning, channel mobility, high-k gate stack degradation and reliability, lanthanide-based high-k gate stack materials, ternary hafnia and lanthania based high-k gate stack films, crystalline high-k oxides, high mobility substrates, and parameter extraction. Each chapter begins with the basics necessary for understanding the topic, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature, and ultimately graduating to the current status of the technology and our scientific understanding and the future prospects."

  1. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Qijing; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3), consequently an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6*10^7 (1.36*10^5), at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm. This dielectric bow-tie nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon source, thresholdless nanolaser, and cavity QED strong coupling experiments.

  2. Leaky Modes of Dielectric Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud; Jakobsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of external excitation, light trapped within a dielectric medium generally decays by leaking out (and also by getting absorbed within the medium). We analyze the leaky modes of a parallel-plate slab, a solid glass sphere, and a solid glass cylinder, by examining those solutions of Maxwell's equations (for dispersive as well as non-dispersive media) which admit of a complex-valued oscillation frequency. Under certain circumstances, these leaky modes constitute a complete set into which an arbitrary distribution of the electromagnetic field residing inside a dielectric body can be expanded. We provide completeness proofs, and also present results of numerical calculations that illustrate the relationship between the leaky modes and the resonances of dielectric cavities formed by a simple parallel-plate slab, a glass sphere, and a glass cylinder.

  3. Nonlinear effects on electrophoresis of a charged dielectric nanoparticle in a charged hydrogel medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; De, Simanta

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the solid polarization of a charged dielectric particle in gel electrophoresis is studied without imposing a weak-field or a thin Debye length assumption. The electric polarization of a dielectric particle due to an external electric field creates a non-uniform surface charge density, which in turn creates a non-uniform Debye layer at the solid-gel interface. The solid polarization of the particle, the polarization of the double layer, and the electro-osmosis of mobile ions within the hydrogel medium create a nonlinear effect on the electrophoresis. We have incorporated those nonlinear effects by considering the electrokinetics governed by the Stokes-Brinkman-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations. We have computed the governing nonlinear coupled set of equations numerically by adopting a finite volume based iterative algorithm. Our numerical method is tested for accuracy by comparing with several existing results on free-solution electrophoresis as well as results based on the Debye-Hückel approximation. Our computed result shows that the electrophoretic velocity decreases with the rise of the particle dielectric permittivity constant and attains a saturation limit at large values of permittivity. A significant impact of the solid polarization is found in gel electrophoresis compared to the free-solution electrophoresis.

  4. Structural and dielectric properties of a complex tungsten bronze ferroelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhee, R.; Das, P. R.; Parida, B. N.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2012-07-01

    The polycrystalline sample of K2Pb2Y2W2Ti4Nb4O30 was synthesized by a mixed-oxide method at high temperature. The compound formation was checked by preliminary X-ray structural analysis. The SEM micrograph exhibits uniform plate and rod-like grain distribution. Detailed studies of variation of dielectric parameters with temperature and frequency, and polarization confirmed the existence of ferroelectricity in the material, with phase transition at 390°C. The ac conductivity follows the Arrhenius equation.

  5. Fringe integral equation method for a truncated grounded dielectric slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Maci, S.; Toccafondi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of scattering by a semi-infinite grounded dielectric slab illuminated by an arbitrary incident TMz polarized electric field is studied by solving a new set of “fringe” integral equations (F-IEs), whose functional unknowns are physically associated to the wave diffraction processes...... occurring at the truncation. The F-IEs are obtained by subtracting from the surface/surface integral equations pertinent to the truncated slab, an auxiliary set of equations obtained for the canonical problem of an infinite grounded slab illuminated by the same source. The F-IEs are solved by the method...

  6. Strong surface effect on direct bulk flexoelectric response in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkov, A. S. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tagantsev, A. K. [Ceramics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-11

    In the framework of a continuum theory, it is shown that the direct bulk flexoelectric response of a finite sample essentially depends on the surface polarization energy, even in the thermodynamic limit where the body size tends to infinity. It is found that a modification of the surface energy can lead to a change in the polarization response by a factor of two. The origin of the effect is an electric field produced by surface dipoles induced by the strain gradient. The unexpected sensitivity of the polarization response to the surface energy in the thermodynamic limit is conditioned by the fact that the moments of the surface dipoles may scale as the body size.

  7. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  8. Giant piezoelectric response in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Huaping; Wang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the linear response of electrical polarization to a strain gradient, which can be used to enhance the piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric material or realize the piezoelectric effect in nonpiezoelectric materials. Here, we demonstrate from thermodynamics theory that a giant piezoelectric effect exists in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect. The apparent piezoelectric coefficient is calculated from the closed-form of analytical expression of the polarization distribution in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice subjected to a normal stress, in which the flexoelectric effect is included. It is found that there exists a strong nonlinear coupling between the flexoelectric and piezoelectric effects, which significantly enhances the apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice. For a specific thickness ratio of the piezoelectric and dielectric layers, the enhanced apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the superlattice is ten times larger than that of its pure piezoelectric counterpart. The present work suggests an effective way to obtain giant apparent piezoelectric effect in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices through flexoelectric effect.

  9. Enhancing dielectric permittivity for energy-storage devices through tricritical phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yongbin; Hu, Xinghao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Lisheng; He, Yuting; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Although dielectric energy-storing devices are frequently used in high voltage level, the fast growing on the portable and wearable electronics have been increasing the demand on the energy-storing devices at finite electric field strength. This paper proposes an approach on enhancing energy density under low electric field through compositionally inducing tricriticality in Ba(Ti,Sn)O3 ferroelectric material system with enlarged dielectric response. The optimal dielectric permittivity at tricritical point can reach to εr = 5.4 × 104, and the associated energy density goes to around 30 mJ/cm3 at the electric field of 10 kV/cm, which exceeds most of the selected ferroelectric materials at the same field strength. The microstructure nature for such a tricritical behavior shows polarization inhomogeneity in nanometeric scale, which indicates a large polarizability under external electric field. Further phenomenological Landau modeling suggests that large dielectric permittivity and energy density can be ascribed to the vanishing of energy barrier for polarization altering caused by tricriticality. Our results may shed light on developing energy-storing dielectrics with large permittivity and energy density at low electric field.

  10. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  11. Extinction by the long dielectric needles

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkas, Nadejda L

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave extinction by the very long but finite dielectric needle is compared with that by the infinite dielectric cylinder for an oblique incidence of the electromagnetic wave. It is shown that the renormalized Hankel functions without the logarithmic terms should be used for the calculation of the extinction per unit length of the infinite dielectric cylinder to apply it for extinction calculations by the finite dielectric cylinder.

  12. Dielectric nanostructures with high laser damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, C. Y.; Hong, L. Y.; Deng, J.; Khoo, E. H.; Liu, Z.; Wu, R. F.; Teng, J. H.

    2017-02-01

    Dielectric-based metamaterials are proposed to be the ideal candidates for low-loss, high-efficiency devices. However, to employ dielectric nanostructures for high-power applications, the dielectric material must have a high laser-induced damaged threshold (LIDT) value. In this work, we investigated the LIDT values of dielectric nanostructures for high-power fiber laser applications. Consequently, we found that the fabricated SiO2 nanostructured lens can withstand laser fluence exceeding 100 J/cm2.

  13. Dielectric and Elastic Characterization of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Giordano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the dielectric and elastic characterization of composite materials constituted by dispersions of nonlinear inclusions embedded in a linear matrix. The dielectric theory deals with pseudo-oriented particles shaped as ellipsoids of revolution: it means that we are dealing with mixtures of inclusions of arbitrary aspect ratio and arbitrary non-random orientational distributions. The analysis ranges from parallel spheroidal inclusions to completely random oriented inclusions. Each ellipsoidal inclusion is made of an isotropic dielectric material described by means of the so-called Kerr nonlinear relation. On the other hand, the nonlinear elastic characterization takes into consideration a dispersion of nonlinear (spherical or cylindrical inhomogeneities. Both phases are considered isotropic (actually it means polycrystalline or amorphous solids. Under the simplifying hypotheses of small deformation for the material body and of small volume fraction of the embedded phase, we describe a theory for obtaining the linear and nonlinear elastic properties (bulk and shear moduli and Landau coefficients of the overall material.

  14. Dielectric material degradation monitoring of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald E.; Houser, Nicole M.; Lavoie, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    It is a known phenomenon that some dielectric materials used to construct plasma actuators degrade during operation. However, the rate at which this process occurs, to what extent, as well as a method to monitor is yet to be established. In this experimental study, it is shown that electrical measurements can be used to monitor changes in the material of the plasma actuators. The procedure we introduce for monitoring the actuators follows from the work of Kriegseis, Grundmann, and Tropea [Kriegseis et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 013305 (2011)], who used Lissajous figures to measure actuator power consumption and capacitance. In the present study, we quantify changes in both the power consumption and capacitance of the actuators over long operating durations. It is shown that the increase in the effective capacitance of the actuator is related to degradation (thinning) of the dielectric layer, which is accompanied by an increase in actuator power consumption. For actuators constructed from layers of Kapton® polyimide tape, these changes are self-limiting. Although the polyimide film degrades relatively quickly, the underlying adhesive layer appears to remain intact. Over time, the effective capacitance was found to increase by up to 36%, 25%, and 11% for actuators constructed with 2, 3, and 4 layers of Kapton tape, respectively. A method is presented to prevent erosion of the Kapton dielectric layer using a coating of Polydimethylsiloxane oil. It is shown the application of this treatment can delay the onset of degradation of the Kapton dielectric material.

  15. Tailored Optical Polarization in Nano-Structured Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, Bernardo S

    2016-01-01

    A very efficient method for the calculation of the effective optical response of nano-structured composite systems allows the design of metamaterials tailored for specific optical polarization properties. We use our method to design 2D periodic arrays of sub-wavelength dielectric inclusions within nanometric supported metallic thin films which behave as either an almost perfect linearly dichroic system, as a controllable source of circular polarized light, as a system with a large circular dichroism, or as a circular polarizer. All of these systems may be tuned over a wide energy range.

  16. Artificial Dielectric Shields for Integrated Transmission Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.; Rejaei, B.; Zhuang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel shielding method for on-chip transmission lines built on conductive silicon substrates. The shield consists of an artificial dielectric with a very high in-plane dielectric constant, built from two patterned metal layers isolated by a very thin dielectric film. Inserted below an i

  17. Fabrication and characterization of β-poly(vinylidene fluoride)/silane-treated titanium dioxide dielectric nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chen; Shi, HaoTian H.; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric materials are commonly known as electrical insulators that can be polarized under strong electrical field. Currently, emerging dielectric research interests are focusing on nanoparticles mixed polymer based composites, since such materials demonstrated an astonishing increase in dielectric performance when compared to neat polymer matrix, due to the exponential increase in the interfacial area between the nanoparticles and polymer. Such findings infer that particle dispersion plays a critical role for the overall dielectric performance. In this study, we present a continuous manufacturing process consists of extrusion and stretching for Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/silane-treated titanium dioxide (PVDF/silane-treated TiO2) flexible organic/inorganic polymer nanocomposites and the experimental result. Our results show that melt blending process is able to break down both silane treated and untreated micro-size TiO2 agglomerates with extremely well dispersion in PVDF matrix. Follow-up studies and characterizations indicated that the material performances such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss are either similar or surpass the sample prepared via solvent casting and the effects of silane treatment are also discussed. A number of methods was used to characterize the composites, including AFM for dispersion verification and dielectric spectroscopy for dielectric analysis.

  18. Domain evolution and polarization of continuously graded ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roytburd, A.; Roytburd, V.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of graded ferroelectric films demonstrates that in the equilibrium state the films are subdivided into a single-domain band and a polydomain band which consists of wedge-shape domains. Polarization under an external electrostatic field proceeds through an inter-band boundary movement due to growth or shrinkage of the wedge domains. It is shown how the domain structure and evolution are determined by the principal characteristics of the film: the distribution of the spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant. Graded films exhibit a sharp increase of polarization with the field for weak fields, with a drop of the dielectric constant when the field is increasing. A general approach to finding the dependence of the displacement and the wedge-domain shape on the field as well as analytical solutions for the p{sup 4} Landau-Devonshire and parabolic potentials are presented.

  19. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  20. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permi......-4-nitrobenzene. Here, a high increase in dielectric permittivity (similar to 70%) was obtained without compromising other favourable DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric loss and electrical breakdown strength. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrissopoulou, K. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Fotiadou, S. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and University of Crete, Department of Chemistry, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M. [CNR-IPCF, Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Frick, B. [ILL-Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2014-05-15

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane® S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  2. Polymer dielectric materials for organic thin-film transistors: Interfacial control and development for printable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choongik

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have been extensively studied for organic electronics. In these devices, organic semiconductor-dielectric interface characteristics play a critical role in influencing OTFT operation and performance. This study begins with exploring how the physicochemical characteristics of the polymer gate dielectric affects the thin-film growth mode, microstructure, and OTFT performance parameters of pentacene films deposited on bilayer polymer (top)-SiO2 (bottom) dielectrics. Pentacene growth mode varies considerably with dielectric substrate, and correlations are established between pentacene film deposition temperature, the thin-film to bulk microstructural phase transition, and OTFT device performance. Furthermore, the primary influence of the polymer dielectric layer glass transition temperature on pentacene film microstructure and OTFT response is shown for the first time. Following the first study, the influence of the polymer gate dielectric viscoelastic properties on overlying organic semiconductor film growth, film microstructure, and TFT response are investigated in detail. From the knowledge that nanoscopically-confined thin polymer films exhibit glass transition temperatures that deviate substantially from those of the corresponding bulk materials, pentacene (p-channel) and cyanoperylene (n-channel) films grown on polymer gate dielectrics at temperatures well-below their bulk glass transition temperatures (Tg(b)) have been shown to exhibit morphological/microstructural transitions and dramatic OTFT performance discontinuities at well-defined temperatures (defined as the polymer "surface glass transition temperature," or Tg(s)). These transitions are characteristic of the particular polymer architecture and independent of film thickness or overall film cooperative chain dynamics. Furthermore, by analyzing the pentacene films grown on UV-curable polymer dielectrics with different curing times (hence, different degrees of

  3. Analytic Franz-Keldysh effect in one-dimensional polar semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, T G

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of a one-dimensional polar semiconductor in a strong electric field are considered. This class of materials includes non-centrosymmetric III-V inorganic quantum wires but also polar conjugated polymers such as polymethineimine. The polar Franz-Keldysh effect is derived via an analytic expression for the complex dielectric constant including line broadening and linear field terms. Results for the high-field non-perturbative regime as well as the low-field expansion are presented.

  4. Dielectric THz waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Alexandre

    In this thesis we have explored a wide variety of dielectric waveguides that rely on many different waveguiding mechanisms to guide THz (far-infrared) radiation. We have explored both theoretically and experimentally a large number of waveguide designs with the aim of reducing propagation and bending losses. The different waveguides can be classified into two fundamentally different strategies for reducing the propagation loss: small-core single-mode evanescent-field fibers or large hollow-core multi-mode tubes. Our focus was first set on exploring the small-core evanescent-field fiber strategy for reducing propagation losses. Following initial theoretical work in our group, much effort was spent on the fabrication and measurement of evanescent porous subwavelength diameter plastic fibers, in an attempt to further reduce the propagation losses. The fabrication of such fibers is a challenge and many novel techniques were devised to enable fiber drawing without hole collapse. The first method sealed the holes of an assembly of polymer tubes and lead to fibers of relatively low porosity (˜25% air within the core) due to reduction in hole size during fiber drawing. The second method was a novel sacrificial polymer technique whereby drawing a completely solid fiber prevented any hole collapse and the subsequent dissolution of the sacrificial polymer revealed the holes in the fiber. The third method was a combination of preform casting using glass molds and drawing with pressurized air within the holes. This led to fibers of record porosity (86% air). The measurement of these porous fibers began with a collaboration with a group from the university of Sherbrooke. At the time, the only available detector was a frequency integrating liquid-helium-cooled bolometer (powermeter). A novel directional coupler method for measuring the losses of subwavelength fibers was developed whereby an evanescent coupler is formed by bringing a probe fiber in proximity to the sample fiber

  5. Polar Shapelets

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, R; Massey, Richard; Refregier, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    The shapelets method for astronomical image analysis is based around the decomposition of localised objects into a series of orthogonal components with particularly convenient mathematical properties. We extend the "Cartesian shapelet" formalism from earlier work, and construct "polar shapelet" basis functions that separate an image into components with explicit rotational symmetries. This provides a more compact representation of typical galaxy shapes, and its physical interpretation is frequently more intuitive. Linear coordinate transformations can be simply expressed using this basis set, and shape measures (including object photometry, astrometry and galaxy morphology estimators) take a naturally elegant form. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of astronomical survey images, and we test shapelet techniques with real data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We present a practical method to automatically optimise the quality of an arbitrary shapelet decomposition in the presence of noise, pixellisat...

  6. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  7. Spatial concentration distribution analysis of cells in electrode-multilayered microchannel by dielectric property measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiafeng; Kodera, Tatsuya; Obara, Hiromichi; Sugawara, Michiko; Takei, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    The spatial concentration distribution of cells in a microchannel is measured by combining the dielectric properties of cells with the specific structure of the electrode-multilayered microchannel. The dielectric properties of cells obtained with the impedance spectroscopy method includes the cell permittivity and dielectric relaxation, which corresponds to the cell concentration and structure. The electrode-multilayered microchannel is constructed by 5 cross-sections, and each cross-section contains 5 electrode-layers embedded with 16 micro electrodes. In the experiment, the dielectric properties of cell suspensions with different volume concentrations are measured with different electrode-combinations corresponding to different electric field distributions. The dielectric relaxations of different cell concentrations are compared and discussed with the Maxwell-Wagner dispersion theory, and the relaxation frequencies are analysed by a cell polarization model established based on the Hanai cell model. Moreover, a significant linear relationship with AC frequency dependency between relative permittivity and cell concentration was found, which provides a promising way to on-line estimate cell concentration in microchannel. Finally, cell distribution in 1 cross-section of the microchannel (X and Y directions) was measured with different electrode-combinations using the dielectric properties of cell suspensions, and cell concentration distribution along the microchannel (Z direction) was visualized at flowing state. The present cell spatial sensing study provides a new approach for 3 dimensional non-invasive online cell sensing for biological industry.

  8. Electrical conductivity and dielectric relaxation of 2-(antipyrin-4-ylhydrazono)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Menyawy, E.M., E-mail: emad_elmenyawy@yahoo.com [Solid State Electronics Laboratory, Solid State Physics Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo 12311 (Egypt); Zedan, I.T. [Basic Science Department, High Institute of Engineering and Technology, El-Arish, North Sinai (Egypt); Nawar, H.H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Al Jabal Al Gharbi University (Libya)

    2014-03-15

    The electrical and dielectric properties of the synthesized 2-(antipyrin-4-ylhydrazono)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (AHNA) have been studied. The direct and alternating current (DC and AC) conductivities and complex dielectric constant were investigated in temperature range 303–403 K. The AC conductivity and dielectric properties of AHNA were investigated over frequency range 100 Hz–5 MHz. From DC and AC measurements, electrical conduction is found to be a thermally activated process. The frequency-dependent AC conductivity obeys Jonscher's universal power law in which the frequency exponent decreases with increasing temperature. The correlated barrier hopping (CBH) is the predominant model for describing the charge carrier transport in which the electrical parameters are evaluated. The activation energy is found to decrease with increasing frequency. The behaviors of dielectric and dielectric loss are discussed in terms of a polarization mechanism. The dielectric loss shows frequency power law from which the maximum barrier height is determined as 0.19 eV in terms of the Guintini model.

  9. Inversion of dielectric constant and moisture of bare soil surface from backscattering coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗谦; 冯孔豫

    1997-01-01

    An inverse method of dielectric constant and moisture of bare wet soil surface from backscattering coefficients is presented, which is based upon the small perturbation model of electromagnetic wave scattering from rough surfaces and the empirical and dielectric mixing models of wet soil. Some sets of curves which describe the relation between the moisture of soil and the ratio of like polarization backscattering coefficients σvv and σhh are obtained, and some principles on how to choose the incident frequencies and the incident angles of the electromagnetic wave are given Analysis and calculation show that the mam advantage of this inverse method is its efficiency and simplicity.

  10. Merging Magellan emissivity and SAR data for analysis of Venus surface dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    1994-01-01

    Integration of Magellan datasets for Venus is an important part of characterizing the geology of the surface. We analyze the global average beahvior of radar backscatter and emissivity and find that for incidence angles greater than 30 deg the two parameters can be modeled by the behavior of a single-dielectric surface (epsilon approximately 4.15) with variable roughness. Based on this result, we propse a model which relates the HH backscatter and H-polarized emissivity to values for a relative roughness fraction and dielectric constant.

  11. Tunable positive and negative refraction of infrared radiation in graphene-dielectric multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2015-11-01

    Graphene-dielectric multilayers consisting of alternating layers of atom-thick graphene and nanometer-scale dielectric films exhibit characteristics of hyperbolic metamaterials, in which one positive and one negative permittivity are defined for orthogonal directions. Negative permittivity for electric field polarized in the direction parallel to the conductive graphene sheets gives rise to a negative angle of refraction and low-loss transmission for the side-incidence perspective proposed in this work. The Poynting vector tracing demonstrates the switching between positive and negative refraction in the mid-infrared region by tuning the chemical potential of graphene. This adjustable dual-mode metamaterial holds promise for infrared imaging applications.

  12. Tunable positive and negative refraction of infrared radiation in graphene-dielectric multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R. Z.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Graphene-dielectric multilayers consisting of alternating layers of atom-thick graphene and nanometer-scale dielectric films exhibit characteristics of hyperbolic metamaterials, in which one positive and one negative permittivity are defined for orthogonal directions. Negative permittivity for electric field polarized in the direction parallel to the conductive graphene sheets gives rise to a negative angle of refraction and low-loss transmission for the side-incidence perspective proposed in this work. The Poynting vector tracing demonstrates the switching between positive and negative refraction in the mid-infrared region by tuning the chemical potential of graphene. This adjustable dual-mode metamaterial holds promise for infrared imaging applications.

  13. Heavy quarkonium production and polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Sterman, George

    2011-01-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum $p_T$ at collider energies, which includes both the leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the $m_Q^2/p_T^2$ expansion for heavy quark mass $m_Q$. We estimate fragmentation functions in the non-relativistic QCD formalism, and reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit NLO calculations in the color singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization.

  14. Dielectric properties of betaine phosphite and deuterated betaine phosphite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Pankova, G. A.; Frederiks, I. D.; Lemanov, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline films of betaine phosphite (BPI) and deuterated BPI have been grown by evaporation on LiNbO3, α-SiO2, α-Al2O3, and NdGaO3 substrates. These films consist of large single-crystal blocks in which the polar axis ( b) lies in the substrate plane. The results of studying the dielectric properties of the films using interdigital electrodes, X-ray diffraction, and block images in a polarized-light microscope in reflection are reported. The film transition into the ferroelectric state at T = T c is accompanied by strong anomalies of the capacitance of the film/interdigital structure/substrate structure. The deuteration of BPI films leads to an increase in their temperature T c: from T c = 200 K for BPI-based structures to T c = 280 K for structures with a high degree of deuteration ( d ˜ 90%).

  15. Optical polarization of C13 nuclei in diamond through nitrogen vacancy centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan P.; Coles, Patrick J.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-02-01

    We determine the polarization of the bulk C13 nuclear-spin system in diamond produced by interaction with optically oriented nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers. C13 nuclei are polarized into the higher-energy Zeeman state with a bulk-average polarization up to 5.2%, although local polarization may be higher. The kinetics of polarization are temperature independent and occur within 5 min. Fluctuations in the dipolar field of the NV-center spin bath are identified as the mechanism by which nuclear-spin transitions are induced near defect centers. Polarization is then transported to the bulk material via spin diffusion, which accounts for the observed kinetics of polarization. These results indicate control over the nuclear-spin bath, a methodology to study dynamics of an NV-center ensemble, and application to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  16. Light-induced space-charge fields for the structuration of dielectric materials; Lichtinduzierte Raumladungsfelder zur Strukturierung dielektrischer Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, H.A.

    2006-11-15

    Light-induced space-charge fields in lithium-niobate crystals are used for patterning of dielectric materials. This includes tailored ferroelectric domains in the bulk of the crystal, different sorts of micro and nanoparticles on a crystal surface, as well as poling of electrooptic chromophores. A stochastical model is introduced, which can describe the spatial inhomogeneous domain inversion. (orig.)

  17. Relaxation and Conductivity in P3HT/PC71BM Blends As Revealed by Dielectric Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jing; Martinez-Tong, Daniel E.; Sanz, Alejandro;

    2016-01-01

    The conduction mechanism and the molecular dynamics on the paradigmatic bulk heterojunction formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blends have been characterized by dielectric spectroscopy. The results show that hexyl lateral chains of the polymer...

  18. Use of dimensionality to enhance tunable microwave dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlom, D. G.; Lee, Che-Hui; Haislmaier, R.; Vlahos, E.; Gopalan, V.; Birol, T.; Zhu, Y.; Kourkoutis, L. F.; Benedek, N.; Kim, Y.; Brock, J. D.; Muller, D. A.; Fennie, C. J.; Orloff, N. D.; Booth, J. C.; Goian, V.; Kamba, S.; Biegalski, M. D.; Bernhagen, M.; Uecker, R.; Xi, X. X.; Takeuchi, I.

    2012-02-01

    The miniaturization and integration of frequency-agile microwave circuits---tunable filters, resonators, phase shifters and more---with microelectronics offers tantalizing device possibilities, yet requires thin films whose dielectric constant at GHz frequencies can be tuned by applying a quasi-static electric field. Appropriate systems, e.g., BaxSr1-xTiO3, have a paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition just below ambient temperature, providing high tunability. Unfortunately such films suffer significant losses arising from defects. Recognizing that progress is stymied by dielectric loss, we start with a system with exceptionally low loss---Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases---where in-plane crystallographic shear (SrO)2 faults provide an alternative to point defects for accommodating non-stoichiometry. In this talk we will establish both experimentally and theoretically the emergence of a ferroelectric and highly tunable ground state in biaxially strained Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases with n>=3 at frequencies up to 40 GHz. With increasing n the (SrO)2 faults are separated further than the ferroelectric coherence length perpendicular to the in-plane polarization, enabling tunability with a figure of merit at room temperature that rivals all known tunable microwave dielectrics.

  19. Dielectric relaxations investigation of a synthesized epoxy resin polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-04-01

    A diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin was synthesized, and cured with 3,3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a curing temperature of 120 °C. The relaxation properties of the realized polymers were studied by two complementary techniques: dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), in the temperature range 173-393K and in the frequency interval 10-1-106 Hz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) with a windowing polarization process. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out to study interfacial relaxations. Dielectric data were analyzed in terms of permittivity and electric modulus variations. Three relaxation processes ( γ, β and α) have been identified. They were found to be frequency and temperature dependent and were interpreted in terms of the Havriliak-Negami approach. Relaxation parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time was well fitted by the Arrhenius law for secondary relaxations, while the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann model was found to better fit the τ( T) variations for α relaxation. We found τ 0 = 4.9 10-12 s, 9.6 10-13 s and 1.98 10-7 s for γ, β and α relaxations, respectively. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature. Due to the calculation of the low-frequency data of dielectric loss by the Hamon approximation, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation was highlighted.

  20. Experimental study on surface modification of PET films under bipolar nanosecond-pulse dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunfei [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Su, Chunqiang [Xi’an High Voltage Apparatus Research Institute, Xi’an 710077 (China); Ren, Xiang; Fan, Chuan; Zhou, Wenwu [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Feng [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ding, Weidong, E-mail: wdding@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Homogeneous DBD is generated under bipolar nanosecond pulse in atmospheric air. • Effects of surface modification under homogeneous DBD are discussed. • Dielectric properties of the PET films are fully studied from relative dielectric constant ε{sub r}, dielectric loss tangent tan δ and breakdown voltages V{sub b}. • Oxygen-containing polar groups are considered to be the most essential reason for dielectric property changes. - Abstract: Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is widely used for surface modification of polymer films. In this paper, DBD characteristics under bipolar repetitive frequency nanosecond pulse in atmospheric air are studied and surface properties of polyethylene terephthalate films under homogeneous DBD and filamentary DBD modification are compared through scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dielectric test equipment. It is found that the discharge is homogeneous when gap spacing d is less than 1.2 mm and filamentary when d is within the range of 3.0 mm to 5.8 mm. SEM pictures reveal that films under homogeneous DBD present a smooth surface while intensive “gully-like” etches appear on the surface of the films under filamentary DBD, which can result in local insulation defects and is disadvantageous to surface modification. It is found from the XPS analysis that a number of oxygen-containing polar groups are introduced onto the surface of the film modified by homogeneous DBD compared with the untreated one. Experimental results for dielectric properties indicate that the three parameters: relative dielectric constant ε{sub r}, dielectric loss tangent tan δ and breakdown voltages V{sub b} are all changed in different degree after surface modification. And possible reason for the phenomenon is discussed.

  1. Effective Pyroelectric Coefficient and Polarization Offset of Compositionally Step-like Graded Ferroelectric Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hai-Xia; WU Yin-Zhong; LI Zhen-Ya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effective pyroelectric coefficient and polarization offset of the compositionally step-like graded multilayer ferroelectric structures have been studied by use of the first-principles approach. It is exhibited that the dielectric gradient has a nontrivial influence on the effective pyroelectric coefficient, but has a little influence on the polarization offset; and the polarization gradient plays an important role in the abnormal hysteresis loop phenomenon of the co.mpositionally step-like graded ferroelectric structures. Moreover, the origin of the polarization offset is explored,which can be attributed to the polarization gradient in the compositionally step-like graded structure.

  2. Image brightening in samples of high dielectric constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, James

    2004-03-01

    An analytic solution is given for the electromagnetic problem of a lossy dielectric cylinder of infinite length, irradiated by a circularly polarized radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field; the NMR-active components of the field inside the cylinder are projected out by transforming the RF Hamiltonian to the rotating frame and retaining only those terms independent of time; it is noted that the resulting cartesian field components are required to be real. The squared magnitude of the NMR-active fields are then used to calculate the gradient-recalled images of the cylinder, for small tip angles of the magnetization; and the result is shown to predict almost quantitatively the intensity patterns of experimental proton images at 3.0 and 4.0 T, in a cylindrical phantom of radius 9.25 cm, filled with 0.05 M aqueous NaCl. In particular, the artifactual brightening at the center of the recorded image is convincingly reproduced in a simulation, whose underlying model excludes wave propagation along the direction of the cylinder axis. Formation of the artifact is explained in terms of the focussing of the RF magnetic field at the center of the cylinder, as illustrated by contour plots showing the time evolution of the rotating flux. An extended electromagnetic model—having the dielectric cylinder enclosed in a long, shielded volume resonator (e.g., of bird cage type)—is then sketched. The mathematical details appear in Appendix A; and the simulated images are shown to be virtually indistinguishable from those of the simpler original model. The theory of the Q, or quality factor, of the dielectric cylinder—considered itself as a resonant object—is developed for the enclosed cylinder model, where flux containment by the shield permits an unambiguous treatment of both the stored energy and the radiative losses. This is extended to treat the Q of a lossy dielectric sphere without shielding. Further plots of flux contours are given for the sphere, excited at 208 MHz with a

  3. Investigation of thickness effects on the dielectric constant barium strontium titanate thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Grattan, L J

    2002-01-01

    The collapse in dielectric constant at small thickness commonly observed in ferroelectric thin films was measured and investigated in barium strontium titanate (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 TiO sub 3). The possible mechanisms responsible for this effect are reviewed. Functional measurements were performed on BST thin films, of 7.5 to 950 nm, by incorporating them into capacitor structures with bottom electrodes of strontium ruthenate (SRO) and thermally- evaporated Au top electrodes. A discussion on thin film growth considerations, optimal PLD conditions and the measurement techniques employed in the project is presented. The experimentally determined dielectric constant - thickness profile was fitted using the series capacitor model assuming low dielectric constant interfacial layers in series with the bulk. Consideration of the case where the combined 'dead layer' thickness was close to the total BST thickness revealed that, for this system, the total 'dead layer' thickness had to be less than ...

  4. Air-core microcavities and metal-dielectric filters - building blocks for optofluidic microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor Warren

    reflection-less tunneling through a dielectric-metal-dielectric unit cell. For normal-incidence light in air, only a specific and impractically large dielectric index can enable a perfect admittance match. For off-normal incidence of TE-polarized light, an admittance match is obtained for a specific angle determined by the index of the ambient and dielectric media and the thickness and index of the metal. For TM-polarized light, admittance matching is possible for surface-plasmon-mediated tunneling. These results provide important insight for the design and optimization of optical filters and superlenses.

  5. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  6. The Universe With Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Exact solutions for a model with variable G, A and bulk viscosity areobtained. Inflationary solutions with constant (de Sitter-type) and variable energydensity are found. An expanding anisotropic universe is found to isotropize duringits expansion but a static universe cannot isotropize. The gravitational constant isfound to increase with time and the cosmological constant decreases with time asAo∝t-2.

  7. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  8. Size-dependent anomalous dielectric behavior in La2O3: SiO2 nano-glass composite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T. H.; Mukherjee, S.; Lin, Y. H.; Chou, C. C.; Yang, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    An intriguing anomalous dielectric behavior is observed in nanoparticle (NP) La2O3: SiO2 nano-glass composite system synthesized via sol-gel route at different calcination temperatures. Temperature dependent dielectric properties exhibit a notable dielectric broadening, indicating of diffuse phase transition with high ɛ', quite different from and much higher than pure bulk La2O3 and SiO2. We postulate such dielectric effect in the context of the oxygen vacancies of the rare earth oxide nano-glass composite, where lattice strain related with NPs and their size plays a vital role. Such a material might be treated as a potential candidate to solve the problem of devices miniaturization.

  9. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  10. Tailoring dielectric properties of ferroelectric-dielectric multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesim, M. T.; Zhang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Cole, M. W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Misirlioglu, I. B. [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Orhanlı/Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Alpay, S. P., E-mail: p.alpay@ims.uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    We develop a nonlinear thermodynamic model for multilayer ferroelectric heterostructures that takes into account electrostatic and electromechanical interactions between layers. We concentrate on the effect of relative layer fractions and in-plane thermal stresses on dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3}-, BaTiO{sub 3}-, and PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PZT)-SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) multilayers on Si and c-sapphire. We show that dielectric properties of such multilayers can be significantly enhanced by tailoring the growth/processing temperature and the STO layer fraction. Our computations show that large tunabilities (∼90% at 400 kV/cm) are possible in carefully designed barium strontium titanate-STO and PZT-STO even on Si for which there exist substantially large in-plane strains.

  11. Dielectric Spectroscopy: noninvasive and fast method for measuring changes in the membrane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Corina; Prodan, Camelia; Prodan, Emil

    2008-03-01

    We present a noninvasive and fast method, dielectric spectroscopy, to measure changes in the membrane potential of live cell suspensions, in particular to E. coli. This technique can be applied virtually to any cell suspension, regardless of size or shape and is tested against the traditional one-using voltage sensitive dyes. Precise measurements of the dielectric permittivity ɛ and conductivity σ of live cells suspensions require prior elimination of the polarization errors. Polarization errors are caused by the ionic content of a buffer, and they affect the total impedance in the low frequency interval. We hereby present our approach of polarization removal in low frequency limit by fitting both real and imaginary experimental curves with an ideal impedance Z=d/iφɛ^*S, where ɛ^*=ɛ+1/iφσ. Here, ɛ and σ represent the fitting parameters; a higher weight is given to each of them for the high frequency domain (3kHz-10kHz), where polarization effects were proven negligible. Measurements were performed in a low electric field (1V/cm) and 40Hz-10kHz frequency domain. Different buffers are measured, such as HEPES, DMEM with different KCl concentrations. Adding different KCl concentration or ionophores triggers changes in the membrane potential of E. coli. Those changes are measured using dielectric spectroscopy and voltage sensitive dyes.

  12. Structure-property relationships in polymers for dielectric capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sahil

    Effective energy storage is a key challenge of the 21st century that has fueled research in the area of energy storage devices. In this dissertation, structure-property relationships have been evaluated for polymers that might be suitable for storing energy in high-energy density, high-temperature capacitors. Firstly, hydroxyl-modified polypropylenes (PPOH) were synthesized by copolymerization of the propylene and undecenyloxytrimethylsilane monomers. The presence of H-bonding in PPOH copolymers increased their glass-transition temperature. Steric hindrance by the comonomer reduced the PP crystal growth rate and crystal size, resulting in a melting point depression. The comonomer was restricted outside the crystalline domains leaving the alpha-monoclinic crystal structure of PP unaffected, but increasing the fold-surface free energy. Crystallization was slower for PPOH copolymers than PP, but exhibited a skewed bell curve as a function of hydroxyl concentration. H-bonding persisted even at melt temperatures up to 250°C resulting in a higher elasticity and viscosity for PPOH copolymers. Secondly, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (HSPEEK) was synthesized by sulfonating PEEK with sulfuric acid, and further neutralized with Zn to obtain ZnSPEEK. The thermal and dielectric properties of SPEEK were compared with PEEK. The glass-transition increased and melting point were high enough to enable the use of polymer at 180°C. The incorporation of sulfonic groups in PEEK increased the dielectric constant. HSPEEK had a higher dielectric constant than ZnSPEEK due to higher dipolar mobility, but the dielectric loss was also higher for HSPEEK due to electrode polarization and DC conduction. These results were consistent with our observations from sulfonated polystyrene (HSPS), which was used as a >model&lang' polymer. Lastly, commercial poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (P4MP) was characterized to check its viability as a high-temperature polymer dielectric. Thermal stability up to

  13. Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Pilwat, G; Riemann, F

    1974-11-01

    With human and bovine red blood cells and Escherichia coli B, dielectric breakdown of cell membranes could be demonstrated using a Coulter Counter (AEG-Telefunken, Ulm, West Germany) with a hydrodynamic focusing orifice. In making measurements of the size distributions of red blood cells and bacteria versus increasing electric field strength and plotting the pulse heights versus the electric field strength, a sharp bend in the otherwise linear curve is observed due to the dielectric breakdown of the membranes. Solution of Laplace's equation for the electric field generated yields a value of about 1.6 V for the membrane potential at which dielectric breakdown occurs with modal volumes of red blood cells and bacteria. The same value is also calculated for red blood cells by applying the capacitor spring model of Crowley (1973. Biophys. J. 13:711). The corresponding electric field strength generated in the membrane at breakdown is of the order of 4 . 10(6) V/cm and, therefore, comparable with the breakdown voltages for bilayers of most oils. The critical detector voltage for breakdown depends on the volume of the cells. The volume-dependence predicted by Laplace theory with the assumption that the potential generated across the membrane is independent of volume, could be verified experimentally. Due to dielectric breakdown the red blood cells lose hemoglobin completely. This phenomenon was used to study dielectric breakdown of red blood cells in a homogeneous electric field between two flat platinum electrodes. The electric field was applied by discharging a high voltage storage capacitor via a spark gap. The calculated value of the membrane potential generated to produce dielectric breakdown in the homogeneous field is of the same order as found by means of the Coulter Counter. This indicates that mechanical rupture of the red blood cells by the hydrodynamic forces in the orifice of the Coulter Counter could also be excluded as a hemolysing mechanism. The detector

  14. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of slightly hydrated horn keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra; Khan, Muhammad Abdullah

    2008-04-01

    With an aim to reveal the mechanism of protein-water interaction in a predominantly two phase model protein system this study investigates the frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric constant epsilon' and loss factor epsilon'' in cow horn keratin in the frequency range 30 Hz to 3 MHz and temperature range 30-200 degrees C at two levels of hydration. These two levels of hydration were achieved by exposing the sample to air at 50% relative humidity (RH) at ambient temperature and by evacuating the sample for 72 h at 105 degrees C. A low frequency dispersion (LFD) and an intermediate frequency alpha-dispersion were the two main dielectric responses observed in the air-dried sample. The LFD and the high frequency arm of the alpha-dispersion followed the same fractional power law of frequency. Within the framework of percolation cluster model these dispersions, respectively have been attributed to percolation of protons between and within the clusters of hydrogen-bonded water molecules bound to polar or ionizable protein components. The alpha-dispersion peak, which results from intra-cluster charge percolation conformed to Cole-Cole modified Debye equation. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant in the air-dried sample exhibited peaks at 120 and 155 degrees C which have been identified as temperatures of onset of release of water bound to polar protein components in the amorphous and crystalline regions, respectively. An overall rise in the permittivity was observed above 175 degrees C, which has been identified as the onset of chain melting in the crystalline region of the protein.

  15. Dielectric properties of crystalline organic molecular films in the limit of zero overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Avino, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.davino@gmail.com [Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, BE-7000 Mons, Belgium and Department of Physics, University of Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, BE-4000 Liège (Belgium); Vanzo, Davide; Soos, Zoltán G., E-mail: soos@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    We present the calculation of the static dielectric susceptibility tensor and dipole field sums in thin molecular films in the well-defined limit of zero intermolecular overlap. Microelectrostatic and charge redistribution approaches are applied to study the evolution of dielectric properties from one to a few molecular layers in films of different conjugated molecules with organic electronics applications. Because of the conditional convergence of dipolar interactions, dipole fields depend on the shape of the sample and different values are found in the middle layer of a thick film and in the bulk. The shape dependence is eliminated when depolarization is taken into account, and the dielectric tensor of molecular films converges to the bulk limit within a few molecular layers. We quantify the magnitude of surface effects and interpret general trends among different systems in terms of molecular properties, such as shape, polarizability anisotropy, and supramolecular organization. A connection between atomistic models for molecular dielectrics and simpler theories for polarizable atomic lattices is also provided.

  16. Fiber-Based Polarization Diversity Detection for Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Pahlevaninezhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new fiber-based polarization diversity detection (PDD scheme for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT. This implementation uses a new custom miniaturized polarization-maintaining fiber coupler with single mode (SM fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM fiber outputs. The SM fiber inputs obviate matching the optical lengths of the two orthogonal OCT polarization channels prior to interference while the PM fiber outputs ensure defined orthogonal axes after interference. Advantages of this detection scheme over those with bulk optics PDD include lower cost, easier miniaturization, and more relaxed alignment and handling issues. We incorporate this PDD scheme into a galvanometer-scanned OCT system to demonstrate system calibration and PSOCT imaging of an achromatic quarter-wave plate, fingernail in vivo, and chicken breast, salmon, cow leg, and basa fish muscle samples ex vivo.

  17. A quasi-symmetric beam splitter with 90° phase shift for p-polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, Yu. A.

    2015-07-01

    A beam splitter with a two-layer metal-dielectric structure in a Michelson interferometer is considered. It is shown that introduction of an additional dielectric interference layer makes it possible to reduce significantly (in comparison with a beam splitter with one metal layer) the difference in the reflectance from the side of air, the reflectance from the side of substrate, and the transmittance for p-polarized light, with conservation of a 90° phase shift for two outputs.

  18. Morphological, electronic and magnetic characterization of bulk Cr tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbetta, Marco; Ouazi, Safia; Nahas, Yasmine; Oka, Hirofumi; Wedekind, Sebastian; Sander, Dirk; Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany); Donati, Fabio [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany); CNISM, NEMAS, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Energia - Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    The most delicate task for successful SP-STM measurements is the preparation of suitable tips offering high spatial resolution, high spin polarization and negligible magnetic stray field. Nonmagnetic tips covered with an ultrathin film of antiferromagnetic material as Cr have been largely and successfully used. The main drawback of coated tips is that an in-situ preparation is required. Recently a simple and reliable method for the preparation of bulk Cr tips using only a standard electrochemical etching has been proposed. We produced and used such tips for in-field spin-polarized STM measurements at 7 K on Co nano-islands on Cu(111). We obtain stable and reliable spin-resolved imaging and spectroscopy results. We measure symmetric hysteresis loops of the differential conductance, which show that the magnetization direction of the Cr tip apex follows the external magnetic field direction. Measuring dI/dV asymmetry curves on Co islands we find that the spin polarization of bulk Cr tips can be as large as 30%, which is larger as compared to Cr/Co/W tips.

  19. Reconfigurable thz polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a polarizer. The polarizer comprises a first membrane having a first polarization region comprising a first plurality of membrane perforations; a second membrane having a second polarization region comprising a second plurality of membrane perforations; and a support...... with one or more membrane perforations in the second plurality of perforations in a direction normal to the first polarization region or normal to the second polarization region, resulting in corresponding one or more openings in said direction....

  20. Optomechanics of Levitated Dielectric Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Zhang-qi; Li, Tongcang

    2013-01-01

    We review recent works on optomechanics of optically trapped microspheres and nanoparticles in vacuum, which provide an ideal system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics and ultrasensitive force detection. An optically trapped particle in vacuum has an ultrahigh mechanical quality factor as it is well-isolated from the thermal environment. Its oscillation frequency can be tuned in real time by changing the power of the trapping laser. Furthermore, an optically trapped particle in vacuum may rotate freely, a unique property that does not exist in clamped mechanical oscillators. In this review, we will introduce the current status of optical trapping of dielectric particles in air and vacuum, Brownian motion of an optically trapped particle at room temperature, Feedback cooling and cavity cooling of the Brownian motion. We will also discuss about using optically trapped dielectric particles for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics and ultrasensitive force detection. Applications range from creating macr...

  1. The impact of gate dielectric materials on the light-induced bias instability in Hf-In-Zn-O thin film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Jung, Ji Sim; Son, Kyoung Seok; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Park, Jin-Seong; Choi, Rino; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Koo, Bonwon; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the effect of gate dielectric materials on the light-induced bias instability of Hf-In-Zn-O (HIZO) transistor. The HfOx and SiNx gated devices suffered from a huge negative threshold voltage (Vth) shift (>11 V) during the application of negative-bias-thermal illumination stress for 3 h. In contrast, the HIZO transistor exhibited much better stability (<2.0 V) in terms of Vth movement under identical stress conditions. Based on the experimental results, we propose a plausible degradation model for the trapping of the photocreated hole carrier either at the channel/gate dielectric or dielectric bulk layer.

  2. Photorealistic ray tracing of free-space invisibility cloaks made of uniaxial dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Halimeh, Jad C

    2012-01-01

    The design rules of transformation optics generally lead to spatially inhomogeneous and anisotropic impedance-matched magneto-dielectric material distributions for, e.g., free-space invisibility cloaks. Recently, simplified anisotropic non-magnetic free-space cloaks made of a locally uniaxial dielectric material (calcite) have been realized experimentally. In a two-dimensional setting and for in-plane polarized light propagating in this plane, the cloaking performance can still be perfect for light rays. However, for general views in three dimensions, various imperfections are expected. In this paper, we study two different purely dielectric uniaxial cylindrical free-space cloaks. For one, the optic axis is along the radial direction, for the other one it is along the azimuthal direction. The azimuthal uniaxial cloak has not been suggested previously to the best of our knowledge. We visualize the cloaking performance of both by calculating photorealistic images rendered by ray tracing. Following and complemen...

  3. Dielectric properties of ferroelectric betaine phosphite crystals with a high degree of deuteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Yurko, E. I.; Svinarev, F. B.; Pankova, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric properties of deuterated betaine phosphite crystals with a high degree of deuteration in the region of the antiferrodistorsive (at T = T c1) and ferroelectric (at T = T c2) phase transitions have been investigated. The temperature behavior of the dielectric permittivity of betaine phosphite and deuterated betaine phosphite has been described within the framework of the Landau thermodynamic model taking into account the biquadratic coupling between the polar order parameter of the ferroelectric transition and the nonpolar order parameter of the antiferrodistorsive phase transition. It has been shown that an increase in the degree of deuteration leads to a decrease in the coupling between the order parameters. An increase in the temperature of the ferroelectric phase transition due to the deuteration of betaine phosphite is caused by an increase in the dielectric permittivity in the symmetric phase above the temperature of the antiferrodistorsive phase transition.

  4. Dielectric Properties and Defect Structure of Bi-doped SrTiO3 Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dielectric properties of ceramics with composition of (Sr1-xBix)TiO3+x/2(where x=0.05~0.70 ) were measured at frequency of 1 MHz. The experimental results indicate that the dielectric properties of (Sr1-xBix)TiO3+x/2 system are greatly varied with an increase of the stoichiometric amounts of Bi2O3. The relative permittivity of the solid solutions is high, and the dissipation factor is low. The positron annihilation technique(PAT) was adopted to study the defect structure. An explanation of the dielectric properties of Bi-doped SrTiO3 ceramics has been suggested in terms of electron-compensation and vacancy or defect-compensation mechanisms and space-charge polarization mechanism.

  5. Mechanical and dielectric properties of carbon nanotubes/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrin, Sayed; Deshpande, V. D.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, two series of nanocomposites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) incorporated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-COOH) were fabricated using solution-cast method and their tensile and dielectric properties were studied. Tensile tests were carried out on composite films of MWNT/PVA and MWNT-COOH/PVA for different loading levels. Results show that overall mechanical properties of the MWNT-COOH/PVA composite was greatly improved as compared to the MWNT/PVA film. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites were investigated in a frequency range from 0.1Hz to 10MHz at room temperature respectively. Compared to MWNT/PVA composites, higher dielectric constant and ac conductivity was achieved in MWNT-COOH/PVA nanocomposite, which can be well explained by the interfacial polarization effect.

  6. Interaction and charge transfer between dielectric spheres: exact and approximate analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lindén, Fredrik; Zettergren, Henning

    2016-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions for charge transfer reactions between two arbitrarily charged hard dielectric spheres. These solutions, and the corresponding exact ones for sphere-sphere interaction energies, include sums that describe polarization effects to infinite orders in the inverse of the distance between the sphere centers. In addition, we show that these exact solutions may be approximated by much simpler analytical expressions that are useful for many practical applications. This is exemplified through calculations of Langevin type cross sections for forming a compound system of two colliding spheres and through calculations of electron transfer cross sections. We find that it is important to account for dielectric properties and finite sphere sizes in such calculations, which for example may be useful for describing the evolution, growth, and dynamics of nanometer sized dielectric objects such as molecular clusters or dust grains in different environments including astrophysical ones.

  7. Order-Disorder Phase Transition and Dielectric Mechanism in Relaxor Ferroelectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhongqing; LIU Zhirong; GU Binglin

    2001-01-01

    An overview is presented on the order-disorder structural transitions and the dielectric mechanism in the complex-perovskite type relaxor ferroelectrics,I.e.,the relaxors.Emphasis is put on the theoretical understanding of the structural transitions,the macroscopic dielectric properties,and the relationship between them. The influences of the composition,the temperature,and the atomic interactions on the order-disorder microstructures can be well understood in the cluster-variation-method calculations.The criterion drawn from theoretical analysis is successful in predicting the order-disorder structure of relaxors.Among various physical models about relaxers,the dipole glassy model that described the dielectric response as the thermally activated flips of the local spontaneous polarization under random interactions is discussed in details.The Monte Carlo simulation results of this model are consistent with the linear and nonlinear experiments of relaxors.

  8. Numerical Studies of s-Polarized Surface Plasmon Polaritons at the Interface Associated with Metamaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bao-Rong; LV Jian-Hong; KONG Ling-Hua; HU Xi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    @@ The s-polarized surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)at the interface between dielectric and metamaterial are studied,and the dispersion relations of SPPs are also presented.Using the prism coupling mechanism,we obtain the attenuated total reflection(ATR)spectra in the frequency regime based on the Otto configuration.It is found that the thickness of the dielectric in the configuration and the small damping of the metamaterial affect the coupling strength significantly without changing the coupling frequency.Furthermore,the optimized thickness of the dielectric decreases with a larger damping,and the coefficient F of the metamaterial also determines the coupling frequency and strength.

  9. Polar interface phonons in ionic toroidal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N D; Evrard, R; Stroscio, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    We use the dielectric continuum model to obtain the polar (Fuchs-Kliewer like) interface vibration modes of toroids made of ionic materials either embedded in a different material or in vacuum, with applications to nanotoroids specially in mind. We report the frequencies of these modes and describe the electric potential they produce. We establish the quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian appropriate for their interaction with electric charges. This Hamiltonian can be used to describe the effect of this interaction on different types of charged particles either inside or outside the torus.

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  11. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  12. Dielectric relaxation of samarium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P. [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-15

    A ceramic SmAlO{sub 3} (SAO) sample is synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern has been done to find the crystal symmetry of the sample at room temperature. An impedance spectroscopy study of the sample has been performed in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from 313 K to 573 K. Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The Cole-Cole model is used to analyze the dielectric relaxation mechanism in SAO. The temperature-dependent relaxation times are found to obey the Arrhenius law having an activation energy of 0.29 eV, which indicates that polaron hopping is responsible for conduction or dielectric relaxation in this material. The complex impedance plane plot of the sample indicates the presence of both grain and grain-boundary effects and is analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant-phase element. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra follow a double-power law due to the presence of two plateaus. (orig.)

  13. CHROMOSPHERIC POLARIZATION IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC SOLAR OXYGEN INFRARED TRIPLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pino Alemán, Tanausú; Trujillo Bueno, Javier [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-07-20

    We present multilevel radiative transfer modeling of the scattering polarization observed in the solar O i infrared triplet around 777 nm. We demonstrate that the scattering polarization pattern observed on the solar disk forms in the chromosphere, far above the photospheric region where the bulk of the emergent intensity profiles originate. We investigate the sensitivity of the polarization pattern to the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere and to the presence of weak magnetic fields (10{sup −2}–100 G) through the Hanle effect, showing that the scattering polarization signals of the oxygen infrared triplet encode information on the magnetism of the solar chromosphere.

  14. Chromospheric Polarization in the Photospheric Solar Oxygen Infrared Triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Alemán, T del Pino

    2015-01-01

    We present multilevel radiative transfer modeling of the scattering polarization observed in the solar O I infrared triplet around 777 nm. We demonstrate that the scattering polarization pattern observed on the solar disk forms in the chromosphere, far above the photospheric region where the bulk of the emergent intensity profiles originates. We study the sensitivity of the polarization pattern to the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere and to the presence of weak magnetic fields (0.01 - 100 G) through the Hanle effect, showing that the scattering polarization signals of the oxygen infrared triplet encode information on the magnetism of the solar chromosphere.

  15. Dielectric relaxation in a nonferroelectric phase of magneto-electric multiferroic CuFeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuda, S; Yamano, M; Kuribara, K; Nakajima, T; Masuda, K; Yoshitomi, K [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Terada, N; Kitazawa, H; Takenaka, K; Takamasu, T, E-mail: mitsuda@nsmsmac4.ph.kagu.tus.ac.j [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Magnetic oxide CuFeO{sub 2} is a rare magneto-electric multiferroic where magnetic field-induced or nonmagnetic impurity-induced proper helical magnetic ordering generates a spontaneous electric polarization. We have measured the complex permittivity in various magnetic phases under an applied magnetic field up to 15 T, and found distinct Debye-type-like dielectric dispersion with low relaxation frequency in only 4-sublattice (4SL) magnetic phase among various (4SL, ferroelectric incommensurate, 5-sublattice, partially disordered and paramagnetic) magnetic phases. The relaxation frequency of dielectric dispersion shows interesting anisotropic magnetic field dependence. As one possible explanation of this phenomenon, we will discuss the dielectric dispersion in terms of 4SL-specific magnetic domain wall motion and corresponding displacement of oxygen near magnetic domain wall, instead of so-called Maxwell-Wagner effect in the dielectric system with heterogeneous nature.

  16. Dielectric response and novel electromagnetic modes in three-dimensional Dirac semimetal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, O. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2016-06-01

    Using the Kubo formalism we have calculated the local dynamic conductivity of a bulk, i.e., three-dimensional (3D), Dirac semimetal (BDS). We obtain that at frequencies lower than Fermi energy the metallic response in a BDS film manifests in the existence of surface-plasmon polaritons, but at higher frequencies the dielectric response is dominated and it occurs that a BDS film behaves as a dielectric waveguide. At this dielectric regime we predict the existence inside a BDS film of novel electromagnetic modes, a 3D analog of the transverse electric waves in graphene. We also find that the dielectric response manifests as the wide-angle passband in the mid-infrared (IR) transmission spectrum of light incident on a BDS film, which can be used for the interferenceless omnidirectional mid-IR filtering. The tuning of the Fermi level of the system allows us to switch between the metallic and the dielectric regimes and to change the frequency range of the predicted modes. This makes BDSs promising materials for photonics and plasmonics.

  17. Thickness-Dependent Dielectric Constant of Few-Layer In 2 Se 3 Nanoflakes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Di

    2015-11-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The dielectric constant or relative permittivity (εr) of a dielectric material, which describes how the net electric field in the medium is reduced with respect to the external field, is a parameter of critical importance for charging and screening in electronic devices. Such a fundamental material property is intimately related to not only the polarizability of individual atoms but also the specific atomic arrangement in the crystal lattice. In this Letter, we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the dielectric constant of few-layer In2Se3 nanoflakes grown on mica substrates by van der Waals epitaxy. A nondestructive microwave impedance microscope is employed to simultaneously quantify the number of layers and local electrical properties. The measured εr increases monotonically as a function of the thickness and saturates to the bulk value at around 6-8 quintuple layers. The same trend of layer-dependent dielectric constant is also revealed by first-principles calculations. Our results of the dielectric response, being ubiquitously applicable to layered 2D semiconductors, are expected to be significant for this vibrant research field.

  18. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  19. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-03-04

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  20. Transversal confined polar optical phonons in spherical quantum-dot/quantum-well nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, F.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Prado, S. J.; Marques, G. E.; Roca, E.

    2006-02-01

    Confined polar optical phonons are studied in a spherical quantum-dot/quantum-well (QD/QW) nanostructure by using an approach that takes into account the coupling of electromechanical oscillations and is valid in the long-wave limit. This approach was developed a few years ago and provides results beyond the usually applied dielectric continuum approach (DCA), where just the electric aspect of the oscillations is considered. In the present paper we limit ourselves to the study of the so-called uncoupled modes, having a purely transversal character and not involving an electric potential. We display the dispersion curves for the frequencies considering three possible nanostructures, which show different bulk phonon curvatures near the Brillouin zone -point and have been actually grown: ZnS/CdSe, CdSe/CdS and CdS/HgS. A detailed discussion of the results obtained is made, emphasizing the novelties provided by our treatment and the relevance of infrared spectroscopy in the characterization of the geometrical features of the QD/QW nanostructure.

  1. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jebaraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.

  2. Wavelength-dependent polarization absorber based on multi-cladding fiber with gold coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Sijun; Pei, Li; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianshuai; Li, Jing; Ning, Tigang

    2016-12-01

    The wavelength-dependent polarization absorber based on multi-cladding fiber (MCF) with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed and demonstrated. In order to obtain the SPR effect both in the x- and y- polarized direction, the MCF is polished in two sides. The numerical simulations show that the polarization absorber with the wavelengths of 980/1550 nm and 1310/1550 nm can be obtained by adjusting the parameters of dielectric layer. Each wavelength only transmits a single polarization in the wavelength-dependent polarization absorber, and the loss of unwanted polarized mode is more than 95 dB/cm. In addition, when the length of fiber is only 550 μm, the bandwidths of polarization absorber are 29 nm at 980 nm and 413 nm at 1550 nm, respectively; meanwhile, the bandwidth of 1310/1550 nm polarization absorber reaches 102 nm and 302 nm, respectively.

  3. Femtosecond-laser fabrication of cyclic structures in the bulk of transparent dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartapetov, S K; Ganin, D V; Lapshin, K E; Obidin, A Z [Physics Instrumentation Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    We report the results of the experiments on developing precision micromachining technology, obtained under the conditions of focusing the pulses of a femtosecond (FS) laser into the volume of a transparent material, which is important, particularly, in the processing of biomaterials in ophthalmology. The implementation conditions and some characteristic features of the special regime of micromachining are determined, when at a definite relation between the sample scanning velocity and the repetition rate of FS pulses the region, destroyed by the laser radiation, is shifted along the optical axis towards the objective and back, forming cyclic patterns inside the sample. It is supposed that the main causes of the damage region shift are the induced modification of the refractive index and the reduction of the damage threshold due to the change in the material density and structure in the microscopic domain, adjacent to the boundary of the cavity produced by the previous pulse. The results of the performed study with the above regime taken into account were used in the technology of precision cutting of crystals, glasses and polymers. The best quality of the cut surface is achieved under the conditions, eliminating the appearance of the cyclic regime. In the samples of polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate and fused silica the cylindrical cavities were obtained with the aspect ratio higher than 200, directed along the laser beam, and microcapillaries with the diameter 1 – 2 μm in the direction, perpendicular to this beam. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  4. Femtosecond-laser fabrication of cyclic structures in the bulk of transparent dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartapetov, S. K.; Ganin, D. V.; Lapshin, K. E.; Obidin, A. Z.

    2015-08-01

    We report the results of the experiments on developing precision micromachining technology, obtained under the conditions of focusing the pulses of a femtosecond (FS) laser into the volume of a transparent material, which is important, particularly, in the processing of biomaterials in ophthalmology. The implementation conditions and some characteristic features of the special regime of micromachining are determined, when at a definite relation between the sample scanning velocity and the repetition rate of FS pulses the region, destroyed by the laser radiation, is shifted along the optical axis towards the objective and back, forming cyclic patterns inside the sample. It is supposed that the main causes of the damage region shift are the induced modification of the refractive index and the reduction of the damage threshold due to the change in the material density and structure in the microscopic domain, adjacent to the boundary of the cavity produced by the previous pulse. The results of the performed study with the above regime taken into account were used in the technology of precision cutting of crystals, glasses and polymers. The best quality of the cut surface is achieved under the conditions, eliminating the appearance of the cyclic regime. In the samples of polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate and fused silica the cylindrical cavities were obtained with the aspect ratio higher than 200, directed along the laser beam, and microcapillaries with the diameter 1 - 2 μm in the direction, perpendicular to this beam.

  5. The dipole moment of a wall-charged void in a bulk dielectric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1993-01-01

    The dipole moment of a wall-charged void is examined with reference to the spatial extent of the surface charge density σ and the distribution of this charge. The salient factors influencing the void dipole moment are also examined. From a study of spherical voids, it is shown that, although the σ......-distribution influences the dipole moment, the spatial extent of σ has a greater influence. This behavior is not unexpected. For a void of fixed dimensions, the smaller the charged surface area, the greater is the charges, and thus the greater the dipole moment...

  6. Dielectric elastomers, with very high dielectric permittivity, based on silicone and ionic interpenetrating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs), which represent an emerging actuator and generator technology, admittedly have many favourable properties, but their high driving voltages are one of the main obstacles to commercialisation. One way to reduce driving voltage is by increasing the ratio between dielectr...... as well as relatively high breakdown strength. All IPNs have higher dielectric losses than pure silicone elastomers, but when accounting for this factor, IPNs still exhibit satisfactory performance improvements....... is demonstrated herein, and a number of many and important parameters, such as dielectric permittivity/loss, viscoelastic properties and dielectric breakdown strength, are investigated. Ionic and silicone elastomer IPNs are promising prospects for dielectric elastomer actuators, since very high permittivities......Dielectric elastomers (DEs), which represent an emerging actuator and generator technology, admittedly have many favourable properties, but their high driving voltages are one of the main obstacles to commercialisation. One way to reduce driving voltage is by increasing the ratio between dielectric...

  7. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    -doped composition. The Ca(Ti0.795Mn 0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition was selected for single layer, Pt buried electrode capacitor prototyping to evaluate high temperature electrical characteristics. Polarization-field (P--E) hysteresis measurements of CTZ showed a large increase in dielectric loss with increasing temperature, limiting the dielectric breakdown strength and recoverable energy density. When doped with Mn, CTZ + Mn showed a minimization of the temperature dependence of the breakdown strength, and maximum energy densities of 7.00 J/cm 3 at a Eb of 1.1 MV/cm at room temperature and 5.36 J/cm3 at Eb = 1.0 MV/cm at 300 °C were observed. Impedance spectroscopy of the CTZ and CTZ + Mn dielectrics showed that doping with Mn resulted in a decrease in ionic conductivity and a subsequent decrease in electronic conductivity. Basic characterization of Ca(Ti0.8Hf0.2)O 3 (CTH) and Ca(Ti0.795Mn0.005Hf0.2)O 3 (CTH + Mn) showed similar characteristics compared to the CTZ system. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of CTH and CTH + Mn showed similar behavior to the CTZ and CTZ + Mn systems, but with overall decreases in ionic and electronic conductivity. Coupled with thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements (TSDC), oxygen vacancy migration and space charge conduction are dominant and could be minimized with Mn doping. To gain further insight into how aliovalent Mn controls high temperature conduction in the CTH + Mn system, capacitors were quenched from the sintering temperature and an impedance study was performed. It was observed that ionic conductivity was quenched in due to oxygen vacancies compensating Mn 3+, and interfacial features were observed in impedance spectra due to double back-to-back Schottky barriers (depletion layers). As capacitors were re-oxidized, bulk resistivity increased while interfacial resistivity decreased. The hypothesis was supported by the application of dc bias during impedance measurements, which showed similar impedance behavior to the re

  8. A variational formulation of electrostatics in a medium with spatially varying dielectric permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Vikram; Solis, Francisco J; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2013-02-07

    In biological and synthetic materials, many important processes involve charges that are present in a medium with spatially varying dielectric permittivity. To accurately understand the role of electrostatic interactions in such systems, it is important to take into account the spatial dependence of the permittivity of the medium. However, due to the ensuing theoretical and computational challenges, this inhomogeneous dielectric response of the medium is often ignored or excessively simplified. We develop a variational formulation of electrostatics to accurately investigate systems that exhibit this inhomogeneous dielectric response. Our formulation is based on a true energy functional of the polarization charge density. The defining characteristic of a true energy functional is that at its minimum it evaluates to the actual value of the energy; this is a feature not found in many commonly used electrostatic functionals. We explore in detail the charged systems that exhibit sharp discontinuous change in dielectric permittivity, and we show that for this case our functional reduces to a functional of only the surface polarization charge density. We apply this reduced functional to study model problems for which analytical solutions are well known. We demonstrate, in addition, that the functional has many properties that make it ideal for use in molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. Structural, magnetic, electric, dielectric, and thermodynamic properties of multiferroic Ge V4S8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, S.; Günther, A.; Ruff, E.; Tsurkan, V.; Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.

    2016-12-01

    The lacunar spinel Ge V4S8 undergoes orbital and ferroelectric ordering at the Jahn-Teller transition around 30 K and exhibits antiferromagnetic order below about 14 K. In addition to this orbitally driven ferroelectricity, lacunar spinels are an interesting material class, as the vanadium ions form V4 clusters representing stable molecular entities with a common electron distribution and a well-defined level scheme of molecular states resulting in a unique spin state per V4 molecule. Here we report detailed x-ray, magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion, and dielectric results to characterize the structural, electric, dielectric, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of this interesting material, which also exhibits strong electronic correlations. From the magnetic susceptibility, we determine a negative Curie-Weiss temperature, indicative for antiferromagnetic exchange and a paramagnetic moment close to a spin S =1 of the V4 molecular clusters. The low-temperature heat capacity provides experimental evidence for gapped magnon excitations. From the entropy release, we conclude about strong correlations between magnetic order and lattice distortions. In addition, the observed anomalies at the phase transitions also indicate strong coupling between structural and electronic degrees of freedom. Utilizing dielectric spectroscopy, we find the onset of significant dispersion effects at the polar Jahn-Teller transition. The dispersion becomes fully suppressed again with the onset of spin order. In addition, the temperature dependencies of dielectric constant and specific heat possibly indicate a sequential appearance of orbital and polar order.

  10. Dielectric and thermal studies on gel grown strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Firdous; I Quasim; M M Ahmad; P N Kotru

    2010-08-01

    Results of dielectric and thermal studies on strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals are described. The value of dielectric constant is shown to be independent of temperature till 360 K at all the frequencies (110–700 kHz) of the applied a.c. field. It increases abruptly achieving a peak value of 25.5 at 100 kHz; the peak value being strongly dependent on frequency. In the temperature range, 87 < < 117°C, the value of ' falls suggesting a transition at around 100°C or so. The dielectric constant, ', of the material is shown to be frequency dependent but temperature independent in the pre- or post-c range 87 < < 117°C, suggesting that the contribution towards polarization may be due to ionic or space charge polarization which gets eliminated at higher frequencies. The ferroelectric transition is supported by the results of thermoanalytical studies. It is explained that crystallographic change due to polymorphic phase transition may be occurring in the material, besides the change due to loss of water molecules, which leads to the dielectric anomaly at around 100°C. Coats–Redfern approximation method is applied for obtaining non-isothermal kinetic parameters leading to calculation of activation energies corresponding to three decomposition stages of material in the temperature ranging from 379–1113 K.

  11. A spiral antenna sandwiched by dielectric layers

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Hisamatsu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Hitosugi, Kazuo; Yamauchi, Junji

    2004-01-01

    An infinitesimally thin spiral antenna, sandwiched by bottom and top dielectric layers having the same relative permittivity, is analyzed under the condition that the dielectric layers are of finite extent and the antenna is backed by an infinite conducting plane. As the thickness of the top dielectric layer increases, the input impedance and axial ratio (AR) vary in an oscillatory fashion, with a period slightly larger than one-half of the guided wavelength of a wave propagating in an unboun...

  12. Decoherence in Josephson Qubits from Dielectric Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Martinis, John M.; Cooper, K. B.; McDermott, R.; Steffen, Matthias; Ansmann, Markus; Osborn, K; Cicak, K.; Oh, S.; Pappas, D. P.; Simmonds, R. W.; Yu, Clare C

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric loss from two-level states is shown to be a dominant decoherence source in superconducting quantum bits. Depending on the qubit design, dielectric loss from insulating materials or the tunnel junction can lead to short coherence times. We show that a variety of microwave and qubit measurements are well modeled by loss from resonant absorption of two-level defects. Our results demonstrate that this loss can be significantly reduced by using better dielectrics and fabricating junctio...

  13. Spectral boundary conditions and solitonic solutions in a classical Sellmeier dielectric

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, F; Viganò, A

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic field interactions in a dielectric medium represent a longstanding field of investigation, both at the classical level and at the quantum one. We propose a 1+1 dimensional toy-model which consists of an half-line filling dielectric medium, with the aim to set up a simplified situation where technicalities related to gauge invariance and, as a consequence, physics of constrained systems are avoided, and still interesting features appear. In particular, we simulate the electromagnetic field and the polarization field by means of two coupled scalar fields $\\phi$,$\\psi$ respectively, in a Hopfield-like model. We find that, in order to obtain a physically meaningful behaviour for the model, one has to introduce spectral boundary conditions depending on the particle spectrum one is dealing with. This is the first interesting achievement of our analysis. The second relevant achievement is that, by introducing a nonlinear contribution in the polarization field $\\psi$, with the aim of mimicking a third...

  14. Microwave-to-terahertz dielectric resonators for liquid sensing in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, N.; Watts, C.; Hanham, S. M.; Otter, W. J.; Ahmad, M. M.; Lucyszyn, S.

    2016-09-01

    The microwave-to-terahertz frequency range offers unique opportunities for the sensing of liquids based on the degree of molecular orientational and electronic polarization, Debye relaxation due to intermolecular forces between (semi-)polar molecules and collective vibrational modes within complex molecules. Methods for the fast dielectric characterization of (sub-)nanolitre volumes of mostly aqueous liquids and biological cell suspensions are discussed, with emphasis on labon- chip approaches aimed towards single-cell detection and label-free flow cytometry at microwave-to-terahertz frequencies. Among the most promising approaches, photonic crystal defect cavities made from high-resistivity silicon are compared with metallic split-ring resonant systems and high quality factor (Q-factor) whispering gallery-type resonances in dielectric resonators. Applications range from accurate haemoglobin measurements on nanolitre samples to label-free detection of circulating tumor cells.

  15. Dielectric and magnetic losses of microwave electromagnetic radiation in granular structures with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lutsev, L V; Tchmutin, I A; Ryvkina, N G; Kalinin, Y E; Sitnikoff, A V

    2003-01-01

    We have studied dielectric and magnetic losses in granular structures constituted by ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Co, Fe, B) in an insulating amorphous a-SiO sub 2 matrix at microwave frequencies, in relation to metal concentration, substrate temperatures and gas content, in the plasma atmosphere in sputtering and annealing. The magnetic losses are due to fast spin relaxation of nanoparticles, which becomes more pronounced with decreasing metal content and occur via simultaneous changes in the granule spin direction and spin polarization of electrons on exchange-split localized states in the matrix (spin-polarized relaxation mechanism). The difference between the experimental values of the imaginary parts of magnetic permeability for granular structures prepared in Ar and Ar + O sub 2 atmospheres is determined by different electron structures of argon and oxygen impurities in the matrix. To account for large dielectric losses in granular structures, we have developed a model of cluster electron states (CESs)....

  16. Barium ferrite/epoxy resin nanocomposite system: Fabrication, dielectric, magnetic and hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanapitsas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite systems of epoxy resin and barium ferrite nanoparticles have been prepared, and studied varying the content of the inclusions. Morphology of prepared samples has been examined via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, while electrical and magnetic properties were investigated by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and magnetization tests respectively. Finally, water vapor sorption measurements were conducted in order to study the water sorption dynamics of the system. Electron microscopy images revealed the successful fabrication of nanocomposites. Dielectric permittivity increases with filler content, while three relaxation processes were detected in the relative spectra. These processes are attributed to interfacial polarization, glass to rubber transition of the matrix, and re-orientation of polar side groups of the polymer’s chain. Magnetization and magnetic saturation increase with magnetic nano-powder content. Nanocomposites absorb a small amount of water, not exceeding 1.7 wt%, regardless filler content, indicating their hydrophobic character.

  17. Dielectric Resonator Metasurface for Dispersion Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Achouri, Karim; Gupta, Shulabh; Rmili, Hatem; Caloz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a practical dielectric metasurface design for microwave frequencies. The metasurface is made of an array of dielectric resonators held together by dielectric connections thus avoiding the need of a mechanical support in the form of a dielectric slab and the spurious multiple reflections that such a slab would generate. The proposed design can be used either for broadband metasurface applications or monochromatic wave transformations. The capabilities of the concept to manipulate the transmission phase and amplitude of the metasurface are supported by numerical and experimental results. Finally, a half-wave plate and a quarter-wave plate have been realized with the proposed concept.

  18. Optical studies of multilayer dielectric-metal-dielectric coatings as applied to solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demichelis, F.; Minetti-Mezzetti, E.; Perotto, V.

    1982-09-01

    A study of antireflection coatings for solar cells which provide maximum transmittance in the range of the spectral response of the cell and maximum reflectance in the IR portion of the spectrum of normally incident radiation is reported. Dielectric-metal-dielectric filters with a relatively low number of dielectric layers are designed as coatings for silicon and GaAs solar cells.

  19. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2015-01-01

    High driving voltages currently limit the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers (DEs). One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the synthesis o...

  20. Structural and dielectric properties of Mn doped copper oxide (CuO) nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Shakeel; Ahmed, Hilal; Nongjai, Razia

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and Mn doped CuO nanocrystalline powder samples were prepared through standard solid state reaction method. The crystal structures of the CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Dielectric measurements were performed on samples as a function of frequency at room temperate to determine the dielectric behavior of the samples. XRD data exhibited the presence of monoclinic crystal structure similar to the parent compound in all samples, suggesting that doped Mn ions sit at the regular lattice sites. The average crystallite size, calculated using Scherrer formula from XRD data, is found within the range of 23-27 nm. The dielectric constant (ɛ'), imaginary part of dielectric constant (ɛ") and loss tangent (tanδ) were studied as a function of frequency and composition at room temperature. The dependence of dielectric constant (ɛ') on frequency suggests a conduction mechanism in terms of hopping. This behavior can be explained on the basis of space charge polarization according to Maxwell and Wagner's two-layer model.