Sample records for bulk density analysis

  1. Bulk density estimation using a 3-dimensional image acquisition and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyduk Adam


    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of dynamic bulk density estimation of a particulate matter stream using a 3-d image analysis system and a conveyor belt scale. A method of image acquisition should be adjusted to the type of scale. The paper presents some laboratory results of static bulk density measurements using the MS Kinect time-of-flight camera and OpenCV/Matlab software. Measurements were made for several different size classes.

  2. Measurement of Vibrated Bulk Density of Coke Particle Blends Using Image Texture Analysis (United States)

    Azari, Kamran; Bogoya-Forero, Wilinthon; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson


    A rapid and nondestructive machine vision sensor was developed for predicting the vibrated bulk density (VBD) of petroleum coke particles based on image texture analysis. It could be used for making corrective adjustments to a paste plant operation to reduce green anode variability (e.g., changes in binder demand). Wavelet texture analysis (WTA) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms were used jointly for extracting the surface textural features of coke aggregates from images. These were correlated with the VBD using partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Coke samples of several sizes and from different sources were used to test the sensor. Variations in the coke surface texture introduced by coke size and source allowed for making good predictions of the VBD of individual coke samples and mixtures of them (blends involving two sources and different sizes). Promising results were also obtained for coke blends collected from an industrial-baked carbon anode manufacturer.

  3. Bulk density of small meteoroids (United States)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.


    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  4. The bond force constant and bulk modulus of small fullerenes using density functional theory and finite element analysis. (United States)

    Tapia, A; Villanueva, C; Peón-Escalante, R; Quintal, R; Medina, J; Peñuñuri, F; Avilés, F


    Dedicated bond force constant and bulk modulus of C n fullerenes (n = 20, 28, 36, 50, 60) are computed using density functional theory (DFT). DFT predicts bond force constants of 611, 648, 675, 686, and 691 N/m, for C20, C28, C36, C50, and C60, respectively, indicating that the bond force constant increases for larger fullerenes. The bulk modulus predicted by DFT increases with decreased fullerene diameter, from 0.874 TPa for C60 to 1.830 TPa for C20. The bond force constants predicted by DFT are then used as an input for finite element analysis (FEA) of the fullerenes, considered as spatial frames in structural models where the bond stiffness is represented by the DFT-computed bond force constant. In agreement with DFT, FEA predicts that smaller fullerenes are stiffer, and underestimates the bulk modulus with respect to DFT. The difference between the FEA and DFT predictions of the bulk modulus decreases as the size of the fullerene increases, from 20.9% difference for C20 to only 4% difference for C60. Thus, it is concluded that knowing the appropriate bond force constant, FEA can be used as a plausible approximation to model the elastic behavior of small fullerenes.

  5. Effects of shelterbelt on soil bulk density, particle density, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of shelterbelt at measurement position (60,120 and 180) on bulk density, particle density, total porosity and moisture contents of semi-arid soils in the extreme part of northwestern, Nigeria was studied. The effect of shelterbelt on the three measurement positions was compared with the unsheltered area. Changes ...

  6. Bulk density and relationship air/water of horticultural substrate


    Fernandes,Carolina; Corá, José Eduardo


    Change on substrate bulk density during the growing period may negatively affect other substrate physical properties and, consequently, plant growth. The objectives of this research were 1) to characterize physical properties of two horticultural substrates (S1 and S2), 2) to evaluate the effect of different bulk densities values of those substrates on their air/water relationship, and 3) to develop mathematical functions to estimate the air/water relationship by increasing substrates bulk de...

  7. Estimating bulk density of compacted grains in storage bins and modifications of Janssen's load equations as affected by bulk density. (United States)

    Haque, Ekramul


    Janssen created a classical theory based on calculus to estimate static vertical and horizontal pressures within beds of bulk corn. Even today, his equations are widely used to calculate static loadings imposed by granular materials stored in bins. Many standards such as American Concrete Institute (ACI) 313, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers EP 433, German DIN 1055, Canadian Farm Building Code (CFBC), European Code (ENV 1991-4), and Australian Code AS 3774 incorporated Janssen's equations as the standards for static load calculations on bins. One of the main drawbacks of Janssen's equations is the assumption that the bulk density of the stored product remains constant throughout the entire bin. While for all practical purposes, this is true for small bins; in modern commercial-size bins, bulk density of grains substantially increases due to compressive and hoop stresses. Over pressure factors are applied to Janssen loadings to satisfy practical situations such as dynamic loads due to bin filling and emptying, but there are limited theoretical methods available that include the effects of increased bulk density on the loadings of grain transmitted to the storage structures. This article develops a mathematical equation relating the specific weight as a function of location and other variables of materials and storage. It was found that the bulk density of stored granular materials increased with the depth according to a mathematical equation relating the two variables, and applying this bulk-density function, Janssen's equations for vertical and horizontal pressures were modified as presented in this article. The validity of this specific weight function was tested by using the principles of mathematics. As expected, calculations of loads based on the modified equations were consistently higher than the Janssen loadings based on noncompacted bulk densities for all grain depths and types accounting for the effects of increased bulk densities

  8. Organic carbon organic matter and bulk density relationships in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of their stocks requires knowledge about BD. BD is affected by factors such as water, aeration status, root penetrate, clay content, texture, land use and management, therefore it is a very important soil parameter. Key words: Soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, arid-semi arid soils.

  9. Effect Of Bulk Density Variation On The Compression Strength Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a study conducted to assess the influence of variation of bulk density on compression strength of clay-bonded sand. Five sand mixes containing silica sand, sodium silicate gel (1 wt. % to 5 wt. %), potters' clay (2 wt. %), and about 5 wt. % water were produced. Each mix was divided into three portions to ...

  10. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon


    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  11. Organic carbon, organic matter and bulk density relationships in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 19, 2012 ... Tremblay et al. (2002), Prevost (2004), Mestdagh (2006) and Sakin et al. (2011). Jeffrey (1970) found that negative relationships between SOM and BD might be a universal opinion. Bulk density has been frequently related to SOC in soil storing large amounts of SOM. (Grigal et al., 1989; Huntington et al., ...

  12. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in density dependent quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have studied the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in the density dependent quark mass model (DDQM) and compared results with calculations done earlier in the MIT bag model where u, d masses were neglected and first order interactions were taken into account. We find that at low temperatures and ...

  13. Estimating Soil Bulk Density and Total Nitrogen from Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating Soil Bulk Density and Total Nitrogen from Catchment Attributes in Northern Ethiopia. ... The model coefficients of both analyses for the dependent variables showed higher for organic carbon (OC) as compared to the other variables even though higher values were found from GLM. This study thus confirmed that ...

  14. Estimating Soil Bulk Density and Total Nitrogen from Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This is based on the fact that. BD and TN are .... reference the image and as training samples for supervised classification of the Landsat image 30 m x .... 2 change for soil bulk density estimation in the Mai-Negus catchment, northern Ethiopia. Parameter. Coefficient. Standard error. Significance level. R2 change. Constant.

  15. Site preparation effects on soil bulk density and pine seedling growth (United States)

    John J. Stransky


    Soil bulk density was sampled the first and third growing seasons after site preparation and pine planting on three clearcut pine-hardwood forest sites in eastern Texas. Bulk density was measured 10 cm below the surface of mineral soil using a surface moisture-density probe. Plots that had been KG-bladed and chopped had significanlty higher bulk density than those that...

  16. Bulk density and aggregate stability assays in percolation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Хордан


    Full Text Available The restoration technologies in areas degraded by extractive activities require the use of their own mine spoils. Reducing deficiencies in physical properties, organic matter, and nutrients with a contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was done with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. Two sewage sludge doses were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge in addition to a different mine spoils used as restoration substrates. The water contribution was provided by a device that simulated short duration rain. The leached water was collected 24 hours after the last application. The experiment saw the bulk density decrease and the aggregate stability increase, thereby improving the structure. The improved soil structure decreases its vulnerability to degradation processes such as erosion and compaction.

  17. Comparison of different models for predicting soil bulk density. Case study - Slovakian agricultural soils (United States)

    Makovníková, Jarmila; Širáň, Miloš; Houšková, Beata; Pálka, Boris; Jones, Arwyn


    Soil bulk density is one of the main direct indicators of soil health, and is an important aspect of models for determining agroecosystem services potential. By way of applying multi-regression methods, we have created a distributed prediction of soil bulk density used subsequently for topsoil carbon stock estimation. The soil data used for this study were from the Slovakian partial monitoring system-soil database. In our work, two models of soil bulk density in an equilibrium state, with different combinations of input parameters (soil particle size distribution and soil organic carbon content in %), have been created, and subsequently validated using a data set from 15 principal sampling sites of Slovakian partial monitoring system-soil, that were different from those used to generate the bulk density equations. We have made a comparison of measured bulk density data and data calculated by the pedotransfer equations against soil bulk density calculated according to equations recommended by Joint Research Centre Sustainable Resources for Europe. The differences between measured soil bulk density and the model values vary from -0.144 to 0.135 g cm-3 in the verification data set. Furthermore, all models based on pedotransfer functions give moderately lower values. The soil bulk density model was then applied to generate a first approximation of soil bulk density map for Slovakia using texture information from 17 523 sampling sites, and was subsequently utilised for topsoil organic carbon estimation.

  18. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils (United States)

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber


    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  19. Evaluasi Status Bahan Organik Dan Sifat Fisik Tanah (Bulk Density, Tekstur, Suhu Tanah) Pada Lahan Tanaman Kopi (Coffea SP.) Di Beberapa Kecamatan Kabupaten Dairi


    Br.Tarigan, Emalia Sinarta; Guchi, Hardy; Marbun, Posma


    Evaluation Status of Organic Matter Content and Soil Physical Properties (Bulk Density, Texture and Soil Temperature) the Coffee Crop Land (Coffeea Sp.) in Some Districts Dairipurpose to makeevaluation status of the organic matter and soil physical properties (bulk density, texture and soil temperature) the coffee crop land (Coffeea Sp.) in some districts Dairi. Sampling using free methods tosurvey the level of review and analysis of data C- organic by Walkey and Black method, bulk densityby ...

  20. Development of Low Density CaMg-A1-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senkov, O. N; Scott, J. M; Miracle, D. B


    Low density Ca-Mg-Al-based bulk metallic glasses containing additionally Cu and Zn, were produced by a copper mold casting method as wedge-shaped samples with thicknesses varying from 0.5 mm to 10 rom...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The effect of a binder on the relationship between the bulk density and compactibility of lactose granulations was studied by comparing binderless granules with granules containing hydroxypropylcellulose. Granulations were prepared from different grades of alpha-lactose monohydrate and anhydrous

  2. Quark mass density- and temperature- dependent model for bulk strange quark matter


    al, Yun Zhang et.


    It is shown that the quark mass density-dependent model can not be used to explain the process of the quark deconfinement phase transition because the quark confinement is permanent in this model. A quark mass density- and temperature-dependent model in which the quark confinement is impermanent has been suggested. We argue that the vacuum energy density B is a function of temperature. The dynamical and thermodynamical properties of bulk strange quark matter for quark mass density- and temper...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Seixas Barros


    Full Text Available Under field conditions in the Amazon forest, soil bulk density is difficult to measure. Rigorous methodological criteria must be applied to obtain reliable inventories of C stocks and soil nutrients, making this process expensive and sometimes unfeasible. This study aimed to generate models to estimate soil bulk density based on parameters that can be easily and reliably measured in the field and that are available in many soil-related inventories. Stepwise regression models to predict bulk density were developed using data on soil C content, clay content and pH in water from 140 permanent plots in terra firme (upland forests near Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. The model results were interpreted according to the coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion (AIC and were validated with a dataset consisting of 125 plots different from those used to generate the models. The model with best performance in estimating soil bulk density under the conditions of this study included clay content and pH in water as independent variables and had R2 = 0.73 and AIC = -250.29. The performance of this model for predicting soil density was compared with that of models from the literature. The results showed that the locally calibrated equation was the most accurate for estimating soil bulk density for upland forests in the Manaus region.

  4. The effects of forward speed and depth of conservation tillage on soil bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoudi


    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation of tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption, and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with either primary or secondary tillage or planting operations. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Moreover, it helps easier development of root through reducing soil penetration resistance. Tillage is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save substantial amounts of fuel, time and energy consumption. Conservation tillage loosens the soil without turning, but by remaining the plant left overs, stems and roots. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration. Bulk densities above thresholds indicate impaired function. Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems. This increases the validity of comparisons by removing the error associated with differences in soil density at the time of sampling. The aim of conservation tillage is to fix the soil structure. This investigation was carried out considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country

  5. Soil water retention of a bare soil with changing bulk densities (United States)

    Tillage changes the bulk density of the soil, lowering the density initially after which it increases as the soil settles. Implications of this for soil water content and soil water potential are obvious, but limited efforts have been made to monitor these changes continuously. We present in-situ me...

  6. A comparative study of the density of defect states in bulk samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) has been measured at different temperatures.The density of localized states near Fermi level is calculated by fitting the data to the theory of SCLC for the case of uniform distribution of localized states for bulk as well as for thin films. A comparison has been made between the density ...

  7. Links between matrix bulk density, macropore characteristics and hydraulic behavior of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu


    The relationship of soil bulk density with the hydraulic behavior of soil and the role of macropores in preferential flow and transport has been extensively studied in literatures. Yet, the influence of soil structural heterogeneity as simultaneous variation of bulk density and macropore characte......The relationship of soil bulk density with the hydraulic behavior of soil and the role of macropores in preferential flow and transport has been extensively studied in literatures. Yet, the influence of soil structural heterogeneity as simultaneous variation of bulk density and macropore...... characteristics on soil hydraulic functions has rarely been studied. With the objective of studying the links between these parameters we quantified macropore characteristics of intact soil columns (19 cm diameter x 20 cm high) from two agricultural field sites (Silstrup and Faardrup) in Denmark using coarse....... However, in Faardrup soils macroporosity and matrix bulk density were weakly correlated. Though macroporosity and interconnectivity of macropores could explain some variation in the hydraulic behavior of a few samples from Faardrup, the preferential flow behavior was observed to be primarily influenced...

  8. A two-population sporadic meteoroid bulk density distribution and its implications for environment models (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Blaauw, Rhiannon C.; Moser, Danielle E.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.


    The bulk density of a meteoroid affects its dynamics in space, its ablation in the atmosphere, and the damage it does to spacecraft and lunar or planetary surfaces. Meteoroid bulk densities are also notoriously difficult to measure, and we are typically forced to assume a density or attempt to measure it via a proxy. In this paper, we construct a density distribution for sporadic meteoroids based on existing density measurements. We considered two possible proxies for density: the KB parameter introduced by Ceplecha and Tisserand parameter, TJ. Although KB is frequently cited as a proxy for meteoroid material properties, we find that it is poorly correlated with ablation-model-derived densities. We therefore follow the example of Kikwaya et al. in associating density with the Tisserand parameter. We fit two density distributions to meteoroids originating from Halley-type comets (TJ 2); the resulting two-population density distribution is the most detailed sporadic meteoroid density distribution justified by the available data. Finally, we discuss the implications for meteoroid environment models and spacecraft risk assessments. We find that correcting for density increases the fraction of meteoroid-induced spacecraft damage produced by the helion/antihelion source.

  9. Snow density from Bulk and Pit Samples during APLIS07 Ice Camp (United States)

    Harris, R.; Geiger, C.; Turner, A.; Giles, K.


    Snow density is a critical parameter for hydrostatic calculations and remote sensing calibration. A basic set of in situ snow measurements were incorporated into the APLIS07 surveys conducted in the Beaufort Sea from April 1- 15 at the start of IPY. The measurements were taken to ensure that bulk density, stratigraphy, and basic snow characteristics were recorded as part of an instrumental intercalibration study. Results show that the snow cover variability on sea ice ranged from a dusting to 1m drifts on the multiyear floes and an average of 20 cm on level ice surfaces. Depth hoar accounted for up to half of the snow pack depth and was half the density of the wind slab snow. Several of the depth hoar samples include very large cup crystals (1-2 cm) with broken capped bullet crystals in the wind slab and rime deposition on the fresh snow crystals. The largest depth hoar crystals were located over level refrozen leads where the ocean heat flux and moisture could still reach the bottom of the snow pack beneath the wind slab. Error analysis and an overview of these findings will be presented.

  10. Synthesis and characteristics of MgB{sub 2} bulks with different densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, R. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhou, S., E-mail: [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, L.; Li, W.X.; Dou, S.X. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)


    Pure MgB{sub 2} bulks of different densities were synthesized by direct Mg-diffusion method. It is found that the connectivity was significantly improved since the current-carrying effective area was improved by the diffusion method, hence the self-field critical current density, J{sub c}, was significantly improved comparing with conventional porous MgB{sub 2} bulks made by in situ method. A sample reacted at 850 {sup o}C for 10 h exhibited J{sub c} of 1.2 MA/cm{sup 2} at 20 K in self-field.

  11. Food Simulating Organic Solvents for Evaluating Crosslink Density of Bulk Fill Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. Ayad


    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate crosslink densities of two bulk fill composite resins and determine if the used Food Simulating Organic Solvent (FSOS affected them. Methods. Forty specimens were prepared from SureFill and SonicFill bulk fill composite resins, 20 each. All specimens were stored dry for 24 h. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: stored in ethanol (E 75% or in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK 100% for 24 h. Crosslink density was evaluated by calculating the difference between the Vickers hardness numbers of the specimens stored dry and after their storage in FSOS. The data were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results. The means of crosslink density in E and MEK were 6.99% and 9.44% for SureFill and 10.54% and 11.92% for SonicFill, respectively. t-test displayed significant differences between crosslink densities of SureFill and SonicFill: (P<0.0001 in E and (P=0.02 in MEK and between crosslink densities of SureFill in E and MEK (P=0.02. Conclusions. Crosslink density of bulk fill composite resin can be evaluated using E or MEK. SureFill has higher crosslink density than SonicFill in both E and MEK.

  12. A mechanistic analysis of bulk powder caking (United States)

    Calvert, G.; Curcic, N.; Ghadiri, M.


    Bulk powder transformations, such as caking, can lead to numerous problems within industry when storing or processing materials. In this paper a new Environmental Caking Rig (ECR) is introduced and has been used to evaluate the caking propensity of a hygroscopic powder as a function of temperature, Relative Humidity (RH), mechanical stress and also when RH is cycled. A linear relationship exists between cake strength and the extent of bulk deformation, here defined by the engineering strain. An empirical model has been used to predict the caking behaviour based on consolidation stress and environmental conditions.

  13. Estimations of bulk geometrically necessary dislocation density using high resolution EBSD. (United States)

    Ruggles, T J; Fullwood, D T


    Characterizing the content of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in crystalline materials is crucial to understanding plasticity. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) effectively recovers local crystal orientation, which is used to estimate the lattice distortion, components of the Nye dislocation density tensor (α), and subsequently the local bulk GND density of a material. This paper presents a complementary estimate of bulk GND density using measurements of local lattice curvature and strain gradients from more recent high resolution EBSD (HR-EBSD) methods. A continuum adaptation of classical equations for the distortion around a dislocation are developed and used to simulate random GND fields to validate the various available approximations of GND content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scaling Bulk Data Analysis with Mapreduce (United States)


    Writing Bulk_Extractor MapReduce 101 List of References 105 viii Initial Distribution List 113 ix THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK x List of Figures...dedicated Experts -Formal definition presented -Large technology growth
 -Everyone has email, cell phones, networks Adolescence
 -Growth in Academics ...period is where we see those requirements come to fruition with an explosive growth into the academic community. This period marks a point where research

  15. Comparing near-surface and bulk densities of asteroids using radar scattering properties (United States)

    Zambrano Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Nolan, Michael C.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Virkki, Anne


    Dual-polarization radar measurements of asteroids provide a joint constraint on the near-surface density and porosity, which can give insights on asteroid composition and evolution. Magri et al. (2001) used (433) Eros radar and spacecraft data as calibration for estimating the near-surface densities and porosities of 45 other radar-detected asteroids (36 main-belt and 9 near-Earth). At that time, only (433) Eros had both radar observations and a measured bulk density. Now that there have been spacecraft observations of several other asteroids and radar measurements of the densities of several binary near-Earth asteroids with various compositions, we can expand the calibration to include those objects. We begin by applying the method of Magri et al. to Ceres, Vesta, Itokawa, 1994 CC, 2001 SN263, 1998 QE2, and 2000 DP107 to explore the differences between the bulk density and the near-surface density measured with radar. We expect significant differences between Ceres and Vesta and the small near-Earth asteroids as the porosities of these objects are expected to be quite different. However, we expect that small binary objects likely have similar internal structures, so that any differences should depend on composition and perhaps surface weathering.Reference: Magri et al., "Radar constraints on asteroid Properties using 433 Eros as ground truth". Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36, 1697-1709, 2001.

  16. Determination of critical current density in melt-processed HTS bulks from levitation force measurements


    Kordyuk, A. A.; Nemoshkalenko, V. V.; Viznichenko, R. V.; Habisreuther, T.; Gawalek, W.


    A simple approach to describe the levitation force measurements on melt-processed HTS bulks was developed. A couple of methods to determine the critical current density $J_c$ were introduced. The averaged $ab$-plane $J_c$ values for the field parallel to this plane were determined. The first and second levitation force hysteresis loops calculated with these $J_c$ values coincide remarkably well with the experimental data.

  17. Bulk density and soil resistance to penetration as affected by commercial thinning in northeastern Washington. (United States)

    Johanna D. Landsberg; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Jeffrey S. Tepp


    Bulk density and soil resistance to penetration were measured in ten, 3- to 11-ha operational units in overstocked, mixed-conifer stands in northeast Washington. Resistance was measured with a recording penetrometer to the 33-cm depth (13 in) at 10 stations on each of 8 to 17, 30.5-m-long, randomly located transects in each unit. Subsequently, different combinations of...

  18. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil bulk density for Northern Africa : Tunisia case


    Brahim, N.; Bernoux, Martial; Gallali, T. (ed.)


    Countries should provide regularly national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and, and for the agriculture and forestry sectors this comprise national estimates of soil organic carbon (C) stocks. Estimation of soil C stock requires soil bulk density (D-b) values. However, direct measurement of D-b is often lacking mainly for soils in arid and semi-arid conditions. Much effort has been made in finding alternative solution to predict D-b, either improving in situ determinations,...

  19. Effects of Soil Bulk Density on Gas Transport Parameters and Pore-Network Properties across a Sandy Field Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masis Melendez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Chamindu, T K K Deepagoda


    The gas diffusion coefficient, air permeability, and their interrelations with air-filled porosity are crucial for characterization of diffusive and convective transport of gases in soils. Variations in soil bulk density can affect water retention, air-filled pore space, pore tortuosity...... and connectivity, and hence control gas diffusion and air permeability. Considering 86 undisturbed core samples with variable bulk density that were extracted on a grid from the top layer of a sandy field, the effects of soil bulk density on gas transport parameters and the soil water characteristic were...... to quantify gas transport and water retention processes across the field. Results revealed significant negative correlations between all six parameters and soil bulk density. Areas with higher bulk density exhibited reduced air-filled porosity and lower diffusivity- and air permeability-based connectivity...

  20. Improvement of flow and bulk density of pharmaceutical powders using surface modification. (United States)

    Jallo, Laila J; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Gurumurthy, Lakxmi; Patel, Utsav; Davé, Rajesh N


    Improvement in flow and bulk density, the two most important properties that determine the ease with which pharmaceutical powders can be handled, stored and processed, is done through surface modification. A limited design of experiment was conducted to establish a standardized dry coating procedure that limits the extent of powder attrition, while providing the most consistent improvement in angle of repose (AOR). The magnetically assisted impaction coating (MAIC) was considered as a model dry-coater for pharmaceutical powders; ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and ascorbic acid. Dry coated drug powders were characterized by AOR, particle size as a function of dispersion pressure, particle size distribution, conditioned bulk density (CBD), Carr index (CI), flow function coefficient (FFC), cohesion coefficient using different instruments, including a shear cell in the Freeman FT4 powder rheometer, and Hansen flowability index. Substantial improvement was observed in all the measured properties after dry coating relative to the uncoated powders, such that each powder moved from a poorer to a better flow classification and showed improved dispersion. The material intrinsic property such as cohesion, plotted as a function of particle size, gave a trend similar to those of bulk flow properties, AOR and CI. Property improvement is also illustrated in a phase map of inverse cohesion (or FFC) as a function of bulk density, which also indicated a significant positive shift due to dry coating. It is hoped that such phase maps are useful in manufacturing decisions regarding the need for dry coating, which will allow moving from wet granulation to roller compaction or to direct compression based formulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonempirical density functionals investigated for jellium: Spin-polarized surfaces, spherical clusters, and bulk linear response (United States)

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.; Almeida, Luís Miguel; Fiolhais, Carlos; Kümmel, Stephan


    Jellium, a simple model of metals, is a standard testing ground for density functionals both for bulk and for surface properties. Earlier tests show that the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) nonempirical metageneralized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy yields more accurate surface energies than the local spin density (LSD) approximation for spin-unpolarized jellium. In this study, work functions and surface energies of a jellium metal in the presence of “internal” and external magnetic fields are calculated with LSD, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) GGA, and TPSS meta-GGA and its predecessor, the nearly nonempirical Perdew-Kurth-Zupan-Blaha meta-GGA, using self-consistent LSD orbitals and densities. The results show that (i) For normal bulk densities, the surface correlation energy is the same in TPSS as in PBE, as it should be since TPSS strives to represent a self-correlation correction to PBE; (ii) Normal surface density profiles can be scaled uniformly to the low-density or strong-interaction limit, and TPSS provides an estimate for that limit that is consistent with (but probably more accurate than) other estimates; (iii) For both normal and low densities, TPSS provides the same description of surface magnetism as PBE, suggesting that these approximations may be generally equivalent for magnetism. The energies of jellium spheres with up to 106 electrons are calculated using density functionals and compared to those obtained with diffusion quantum Monte Carlo data, including our estimate for the fixed-node correction. Typically, while PBE energies are too low for spheres with more than about two electrons, LSD and TPSS are accurate there. We confirm that curvature energies are lower in PBE and TPSS than in LSD. Finally, we calculate the linear response of bulk jellium using these density functionals and find that not only LSD but also PBE GGA and TPSS meta-GGA yield a linear response in good agreement with that of the

  2. Fermi surface of layered compounds and bulk charge density wave systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, F [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Battaglia, C [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Cercellier, H [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Monney, C [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Berger, H [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Complexe, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Despont, L [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Garnier, M G [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Aebi, P [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)


    A review is given of recent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments and analyses on a series of layered charge density wave materials. Important aspects of ARPES are recalled in view of its capability for bulk band, Fermi surface and spectral function mapping despite its surface sensitivity. Discussed are TaS{sub 2}, TaSe{sub 2}, NbTe{sub 2}, TiSe{sub 2} and TiTe{sub 2} with structures related to the so-called 1T polytype. Many of them undergo charge density wave transitions or exist with a distorted lattice structure. Attempts to explain the mechanism behind the structural reconstruction are given. Depending on the filling of the lowest occupied band a drastically different behaviour is observed. Whereas density functional calculations of the electronic energy and momentum distribution reproduce well the experimental spectral weight distribution at the Fermi energy, the ARPES energy distribution curves reveal that for some of the compounds the Fermi surface is pseudo-gapped. Two different explanations are given, the first based on density functional calculations accounting for the charge-density-wave-induced lattice distortion and the second relying on many-body physics and polaron formation. Qualitatively, both describe the observations well. However, in the future, in order to be selective, quantitative modelling will be necessary, including the photoemission matrix elements.

  3. Near-surface bulk densities of asteroids derived from dual-polarization radar observations (United States)

    Virkki, A.; Taylor, P. A.; Zambrano-Marin, L. F.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Lejoly, C.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Aponte, B. A.


    We present a new method to constrain the near-surface bulk density and surface roughness of regolith on asteroid surfaces using planetary radar measurements. The number of radar observations has increased rapidly during the last five years, allowing us to compare and contrast the radar scattering properties of different small-body populations and compositional types. This provides us with new opportunities to investigate their near-surface physical properties such as the chemical composition, bulk density, porosity, or the structural roughness in the scale of centimeters to meters. Because the radar signal can penetrate into a planetary surface up to a few decimeters, radar can reveal information that is hidden from other ground-based methods, such as optical and infrared measurements. The near-surface structure of asteroids and comets in centimeter-to-meter scale is essential information for robotic and human space missions, impact threat mitigation, and understanding the history of these bodies as well as the formation of the whole Solar System.

  4. Effects of soil management systems on soil microbial activity, bulk density and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valpassos Maria Alexandra Reis


    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of soil management systems on the bulk density, chemical soil properties, and on the soil microbial activity on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Oxisol. Soil samples were collected from plots under the following management conditions: a natural dense "cerrado" vegetation (savanna; b degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture, 20 years old; c no-tillage treatment with annual crop sequence (bean, corn, soybean and dark-oat in continuous rotation, 8 years old; d conventional tillage treatment with crop residues added to the soil, and annual crop sequence, 10 years old. The continuous use of no-tillage system resulted in an increase in microbial biomass and decrease in soil basal respiration, therefore displaying evident long-term effects on the increase of soil C content. The no-tillage system also provided an improvement in bulk density and chemical properties of the soil. Hence, the no-tillage management system could be an alternative for the conservation and maintenance of physical and chemical conditions and the productive potential of "cerrado" soils.

  5. How accurate are pedotransfer functions for bulk density for Brazilian soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stucchi Boschi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of pedotransfer functions (PTFs available in the literature to estimate soil bulk density (ρb in different regions of Brazil, using different metrics. The predictive capacity of 25 PTFs was evaluated using the mean absolute error (MAE, mean error (ME, root mean squared error (RMSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and the regression error characteristic (REC curve. The models performed differently when comparing observed and estimated ρb values. In general, the PTFs showed a performance close to the mean value of the bulk density data, considered as the simplest possible estimation of an attribute and used as a parameter to compare the performance of existing models (null model. The models developed by Benites et al. (2007 (BEN-C and by Manrique and Jones (1991 (M&J-B presented the best results. The separation of data into two layers according to depth (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm demonstrated better performance in the 10-30 cm layer. The REC curve allowed for a simple and visual evaluation of the PTFs.

  6. Preservation of roasted and ground coffee during storage. Part 2: Bulk density and intergranular porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The determination of physical properties is an important factor in the design of machinery and the scaling of post-harvest operations. The present study evaluates the influence of the level of roasting and the size of grinding on the physical properties of coffee during storage. The following physical properties were evaluated: true and bulk density, and intergranular porosity. Raw coffee beans (Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, hulled and dried, were roasted to two different levels: medium light (SCAA#65 and moderately dark (SCAA#45. The beans were then grinded into three different sizes: fine (0.59 mm, medium (0.84 mm and coarse (1.19 mm. An additional coffee lot was kept whole. Following grinding, samples were stored at two different temperatures (10 and 30 ºC and analyzed after five different storage durations (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days. The medium light roast had higher values for each of the measured physical properties. Finely ground samples had higher true and bulk densities, and porosities. It is concluded that the size of grinding, level of roasting and duration of storage significantly affect the physical properties of coffee.

  7. High Efficiency m-plane LEDs on Low Defect Density Bulk GaN Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Aurelien


    Solid-state lighting is a key technology for reduction of energy consumption in the US and worldwide. In principle, by replacing standard incandescent bulbs and other light sources with sources based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultimate energy efficiency can be achieved. The efficiency of LEDs has improved tremendously over the past two decades, however further progress is required for solid- state lighting to reach its full potential. The ability of an LED at converting electricity to light is quantified by its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The material of choice for visible LEDs is Gallium Nitride (GaN), which is at the basis of blue-emitting LEDs. A key factor limiting the performance of GaN LEDs is the so-called efficiency droop, whereby the IQE of the LED decreases significantly at high current density. Despite decades of research, efficiency droop remains a major issue. Since high-current operation is necessary for practical lighting applications, reducing droop is a major challenge for the scientific community and the LED industry. Our approach to solving the droop issue is the use of newly available low-defect-density bulk GaN non-polar substrates. In contrast to the standard foreign substrates (sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon) used in the industry, we have employed native bulk GaN substrates with very low defect density, thus ensuring exquisite material quality and high IQE. Whereas all commercial LEDs are grown along the c-plane crystal direction of GaN, we have used m-plane non-polar substrates; these drastically modify the physical properties of the LED and enable a reduction of droop. With this approach, we have demonstrated very high IQE performance and low droop. Our results focused on violet and blue LEDs. For these, we have demonstrated very high peak IQEs and current droops of 6% and 10% respectively (up to a high current density of All these results were obtained under electrical operation. These high IQE and low droop

  8. Integrated analysis software for bulk power system stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Nagao, T.; Takahashi, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper presents Central Research Inst.of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI`s - own developed three softwares for bulk power network analysis and the user support system which arranges tremendous data necessary for these softwares with easy and high reliability. (author) 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Stability analysis of bulk viscous anisotropic universe model (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia


    This paper is devoted to study the phase space analysis of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model by taking three different cases for bulk viscosity coefficient. An autonomous system of equations is established by defining normalized dimensionless variables. In order to investigate stability of the system, we evaluate corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. In the case of bulk viscous matter and radiation, the parameters η=η0 and m≥0.8 show realistic evolution of the universe (prior radiation dominated era, conventional decelerated matter dominated state and ultimately accelerated expansion). We conclude that stable solutions exist in the presence of bulk viscosity with different choices of parameter m.

  10. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism. (United States)

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe


    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D1 (500-700kgm-3), D2 (900-1000kgm-3), D3 (1100-1200kgm-3) and D4 (1200-1400kgm-3) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm-3 may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gas Transport Parameters for Landfill Final Cover Soil: Measurements and Model Modification by Dry Bulk Density (United States)

    Wickramarachchi, P. N.; Kawamoto, K.; Hamamoto, S.; Nagamori, M.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.


    Landfill sites have been emerging in greenhouse warming scenarios as a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Until recently, landfill management strategies have mainly addressed the problem of preventing groundwater contamination and reduction of leachate generation. Being one of the largest sources of anthropogenic CH4 emission, the final cover system should also be designed for minimizing the greenhouse gases migration into the atmosphere or the areas surrounding the landfill while securing the hydraulic performance. Compared to the intensive research efforts on hydraulic performances of landfill final cover soil, few studies about gas transport characteristics of landfill cover soils have been done. However, recent soil-gas studies implied that the effects of soil physical properties such as bulk density (i.e., compaction level), soil particle size are key parameters to understand landfill gaseous performance. The gas exchange through the final cover soils is controlled by advective and diffusive gas transport. Air permeability (ka) governs the advective gas transport while the soil-gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) governs diffusive gas transport. In this study, the effects of compaction level and particle size fraction effects on ka and Dp for landfill final cover soil was investigated. The disturbed soil samples were taken from landfill final cover in Japan. A compaction tests were performed for the soil samples with two different size fractions (networks that are available for gas transport through the porous material. Then, the famous predictive models, the water induced linear reduction (WLR) model for Dp and the reference point law (RPL) model for ka were modified with reference point measurements (dry conditions) and model parameters and they correlated linearly to dry bulk density values for both fractions of landfill final cover soil.

  12. Pressure-Dependent Electronic and Transport Properties of Bulk Platinum Oxide by Density Functional Theory (United States)

    Kansara, Shivam; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh; Nekrasov, Kirill A.; Kichigina, Natalia V.


    The structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of bulk platinum oxide (PtO) at compressive pressures in the interval from 0 GPa to 35 GPa are investigated using the density functional theory. The calculated electronic band structure of PtO shows poor metallicity at very low density of states on the Fermi level. However, the hybrid pseudopotential calculation yielded 0.78 eV and 1.30 eV direct band and indirect gap, respectively. Importantly, our results predict that PtO has a direct band gap within the framework of HSE06, and it prefers equally zero magnetic order at different pressures. In the Raman spectra, peaks are slightly shifted towards higher frequency with the decrease in pressure. We have also calculated the thermoelectric properties, namely the electronic thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, with respect to temperature and thermodynamic properties such as entropy, specific heat at constant volume, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy with respect to pressure. The result shows that PtO is a promising candidate for use as a catalyst, in sensors, as a photo-cathode in water electrolysis, for thermal decomposition of inorganic salt and fuel cells.

  13. Pressure-Dependent Electronic and Transport Properties of Bulk Platinum Oxide by Density Functional Theory (United States)

    Kansara, Shivam; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh; Nekrasov, Kirill A.; Kichigina, Natalia V.


    The structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of bulk platinum oxide (PtO) at compressive pressures in the interval from 0 GPa to 35 GPa are investigated using the density functional theory. The calculated electronic band structure of PtO shows poor metallicity at very low density of states on the Fermi level. However, the hybrid pseudopotential calculation yielded 0.78 eV and 1.30 eV direct band and indirect gap, respectively. Importantly, our results predict that PtO has a direct band gap within the framework of HSE06, and it prefers equally zero magnetic order at different pressures. In the Raman spectra, peaks are slightly shifted towards higher frequency with the decrease in pressure. We have also calculated the thermoelectric properties, namely the electronic thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, with respect to temperature and thermodynamic properties such as entropy, specific heat at constant volume, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy with respect to pressure. The result shows that PtO is a promising candidate for use as a catalyst, in sensors, as a photo-cathode in water electrolysis, for thermal decomposition of inorganic salt and fuel cells.

  14. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration. (United States)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.


    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  15. Optimising mechanical strength and bulk density of dry ceramic bodies through mixture design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia, S. L.


    Full Text Available In industrial practice, it is desirable to be able to predict, in an expeditious way, what the effects of a change in raw materials or the proportions thereof might be in the various processing steps towards the final product. When the property of interest is basically determined by the combination (or mixture of raw materials, an optimisation methodology specific to the design of mixture experiments can be successfully used. In the present study, dry bending strength and bulk density were selected as the properties to model, given the simplicity of their experimental determination and because they are frequently used as quality control parameter in the development and manufacture stages of floor and wall ceramic tiles. Ten formulations of three raw materials (a clay mixture, potash feldspar and quartz sand were processed in the laboratory under fixed conditions, similar to those used in the ceramics industry, and characterised. The use of this methodology enabled the calculation of valid regression models (equations relating dry bending strength and bulk density with the contents, in the starting mixture, of the particular raw materials used.

    En el trabajo industrial es deseable poder predecir de manera efectiva, los efectos que los cambios en las materias primas o en sus proporciones pueden ejercer sobre las variables del proceso y como estos afectan al producto final. Cuando la propiedad de interés depende preferentemente de la mezcla de las materias primas, una metodología específica de optimización para el diseño de los experimentos de mezclas puede ser empleada con éxito. En este trabajo, la resistencia mecánica en seco y la densidad se emplearon como los parámetros de control en el desarrollo y producción de azulejos cerámicos para pavimento y revestimiento. Diez formulaciones a partir de tres materias primas ( una mezcla de arcilla, feldespato potásico y arena de cuarzo fueron procesadas en el laboratorio bajo

  16. Modelling soil bulk density at the landscape scale and its contributions to C stock uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Taalab


    Full Text Available Soil bulk density (Db is a major contributor to uncertainties in landscape-scale carbon and nutrient stock estimation. However, it is time consuming to measure and is, therefore, frequently predicted using surrogate variables, such as soil texture. Using this approach is of limited value for estimating landscape-scale inventories, as its accuracy beyond the sampling point at which texture is measured becomes highly uncertain. In this paper, we explore the ability of soil landscape models to predict soil Db using a suite of landscape attributes and derivatives for both topsoil and subsoil. The models were constructed using random forests and artificial neural networks. Using these statistical methods, we have produced a spatially distributed prediction of Db on a 100 m × 100 m grid, which was shown to significantly improve topsoil carbon stock estimation. In comparison to using mean values from point measurements, stratified by soil class, we found that the gridded method predicted Db more accurately, especially for higher and lower values within the range. Within our study area of the Midlands, UK, we found that the gridded prediction of Db produced a stock inventory of over 1 million tonnes of carbon greater than the stratified mean method. Furthermore, the 95% confidence interval associated with total C stock prediction was almost halved by using the gridded method. The gridded approach was particularly useful in improving organic carbon (OC stock estimation for fine-scale landscape units at which many landscape–atmosphere interaction models operate.

  17. Superhydrophobic surface fabricated by bulk photografting of acrylic acid onto high-density polyethylene. (United States)

    Han, Jianmei; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Huiliang


    A superhydrophobic polymeric surface was prepared through a very simple bulk photografting method. A thin layer of acrylic acid (AA), a highly hydrophilic monomer, was sandwiched between two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets, followed by UV irradiation for a short time, and then the two sheets were pulled apart and dried. The contact angles on the two grafted surfaces decreased very quickly with irradiation time in the first several seconds, and then increased with irradiation time to a level higher than that on pristine HDPE surface. When using a scraped PE surface as the bottom one, it showed superhydrophobicity after 35 s irradiation. XPS investigations show that strong rearrangement of the poly(acrylic acid) molecules has taken place on both surfaces, especially on the bottom surface, which provides the low surface free energy. The scraping and the grafting process led to the formation a unique micro- and nanostructure on the surface. These two factors lead to the superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared surface possesses superhydrophobic properties in a wide range of pH values, stimuli-responsive properties and low or very high adhesion under different situations.

  18. Bulk Density Prediction for Histosols and Soil Horizons with High Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Julio Beutler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bulk density (Bd can easily be predicted from other data using pedotransfer functions (PTF. The present study developed two PTFs (PTF1 and PTF2 for Bd prediction in Brazilian organic soils and horizons and compared their performance with nine previously published equations. Samples of 280 organic soil horizons used to develop PTFs and containing at least 80 g kg-1 total carbon content (TOC were obtained from different regions of Brazil. The multiple linear stepwise regression technique was applied to validate all the equations using an independent data set. Data were transformed using Box-Cox to meet the assumptions of the regression models. For validation of PTF1 and PTF2, the coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.47 and 0.37, mean error -0.04 and 0.10, and root mean square error 0.22 and 0.26, respectively. The best performance was obtained for the PTF1, PTF2, Hollis, and Honeysett equations. The PTF1 equation is recommended when clay content data are available, but considering that they are scarce for organic soils, the PTF2, Hollis, and Honeysett equations are the most suitable because they use TOC as a predictor variable. Considering the particular characteristics of organic soils and the environmental context in which they are formed, the equations developed showed good accuracy in predicting Bd compared with already existing equations.

  19. Modeling soil bulk density through a complete data scanning procedure: Heuristic alternatives (United States)

    Shiri, Jalal; Keshavarzi, Ali; Kisi, Ozgur; Karimi, Sepideh; Iturraran-Viveros, Ursula


    Soil bulk density (BD) is very important factor in land drainage and reclamation, irrigation scheduling (for estimating the soil volumetric water content), and assessing soil carbon and nutrient stock as well as determining the pollutant mass balance in soils. Numerous pedotransfer functions have been suggested so far to relate the soil BD values to soil parameters (e.g. soil separates, carbon content, etc). The present paper aims at simulating soil BD using easily measured soil variables through heuristic gene expression programming (GEP), neural networks (NN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and boosted regression trees (BT) techniques. The statistical Gamma test was utilized to identify the most influential soil parameters on BD. The applied models were assessed through k-fold testing where all the available data patterns were involved in the both training and testing stages, which provide an accurate assessment of the models accuracy. Some existing pedotransfer functions were also applied and compared with the heuristic models. The obtained results revealed that the heuristic GEP model outperformed the other applied models globally and per test stage. Nevertheless, the performance accuracy of the applied heuristic models was much better than those of the applied pedotransfer functions. Using k-fold testing provides a more-in-detail judgment of the models.

  20. Investigating the dynamics of bulk snow density in dry and wet conditions using a one-dimensional model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Michele, C.; Avanzi, F.; Ghezzi, A.; Jommi, C.


    The snowpack is a complicated multiphase mixture with mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal properties highly variable during the year in response to climatic forcings. Bulk density is a macroscopic property of the snowpack used, together with snow depth, to quantify the water stored. In seasonal

  1. Surface, bulk, and rheological properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/high density polyethylene nanocomposites (United States)

    Cook, Robert Douglas, Jr.

    In the formulation of high performance nanocomposites, control of miscibility and dispersion of filler material through a polymer matrix is of utmost importance. Due to their inorganic nature most nanofillers are insoluble in polymers, leading to costly/complicated surface modification as a primary means of increasing miscibility and interaction with organic matrices. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals offer an attractive alternative to conventional nanofillers. Due to their hybrid organic-inorganic nature, POSS has the potential to be tailored for miscibility in a wide range of organic matrices not by chemical surface modification but through modification of the molecular structure of the filler itself. The overall goal of this research is to investigate how changes to POSS molecular structure affect miscibility and dispersion in physically blended high density polyethylene (HDPE)/POSS blends. The primary objective of the first section is to understand the effect of POSS cage structure, physical state and R-group alkyl chain length on miscibility and blend performance through a wide range of characterization techniques. Special attention will be paid to rheological, bulk and surface performance of the blends as compared to the neat HDPE matrix. The primary objective of the second section is to determine the utility of theoretical solubility parameter calculations as a means of predicting POSS miscibility in the HDPE matrix. This section will focus on solubility parameters calculated using both group contribution and molecular dynamics simulation methods, determining their proximity to each other, and qualifying their applicability in predicting POSS miscibility and blend performance. This dissertation is comprised of six chapters. Chapter I provides an introduction to nanocomposites, as well as background information on HDPE, POSS, pertinent POSS blends and solubility parameter theory. Chapter II gives an overview of the research

  2. Pedotransfer functions to estimate bulk density from soil properties and environmental covariates: Rio Doce basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil bulk density (ρb data are needed for a wide range of environmental studies. However, ρb is rarely reported in soil surveys. An alternative to obtain ρb for data-scarce regions, such as the Rio Doce basin in southeastern Brazil, is indirect estimation from less costly covariates using pedotransfer functions (PTF. This study primarily aims to develop region-specific PTFs for ρb using multiple linear regressions (MLR and random forests (RF. Secondly, it assessed the accuracy of PTFs for data grouped into soil horizons and soil classes. For that purpose, we compared the performance of PTFs compiled from the literature with those developed here. Two groups of data were evaluated as covariates: 1 readily available soil properties and 2 maps derived from a digital elevation model and MODIS satellite imagery, jointly with lithological and pedological maps. The MLR model was applied step-wise to select significant predictors and its accuracy assessed by means of cross-validation. The PTFs developed using all data estimated ρb from soil properties by MLR and RF, with R2 of 0.41 and 0.51, respectively. Alternatively, using environmental covariates, RF predicted ρb with R2 of 0.41. Grouping criteria did not lead to a significant increase in the estimates of ρb. The accuracy of the ‘regional’ PTFs developed for this study was greater than that found with the ‘compiled’ PTFs. The best PTF will be firstly used to assess soil carbon stocks and changes in the Rio Doce basin.

  3. Image similarity evaluation of the bulk-density-assigned synthetic CT derived from MRI of intracranial regions for radiation treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Various methods for radiation-dose calculation have been investigated over previous decades, focusing on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI only. The bulk-density-assignment method based on manual segmentation has exhibited promising results compared to dose-calculation with computed tomography (CT. However, this method cannot be easily implemented in clinical practice due to its time-consuming nature. Therefore, we investigated an automatic anatomy segmentation method with the intention of providing the proper methodology to evaluate synthetic CT images for a radiation-dose calculation based on MR images.CT images of 20 brain cancer patients were selected, and their MR images including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and PETRA were retrospectively collected. Eight anatomies of the patients, such as the body, air, eyeball, lens, cavity, ventricle, brainstem, and bone, were segmented for bulk-density-assigned CT image (BCT generation. In addition, water-equivalent CT images (WCT with only two anatomies-body and air-were generated for a comparison with BCT. Histogram comparison and gamma analysis were performed by comparison with the original CT images, after the evaluation of automatic segmentation performance with the dice similarity coefficient (DSC, false negative dice (FND coefficient, and false positive dice (FPD coefficient.The highest DSC value was 99.34 for air segmentation, and the lowest DSC value was 73.50 for bone segmentation. For lens segmentation, relatively high FND and FPD values were measured. The cavity and bone were measured as over-segmented anatomies having higher FPD values than FND. The measured histogram comparison results of BCT were better than those of WCT in all cases. In gamma analysis, the averaged improvement of BCT compared to WCT was measured. All the measured results of BCT were better than those of WCT. Therefore, the results of this study show that the introduced methods, such as histogram comparison and

  4. Prediction of Bulk Density of Soils in the Loess Plateau Region of China (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Liu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chencheng


    Soil bulk density (BD) is a key soil physical property that may affect the transport of water and solutes and is essential to estimate soil carbon/nutrients reserves. However, BD data are often lacking in soil databases due to the challenge of directly measuring BD, which is considered to be labor intensive, time consuming, and expensive especially for the lower layers of deep soils such as those of the Chinese Loess Plateau region. We determined the factors that were closely correlated with BD at the regional scale and developed a robust pedotransfer function (PTF) for BD by measuring BD and potentially related soil and environmental factors at 748 selected sites across the Loess Plateau of China (620,000 km2) at which we collected undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from two soil layers (0-5 and 20-25 cm). Regional BD values were normally distributed and demonstrated weak spatial variation (CV = 12 %). Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses identified silt content, slope gradient (SG), soil organic carbon content (SOC), clay content, slope aspect (SA), and altitude as the factors that were closely correlated with BD and that explained 25.8, 6.3, 5.8, 1.4, 0.3, and 0.3 % of the BD variation, respectively. Based on these closely correlated variables, a reasonably robust PTF was developed for BD using multiple linear regression, which performed equally with the artificial neural network method in the current study. The inclusion of topographic factors significantly improved the predictive capability of the BD PTF and in which SG was an important input variable that could be used in place of SA and altitude without compromising its capability for predicting BD. Thus, the developed PTF with only four input variables (clay, silt, SOC, SG), including their common transformations and interactive terms, predicted BD with reasonable accuracy and is thus useful for most applications on the Loess Plateau of China. More attention should be

  5. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Difference between bulk and thin film densities of metal oxide and fluoride films studied by NRA depth profiling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coban, A; Durrani, S A


    Nuclear reaction analysis techniques have been used to study the difference between bulk and thin film densities of different dielectric (WO sub 3 , MgF sub 2 , NdF sub 3 , LaF sub 3 and ThF sub 4) thin films. Thicknesses of the films were measured by optical methods. The sup 1 sup 8 O(p,alpha) sup 1 sup 5 N reaction was used at 730 keV to profile WO sub 3 prepared with different thicknesses on a tantalum backing by thermal evaporation of natural WO sub 3. We have also successfully tested the sup 1 sup 8 O(p,alpha) sup 1 sup 5 N reaction at the 629 keV (GAMMA=2.1 keV) resonance for the same purpose. Excitation function measurement of the reaction was performed around the resonant energy at a detection angle of 150 deg. . In order to obtain the oxygen profiles of the thin films non-resonant part of the excitation function was deconvoluted using the known cross-section data of the reaction. Also, we studied different films of MgF sub 2 , NdF sub 3 , LaF sub 3 and ThF sub 4 using the 483.85 keV resonance in the ...

  7. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.


    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.

  8. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean M.


    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  9. Evolution of Mars’ Northern Polar Seasonal CO2 deposits: variations in surface brightness and bulk density (United States)

    Mount, Christopher P.; Titus, Timothy N.


    Small scale variations of seasonal ice are explored at different geomorphic units on the Northern Polar Seasonal Cap (NPSC). We use seasonal rock shadow measurements, combined with visible and thermal observations, to calculate density over time. The coupling of volume density and albedo allows us to determine the microphysical state of the seasonal CO2 ice. We find two distinct endmembers across the NPSC: 1) Snow deposits may anneal to form an overlying slab layer that fractures. These low density deposits maintain relatively constant densities over springtime. 2) Porous slab deposits likely anneal rapidly in early spring and fracture in late spring. These high density deposits dramatically increase in density over time. The endmembers appear to be correlated with latitude.

  10. Optimisation of coal blend and bulk density for coke ovens by vibrocompacting technique non-recovery ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Vinoo, D.S.; Yadav, U.S.; Ghosh, S.; Lal, J.P.N. [J.S.W. Steel Ltd, Bellary (India)


    The quality of coke produced in a coke oven depends on the coal blend characteristics and carbonisation conditions. Scarcity of good quality coking coal made it necessary to look for techniques capable of producing superior coke from inferior coals. Precarbonisation techniques improve the bulk density of the coal charge and produce good quality coke from inferior coals. The stamp charging technique, the most effective among them requires finer crushing of coal and higher moisture as binder, both requiring additional energy. JSW Steel has adopted vibrocompaction along with non-recovery ovens for its 1.2 Mtpa coke production. This is a highly ecofriendly coke making process producing excellent quality coke from inferior coals. It increases the bulk density of cake, similar to stamp charging, using compaction in place of stamping. A cake density of 1.10 t m{sup -3} has been achieved using the vibrocompacting technique with optimum moisture and crushing fineness. Coal blend containing up to 35% soft coal and coking coal, having 32% volatile matter have been successfully used to produce a coke with coke strength after reaction >65%, coke reactivity index <25% and M10 <6%. The paper discusses the experience of operating vibrocompaction non-recovery coke ovens.

  11. Econometric Analysis of Bulk Shipping: implications for investment strategies and financial decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tsolakis


    textabstractThis thesis provides an econometric analysis of the bulk shipping markets and the implications for shipping investment and financial decision making. Chapter 1 sets the scene by providing a historic analysis of bulk shipping markets over the last 55 years. From this analysis, four

  12. The Relations Between Soil Water Retention Characteristics, Particle Size Distributions, Bulk Densities and Calcium Carbonate Contents for Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Balstrøm, Thomas; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik


    A database containing about 800 soil profiles located in a 7-km grid covering Denmark has been used to develop a set of regression equations of soil water content at pressure heads –1, -10, -100 and –1500 kPa versus particle size distribution, organic matter, CaCO3 and bulk density. One purpose...... on the equations a set of van Genuchten parameters for soil types in the Danish Soil Classification was elaborated. The prediction of soil water content, especially at pressure head –1 kPa, is more accurate using these van Genuchten parameters than using the pedotransfer functions developed in relation...

  13. Joint Analysis of Bulk Wildfire Characteristics from Multiple Satellite Retrievals (United States)

    Tang, W.; Arellano, A. F.


    Biomass burning significantly impacts atmospheric composition, as well as regional and global climate. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal trends in fire characteristics in several major fire regions using combustion signatures observed from space. Our main goals is to identify key relationships between the trends in co-emitted constituents across these regions, as well as linkages to main drivers of change such as meteorology, fire practice, development patterns, and ecosystem feedbacks. Our approach begins with a multi-species analysis of trends in the observed abundance of CO, NO2, and aerosols over these regions and across the time period 2005 to 2014. We use MOPITT multi-spectral CO, OMI tropospheric NO2 column, MODIS AOD, and MODIS FRP retrievals. The long records from these retrievals provide a unique opportunity to study atmospheric composition across the most recent decade. While several studies in the past have reported trends over these regions, most of these studies have focused on a particular constituent. A unique aspect of this work involves understanding co-variations in co-emitted constituents to provide a more comprehensive look at fire characteristics, which are yet to be fully understood. Here, we introduce a derived quantity (called smoke index) to represent bulk fire characteristics (e.g., flaming versus smoldering). The smoke index is calculated as the ratio of the geometric mean of CO and AOD fire enhancements to that of NO2 fire enhancements. Our initial results, which focused on the Amazon region, show that: 1) deforestation fires are dominantly flaming fires while non-deforestation fires are more likely to be dominantly smoldering fires; and 2) droughts have larger influence on non-deforestation (possibly understorey) fires than deforestation fires. Here, we will present an extension of this analysis to other fire regions around the globe (tropical, temperate and boreal fires) and explore other measurements available during this

  14. Kajian Kandungan Bahan Organik Dan Sifat Fisik Tanah (Bulk Density, Tekstur, Suhu Tanah) Untuk Tanaman Kopi (Coffea Sp.) Di Beberapa Kecamatan Di Kabupaten Dairi


    Tarigan, Emalia Sinarta


    EMALIA SINARTA TARIGAN : evaluation of organic matter content and soil physical properties (Bulk density, Texture and Soil Temperature) the coffee crop land (Coffeea sp.) in some districts in Dairi. Leading by Ir. Hardy Guchi, MP and Ir. Posma Marbun, MP. This research purpose to make evaluation the organic matter content and soil physical properties (Bulk density, Texture and Soil Temperature) the coffee crop land (Coffeea sp.) in some districts in Dairi. Th...

  15. Predictive Simulation of Process Windows for Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Influence of the Powder Bulk Density. (United States)

    Rausch, Alexander M; Küng, Vera E; Pobel, Christoph; Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin


    The resulting properties of parts fabricated by powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes are determined by their porosity, local composition, and microstructure. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the stochastic powder bed on the process window for dense parts by means of numerical simulation. The investigations demonstrate the unique capability of simulating macroscopic domains in the range of millimeters with a mesoscopic approach, which resolves the powder bed and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool. A simulated process window reveals the influence of the stochastic powder layer. The numerical results are verified with an experimental process window for selective electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, the influence of the powder bulk density is investigated numerically. The simulations predict an increase in porosity and surface roughness for samples produced with lower powder bulk densities. Due to its higher probability for unfavorable powder arrangements, the process stability is also decreased. This shrinks the actual parameter range in a process window for producing dense parts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Korunić


    Full Text Available We examined insecticide effectiveness of three different inert dusts: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT and diatomaceous earth (DE Celatom® Mn 51 applied as powder and suspension, and silica gel Sipernat® 50 S applied as powder against Sitophilus oryzae (L. and their reduction of grain bulk density. Sipernat® 50 S was the most effective dust with a very fast initial effectiveness. DE and DOT generated similar effectiveness against S. oryzae. DOT generated low initial effectiveness but after prolonged exposure time of 8 and especially after 21 days, the mortality was very high (100%, similar to the effectiveness of DE. The similar order of dusts was obtained in the reduction of wheat bulk density. Applied at dose of 200 and 500 ppm, the lowest bulk density difference in regard to bulk density of untreated wheat had DOT (-1.1 and -1.9 kg hl-1, respectively, followed by Celatom® Mn 51 (-3.5 and -4.3 kg hl-1, respectively and Sipernat® 50 S (-5.2 and -5.5 kg hl-1, respectively. Due to the effect on wheat bulk density DOT belongs to the group with the least negative effect on bulk density and therefore, it is a promising dust to control stored grain insect pests.

  17. Coexistence of bulk and surface states probed by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in Bi2Se3 with high charge-carrier density (United States)

    de Vries, E. K.; Pezzini, S.; Meijer, M. J.; Koirala, N.; Salehi, M.; Moon, J.; Oh, S.; Wiedmann, S.; Banerjee, T.


    Topological insulators are ideally represented as having an insulating bulk with topologically protected, spin-textured surface states. However, it is increasingly becoming clear that these surface transport channels can be accompanied by a finite conducting bulk, as well as additional topologically trivial surface states. To investigate these parallel conduction transport channels, we studied Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in Bi2Se3 thin films, in high magnetic fields up to 30 T so as to access channels with a lower mobility. We identify a clear Zeeman-split bulk contribution to the oscillations from a comparison between the charge-carrier densities extracted from the magnetoresistance and the oscillations. Furthermore, our analyses indicate the presence of a two-dimensional state and signatures of additional states the origin of which cannot be conclusively determined. Our findings underpin the necessity of theoretical studies on the origin of and the interplay between these parallel conduction channels for a careful analysis of the material's performance.

  18. A comparative study of the density of defect states in bulk samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V for glassy Se90Sb10 pellets at different temperatures. Here, e is the electronic charge, A is the cross-sectional area of the film, n0 is the density of free charge carriers, d is the electrode spacing and S is given by. S = 2εrε0/eg0kT d2,. (2) where εr is the static value of the dielectric constant, ε0 is the permittivity of free space,.

  19. Reduction of crack density in ammonothermal bulk GaN growth (United States)

    Letts, Edward; Key, Daryl; Hashimoto, Tadao


    The growth of high quality GaN by the ammonothermal method is appealing due to the potential to scale and achieve very high crystal quality. Several applications could benefit from the supply of very high quality GaN such as high power light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and high power electronics. Despite steady advancement by the few groups developing ammonothermal growth technology, high quality ammonothermal GaN wafers have yet be manufactured in great quantities. This paper reviews the current progress of ammonothermal growth at SixPoint Materials. Growths were performed at TGaN seed crystals produced by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). For thin boules, Dislocation densities are routinely low 105 cm-2 .

  20. Automated analysis of mammographic densities. (United States)

    Byng, J W; Boyd, N F; Fishell, E; Jong, R A; Yaffe, M J


    Information derived from mammographic parenchymal patterns provides one of the strongest indicators of the risk of developing breast cancer. To address several limitations of subjective classification of mammographic parenchyma into coarse density categories, we have been investigating more quantitative, objective methods of analysing the film-screen mammogram. These include measures of the skewness of the image brightness histogram, and of image texture characterized by the fractal dimension. Both measures were found to be strongly correlated with radiologists' subjective classifications of mammographic parenchyma (Spearman correlation coefficients, Rs = -0.88 and -0.76 for skewness and fractal dimension measurements, respectively). Further, neither measure was strongly dependent on simulated changes in mammographic technique. Correlation with subjective classification of mammographic density was better when both the skewness and fractal measures were used in combination than when either was used alone. This suggests that each feature provides some independent information.

  1. Experimental evidence for short-pulse laser heating of solid-density target to high bulk temperatures. (United States)

    Soloviev, A; Burdonov, K; Chen, S N; Eremeev, A; Korzhimanov, A; Pokrovskiy, G V; Pikuz, T A; Revet, G; Sladkov, A; Ginzburg, V; Khazanov, E; Kuzmin, A; Osmanov, R; Shaikin, I; Shaykin, A; Yakovlev, I; Pikuz, S; Starodubtsev, M; Fuchs, J


    Heating efficiently solid-density, or even compressed, matter has been a long-sought goal in order to allow investigation of the properties of such state of matter of interest for various domains, e.g. astrophysics. High-power lasers, pinches, and more recently Free-Electron-Lasers (FELs) have been used in this respect. Here we show that by using the high-power, high-contrast "PEARL" laser (Institute of Applied Physics-Russian Academy of Science, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) delivering 7.5 J in a 60 fs laser pulse, such coupling can be efficiently obtained, resulting in heating of a slab of solid-density Al of 0.8 µm thickness at a temperature of 300 eV, and with minimal density gradients. The characterization of the target heating is achieved combining X-ray spectrometry and measurement of the protons accelerated from the Al slab. The measured heating conditions are consistent with a three-temperatures model that simulates resistive and collisional heating of the bulk induced by the hot electrons. Such effective laser energy deposition is achieved owing to the intrinsic high contrast of the laser which results from the Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification technology it is based on, allowing to attain high target temperatures in a very compact manner, e.g. in comparison with large-scale FEL facilities.

  2. Quantum information aspects on bulk and nano interacting Fermi system: A spin-space density matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzali, R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimian, N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, 18155-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eghbalifar, B., E-mail: [Department of Agricultural Management, Marvdasht Branch, Azad University, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, the quantum correlation of the d-wave superconductor is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude. • Quantum discord of the d-wave superconductor oscillates. • Quantum discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor. • Quantum correlation strongly depends on the length of grain. Length of the superconductor lower, the quantum correlation length higher. • Quantum tripartite entanglement for a nano-scale d-wave superconductor is better than for a bulk d-wave superconductor. - Abstract: By approximating the energy gap, entering nano-size effect via gap fluctuation and calculating the Green's functions and the space-spin density matrix, the dependence of quantum correlation (entanglement, discord and tripartite entanglement) on the relative distance of two electron spins forming Cooper pairs, the energy gap and the length of bulk and nano interacting Fermi system (a nodal d-wave superconductor) is determined. In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, quantum correlation of the system is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude and strongly depends on the length of the grain. Also, quantum discord oscillates. Furthermore, the entanglement length and the correlation length are investigated. Discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor.

  3. Analysis of bulk heterojunction material parameters using lateral device structures (United States)

    Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Liang, Kelly; Morris, Joshua; Lombardo, Christopher; Dodabalapur, Ananth


    We review the key optoelectronic properties of lateral organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device structures with asymmetric contacts. These structures are used to develop a detailed model of charge transport and recombination properties within materials used for organic photovoltaics. They permit a variety of direct measurement techniques, such as nonlinear optical microscopy and in situ potentiometry, as well as photoconductive gain and carrier drift length studies from photocurrent measurements. We present a theoretical framework that describes the charge transport physics within these devices. The experimental results presented are in agreement with this framework and can be used to measure carrier concentrations, recombination coefficients, and carrier mobilities within BHJ materials. Lateral device structures offer a useful complement to measurements on vertical photovoltaic structures and provide a more complete and detailed picture of organic BHJ materials.

  4. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M


    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  5. Polarization Dependent Bulk-sensitive Valence Band Photoemission Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations: Part I. 3d Transition Metals (United States)

    Ueda, Shigenori; Hamada, Ikutaro


    The X-ray polarization dependent valence band HAXPES spectra of 3d transition metals (TMs) of Ti-Zn were measured to investigate the orbital resolved electronic structures by utilizing that the fact the photoionization cross-section of the atomic orbitals strongly depends on the experimental geometry. We have calculated the HAXPES spectra, which correspond to the cross-section weighted densities of states (CSW-DOSs), where the DOSs were obtained by the density functional theory calculations, and we have determined the relative photoionization cross-sections of the 4s and 4p orbitals to the 3d orbital in the 3d TMs. The experimentally obtained bulk-sensitive 3d and 4s DOSs were good agreement with the calculated DOSs in Ti, V, Cr, and Cu. In contrast, the deviations between the experimental and calculated 3d DOSs for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni were found, suggesting that the electron correlation plays an important role in the electronic structures for these materials.

  6. Density Functional Investigation of the Thermodynamic Stability of Lithium Oxide Bulk Crystalline Structures as a Function of Oxygen Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Kah Chun; Curtiss, Larry A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.


    Density functional theory is used together with classical statistical mechanical analyses to investigate the thermodynamic stability of bulk crystalline LiO2, Li2 O, and Li2O2 as a function of the oxygen environment. The results indicate that lithium peroxide (Li2O2(s)) and superoxide (LiO2(s)) are likely to be stable only under O2-rich conditions with high oxygen partial pressures (PΟ2), whereas Li2O is the most stable at ambient conditions. Additionally, the trends in the density functional calculated equilibrium potential for an ideal reversible Li-O2 couple can be described by an analytical equation as a function of pressure and temperature. As part of this work, we have also calculated the structure and thermodynamics for lithium superoxide. It is found to be stable with respect to lattice vibrations, with an O-O stretching vibration mode very similar to that of the isolated LiO2 molecule and to the O2 - ion radical.

  7. Density functional investigation of the thermodynamic stability of lithium oxide bulk crystalline structures as a function of oxygen pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Greeley, J. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD)


    Density functional theory is used together with classical statistical mechanical analyses to investigate the thermodynamic stability of bulk crystalline LiO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}O, and Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} as a function of the oxygen environment. The results indicate that lithium peroxide (Li{sub 2}O{sub 2(s)}) and superoxide (LiO{sub 2(s)}) are likely to be stable only under O{sub 2}-rich conditions with high oxygen partial pressures (P?{sub 2}), whereas Li{sub 2}O is the most stable at ambient conditions. Additionally, the trends in the density functional calculated equilibrium potential for an ideal reversible Li-O{sub 2} couple can be described by an analytical equation as a function of pressure and temperature. As part of this work, we have also calculated the structure and thermodynamics for lithium superoxide. It is found to be stable with respect to lattice vibrations, with an O-O stretching vibration mode very similar to that of the isolated LiO{sub 2} molecule and to the O{sub 2}{sup -} ion radical.

  8. Calibration of a gamma-ray depth probe with standard blocks. Examples of application to soil bulk density measurements and relations with rooting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossignol, J.P.; Morlat, R.


    A ..gamma..-ray depth probe was tested by standard blocks of different volume weight and composition. A regression straight line was calculated; the straight line validity, as well as the precision of the bulk-density determination from the line were tested. This calibration was used in two different applications. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray measurement tubes were set up on a same type of soil in an experimental pear orchard. Bulk-density measurements were carried out at two different periods (may-june and september). The obtained results were compared to each other in space as well as in time. Within the framework of the studies on apple-tree rooting, a relation between bulk-density and root number was calculated.

  9. Soil Organic Matter Storage and Dynamics Along Altitudinal Gradient in Bornean Tropical Forests: Preliminary Radiocarbon Results of Bulk Soils and Density Fractions (United States)

    Wagai, R.; Uchida, M.; Suzuki, M.; Kitayama, K.; Mayer, L. M.


    Density fractionation in combination with sonication is an effective approach isolating the soil organic matter (SOM) pools that differ in turnover rate and underlying stabilization mechanisms. For instance, low-density fraction (LF) is expected to have higher turnover rate and sensitivity to climate change than high-density fraction (HF). We examined SOM dynamics in undisturbed forest soils (top 10cm mineral soils) on metasedimentary parent material along an altitudinal gradient from 700m to 2700m in Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo. Soil was fractionated into the following pools: mineral-free LF (f-LF), mineral-associated LF (m-LF) which is liberated after sonication, and HF. We have previously shown a gradual increase in the mean residence time of surface soil C from 3-5 years at 700 m (MAT of 24°C) to 20-30 years at 2700 m (13°C), estimated from primary productivity and bulk soil C standing stock with steady-state assumption. The purpose of current study is to gain further insights on the turnover time of these soils and density fractions based on radiocarbon analysis. Initial analysis showed little difference in 14C content of bulk soils across altitudes (108-116 percent modern). The result suggests two possibilities. First, the same 14C content has two solutions for mean residence time, and thus upper-altitude SOM may turn over slower than lower-altitude SOM as expected from previous studies. Second, the 2700-m soil may have as fast turnover time as 700-m soil due to destabilization mechanisms that counteracts lower temperatures. For instance, significantly higher activity of earthworms at upper altitude on Mt. Kinabalu might enhance SOM turnover. The lowest 14C contents, and hence slowest turnover, were found in low-altitude, clay-rich, HF fractions, having surface area-normalized organic matter loadings of <1 mg C m-2. This result suggests that higher SOM loadings at higher altitudes are rich in relatively young organic matter, which is likely not as protected by

  10. Technical Note: Is bulk electron density assignment appropriate for MRI-only based treatment planning for lung cancer? (United States)

    Prior, Phil; Chen, Xinfeng; Gore, Elizabeth; Johnstone, Candice; Li, X Allen


    MRI-based treatment planning in radiation therapy (RT) is prohibitive, in part, due to the lack of electron density (ED) information within the image. The dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based planning for intensity modulated RT (IMRT) of lung cancer were investigated to assess the appropriateness of bulk ED assignment. Planning CTs acquired for six representative lung cancer patients were used to generate bulk ED IMRT plans. To avoid the effect of anatomic differences between CT and MRI, "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated by forcing the relative ED (rED) to water on CT-delineated structures using organ specific values from the ICRU Report 46 and using the mean rED value of the internal target volume (ITV) from the planning CT. The "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated using a research planning system (Monaco v5.09.07a, Elekta, AB) and employing Monte Carlo dose calculation. The following dose-volume-parameters (DVPs) were collected from both the "simulated MRI-based plans" and the original planning CT: D95 , the dose delivered to 95% of the ITV & planning target volume (PTV), D5 and V5 , the volume of normal lung irradiated ≥5 Gy. The percent point difference and relative dose difference were used for comparison with the CT based plan for V5 and D95 respectively. A total of five plans per patient were generated; three with the ITV rED (rEDITV ) = 1.06, 1.0 and the mean value from the planning CT while the lung rED (rEDlung ) was fixed at the ICRU value of 0.26 and two with rEDlung = 0.1 and 0.5 while the rEDITV was fixed to the mean value from the planning CT. Noticeable differences in the ITV and PTV DVPs were observed. Variations of the normal lung V5 can be as large as 9.6%. In some instances, varying the rEDITV between rEDmean and 1.06 resulted in D95 increases ranging from 3.9% to 6.3%. Bulk rED assignment on normal lung affected the DVPs of the ITV and PTV by 4.0-9.8% and 0.3-19.6% respectively. Dose volume histograms were presented

  11. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, in practice the high ...

  12. Bulk Fermi surface and momentum density in heavily doped La2?xSrxCuO4 using high-resolution Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Sawai, W.; Barbiellini, B.; Sakurai, Y.; Itou, M.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Markiewicz, R.S.; Kaprzyk, S.; Wakimoto, S.; Fujita, M.; Basak, S.; Lin, H.; Wang, Y.J.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Schut, H.; Yamada, K.; Bansil, A.


    We have observed the bulk Fermi surface (FS) in an overdoped (x=0.3) single crystal of La2?xSrxCuO4 by using Compton scattering. A two-dimensional (2D) momentum density reconstruction from measured Compton profiles yields a clear FS signature in the third Brillouin zone along [100]. The quantitative

  13. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers. (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha


    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  14. Real time monitoring of powder blend bulk density for coupled feed-forward/feed-back control of a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit


    The pharmaceutical industry is strictly regulated, where precise and accurate control of the end product quality is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the drug products. For such control, the process and raw materials variability ideally need to be fed-forward in real time into an automatic control system so that a proactive action can be taken before it can affect the end product quality. Variations in raw material properties (e.g., particle size), feeder hopper level, amount of lubrication, milling and blending action, applied shear in different processing stages can affect the blend density significantly and thereby tablet weight, hardness and dissolution. Therefore, real time monitoring of powder bulk density variability and its incorporation into the automatic control system so that its effect can be mitigated proactively and efficiently is highly desired. However, real time monitoring of powder bulk density is still a challenging task because of different level of complexities. In this work, powder bulk density which has a significant effect on the critical quality attributes (CQA's) has been monitored in real time in a pilot-plant facility, using a NIR sensor. The sensitivity of the powder bulk density on critical process parameters (CPP's) and CQA's has been analyzed and thereby feed-forward controller has been designed. The measured signal can be used for feed-forward control so that the corrective actions on the density variations can be taken before they can influence the product quality. The coupled feed-forward/feed-back control system demonstrates improved control performance and improvements in the final product quality in the presence of process and raw material variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University Debrecen (IEP), 4010 Debrecen-10, Pf. 105 (Hungary)


    Microscopic, σ{sub β}, and macroscopic, Σ{sub β}, reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ{sub β} values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ{sub βmol}(z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials.

  16. CT density analysis of the medial cuneiform. (United States)

    Panchbhavi, Vinod K; Boutris, Nickolas; Patel, Karan; Molina, Domingo; Andersen, Clark R


    A cannulated lag screw inserted through the medial cuneiform into the base of the second metatarsal is often utilized to reduce the diastasis and aid healing of Lisfranc injuries. Also procedures such as a midfoot or a Lapidus arthrodesis require adequate implant-bone purchase in the medial cuneiform. The medial cuneiform contains cancellous bone of varying density. Knowledge of density variation may be helpful for implant usage and manufacturing of area specific implants. In 60 randomly selected patients, mean computed tomography (CT) intensity in Hounsfield units was measured at 12 sampled locations within the medial cuneiform and served as a proxy for bone density. The patients' age, gender, and race were recorded. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effect of age, gender, race, and sample site on bone density. Statistical testing assumed 95% level of confidence. ANOVA showed age, gender, and sample site had significant effects (P race had no significant effect (P = .28). The distal-dorsal-lateral (DDL) site was significantly denser than all other sites (P < .001) except the middle-dorsal-lateral (MDL) (P = .53). The proximal-plantar-lateral (PPL) site was significantly less dense than all other sites (P < .001) except the middle-plantar-lateral/medial and the proximal-plantar-medial sites (P < .14). A general trend of density increasing in the distal and dorsal directions was evident, and within the dorsal sites there was a trend of increasing density in the lateral direction. This is the first study to date to measure density of the medial cuneiform using living subjects. The sample size of 60 patients was also the largest of any study measuring density of this bone. We conclude that the densest area of the medial cuneiform is the most anterior, dorsal, and lateral portion. The findings of this study may indicate the most optimal area for implant purchase in the medial cuneiform when reducing the diastasis between the base of the second metatarsal and

  17. Climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Schiano

    Full Text Available Some important climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea stand out from an analysis of the systematic discrepancies between direct measurements of longwave radiation budget and predictions obtained by the most widely used bulk formulae. In particular, under clear-sky conditions the results show that the surface values of both air temperature and humidity over the Mediterranean Sea are larger than those expected over an open ocean with the same amount of net longwave radiation. Furthermore, the twofold climatic regime of the Mediterranean region strongly affects the downwelling clear-sky radiation. This study suggests that a single bulk formula with constant numerical coefficients is unable to reproduce the fluxes at the surface for all the seasons.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (radiative processes – Oceanography: general (marginal and semienclosed seas; marine meteorology

  18. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Inoue


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance.

  19. Developmental morphology of cover crop species exhibit contrasting behaviour to changes in soil bulk density, revealed by X-ray computed tomography. (United States)

    Burr-Hersey, Jasmine E; Mooney, Sacha J; Bengough, A Glyn; Mairhofer, Stefan; Ritz, Karl


    Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz. tillage radish (Raphanus sativus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and black oat (Avena strigosa). The species were grown in soil columns containing a two-layer compaction treatment featuring a 1.2 g cm-3 (uncompacted) zone overlaying a 1.4 g cm-3 (compacted) zone. Three-dimensional visualisations of the root architecture were generated via X-ray computed tomography, and an automated root-segmentation imaging algorithm. Three classes of behaviour were manifest as a result of roots encountering the compacted interface, directly related to the species. For radish, there was switch from a single tap-root to multiple perpendicular roots which penetrated the compacted zone, whilst for vetch primary roots were diverted more horizontally with limited lateral growth at less acute angles. Black oat roots penetrated the compacted zone with no apparent deviation. Smaller root volume, surface area and lateral growth were consistently observed in the compacted zone in comparison to the uncompacted zone across all species. The rapid transition in soil bulk density had a large effect on root morphology that differed greatly between species, with major implications for how these cover crops will modify and interact with soil structure.

  20. Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Field in a New Bulk Tobacco Curing Barn Based on CFD. (United States)

    Bai, Zhipeng; Guo, Duoduo; Li, Shoucang; Hu, Yaohua


    A new structure bulk tobacco curing barn was presented. To study the temperature and humidity field in the new structure tobacco curing barn, a 3D transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using porous medium, species transport, κ-ε turbulence and discrete phase models. The CFD results demonstrated that (1) the temperature and relative humidity predictions were validated by the experimental results, and comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed a fairly close agreement; (2) the temperature of the bottom and inlet area was higher than the top and outlet area, and water vapor concentrated on the top and outlet area in the barn; (3) tobacco loading density and thickness of tobacco leaves had an explicit effect on the temperature distributions in the barn.

  1. Midterm outcomes of injectable bulking agents for fecal incontinence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hong, K D; Kim, J S; Ji, W B; Um, J W


    Various bulking agents have been used to treat fecal incontinence. While short-term outcomes are attractive, there is still a lack of long-term data. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the midterm outcomes of treatment with injectable bulking agents and to identify predictive factors for improvement in incontinence. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the terms injection, bulking agents, and fecal incontinence. Studies with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included. The improvement rate in incontinence was calculated by percent change in validated fecal incontinence score (FIS) following injection treatment. To explore the impact of predictive factors on improvement in incontinence, univariate meta-regressions were conducted using the random-effect model. A total of 889 patients in 23 articles were included. The weighted mean follow-up duration was 23.7 months (95% CI 19.3-28.2). Eleven different bulking agents were used. Four validated FISs were used. The Cleveland Clinic Fecal Incontinence score (CC-FIS) was used in 19 studies. Most studies reported a statistically significant improvement in FIS. The pooled mean preoperative CC-FIS (n = 637) was 12.4 (95% CI 11.4-13.3). The pooled mean CC-FIS at last follow-up (n = 590) was 7.7 (95% CI 6.1-9.3). The weighted mean difference in CC-FIS between preoperative visit and last follow-up was 4.9 (95% CI 4.0-5.8). Hence, the rate of improvement in incontinence was 39.5% based on CC-FIS. Meta-regression revealed that the perianal injection route and implants intact on endoanal ultrasonography were predictive of greater improvement in incontinence. The manometric data revealed that the initial increase in the mean resting pressure following injection was attenuated over time. The pooled rate of adverse events was 18.0% (95% CI 10.0-30.1). In most cases, adverse events were minor and resolved within a couple of weeks. Administration of

  2. Determination of Lubricant Bulk Modulus in Metal Forming by Means of a Simple Laboratory Test and Inverse FEM Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafis, S. M.; Christiansen, P.; Martins, P. A. F.


    facilitates the lubricant entrainment, pressurization and possible escape by micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. In order to model these mechanisms an important lubricant propertyd esignated as the bulk modulus is needed for characterizing the compressibility of the lubricant. The present paper describes...... a simple, practical test to determine the bulk modulus. Combination of the experimental upsetting of an axisymmetric metal workpiece containing a truncated conical surface pocket with an inverse finite element analysis of the test allows determining the lubricant bulk modulus. The finite element analysis...

  3. Telemedicine - a scientometric and density equalizing analysis. (United States)

    Groneberg, David A; Rahimian, Shaghayegh; Bundschuh, Matthias; Schwarzer, Mario; Gerber, Alexander; Kloft, Beatrix


    As a result of the various telemedicine projects in the past years a large number of studies were recently published in this field. However, a precise bibliometric analysis of telemedicine publications does not exist so far. The present study was conducted to establish a data base of the existing approaches. Density-equalizing algorithms were used and data was retrieved from the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. During the period from 1900 to 2006 a number of 3290 filed items were connected to telemedicine, with the first being published in 1964. The studies originate from 101 countries, with the USA, Great Britain and Canada being the most productive suppliers participating in 56.08 % of all published items. Analyzing the average citation per item for countries with more than 10 publications, Ireland ranked first (10.19/item), New Zealand ranked second (9.5/item) followed by Finland (9.04/item). The citation rate can be assumed as an indicator for research quality. The ten most productive journals include three journals with the main focus telemedicine and another five with the main focus "Information/Informatics". In all subject categories examined for published items related to telemedicine, "Health Care Sciences & Services" ranked first by far. More than 36 % of all publications are assigned to this category, followed by "Medical Informatics" with 9.72 % and "Medicine, General & Internal" with 8.84 % of all publications. In summary it can be concluded that the data shows clearly a strong increase in research productivity. Using science citation analysis it can be assumed that there is a large rise in the interest in telemedicine studies.

  4. Enhanced critical current density of in situ processed MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors with MgB{sub 4} additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Jun, B. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, C. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, W. N. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The effects of MgB{sub 4} addition on the superconducting properties and the microstructure of in situ processed MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors were studied. MgB{sub 4} powder of 1-20 wt.% was mixed with (Mg + 2B) powder and then pressed into pellets. The pellets of (Mg + 2B + xMgB{sub 4}) were heat-treated at 650 ℃ for 1 h in flowing argon. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the heat-treated samples showed that the major formed phase in all samples was MgB{sub 2} and the minor phases were MgB{sub 4} and MgO. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values showed that the grain size of MgB{sub 2} decreased as the amount of MgB{sub 4} addition increased. MgB{sub 4} particles included in a MgB{sub 2} matrix is considered to suppress the grain growth of MgB{sub 2}. The onset temperatures (T{sub c},onset) of MgB{sub 2} with MgB{sub 4} addition (0-10 wt.%) was between 37-38 K. The 20 wt.% MgB{sub 4} addition slightly reduced the T{sub c},onset of MgB{sub 2} to 36.5 K. This result indicates that MgB{sub 4} addition did not influence the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of MgB{sub 2} significantly. On the other hand, the small additions of 1-5 wt.% MgB{sub 4} increased the critical current density (J{sub c}) of MgB{sub 2}. The Jc enhancement by MgB{sub 4} addition is attributed not only to the grain size refinement but also to the possible flux pinning of MgB{sub 4} particles dispersed in a MgB{sub 2} matrix.

  5. Materials Analysis of CED Nb Films Being Coated on Bulk Nb Single Cell SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles; Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Krishnan, Mahadevan; James, Colt; Irfan, Irfan


    This study is an on-going research on depositing a Nb film on the internal wall of bulk Nb single cell SRF cavities, via a cathodic arc Nb plasma ions source, an coaxial energetic condensation (CED) facility at AASC company. The motivation is to firstly create a homoepitaxy-like Nb/Nb film in a scale of a ~1.5GHz RF single cell cavity. Next, through SRF measurement and materials analysis, it might reveal the baseline properties of the CED-type homoepitaxy Nb films. Literally, a top-surface layer of Nb films which sustains SRF function, always grows up in homo-epitaxy mode, on top of a Nb nucleation layer. Homo-epitaxy growth of Nb must be the final stage (a crystal thickening process) of any coatings of Nb film on alternative cavity structure materials. Such knowledge of Nb-Nb homo-epitaxy is useful to create future realistic SRF cavity film coatings, such as hetero-epitaxy Nb/Cu Films, or template-layer-mitigated Nb films. One large-grain, and three fine grain bulk Nb cavities were coated. They went through cryogenic RF measurement. Preliminary results show that the Q0 of a Nb film could be as same as the pre-coated bulk Nb surface (which received a chemically-buffered polishing plus a light electro-polishing); but quality factor of two tested cavities dropped quickly. We are investigating if the severe Q-slope is caused by hydrogen incorporation before deposition, or is determined by some structural defects during Nb film growth.

  6. Effect of compost supplies on soil bulk density and aggregate stability. Results from a six years trial in two experimental fields in Northern Italy (United States)

    Calzolari, C.; Ungaro, F.; Salvador, P.; Torri, D.


    Results of a long term trial (2002-2007) on the effect of different organic amendments on topsoil structural properties at the end of the 6th year are presented. Two soils located in two experimental farms of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), namely a silty clay loam Haplic Calcisol under sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) continuous cropping, and a silty Calcaric Cambisols under peach (Persica vulgaris, Mill.), have been treated with a different amount of organic amendments. Four different treatments were tested plus control: manure (10 Mg ha-1 y-1), low input compost (5 and 10 Mg ha-1 y-1), high input compost (10 and 40 Mg ha-1 y-1), and no-tillage. In all the plots soil samples were collected three times every year: at the beginning of the growing season, at full crop coverage and after harvest. At each time, samples were collected in three replicates and soil bulk density and aggregate stability were measured. At the end of the 6 years trial 930 bulk density and 405 aggregate stability measurements were made available. The influence of organic amendments on soil physical properties is different according to the considered soil property and to the different soils. Soil bulk density (BD) shows clear and statistically significant differences among the tested theses, all with a marked seasonality and distinct temporal trends. The overall trends observed in the two soils are coherent with the amount of organic matter distributed in the different theses and with the field operations (tillage mainly), but with a short term effect. More important, over the period of observation and within each year, the treatments exhibit cyclical variations due to climate seasonality. Among the treatments, that with distribution of manure exhibits the weakest seasonal variations and a substantially stable general trend, with BD values slightly lower than those observed for the control. Different effects are also observed on soil aggregates stability, but also in this case a

  7. HPTLC densitometric analysis of arbutin in bulk drug and methanolic extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. (United States)

    Alam, P; Alqasoumi, S I; Shakeel, F; Abdel-Kader, M S


    A high-performance thin layer chromatographic densitometric method for the analysis of arbutin was developed and validated in the present investigation. Arbutin was separated on aluminium-backed silica gel 60 F(254) plates with methanol : chloroform (3:7)% (v/v) as the mobile phase. This system was found to give a compact spot of arbutin at a retention factor (R(f)) value of 0.32 ± 0.02. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 35.42 and 106.26 ng/spot, respectively. The proposed method with a high degree of precision and accuracy was employed for the analysis of arbutin in the bulk drug and methanolic extract of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

  8. Foundations of residual-density analysis. (United States)

    Meindl, Kathrin; Henn, Julian


    New and concise descriptors of the residual density are presented, namely the gross residual electrons, the net residual electrons and the fractal dimension distribution. These descriptors indicate how much residual density is present and in what way it is distributed, i.e. the extent to which the distribution is featureless. The amount of residual density present accounts for noise in the experimental data as well as for modeling inadequacies. Therefore, the minimization of the gross residual electrons during refinement serves as a quality criterion. In the case where only Gaussian noise is present in the residual density, the fractal distribution is parabolic in shape. Deviations from this shape therefore serve as an indicator for systematic errors. The new measures have been applied to simulated and experimental data in order to study the effects of noise, model inadequacies and truncation in the experimental resolution. These measures, although designed and examined with particular regard to applications of space residual density, are very general and can in principle also be applied to space and momentum residual densities in a one-, two-, three- or higher-dimensional Euclidean space.

  9. Simultaneous Real-Time Analysis of Bulk and Bottom Cure of Ultraviolet-Curable Inks Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Boonen, Hennie A L; Koskamp, Janou A; Theiss, Wolfgang; Iedema, Piet D; Willemse, Robin X E


    The curing characteristics of an ultraviolet (UV) ink layer are of utmost importance for the development of UV inks. Measuring either bulk or bottom cure in itself is not new and has been the subject of many articles. In this article, two methods are described based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to measure in real time and simultaneously the bulk and bottom cure of a thin UV ink layer. The procedure consists of applying a thin (10-12 µm) layer of UV-curing ink on an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. The bottom cure is measured with ATR. The bulk cure is measured simultaneously with a reflection analysis (method 1) or a transmission analysis (method 2). With both methods, the bulk and bottom cure can be determined. To overcome problems with the interference in the ATR reflection setup, it is recommended to use the ATR transmission setup.

  10. Improved critical current densities in bulk FeSe superconductor using ball milled powders and high temperature sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M.; Furutani, K.; Murakami, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumar, Dinesh; Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Koblischka, M.R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany)


    The present study is investigating the effect of high temperature sintering combined with ball milled powders for the preparation of FeSe material via solid state sintering technique. The commercial powders of Fe (99.9% purity) and Se (99.9% purity) were mixed in a nominal ratio Fe:Se = 1:1 and thoroughly ground and ball-milled in a glove box during 6 h. Then, the powder mixture was pressed into pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thickness using an uniaxial pressure of 100 MPa. The samples were sealed in quartz tubes and sintered at 600 C for 24 h. Then, the pellets were again thoroughly ground and ball-milled in the glove box and pressed into pellets, and the final sintering was performed at two different temperatures, namely at 900 C for 24 h and at 950 C for 24 h. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that both samples showed mainly of the β-FeSe with tetragonal structure. The temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) curves revealed a sharp superconducting transition T{sub c,} {sub onset} = 8.16 K for the sample sintered at 900 C. Further, scanning electron microscopy observations proved that samples sintered at 900 C show a platelike grain structure with high density. As a result, improved irreversibility fields around 5 T and the critical current density (J{sub c}) values of 6252 A cm{sup -2} at 5 K and self-field are obtained. Furthermore, the normalized volume pinning force versus the reduced field plots indicated a peak position at 0.4 for the sample sintered at 900 C. Improved flux pinning and the high J{sub c} values are attributed to the textured microstructure of the material, produced by a combination of high temperature sintering and ball milling. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi A published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Hybrid density functional study of bulk titanates, ATiO3 (A=Sr, Ba, Ca, La, Sn, Pb) (United States)

    Wadehra, Amita; Wilkins, John W.


    Perovskites have been a focus of considerable research attention due to exhibiting a variety of interesting and unique physical properties such as magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity and multiferroicity. Accurate computations are needed to gain insights into the underlying physics of these complex materials. We present a systematic computational study of a series of titanates (ATiO3; A=Sr, Ba, Ca, La, Sn, Pb) using the hybrid functional HSE in density functional theory. HSE surpasses standard DFT and computes properties such as lattice constants, band gaps, structural and magnetic phases in excellent agreement with available experimental data. We also discuss the importance of spin-orbit interaction in determining the electronic structure and magnetic properties of these complex oxides. This work was supported by DOE-BES-DMS (DE-FG02-99ER45795). We used computational resources of the NERSC, supported by the U.S. DOE (DE-AC02-05CH11231), and the Ohio Supercomputing Center.

  12. (51)V NMR parameters of VOCl(3): static and dynamic density functional study from the gas phase to the bulk. (United States)

    Bjornsson, Ragnar; Früchtl, Herbert; Bühl, Michael


    (51)V NMR parameters have been calculated for VOCl(3), the reference compound in (51)V NMR spectroscopy, in order to capture environmental effects in both the neat liquid and the solid state. Using a combination of periodic geometry optimizations and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations with embedded cluster NMR calculations, we are able to test the ability of current computational approaches to reproduce (51)V NMR properties (isotropic shifts, anisotropic shifts and quadrupole coupling constants) in the gas, liquid and solid states, for direct comparison with liquid and solid-state experimental data. The results suggest that environmental effects in the condensed phases can be well captured by an embedded cluster approach and that the remaining discrepancy with experiment may be due to the approximate density functionals in current use. The predicted gas-to-liquid shift on the isotropic shielding constant is small, validating the common practice to use a single VOCl(3), molecule as reference in (51)V NMR computations.

  13. Exercise and Bone Density: Meta-Analysis (United States)


    Bonnick SL, Ben-Ezra V, Gench B, DiMarco NM. The effects of gymnastics training on bone mineral density. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise...effects of gymnastics training on bone mineral density. Med Sci Sports Ex- erc 1994;10:1220. 32. National Center for Health Statistics. 2010—The Healthy...Universityof Iowa,Ion City;1A The anteroveotral third ventriculat >egioD(AV3V)of the brain is important IDthe reg- u1a&o of body lluid balance. Lesioo

  14. Automated Clean Chemistry for Bulk Analysis of Environmental Swipe Samples - FY17 Year End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McBay, Eddy H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment to shorten lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures. This development addresses a serious need in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (IAEA NWAL) to increase efficiency in the Bulk Analysis of Environmental Samples for Safeguards program with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on COTS equipment. It was modified for uranium/plutonium separations using renewable columns packed with Eichrom TEVA and UTEVA resins, with a chemical separation method based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) NWAL chemical procedure. The newly designed prepFAST-SR has had several upgrades compared with the original prepFAST-MC2. Both systems are currently installed in the Ultra-Trace Forensics Science Center at ORNL.

  15. Cluster analysis on the bulk elemental compositions of Antarctic stony meteorites (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Niihara, Takafumi; Kuritani, Takeshi; Hong, Peng K.; Dohm, James M.; Sugita, Seiji


    Remote sensing observations by recent successful missions to small bodies have revealed the difficulty in classifying the materials which cover their surfaces into a conventional classification of meteorites. Although reflectance spectroscopy is a powerful tool for this purpose, it is influenced by many factors, such as space weathering, lighting conditions, and surface physical conditions (e.g., particle size and style of mixing). Thus, complementary information, such as elemental compositions, which can be obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-ray spectrometers (GRS), have been considered very important. However, classifying planetary materials solely based on elemental compositions has not been investigated extensively. In this study, we perform principal component and cluster analyses on 12 major and minor elements of the bulk compositions of 500 meteorites reported in the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Japan database. Our unique approach, which includes using hierarchical cluster analysis, indicates that meteorites can be classified into about 10 groups purely by their bulk elemental compositions. We suggest that Si, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na are the optimal set of elements, as this set has been used successfully to classify meteorites of the NIPR database with more than 94% accuracy. Principal components analysis indicates that elemental compositions of meteorites form eight clusters in the three-dimensional space of the components. The three major principal components (PC1, PC2, and PC3) are interpreted as (1) degree of differentiations of the source body (i.e., primitive versus differentiated), (2) degree of thermal effects, and (3) degree of chemical fractionation, respectively.

  16. Density functional and neural network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, K. J.; Suhai, S.; Bohr, Henrik


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for hydrated L-alanine, L-alanyl-L-alanine and N-acetyl L-alanine N'-methylamide and examined with respect to the effect of water on the structure, the vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular...

  17. Elemental Analysis and Comparison of Bulk Soil Using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS methods (United States)

    Almirall, J.


    Elemental analysis methods utilizing Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were developed and used in the characterization of soil samples from the US and Canada as part of a comprehensive forensic evaluation of soils. A LA-ICP-MS method was recently optimized for analysis and comparison between different soil samples in an environmental forensic application [1,2] and LIBS has recently attracted the interest of analytical chemists and forensic laboratories as a simpler, lower cost alternative to the more established analytical methods. In developing a LIBS method, there are many parameters to consider, including laser wavelength, spectral resolution, sensitivity, and matrix effects. The first LIBS method using a 266 nm laser for forensic soil analysis has also been recently reported by our group [3]. The results of an inter-laboratory comparison involving thirteen (13) laboratories conducting bulk elemental analysis by various methods are also reported. The aims of the inter-laboratory tests were: a) to evaluate the inter-laboratory performance of three methods (LA-ICP-MS, µXRF and LIBS) in terms of accuracy (bias), precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) and sensitivity using standard reference materials (SRMs); b) to evaluate the newly released NIST SRM 2710a, which supersedes 2710; and c) to evaluate the utility of LIBS as an alternative technique to LA-ICP-MS and µXRF for bulk analysis of soils. Each sample and standard was homogenized in a high-speed ball mill and pressed into pellets. Participants were instructed to measure the following elements: 7Li, 25Mg, 27Al, 42Ca, 45Sc, 47,49Ti, 51V, 55Mn, 88Sr, 137Ba, 206,207,208 Pb (LA-ICP-MS); Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Zr, Pb (µXRF); Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zr (LIBS). For both LIBS and µXRF, the choice of appropriate spectral lines was determined by the user, optimizing for linearity, sensitivity and precision

  18. Built-in potential and validity of the Mott-Schottky analysis in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells (United States)

    Mingebach, M.; Deibel, C.; Dyakonov, V.


    We investigated poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells by means of pulsed photocurrent, temperature dependent current-voltage, and capacitance-voltage measurements. We show that a direct transfer of Mott-Schottky (MS) analysis from inorganic devices to organic BHJ solar cells is not generally appropriate to determine the built-in potential, since the resulting potential depends on the active layer thickness. Pulsed photocurrent measurements enabled us to directly study the case of quasi-flat bands (QFB) in the bulk of the solar cell. It is well below the built-in potential and differs by diffusion-induced band-bending at the contacts. In contrast to MS analysis, the corresponding potential is independent on the active layer thickness and therefore a better measure for flat band conditions in the bulk of a BHJ solar cell as compared to MS analysis.

  19. Flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting bulk freight from road to railway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    Full Text Available Since railway transport possesses the advantage of high volume and low carbon emissions, diverting some freight from road to railway will help reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with transport. This paper develops a flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting truck freight to railway. First, a general network which considers road transportation, railway transportation, handling and transferring is established according to all the steps in the whole transportation process. Then general functions which embody the factors which the shippers will pay attention to when choosing mode and path are formulated. The general functions contain the congestion cost on road, the capacity constraints of railways and freight stations. Based on the general network and general cost function, a user equilibrium flow assignment model is developed to simulate the flow distribution on the general network under the condition that all shippers choose transportation mode and path independently. Since the model is nonlinear and challenging, we adopt a method that uses tangent lines to constitute envelope curve to linearize it. Finally, a numerical example is presented to test the model and show the method of making quantitative analysis of bulk freight modal shift between road and railway.

  20. Central depression in nucleonic densities: Trend analysis in the nuclear density functional theory approach (United States)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.; Reinhard, P.-G.


    Background: The central depression of nucleonic density, i.e., a reduction of density in the nuclear interior, has been attributed to many factors. For instance, bubble structures in superheavy nuclei are believed to be due to the electrostatic repulsion. In light nuclei, the mechanism behind the density reduction in the interior has been discussed in terms of shell effects associated with occupations of s orbits. Purpose: The main objective of this work is to reveal mechanisms behind the formation of central depression in nucleonic densities in light and heavy nuclei. To this end, we introduce several measures of the internal nucleonic density. Through the statistical analysis, we study the information content of these measures with respect to nuclear matter properties. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme functionals. Using the statistical tools of linear least square regression, we inspect correlations between various measures of central depression and model parameters, including nuclear matter properties. We study bivariate correlations with selected quantities as well as multiple correlations with groups of parameters. Detailed correlation analysis is carried out for 34Si for which a bubble structure has been reported recently, 48Ca, and N =82 , 126, and 184 isotonic chains. Results: We show that the central depression in medium-mass nuclei is very sensitive to shell effects, whereas for superheavy systems it is firmly driven by the electrostatic repulsion. An appreciable semibubble structure in proton density is predicted for 294Og, which is currently the heaviest nucleus known experimentally. Conclusion: Our correlation analysis reveals that the central density indicators in nuclei below 208Pb carry little information on parameters of nuclear matter; they are predominantly driven by shell structure. On the other hand, in the superheavy nuclei there exists a clear relationship between the central nucleonic density and symmetry energy.

  1. Assessment of Functional EST-SSR Markers (Sugarcane in Cross-Species Transferability, Genetic Diversity among Poaceae Plants, and Bulk Segregation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad Ul Haq


    Full Text Available Expressed sequence tags (ESTs are important resource for gene discovery, gene expression and its regulation, molecular marker development, and comparative genomics. We procured 10000 ESTs and analyzed 267 EST-SSRs markers through computational approach. The average density was one SSR/10.45 kb or 6.4% frequency, wherein trinucleotide repeats (66.74% were the most abundant followed by di- (26.10%, tetra- (4.67%, penta- (1.5%, and hexanucleotide (1.2% repeats. Functional annotations were done and after-effect newly developed 63 EST-SSRs were used for cross transferability, genetic diversity, and bulk segregation analysis (BSA. Out of 63 EST-SSRs, 42 markers were identified owing to their expansion genetics across 20 different plants which amplified 519 alleles at 180 loci with an average of 2.88 alleles/locus and the polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.51 to 0.93 with an average of 0.83. The cross transferability ranged from 25% for wheat to 97.22% for Schlerostachya, with an average of 55.86%, and genetic relationships were established based on diversification among them. Moreover, 10 EST-SSRs were recognized as important markers between bulks of pooled DNA of sugarcane cultivars through BSA. This study highlights the employability of the markers in transferability, genetic diversity in grass species, and distinguished sugarcane bulks.

  2. Density functional study of d0 half-metallic ferromagnetism in a bulk and (001) nano-surface of KP compound (United States)

    Kazemi, Marjan; Amiri, Peiman; Salehi, Hamdollah


    According to many applications of half-metals in the spintronics devices, we investigate half-metallic properties of KP compound in rock-salt (RS), zinc-blende (ZB), cesium chloride (CsCl) and wurtzite (WZ) structural phases by using density functional theory. Results indicate that KP compound is half-metal in RS, ZB and WZ structures, while in CsCl structure, due to small lattice constant and failure of Stoner criterion, KP compound doesn't have any magnetic properties. Half-metallic gap values obtained are 0.47, 0.95 and 0.91 eV for RS, ZB, WZ structures, respectively. Although KP compound in CsCl structure is more stable than RS structure energetically, but from dynamical point of view only RS structure is stable and other structures are unstable. Calculations corresponding to (001) surface of RS structure demonstrate the conservation of bulk half-metallic properties in this crystallographic direction. So nano-layers of KP compound in RS structure might be an appropriate candidate for application in near future spintronics devices.

  3. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.


    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  4. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.


    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  5. Bulk segregant analysis by high-throughput sequencing reveals a novel xylose utilization gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared W Wenger


    Full Text Available Fermentation of xylose is a fundamental requirement for the efficient production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass sources. Although they aggressively ferment hexoses, it has long been thought that native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot grow fermentatively or non-fermentatively on xylose. Population surveys have uncovered a few naturally occurring strains that are weakly xylose-positive, and some S. cerevisiae have been genetically engineered to ferment xylose, but no strain, either natural or engineered, has yet been reported to ferment xylose as efficiently as glucose. Here, we used a medium-throughput screen to identify Saccharomyces strains that can increase in optical density when xylose is presented as the sole carbon source. We identified 38 strains that have this xylose utilization phenotype, including strains of S. cerevisiae, other sensu stricto members, and hybrids between them. All the S. cerevisiae xylose-utilizing strains we identified are wine yeasts, and for those that could produce meiotic progeny, the xylose phenotype segregates as a single gene trait. We mapped this gene by Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA using tiling microarrays and high-throughput sequencing. The gene is a putative xylitol dehydrogenase, which we name XDH1, and is located in the subtelomeric region of the right end of chromosome XV in a region not present in the S288c reference genome. We further characterized the xylose phenotype by performing gene expression microarrays and by genetically dissecting the endogenous Saccharomyces xylose pathway. We have demonstrated that natural S. cerevisiae yeasts are capable of utilizing xylose as the sole carbon source, characterized the genetic basis for this trait as well as the endogenous xylose utilization pathway, and demonstrated the feasibility of BSA using high-throughput sequencing.

  6. adwTools Developed: New Bulk Alloy and Surface Analysis Software for the Alloy Design Workbench (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Morse, Jeffrey A.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip B.


    A suite of atomistic modeling software, called the Alloy Design Workbench, has been developed by the Computational Materials Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI). The main goal of this software is to guide and augment experimental materials research and development efforts by creating powerful, yet intuitive, software that combines a graphical user interface with an operating code suitable for real-time atomistic simulations of multicomponent alloy systems. Targeted for experimentalists, the interface is straightforward and requires minimum knowledge of the underlying theory, allowing researchers to focus on the scientific aspects of the work. The centerpiece of the Alloy Design Workbench suite is the adwTools module, which concentrates on the atomistic analysis of surfaces and bulk alloys containing an arbitrary number of elements. An additional module, adwParams, handles ab initio input for the parameterization used in adwTools. Future modules planned for the suite include adwSeg, which will provide numerical predictions for segregation profiles to alloy surfaces and interfaces, and adwReport, which will serve as a window into the database, providing public access to the parameterization data and a repository where users can submit their own findings from the rest of the suite. The entire suite is designed to run on desktop-scale computers. The adwTools module incorporates a custom OAI/Glenn-developed Fortran code based on the BFS (Bozzolo- Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys, ref. 1). The heart of the suite, this code is used to calculate the energetics of different compositions and configurations of atoms.

  7. Coexistence of bulk and surface states probed by Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations in Bi2Se3 with high charge-carrier density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Eric; Pezzini, S; Meijer, M.J.; Koirala, N.; Salehi, M.; Moon, J.; Oh, S.; Wiedmann, S.; Banerjee, Tamalika


    Topological insulators are ideally represented as having an insulating bulk with topologically protected, spin-textured surface states. However, it is increasingly becoming clear that these surface transport channels can be accompanied by a finite conducting bulk, as well as additional topologically

  8. Chloride diffusivity of the interfacial transition zone and bulk paste in concrete from microscale analysis (United States)

    Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.


    The chloride diffusive behavior of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and of the bulk hardened cement paste (HCP) in concrete is studied at the microscale level and accounts for the coupling between diffusion and binding under steady state conditions. Plain HCP is also studied as a reference. All the microstructures are obtained using the cement hydration model CEMHYD3D, and the relevant diffusive parameters are upscaled from the microscale to the mesoscale using volume averaging. The phenomena characterizing the diffusive behavior of ITZ and bulk paste are identified and quantitatively evaluated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Anisovich


    Full Text Available The cuprite density (Cu2O cuprous oxide as a part of an eutectic of oxygen copper was determined by X-ray diffraction and by metallographic way. It is shown that the size of density of 6,2 g/cm3, the most often met in the reference books, cannot be used for calculation of quantity of oxygen in the deformed copper. By the X-ray diffraction analysis it is found value of density equal 2,14 g/cm3. By the metallographic analysis, on the basis of determination of the area of cuprite in the eutectic phase, gives value of density of 3,3 g/cm3.

  10. Cosmic bulk flows on 50 h-1 Mpc scales: a Bayesian hyper-parameter method and multishell likelihood analysis (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Scott, Douglas


    It has been argued recently that the galaxy peculiar velocity field provides evidence of excessive power on scales of 50 h-1 Mpc, which seems to be inconsistent with the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. We discuss several assumptions and conventions used in studies of the large-scale bulk flow to check whether this claim is robust under a variety of conditions. Rather than using a composite catalogue we select samples from the SN, ENEAR, Spiral Field I-band Survey (SFI++) and First Amendment Supernovae (A1SN) catalogues, and correct for Malmquist bias in each according to the IRAS PSCz density field. We also use slightly different assumptions about the small-scale velocity dispersion and the parametrization of the matter power spectrum when calculating the variance of the bulk flow. By combining the likelihood of individual catalogues using a Bayesian hyper-parameter method, we find that the joint likelihood of the amplitude parameter gives σ8 = 0.65+ 0.47- 0.35 (68 per cent confidence region), which is entirely consistent with the ΛCDM model. In addition, the bulk flow magnitude, v ˜ 310 km s-1, and direction, (l, b) ˜ (280° ± 8°, 5.1° ± 6°), found by each of the catalogues are all consistent with each other, and with the bulk flow results from most previous studies. Furthermore, the bulk flow velocities in different shells of the surveys constrain (σ8, Ωm) to be (1.01+ 0.26- 0.20, 0.31+ 0.28- 0.14) for SFI++ and (1.04+ 0.32- 0.24, 0.28+ 0.30- 0.14) for ENEAR, which are consistent with the 7-year Wilkinson and Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) best-fitting values. We finally discuss the differences between our conclusions and those of the studies claiming the largest bulk flows.

  11. Comparative analysis of the structure of palladium-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by treatment of melts with flux (United States)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Bazlov, A. I.; Churyumov, A. Yu.; Georgarakis, K.; Yavari, A. R.


    A comparative analysis has been presented of structural features of palladium-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by argon gas casting into a copper mold after treatment of melts with a flux and studied using X-ray synchrotron radiation. The radial distribution functions have been calculated. The short-range order (in the first and second coordination shells) and the medium-range order (from the third to several subsequent coordination shells) in atomic arrangement have been analyzed.

  12. Theoretical Analysis of Tuned HVAC Line for Low Loss Long Distance Bulk Power Transmission


    Ukil, Abhisek


    One of the main objectives of the smart grid initiative is to enable bulk power transmission over long distance, with reduced transmission losses. Besides the traditional high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission, with the advancement in power electronics, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission is increasingly becoming important. One of the main factors impacting the transmission line parameters and the losses is the length of the transmission line (overhead). In this pape...

  13. Application of texture analysis method for mammogram density classification (United States)

    Nithya, R.; Santhi, B.


    Mammographic density is considered a major risk factor for developing breast cancer. This paper proposes an automated approach to classify breast tissue types in digital mammogram. The main objective of the proposed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system is to investigate various feature extraction methods and classifiers to improve the diagnostic accuracy in mammogram density classification. Texture analysis methods are used to extract the features from the mammogram. Texture features are extracted by using histogram, Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM), Gray Level Difference Matrix (GLDM), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Entropy, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT), Gabor transform and trace transform. These extracted features are selected using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The features selected by ANOVA are fed into the classifiers to characterize the mammogram into two-class (fatty/dense) and three-class (fatty/glandular/dense) breast density classification. This work has been carried out by using the mini-Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database. Five classifiers are employed namely, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Naive Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experimental results show that ANN provides better performance than LDA, NB, KNN and SVM classifiers. The proposed methodology has achieved 97.5% accuracy for three-class and 99.37% for two-class density classification.

  14. Analysis of optimum density of forest roads in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo


    Full Text Available This study analyzed the density of roads in rural properties in the south of the Espírito Santo and compared it with the calculation of the optimal density in forestry companies in steep areas. The work was carried out in six small rural properties based on the costs of roads of forest use, wood extraction and the costs of loss of productive area. The technical analysis included time and movement study and productivity. The economic analysis included operational costs, production costs and returns for different scenarios of productivity (180m.ha-1, 220m.ha-1and 250 m.ha-1. According to the results, all the properties have densities of road well above the optimum, which reflects the lack of criteria in the planning of the forest stands, resulting in a inadequate use of plantation area. Property 1 had the highest density of roads (373.92 m.ha-1 and the property 5 presented the lowest density (111.56 m.ha-1.

  15. Pb0.94La0.04[(Zr0.70Sn0.30)0.90Ti0.10]O3 antiferroelectric bulk ceramics for pulsed capacitors with high energy and power density (United States)

    Xu, Ran; Li, Borui; Tian, Jingjing; Xu, Zhuo; Feng, Yujun; Wei, Xiaoyong; Huang, Dong; Yang, Lanjun


    Pb0.94La0.04[(Zr0.70Sn0.30)0.90Ti0.10]O3 antiferroelectric (AFE) bulk ceramics with both excellent energy storage and release properties were fabricated via the solid-state reaction method. The ceramics exhibited a high releasable energy density of 1.39 J/cm3, high efficiency of 92%, and good temperature stability under 104 kV/cm. Fast discharge current was measured, and a large current density up to 820 A/cm2 was achieved. The nonlinear dielectric behavior resulted in the variation of the discharge period of AFE ceramics. The stored charge was released completely due to the low remanent polarization, and the actually released energy density was about 1.0 J/cm3 in 400 ns. A high peak power density of 6.4 × 109 W/kg without a load resistor and an average power density of 3.16 × 108 W/kg with a 204.7 Ω load resistor were achieved in the rapid discharge process. The excellent energy storage and release properties indicate that the obtained antiferroelectric bulk ceramics are very promising for submicrosecond pulsed capacitors.

  16. Vision Servoing Based on the Density Analysis of Texture Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Liu


    Full Text Available We present a novel vision servoing method, which is fit for climbing robots and those in unstructured environments, based on texture analysis. A large textured area is the target for observation. After the definition of texture element distribution density, the relationship between the change of the density at some selected points and the camera pose is deduced. The vision servoing control law, which meets the requirement of Lyapunov stability is designed in this paper. Experiments show the effectiveness of this method.

  17. Urinary density measurement and analysis methods in neonatal unit care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso


    Full Text Available The objective was to assess urine collection methods through cotton in contact with genitalia and urinary collector to measure urinary density in newborns. This is a quantitative intervention study carried out in a neonatal unit of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in 2010. The sample consisted of 61 newborns randomly chosen to compose the study group. Most neonates were full term (31/50.8% males (33/54%. Data on urinary density measurement through the methods of cotton and collector presented statistically significant differences (p<0.05. The analysis of interquartile ranges between subgroups resulted in statistical differences between urinary collector/reagent strip (1005 and cotton/reagent strip (1010, however there was no difference between urinary collector/ refractometer (1008 and cotton/ refractometer. Therefore, further research should be conducted with larger sampling using methods investigated in this study and whenever possible, comparing urine density values to laboratory tests.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of Thermophotovoltaic Efficiency and Power Density Tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.F. Baldasara; J.E. Reynolds; G.W. Charache; D.M. DePoy; C.T. Ballinger; T. Donovan; J.M. Borrego


    This report presents an assessment of the efficiency and power density limitations of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems for both ideal (radiative-limited) and practical (defect-limited) systems. Thermodynamics is integrated into the unique process physics of TPV conversion, and used to define the intrinsic tradeoff between power density and efficiency. The results of the analysis reveal that the selection of diode bandgap sets a limit on achievable efficiency well below the traditional Carnot level. In addition it is shown that filter performance dominates diode performance in any practical TPV system and determines the optimum bandgap for a given radiator temperature. It is demonstrated that for a given radiator temperature, lower bandgap diodes enable both higher efficiency and power density when spectral control limitations are included. The goal of this work is to provide a better understanding of the basic system limitations that will enable successful long-term development of TPV energy conversion technology.

  19. Analysis of InAs-Si heterojunction nanowire tunnel FETs: Extreme confinement vs. bulk (United States)

    Carrillo-Nuñez, Hamilton; Luisier, Mathieu; Schenk, Andreas


    Extremely narrow and bulk-like p-type InAs-Si nanowire TFETs are studied using (i) a full-band and atomistic quantum transport simulator based on the sp3d5s∗ tight-binding model and (ii) a drift-diffusion TCAD tool. As (iii) option, a two-band model and the WKB approximation have been adapted to work in heterostructures through a careful choice of the imaginary dispersion. It is found that for ultra-scaled InAs-Si nanowire TFETs, the WKB approximation and the quantum transport results agree very well, suggesting that the former could be applied to larger hetero-TFET structures and considerably reduce the simulation time while keeping a high accuracy.

  20. Automated Proposition Density Analysis for Discourse in Aphasia (United States)

    Greenhouse, Joel; Hou, Kaiyue; Russell, G. Austin; Cai, Xizhen; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey; MacWhinney, Brian


    Purpose This study evaluates how proposition density can differentiate between persons with aphasia (PWA) and individuals in a control group, as well as among subtypes of aphasia, on the basis of procedural discourse and personal narratives collected from large samples of participants. Method Participants were 195 PWA and 168 individuals in a control group from the AphasiaBank database. PWA represented 6 aphasia types on the basis of the Western Aphasia Battery–Revised (Kertesz, 2006). Narrative samples were stroke stories for PWA and illness or injury stories for individuals in the control group. Procedural samples were from the peanut-butter-and-jelly-sandwich task. Language samples were transcribed using Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (MacWhinney, 2000) and analyzed using Computerized Language Analysis (MacWhinney, 2000), which automatically computes proposition density (PD) using rules developed for automatic PD measurement by the Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater program (Brown, Snodgrass, & Covington, 2007; Covington, 2007). Results Participants in the control group scored significantly higher than PWA on both tasks. PD scores were significantly different among the aphasia types for both tasks. Pairwise comparisons for both discourse tasks revealed that PD scores for the Broca's group were significantly lower than those for all groups except Transcortical Motor. No significant quadratic or linear association between PD and severity was found. Conclusion Proposition density is differentially sensitive to aphasia type and most clearly differentiates individuals with Broca's aphasia from the other groups. PMID:27657850

  1. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Y-12 National Security Complex, Model ES-3100 Package with Bulk HEU Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, James [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goins, Monty [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paul, Pran [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, Alan [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, David [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) presents the results of the safety analysis prepared in support of the Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) request for licensing of the Model ES-3100 package with bulk highly enriched uranium (HEU) contents and issuance of a Type B(U) Fissile Material Certificate of Compliance. This SARP, published in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 7.9 and using information provided in UCID-21218 and NRC Regulatory Guide 7.10, demonstrates that the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) ES-3100 package with bulk HEU contents meets the established NRC regulations for packaging, preparation for shipment, and transportation of radioactive materials given in Title 10, Part 71, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) [10 CFR 71] as well as U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for packaging and shipment of hazardous materials given in Title 49 CFR. To protect the health and safety of the public, shipments of adioactive materials are made in packaging that is designed, fabricated, assembled, tested, procured, used, maintained, and repaired in accordance with the provisions cited above. Safety requirements addressed by the regulations that must be met when transporting radioactive materials are containment of radioactive materials, radiation shielding, and assurance of nuclear subcriticality.

  2. Computerized image analysis: estimation of breast density on mammograms. (United States)

    Zhou, C; Chan, H P; Petrick, N; Helvie, M A; Goodsitt, M M; Sahiner, B; Hadjiiski, L M


    An automated image analysis tool is being developed for the estimation of mammographic breast density. This tool may be useful for risk estimation or for monitoring breast density change in prevention or intervention programs. In this preliminary study, a data set of 4-view mammograms from 65 patients was used to evaluate our approach. Breast density analysis was performed on the digitized mammograms in three stages. First, the breast region was segmented from the surrounding background by an automated breast boundary-tracking algorithm. Second, an adaptive dynamic range compression technique was applied to the breast image to reduce the range of the gray level distribution in the low frequency background and to enhance the differences in the characteristic features of the gray level histogram for breasts of different densities. Third, rule-based classification was used to classify the breast images into four classes according to the characteristic features of their gray level histogram. For each image, a gray level threshold was automatically determined to segment the dense tissue from the breast region. The area of segmented dense tissue as a percentage of the breast area was then estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the computer segmentation results were compared to manual segmentation with interactive thresholding by five radiologists. A "true" percent dense area for each mammogram was obtained by averaging the manually segmented areas of the radiologists. We found that the histograms of 6% (8 CC and 8 MLO views) of the breast regions were misclassified by the computer, resulting in poor segmentation of the dense region. For the images with correct classification, the correlation between the computer-estimated percent dense area and the "truth" was 0.94 and 0.91, respectively, for CC and MLO views, with a mean bias of less than 2%. The mean biases of the five radiologists' visual estimates for the same images ranged from 0.1% to 11%. The

  3. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography;Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel], E-mail:; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Solos], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: Gome, E-mail: Algenor da Silv, E-mail: algenor@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA, Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria Clima Temperado. Estacao Experimental Terras Baixas; Timm, Luis Carlos, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Engenharia Rural


    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  4. Movimento e inativação do metribuzin em materiais de dois solos, sob diferentes densidades aparentes Movement and inactivation of metribuzin in two soil materials with different bulk densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.F. Fontes


    Full Text Available Numa série de ensaios em laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, estudou-se a mobilidade e a inativação do herbicida metribuzin em materiais de um Latossolo e de um Podzólico representativos de duas regiões do Estado de Minas Gerais, em função de diferentes densidades aparentes. Ensaios biológicos foram utilizados para medir a inativação e a mobilidade do metribuzin nos diferentes solos e densidades. A densidade aparente alterou de forma pronunciada a quantidade de herbicida lixiviado através das colunas dos materiais dos solos estudados. Quanto maior a densidade, menor a quantidade de herbicida lixiviado. A quantidade de herbicida que permaneceu biologicamente ativo ao longo da coluna foi diretamente relacionada com a densidade, em cada solo. A mobilidade do metribuzin no material do Latossolo foi maior que no de Podzólico, em consequência de maior atividade coloidal deste.The leaching and inactivation of metribuzin were studied with materials of two mineral soilsat different bulk densities. Plastic tubing of' 7.25 cm diameter and 10 cm height were filled up with different amounts of soil to get different bulk densities. One kg/ha of a.i. of metribuzin placed on the surface are a of the column was le ached through these soil colums using 250 ml of water. The cotyledon disk bioassay method was used to detect the metribuzin leachet. The biological active metribuzin in the soil colunn at different depths, and the inativation abil ity of the soils were determined using the assay with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. as test-plant. The increase of bulk density reduced the leaching and enhanced the biologically active metribuzin in the soil column. Metribuzin was more mobil in the Red -yellow Lato ssol and more inactivated in the Red-yellow Podzolic soils.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of effective fluid and rock bulk modulus due to changes in pore pressure, temperature and saturation (United States)

    Bhakta, Tuhin; Avseth, Per; Landrø, Martin


    Fluid substitution plays a vital role in time-lapse seismic modeling and interpretation. It is, therefore, very important to quantify as exactly as possible the changes in fluid bulk modulus due to changes in reservoir parameters. In this paper, we analyze the sensitivities in effective fluid bulk modulus due to changes in reservoir parameters like saturation, pore-pressure and temperature. The sensitivities are analyzed for two extreme bounds, i.e. the Voigt average and the Reuss average, for various fluid combinations (i.e. oil-water, gas-water and gas-oil). We quantify that the effects of pore-pressure and saturation changes are highest in the case of gas-water combination, while the effect of temperature is highest for oil-gas combination. Our results show that sensitivities vary with the bounds, even for same amount of changes in any reservoir parameter. In 4D rock physics studies, we often neglect the effects of pore-pressure or temperature changes assuming that those effects are negligible compare to the effect due to saturation change. Our analysis shows that pore-pressure and temperature changes can be vital and sometimes higher than the effect of saturation change. We investigate these effects on saturated rock bulk modulus. We first compute frame bulk modulus using the Modified Hashin Shtrikman (MHS) model for carbonate rocks and then perform fluid substitution using the Gassmann equation. We consider upper bound of the MHS as elastic behavior for stiffer rocks and lower bound of the MHS as elastic behavior for softer rocks. We then investigate four various combinations: stiff rock with upper bound (the Voigt bound) as effective fluid modulus, stiff rock with lower bound (Reuss bound) as effective fluid modulus, soft rock with upper bound as effective fluid modulus and soft rock with lower bound as effective fluid modulus. Our results show that the effect of any reservoir parameter change is highest for soft rock and lower bound combination and lowest

  6. Top-seeded infiltration growth of (Y, Gd)Ba2Cu3Oy bulk superconductors with high critical current densities (United States)

    Das, Dhruba; Muralidhar, M.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Murakami, Masato


    We employed the top-seeded infiltration-growth (IG) process for the fabrication of bulk (Y, Gd)Ba2Cu3Oy (YG-123) superconductors by varying the composition of (Y, Gd)2BaCuO5 (YG-211) and compared with bulk YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconductors grown under similar conditions. IG-processed YG-123 exhibited J c (77 K) of 4.78 × 104 A cm‑2 in zero field, which was higher than the value of 3.71 × 104 A cm‑2 for Y-123. The superconducting transition temperature (T c) of YG-123 increased with increasing Gd content. However, there was spatial variation in the superconducting properties of IG-processed YG-123 samples due to the inhomogeneous distribution of YG-211. J c values of YG-123 decreased when increasing the distance from the seed both along the a and c-axis directions. The scaling studies of the pinning behavior for YG-123 showed that non-superconducting YG-211 particles act as effective pinning centers, supported by the fact that δT c type pinning is active in the system.

  7. Modeling of bulk acoustic wave devices built on piezoelectric stack structures: impedance matrix analysis and network representation. (United States)

    Zhang, Victor Y; Dubus, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Jean Etienne; Gryba, Tadeusz


    The fundamental electro-acoustic properties of a solid layer are deduced in terms of its impedance matrix (Z) and represented by a network for modeling the bulk acoustic wave devices built on piezoelectric stacked structures. A piezoelectric layer is described by a three-port equivalent network, a nonpiezoelectric layer, and a short- or open-circuit piezoelectric layer by a two-port one. Electrical input impedance of the resonator is derived in terms of the Z-matrix of both the piezoelectric layer and an external load, the unique expression applies whether the resonator is a mono- or electroded-layer or a solidly mounted resonator (SMR). The loading effects of Al-electrodes on the resonating frequencies of the piezoelectric ZnO-layer are analyzed. Transmission and reflection properties of Bragg mirrors are investigated along with the bulk radiation in SMR. As a synthesizing example, a coupled resonator filter (CRF) is analyzed using the associated two-port equivalent network and by calculating the power transmission to a 50Omega-load. The stacked crystal filter is naturally included in the model as a special case of CRF. Combining a comprehensive matrix analysis and an instructive network representation and setting the problem with a full vectorial formalism are peculiar features of the presented approach.

  8. Effective dielectric constants and spectral density analysis of plasmonic nanocomposites (United States)

    Lu, Jin You; Raza, Aikifa; Fang, Nicholas X.; Chen, Gang; Zhang, TieJun


    Cermet or ceramic-metal composite coatings promise great potentials in light harvesting, but the complicated composite structure at the nanoscale induces a design challenge to predict their optical properties. We find that the effective dielectric constants of nanocomposites predicted by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulation results match those of different classical effective medium theories in their respective validity range. However, a precise prediction of the fabricated nanocomposite properties for different filling factors is very challenging. In this work, we extract the spectral density functions in the Bergman representation from the analytical models, numerical simulations, and experimental data of plasmonic nanocomposites. The spectral density functions, which only depend on geometry of the nanocomposite material, provide a unique measure on the contribution of individual and percolated particles inside the nanocomposite. According to the spectral density analysis of measured dielectric constants, the material properties of nanocomposites fabricated by the co-sputtering approach are dominated by electromagnetic interaction among individual metallic particles. While in the case of the nanocomposites fabricated by the multilayer thin film approach, the material properties are dominated by percolated metallic particles inside the dielectric host, as indicated by our FDTD simulation results. This understanding provides new physical insight into the interaction between light and plasmonic nanocomposites.

  9. A comparative analysis of the density distributions and the structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    nucleon interaction. In order to analyse the experimental data of the sta- ble nuclei, different density distributions can be found in the literature. Some of these densities are Woods–. Saxon (WS)-type density distribution, Fermi (F)- ...

  10. Bulk GaN substrate with overall dislocation density on the order of 105/cm2 fabricated by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (United States)

    Goubara, Shin; Matsubara, Tohoru; Yukizane, Kota; Arita, Naoki; Fujimoto, Satoru; Ezaki, Tatsuya; Inomoto, Ryo; Yamane, Keisuke; Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki


    In this study, a combined facet and flattening (FF) growth technique was implemented to fabricate GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. By changing the growth conditions, i.e., the growth temperature and V/III ratio, it was found that facet growth was promoted with a high V/III ratio and low temperature and planar growth was promoted with low V/III ratios and high temperature. We introduce a FF growth technique involving further reduction of the dislocation density using facet growth as the first step and flattening growth of the GaN layer as the second step. To further reduce dislocation density, we also finally demonstrate a multiple-step growth technique based on FF growth and succeeded in producing GaN substrates with overall dislocation densities on the order of 105 cm-2.

  11. Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl, and HNO3 Using Density Functional Theory-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Marcel; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.


    In this study we investigate the free energy barrier associated with the dissociation of strong acids, XH (HBr, HCl and HNO3) deprotonation, and subsequent formation of ionpairs, X–___H3O+ in the vicinity of the air-water interface. We will show that the free energy for acid dissociation for HCl and HNO3 show significant differences at the air-water than under bulk solvation conditions producing a picture where at the interface associated molecular species can be stable. For the strongest acid we consider, HBr the more traditional picture of acids is preserved in the vicinity of the air-water interface. Our results have implications for our understanding of acids, and their surface tensions at the air-water interface.

  12. Fast ground filtering for TLS data via Scanline Density Analysis (United States)

    Che, Erzhuo; Olsen, Michael J.


    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) efficiently collects 3D information based on lidar (light detection and ranging) technology. TLS has been widely used in topographic mapping, engineering surveying, forestry, industrial facilities, cultural heritage, and so on. Ground filtering is a common procedure in lidar data processing, which separates the point cloud data into ground points and non-ground points. Effective ground filtering is helpful for subsequent procedures such as segmentation, classification, and modeling. Numerous ground filtering algorithms have been developed for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. However, many of these are error prone in application to TLS data because of its different angle of view and highly variable resolution. Further, many ground filtering techniques are limited in application within challenging topography and experience difficulty coping with some objects such as short vegetation, steep slopes, and so forth. Lastly, due to the large size of point cloud data, operations such as data traversing, multiple iterations, and neighbor searching significantly affect the computation efficiency. In order to overcome these challenges, we present an efficient ground filtering method for TLS data via a Scanline Density Analysis, which is very fast because it exploits the grid structure storing TLS data. The process first separates the ground candidates, density features, and unidentified points based on an analysis of point density within each scanline. Second, a region growth using the scan pattern is performed to cluster the ground candidates and further refine the ground points (clusters). In the experiment, the effectiveness, parameter robustness, and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated with datasets collected from an urban scene and a natural scene, respectively.

  13. A Voronoi-diagram analysis of the microstructures in bulk-molding compounds and its correlation with the mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bertoncelj


    Full Text Available Voronoi analysis is implemented to assess the influence of fiber content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk-molding compounds containing different weight fractions of E-glass fibers (EGF (5–20 wt%. The fiber distribution in the polymer matrix is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy followed by the Voronoi tessellations, radial distribution function and statistical calculations. The experimental results are compared to modelled microstructures. The derived microstructural descriptors allow us to correlate the fiber weight content and the degree of fiber distribution homogeneity with the mechanical properties of EGF-reinforced composites. The distribution of fibers in composites with 10 and 15 wt% of fibers could be considered as the most homogeneous. This is in a good agreement with the results of the flexural strength and dynamic mechanical analyses, which confirmed that the latter samples exhibit the highest level of reinforcement.

  14. Decorrelation correction for nanoparticle tracking analysis of dilute polydisperse suspensions in bulk flow (United States)

    Hartman, John; Kirby, Brian


    Nanoparticle tracking analysis, a multiprobe single particle tracking technique, is a widely used method to quickly determine the concentration and size distribution of colloidal particle suspensions. Many popular tools remove non-Brownian components of particle motion by subtracting the ensemble-average displacement at each time step, which is termed dedrifting. Though critical for accurate size measurements, dedrifting is shown here to introduce significant biasing error and can fundamentally limit the dynamic range of particle size that can be measured for dilute heterogeneous suspensions such as biological extracellular vesicles. We report a more accurate estimate of particle mean-square displacement, which we call decorrelation analysis, that accounts for correlations between individual and ensemble particle motion, which are spuriously introduced by dedrifting. Particle tracking simulation and experimental results show that this approach more accurately determines particle diameters for low-concentration polydisperse suspensions when compared with standard dedrifting techniques.

  15. A critical evaluation of how ancient DNA bulk bone metabarcoding complements traditional morphological analysis of fossil assemblages (United States)

    Grealy, Alicia C.; McDowell, Matthew C.; Scofield, Paul; Murray, Dáithí C.; Fusco, Diana A.; Haile, James; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael


    caveats. Our results show that DNA analysis of bulk bone samples can be a universally useful tool for studying past biodiversity, when integrated with existing morphology-based approaches. Despite several limitations that remain, the BBM method offers a cost-effective and efficient way of studying fossil assemblages, offering complementary insights into evolution, extinction, and conservation.

  16. Studies on thermal neutron perturbation factor needed for bulk sample activation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Sanami, T; Michikawa, T


    The spatial distribution of thermal neutrons produced by an Am-Be source in a graphite pile was measured via the activation foil method. The results obtained agree well with calculated data using the MCNP-4B code. A previous method used for the determination of the average neutron flux within thin absorbing samples has been improved and extended for a graphite moderator. A procedure developed for the determination of the flux perturbation factor renders the thermal neutron activation analysis of bulky samples of unknown composition possible both in hydrogenous and graphite moderators.

  17. Bioinformatic and proteomic analysis of bulk histones reveals PTM crosstalk and chromatin features. (United States)

    Zhang, Chunchao; Gao, Shan; Molascon, Anthony J; Wang, Zhe; Gorovsky, Martin A; Liu, Yifan; Andrews, Philip C


    Systems analysis of chromatin has been constrained by complex patterns and dynamics of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), which represent major challenges for both mass spectrometry (MS) and immuno-based approaches (e.g., chromatin immuno-precipitation, ChIP). Here we present a proof-of-concept study demonstrating that crosstalk among PTMs and their functional significance can be revealed via systematic bioinformatic and proteomic analysis of steady-state histone PTM levels from cells under various perturbations. Using high resolution tandem MS, we quantified 53 modification states from all core histones and their conserved variants in the unicellular eukaryotic model organism Tetrahymena. By correlating histone PTM patterns across 15 different conditions, including various physiological states and mutations of key histone modifying enzymes, we identified 5 specific chromatin states with characteristic covarying histone PTMs and associated them with distinctive functions in replication, transcription, and DNA repair. In addition to providing a detailed picture on histone PTM crosstalk at global levels, this work has established a novel bioinformatic and proteomic approach, which can be adapted to other organisms and readily scaled up to allow increased resolution of chromatin states.

  18. A mechanistic analysis of density dependence in algal population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eBorlestean


    Full Text Available Population density regulation is a fundamental principle in ecology, but the specific process underlying functional expression of density dependence remains to be fully elucidated. One view contends that patterns of density dependence are largely fixed across a species irrespective of environmental conditions, whereas another is that the strength and expression of density dependence are fundamentally variable depending on the nature of exogenous or endogenous constraints acting on the population. We conducted a study investigating the expression of density dependence in Chlamydomonas spp. grown under a gradient from low to high nutrient density. We predicted that the relationship between per capita growth rate (pgr and population density would vary from concave up to concave down as nutrient density became less limiting and populations experienced weaker density regulation. Contrary to prediction, we found that the relationship between pgr and density became increasingly concave-up as nutrient levels increased. We also found that variation in pgr increased, and pgr levels reached higher maxima in nutrient-limited environments. Most likely, these results are attributable to population growth suppression in environments with high intraspecific competition due to limited nutrient resources. Our results suggest that density regulation is strongly variable depending on exogenous and endogenous processes acting on the population, implying that expression of density dependence depends extensively on local conditions. Additional experimental work should reveal the mechanisms influencing how the expression of density dependence varies across populations through space and time.

  19. Oak ridge national laboratory automated clean chemistry for bulk analysis of environmental swipe samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    To shorten the lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures, sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. This addresses a serious need in the nuclear safeguards community to debottleneck the separation of U and Pu in environmental samples—currently performed by overburdened chemists—with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on current COTS equipment that was modified for U/Pu separations utilizing Eichrom™ TEVA and UTEVA resins. Initial verification of individual columns yielded small elution volumes with consistent elution profiles and good recovery. Combined column calibration demonstrated ample separation without crosscontamination of the eluent. Automated packing and unpacking of the built-in columns initially showed >15% deviation in resin loading by weight, which can lead to inconsistent separations. Optimization of the packing and unpacking methods led to a reduction in the variability of the packed resin to less than 5% daily. The reproducibility of the automated system was tested with samples containing 30 ng U and 15 pg Pu, which were separated in a series with alternating reagent blanks. These experiments showed very good washout of both the resin and the sample from the columns as evidenced by low blank values. Analysis of the major and minor isotope ratios for U and Pu provided values well within data quality limits for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Additionally, system process blanks spiked with 233U and 244Pu tracers were separated using the automated system after it was moved outside of a clean room and yielded levels equivalent to clean room blanks, confirming that the system can produce high quality results without the need for expensive clean room infrastructure. Comparison of the amount of personnel time necessary for successful manual vs

  20. Sensitivity analysis of bulk traps detection in analog deep-level transient spectroscopy measurement systems with exponentially weighted average (United States)

    Dmowski, K.; Jakubowski, A.


    Improved formulas are proposed describing the correlation signals of bulk traps in semiconductor devices (Schottky barrier diodes and p-n junctions) for constant voltage and constant capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy analog measurement systems with exponentially weighted average. The presented formulas describe the correlation signals for the two kinds of these systems most often used in practice, i.e., systems utilizing a two-channel boxcar integrator or utilizing a simple one-channel correlator with a bipolar rectangular weighting function. These formulas take into account arbitrary gate width of the applied correlator and the so-called Lambda effect. New analytical formulas describing the rate window for an arbitrarily chosen gate width are proposed. A comparative analysis has been made of the potential sensitivity of these systems as a function of gate width based on two figures of merit: the normalized correlation signal and the normalized output signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis presented enables one to maximize sensitivity of these systems for the study of low-concentration, processing-induced defects in semiconductor devices.

  1. Evaluation of metal biouptake from the analysis of bulk metal depletion kinetics at various cell concentrations: theory and application. (United States)

    Rotureau, Elise; Billard, Patrick; Duval, Jérôme F L


    Bioavailability of trace metals is a key parameter for assessment of toxicity on living organisms. Proper evaluation of metal bioavailability requires monitoring the various interfacial processes that control metal partitioning dynamics at the biointerface, which includes metal transport from solution to cell membrane, adsorption at the biosurface, internalization, and possible excretion. In this work, a methodology is proposed to quantitatively describe the dynamics of Cd(II) uptake by Pseudomonas putida. The analysis is based on the kinetic measurement of Cd(II) depletion from bulk solution at various initial cell concentrations using electroanalytical probes. On the basis of a recent formalism on the dynamics of metal uptake by complex biointerphases, the cell concentration-dependent depletion time scales and plateau values reached by metal concentrations at long exposure times (>3 h) are successfully rationalized in terms of limiting metal uptake flux, rate of excretion, and metal affinity to internalization sites. The analysis shows the limits of approximate depletion models valid in the extremes of high and weak metal affinities. The contribution of conductive diffusion transfer of metals from the solution to the cell membrane in governing the rate of Cd(II) uptake is further discussed on the basis of estimated resistances for metal membrane transfer and extracellular mass transport.

  2. Using of dimensional analysis to determine the parameters of gravity separator table device to minimize impurities in bulk lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bagheri


    Full Text Available Introduction Lentil (Lens culinaris medic is an important and highly nutritious crop belonging to the family of legumes. Lentil is cultivated worldwide but competition with weeds is a problem affecting production and can reduce yield by more than 80%. The study on the separation of impurities in bulk lentils (Euphorbia helioscopia weed, Wild oat weed and etc. by a gravity separator has an extreme importance. Since no study has been done to date, in this study, the effects of different parameters of a gravity separator (longitudinal and latitudinal slopes, oscillation frequency and amplitude on the separation of foreign matters in lentil seeds were evaluated. A dimensionless number (v/aω which shows ration of air current velocity blown to lentil to the maximum velocity of table oscillation, was considered in ratio of separation. Materials and Methods In this research, lentil samples were taken from farms in Ardebil Province (Bileh-Savar cultivar. A gravity separator apparatus was also used for separating impurities from lentil seeds. A Laboratory Gravity Separator Type LA-K (Westrup A/S Denmark was used to separate impurities from bulk lentils. In this machine, table settings were as follows; longitudinal slope parameters (1°,1.5°, 1.75°, 2° and 2.5°, latitudinal slope (0.5°, 1°, and 1.5°, frequency of oscillation (380, 400, 420 and 450 cycles min-1, and amplitude of oscillation (5 and 7 mm, these settings were all adjustable. Similarly, the instrument had 5 boxes whereby, through proper adjustment, the heavier material was transferred toward the right side of the table and lighter material moved toward the left side. Through proper adjustment of the main parameters of the instrument, the impurities were separated from bulk lentils. Then using an electronic seed counter, five groups of seed which each group containing 100 seeds were counted and selected. Results and Discussion The results of variance analysis of the factorial design with

  3. Exploring charge density analysis in crystals at high pressure: data collection, data analysis and advanced modelling. (United States)

    Casati, Nicola; Genoni, Alessandro; Meyer, Benjamin; Krawczuk, Anna; Macchi, Piero


    The possibility to determine electron-density distribution in crystals has been an enormous breakthrough, stimulated by a favourable combination of equipment for X-ray and neutron diffraction at low temperature, by the development of simplified, though accurate, electron-density models refined from the experimental data and by the progress in charge density analysis often in combination with theoretical work. Many years after the first successful charge density determination and analysis, scientists face new challenges, for example: (i) determination of the finer details of the electron-density distribution in the atomic cores, (ii) simultaneous refinement of electron charge and spin density or (iii) measuring crystals under perturbation. In this context, the possibility of obtaining experimental charge density at high pressure has recently been demonstrated [Casati et al. (2016). Nat. Commun. 7, 10901]. This paper reports on the necessities and pitfalls of this new challenge, focusing on the species syn-1,6:8,13-biscarbonyl[14]annulene. The experimental requirements, the expected data quality and data corrections are discussed in detail, including warnings about possible shortcomings. At the same time, new modelling techniques are proposed, which could enable specific information to be extracted, from the limited and less accurate observations, like the degree of localization of double bonds, which is fundamental to the scientific case under examination.

  4. Ab-initio investigations of the electronic properties of bulk wurtzite Beryllia and its derived nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya


    In this Letter we investigate the electronic properties of the bulk and the nanofilm BeO in wurtzite structure. We performed a first-principles pseudo-potential method within the generalized gradient approximation. We will give more importance to the changes in band structure and density of states between the bulk structure and its derived nanofilms. The bonding characterization will be investigated via the analysis Mulliken population and charge density contours. It is found that the nanofilm retains the same properties as its bulk structure with slight changes in electronic properties and band structure which may offer some unusual transport properties. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of subtracted gDNA microarray-assisted Bulked Segregant Analysis for rapid discovery of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) (United States)

    Gor, Mian Chee; Mantri, Nitin; Pang, Edwin


    A Fragaria Discovery Panel (FDP; strawberry-specific SDA) containing 287 features was constructed by subtracting the pooled gDNA of nine non-angiosperm species from the pooled gDNA of five strawberry genotypes. This FDP was used for Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA) to enable identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality. Analysis of hybridisation patterns of a short day (SD) DNA bulk and three day-neutral (DN) DNA bulks varying in flowering strength allowed identification of a novel feature, FaP2E11, closely linked to CYTOKININ OXIDASE 1 (CKX1) gene possibly involved in promoting flowering under non-inductive condition. The signal intensities of FaP2E11 feature obtained from the strong DN bulk (DN1) is three fold higher than the short day bulk (SD), indicating that the putative marker may linked to a CKX1 variant allele with lower enzyme activity. We propose a model for flowering regulation based on the hypothesis that flowering strength may be regulated by the copy number of FaP2E11-linked CKX1 alleles. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the SDA-based BSA approach for the identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry. This innovative strategy is an efficient and cost-effective approach for molecular marker discovery. PMID:27586242


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    Microbunching instability (MBI) has been one of the most challenging issues in the transport of high-brightness electron beams for modern recirculating or energy recovery linac machines. Recently we have developed and implemented a Vlasov solver [1] to calculate the microbunching gain for an arbitrary beamline lattice, based on the extension of existing theoretical formulation [2-4] for the microbunching amplification from an initial density perturbation to the final density modulation. For more thorough analyses, in addition to the case of (initial) density to (final) density amplification, we extend in this paper the previous formulation to more general cases, including energy to density, density to energy and energy to energy amplifications for a recirculation machine. Such semi-analytical formulae are then incorporated into our Vlasov solver, and qualitative agreement is obtained when the semi-analytical Vlasov results are compared with particle tracking simulation using ELEGANT [5].

  7. Design of a New Sensor for Determination of the Effects of Tractor Field Usage in Southern Spain: Soil Sinkage and Alterations in the Cone Index and Dry Bulk Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Valera


    Full Text Available Variations in sinkage and cone index are of crucial importance when planning fieldwork, and for determining the trafficability of farm machinery. Many studies have highlighted the link between higher values of these parameters and dramatic decreases in crop yield. Variations in the dry bulk density and cone index of clayey soil in Southern Spain were measured following each of five successive passes over the same land with the three types of tractor most widely used in the area (tracked, two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. In addition, sinkage (rut depth of the running gear was measured using a laser microrelief profile meter. This device, which integrates three sensors, was specifically designed for these experiments, as was an electrical penetrometer to determine the cone index, and both instruments proved reliable and accurate in the field. The main goal of this study was to design, manufacture and test these new devices. The first pass caused most soil alteration when compared to successive passes for all types of tractor tested and soil conditions prevailing during the tests. (Heavier four-wheel drive tractors were found to cause greater soil damage (sinkage, cone index and dry bulk density than two-wheel drive and track tractors. There was no statistically significant difference between the two latter types. The greatest alterations were recorded in the top 10 cm of the soil. The results show that soil compaction should be avoided as much as possible. This can be achieved by ensuring that tractors always travel along the same tracks, especially in the wet season. At present these aspects are not considered by farmers in this area.

  8. A combined surface and bulk TCAD damage model for the analysis of radiation detectors operating at HL-LHC fluences (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Moscatelli, F.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Bilei, G. M.


    In this work we present the development and the application of a new TCAD modelling scheme to simulate the effects of radiation damage on silicon radiation detectors at the very high fluence levels expected at High Luminosity LHC (up to 2 × 1016 1MeV n/cm2). In particular, we propose a combined approach for the analysis of the surface effects (oxide charge build-up and interface trap states introduction) as well as bulk effects (deep level traps and/or recombination centers introduction). Experimental measurements have been carried out aiming at: i) extraction from simple test structures of relevant parameters to be included within the TCAD model and ii) validation of the new modelling scheme through comparison with measurements of different test structures (e.g. different technologies) before and after irradiation. The good agreements between experimental measurements and simulation findings foster the suitability of the TCAD modelling approach as a predictive tool for investigating the radiation detector behavior at different fluences and operating conditions. This would allow the design and optimization of innovative 3D and planar silicon detectors for future HL-LHC High Energy Physics experiments.

  9. A national and international analysis of changing forest density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aapo Rautiainen

    Full Text Available Like cities, forests grow by spreading out or by growing denser. Both inventories taken steadily by a single nation and other inventories gathered recently from many nations by the United Nations confirm the asynchronous effects of changing area and of density or volume per hectare. United States forests spread little after 1953, while growing density per hectare increased national volume and thus sequestered carbon. The 2010 United Nations appraisal of global forests during the briefer span of two decades after 1990 reveals a similar pattern: A slowing decline of area with growing volume means growing density in 68 nations encompassing 72% of reported global forest land and 68% of reported global carbon mass. To summarize, the nations were placed in 5 regions named for continents. During 1990-2010 national density grew unevenly, but nevertheless grew in all regions. Growing density was responsible for substantially increasing sequestered carbon in the European and North American regions, despite smaller changes in area. Density nudged upward in the African and South American regions as area loss outstripped the loss of carbon. For the Asian region, density grew in the first decade and fell slightly in the second as forest area expanded. The different courses of area and density disqualify area as a proxy for volume and carbon. Applying forestry methods traditionally used to measure timber volumes still offers a necessary route to measuring carbon stocks. With little expansion of forest area, managing for timber growth and density offered a way to increase carbon stocks.

  10. Bulk and Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Provide Insights into Habitat Use and Diet Variability Among Female Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific (United States)

    Zupcic-Moore, J. R.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; McCarthy, M. D.; Koch, P. L.


    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) have a strong social structure and females form sympatric clans that span thousands of kilometers and encompass thousands of whales. We investigated variability in foraging habitat and diet through the life history of ten female sperm whales from the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP), using coupled bulk and compound specific amino acid stable isotope measurements made on annual tooth growth layers. We identified three broad temporal patterns in annual records of bulk nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values in sub-groups of individuals: 1) constant, 2) increasing, and 3) decreasing isotopic values between ca.1930 and 1960. These different isotopic patterns suggest that whales sampled may belong to different clans. In addition, average bulk δ15N and δ13C values differed among individuals and appear to be group-specific. This suggests that whales from different sub-groups foraged in different habitats and/or had differing diets. To differentiate between these interpretations, we conducted compound specific amino acid isotope analysis on dentin samples from six whales. Amino acid proxies for baseline δ15N values indicate that bulk variability among whales is due to δ15N differences at the base of the food web, indicating different feeding areas. The δ13C values of essential amino acids, which are positively correlated to bulk δ13C values, support this conclusion. Together, the compound specific and bulk annual records suggest that whales with higher isotopic values likely foraged in regions closer to the coast throughout their lives, while whales with lower isotopic values likely foraged further offshore. Overall, our data suggest clear spatial segregation of clans within a similar ocean region. Since molecular analysis cannot yet distinguish genetic variability among whale clans, we suggest that stable isotope analysis can help to identify clans and their foraging ecology, based on habitat use.

  11. Bulk Compositional Trends in Meteorites: A Guide for Analysis and Interpretation of NEAR XGRS Data from Asteroid 433 Eros (United States)

    Nittler, L. R.; Clark, P. E.; McCoy, T. J.; Murphy, M. E.; Trombka, J. I.


    We have compiled a large database of bulk meteorite elemental compositions. We investigate compositional trends in a variety of meteorite classes to aid in interpretation of NEAR XGRS elemental abundance data from the asteroid Eros.

  12. Density functional steric analysis of linear and branched alkanes. (United States)

    Ess, Daniel H; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank


    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (E(s)[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (E(e)[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (E(q)[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  13. Rotavirus - Global research density equalizing mapping and gender analysis. (United States)

    Köster, Corinna; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Schwarzer, Mario


    Rotaviruses are the leading reason for dehydration and severe diarrheal disease and in infants and young children worldwide. An increasing number of related publications cause a crucial challenge to determine the relevant scientific output. Therefore, scientometric analyses are helpful to evaluate quantity as well as quality of the worldwide research activities on Rotavirus. Up to now, no in-depth global scientometric analysis relating to Rotavirus publications has been carried out. This study used scientometric tools and the method of density equalizing mapping to visualize the differences of the worldwide research effort referring to Rotavirus. The aim of the study was to compare scientific output geographically and over time by using an in-depth data analysis and New quality and quantity indices in science (NewQIS) tools. Furthermore, a gender analysis was part of the data interpretation. We retrieved all Rotavirus-related articles, which were published on "Rotavirus" during the time period from 1900 to 2013, from the Web of Science by a defined search term. These items were analyzed regarding quantitative and qualitative aspects, and visualized with the help of bibliometric methods and the technique of density equalizing mapping to show the differences of the worldwide research efforts. This work aimed to extend the current NewQIS platform. The 5906 Rotavirus associated articles were published in 138 countries from 1900 to 2013. The USA authored 2037 articles that equaled 34.5% of all published items followed by Japan with 576 articles and the United Kingdom - as the most productive representative of the European countries - with 495 articles. Furthermore, the USA established the most cooperations with other countries and was found to be in the center of an international collaborative network. We performed a gender analysis of authors per country (threshold was set at a publishing output of more than 100 articles by more than 50 authors whose names could be

  14. A comparative analysis of the density distributions and the structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we have obtained five different density distributions of the 9 Li nucleus to generate real potentials with the help of double-folding model. For these densities, we have calculated the elastic scattering angular distributions. Secondly, using a simple approach, we have investigated some cluster models of the 9 Li nucleus ...

  15. Bond energy decomposition analysis for subsystem density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyhan, S.M.; Gotz, A.W.; Visscher, L.


    We employed an explicit expression for the dispersion (D) energy in conjunction with Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory and frozen-density embedding (FDE) to calculate interaction energies between DNA base pairs and a selected set of amino acid pairs in the hydrophobic core of a small protein

  16. Charge density analysis of two proton transfer complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    asparaginium ion and the picrate in the other complex. We have additionally performed theoretical calcu- lations at the density functional theory (DFT) level to understand the origin of enhancement of the dipole moments in the two systems. Keywords. X-ray diffraction; experimental charge density; hydrogen bonding; dipole ...

  17. Bouguer correction density determination from fractal analysis using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, Bouguer density is determined using the fractal approach. This technique was applied to the gravity data of the Kwello area of the Basement Complex, north-western Nigeria. The density obtained using the fractal approach is 2500 kgm which is lower than the conventional value of 2670 kgm used for average ...

  18. Density-Functional-Theory Modeling of Cation Diffusion in Bulk La1 -xSrxMnO3 ±δ (x =0.0 -0.25 ) for Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Cathodes (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Duan, Yuhua; Morgan, Dane; Sorescu, Dan C.; Abernathy, Harry; Hackett, Gregory


    In this work, the A - and B -site cation migration pathways involving defect complexes in bulk La1 -xSrxMnO3 ±δ (LSM) at x = 0.0 - 0.25 are investigated based on density-functional-theory modeling for solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) cathode applications. We propose a dominant A -site cation migration mechanism which involves an A -site cation (e.g., LaAx ) hop into a VA''' of a VA'''-VB''' cluster, where LaAx , VA''' , and, VB''' are La3 + , A -site vacancy, and B -site vacancy in bulk LSM, respectively, and VA'''-VB''' is the first nearest-neighbor VA''' and VB''' pair. This hop exhibits an approximately 1.6-eV migration barrier as compared to approximately 2.9 eV of the LaAx hop into a VA''' . This decrease in the cation migration barrier is attributed to the presence of the VB''' relieving the electrostatic repulsion and steric constraints to the migrating A -site cations in the transition-state image configurations. The VA'''-VB''' interaction energy is predicted to be weakly repulsive (0.2-0.3 eV) in bulk LSM, which enables the VA'''-VB''' cluster to readily form. The predicted apparent activation energy of DLa* in LaMnO3 ±δ (LMO) for the A -site migration pathway is about 1.4 eV, in good agreement with the experimental A -site cation impurity diffusivity measurements. By examining the A -site cation migration barriers among different metal cations (Zr4 + , Y3 + , Gd3 + ) relevant for SOFC applications, it is demonstrated that migration barriers of the cation impurity in bulk LSM correlate with the ionic charge and ionic radius at a given formal cationic charge. The B -site cation migration barrier takes place by an analogous mechanism that involves a MnBx (Mn3 + on the B site) hop into a VB''' via the MnBx-VA'''→VB''' path with the same cation transport carrier of VA'''-VB''' . This diffusion pathway is found to have a barrier of approximately 1.6 eV, similar to the analogous A -site hop. However, hopping of the MnAx antisite defect (Mn3 + on the A site

  19. FTIR and multivariate analysis to study the effect of bulk and nano copper oxide on peanut plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh


    Full Text Available In this article the potential variation in biochemical constituents of peanut plant leaves affect by presoaking peanut seeds in copper oxide nanoparticles suspension has been studied and compared with its bulk counterpart. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM studies. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis shows the most prominent peaks at ∼2923 cm−1, ∼1636 cm−1 and ∼1033 cm−1, which correspond to lipids, protein and carbohydrate content in leaf samples respectively. The calculated mean ratio of the peak intensities for various frequency regions and total band area calculation for various band regions explain the variation in lipid, protein and carbohydrate content of leaf samples. Further the FTIR spectra were processed by de-convolution and curve fitting to quantitatively examine the chemical contents and structure changing of the secondary structure of protein. The calculated integrated band area of β – sheet, β – turn and α – helix secondary structure of protein varies to greater extent in all samples compared to control. Principal component analysis (PCA has been carried out to explain the total variance in secondary structure of protein content in peanut plant leaves. Principal component 1 (PC1 accounts for 63.50% variation in secondary structure of protein whereas principal component 2 (PC2 accounts for 29.56%. The application of nanoparticles via presoaking method implies potential variation in biochemical constituents but doesn't affect the growth of plants considerably.

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension: Scientometric Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping. (United States)

    Götting, Michael; Schwarzer, Mario; Gerber, Alexander; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A


    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by the increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure in the lung circulation. Despite the large number of experimental and clinical studies conducted on pulmonary hypertension, there is no comprehensive work that analyzed the global research activity on PH so far. We retrieved the bibliometric data of the publications on pulmonary hypertension for two periods from the Web of science database. Here, we set the first investigation period from 1900 to 2007 (t1) due to the cited half life of articles and the relating difficulties to interpret the citation parameters. The second evaluation period (t2) covers the time interval from 2008 onwards including the year 2015. The data were analyzed and processed to density-equalizing maps using the NewQIS platform. A total number of 18,986 publications were identified in t1 that come from 85 countries. The US published the highest number of publications (n = 7,290), followed by the UK, Germany, Japan and France. In t2 19,676 items could be found worked out by 130 countries. The raking started just the same with the USA as most publishing nation with 7,127 publications on PH, followed by the UK and Germany. Japan fell back on 6th place, whereas China came into view on the 5th position. Analyzing the average citation rate as a parameter for research quality, Mexico reached the highest value in t1 and Ireland in t2. While, the country specific h-index underlined the leading position of the US research in both evaluation periods again. The average number of international collaboration items was expanding from none in 1978 to 530 items in 2015 with the USA as the country with the highest number of collaboration articles. The present study is the first large scale density-equalizing mapping and scientometric analysis of global PH research activity. Our data draw a sketch of the global research architecture in this field, indicating a need for specific research programs in countries with

  1. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hansen


    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results: We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic

  2. A switching regression analysis of urban population densities. (United States)

    Brueckner, J K


    An application of the switching regression technique in the field of urban economics is presented. The technique is applied to the study of urban population density functions, which recent research has suggested are inherently discontinuous. The method of switching regression developed by Quandt is used to estimate density functions for selected U.S. urban areas. The results show that population density contours are highly irregular, and also that the model selection approach can be used to select the number of regimes in a switching model when this number is unknown

  3. Differential analysis for high density tiling microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov Philipp


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. These arrays are being increasingly used to study the associated processes of transcription, transcription factor binding, chromatin structure and their association. Studies of differential expression and/or regulation provide critical insight into the mechanics of transcription and regulation that occurs during the developmental program of a cell. The time-course experiment, which comprises an in-vivo system and the proposed analyses, is used to determine if annotated and un-annotated portions of genome manifest coordinated differential response to the induced developmental program. Results We have proposed a novel approach, based on a piece-wise function – to analyze genome-wide differential response. This enables segmentation of the response based on protein-coding and non-coding regions; for genes the methodology also partitions differential response with a 5' versus 3' versus intra-genic bias. Conclusion The algorithm built upon the framework of Significance Analysis of Microarrays, uses a generalized logic to define regions/patterns of coordinated differential change. By not adhering to the gene-centric paradigm, discordant differential expression patterns between exons and introns have been identified at a FDR of less than 12 percent. A co-localization of differential binding between RNA Polymerase II and tetra-acetylated histone has been quantified at a p-value -13. The prototype R code has been made available as supplementary material [see Additional file 1]. Additional file 1 File archive comprising of prototype R code for gSAM implementation including readme and examples. Click here for file

  4. Numerical analysis of wet separation of particles by density differences

    CERN Document Server

    Markauskas, Darius


    Wet particle separation is widely used in mineral processing and plastic recycling to separate mixtures of particulate materials into further usable fractions due to density differences. This work presents efforts aiming to numerically analyze the wet separation of particles with different densities. In the current study the discrete element method (DEM) is used for the solid phase while the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used for modeling of the liquid phase. The two phases are coupled by the use of a volume averaging technique. In the current study, simulations of spherical particle separation were performed. In these simulations, a set of generated particles with two different densities is dropped into a rectangular container filled with liquid. The results of simulations with two different mixtures of particles demonstrated how separation depends on the densities of particles.

  5. Vertical Density Distribution of the Galaxy from Star Count Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn


    Full Text Available The five space density distribution D(z with distance perpendicular to the Galactic plane were combined. The scale heights and the local densities at z = 0 of the thin disk, thick disk, and the halo components were estimated from the nonlinear least square fits of exponential law. The scale heights of the thin disk, thick disk, and the halo components were estimated to be 260±90 pc, 660±220 pc, and 3.6±1.4 kpc, respectively. The density ratio of each components to the thin disk component at the galactic plane, i.e., z=0.0, were also derived as 1:0.07:0.002. Our model fit suggests that the thick disk component has a local density of 6.9% relative to the thin disk.

  6. Numerical analysis of wet separation of particles by density differences (United States)

    Markauskas, D.; Kruggel-Emden, H.


    Wet particle separation is widely used in mineral processing and plastic recycling to separate mixtures of particulate materials into further usable fractions due to density differences. This work presents efforts aiming to numerically analyze the wet separation of particles with different densities. In the current study the discrete element method (DEM) is used for the solid phase while the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used for modeling of the liquid phase. The two phases are coupled by the use of a volume averaging technique. In the current study, simulations of spherical particle separation were performed. In these simulations, a set of generated particles with two different densities is dropped into a rectangular container filled with liquid. The results of simulations with two different mixtures of particles demonstrated how separation depends on the densities of particles.





    Vibration at the pedal-pad may contribute to discomfort of foot plantar fascia during driving. This is due to transmission of vibration to the mount, chassis, pedal, and then to the foot plantar fascia. This experimental study is conducted to determine the estimation of peak value using the power spectral density of the vertical vibration input at the foot. The power spectral density value is calculated based on the frequency range between 13 Hz to 18 Hz. This experiment was conducted usin...

  8. Limites críticos de densidade do solo para o crescimento de raízes de plantas de cobertura em argissolo vermelho Bulk density critical limits for normal root growth of cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvan José Reinert


    . Todas as espécies avaliadas podem ser utilizadas em solos com algum grau de compactação, mas, quando a densidade for superior a 1,85 Mg m-3, pode ser necessária a mobilização do solo com escarificador e, ou, subsolador para facilitar a penetração das raízes em profundidade.Soil compaction is a serious problem for the soil quality and development of sustainable agriculture, because compaction affects the flow of soil water and air and reduces crop yields. One of the possibilities to tackle this problem is the use of plants with a deep and vigorous rooting system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of a Typic Hapludalf, in a no-tillage system, after the use of cover crops, and to measure the critical limit of bulk density. In the autumn/winter of 1999/00 and 2000/01 the site was cultivated with black oats (Avena strigosa with vetch (Vicia sativa and in 2001/02, with forage turnip (Raphanus sativus. Corn was sown (Zea mays in the summer, and in the end of the cycle, four summer cover crops were sown (Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Stilozobium cinereum and Canavalia ensiformes and compared to fallow soil. Soil bulk density and penetration resistance were measured. The rooting system was evaluated by a root profile method during the cycle of forage turnip, corn and summer cover crops. No tillage increased soil bulk density to levels considered critical for plant growth. The root growth of all crops used in the rotations suffered some degree of restriction. There were no differences among species in their root growth potential in compacted soil. The cover crop root growth was normal up to a bulk density of 1.75 Mg m-3, while values between 1.75 and 1.85 Mg m-3 were restrictive, with visible deformation of the root morphology. Above 1.85 Mg m-3 these deformations were more pronounced, with increased root thickening, deviations in the vertical root growth direction and concentration of roots in the topmost soil layer. The evaluated

  9. Analysis of spatio-temporal structures of the thermospheric density (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Erdogan, Eren; Meraner, Andrea


    The Earth's upper atmosphere comprising the thermosphere and the ionosphere exhibits a dynamically coupled non-linear system in terms of chemical and physical processes. The system also interacts with the magnetosphere as well as the lower atmosphere. Several stand-alone or coupled models have been developed to reveal the behaviour of atmospheric target parameters and their interactions such as the neutral and charged particle density of the thermosphere from different perspectives which are, for instance, based on pure physical or (semi) empirical models as well as data assimilative approaches combining available models with new set of observations. The thermospheric neutral density, for instance, plays a crucial role within the equation of motion of Earth orbiting objects at low altitudes since the drag force is one of the largest non-gravitational perturbations and a function of the thermospheric integral density. Besides, the density estimation is of critical consideration for re-entry operations, manoeuvre planning, collision avoidance, precise orbit determination (POD) and satellite lifetime planning. There exist several empirical thermospheric models, which have been used in satellite orbit determination, e.g. the JB2008 or the DTM2013 model. They all include different gas species and provide thermospheric temperature and density as functions of the instantaneous position in altitude, latitude and longitude, as well as the local solar time, solar and geomagnetic storm indices and the harmonics of the year's fraction. In this contribution we study the global spatial and temporal behaviour of the thermospheric density provided by the models JB2008 or the DTM2013. Based on these insights we set up a concept for an empirical model of the thermospheric density. In the future step appropriate model parameters will be estimated from high precise satellite laser ranging observations. This work is related to the DFG project INSIGHT (Interactions of Low

  10. Thermal Analysis of Low Layer Density Multilayer Insulation Test Results (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.


    Investigation of the thermal performance of low layer density multilayer insulations is important for designing long-duration space exploration missions involving the storage of cryogenic propellants. Theoretical calculations show an analytical optimal layer density, as widely reported in the literature. However, the appropriate test data by which to evaluate these calculations have been only recently obtained. As part of a recent research project, NASA procured several multilayer insulation test coupons for calorimeter testing. These coupons were configured to allow for the layer density to be varied from 0.5 to 2.6 layer/mm. The coupon testing was completed using the cylindrical Cryostat-l00 apparatus by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. The results show the properties of the insulation as a function of layer density for multiple points. Overlaying these new results with data from the literature reveals a minimum layer density; however, the value is higher than predicted. Additionally, the data show that the transition region between high vacuum and no vacuum is dependent on the spacing of the reflective layers. Historically this spacing has not been taken into account as thermal performance was calculated as a function of pressure and temperature only; however the recent testing shows that the data is dependent on the Knudsen number which takes into account pressure, temperature, and layer spacing. These results aid in the understanding of the performance parameters of MLI and help to complete the body of literature on the topic.

  11. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka


    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  12. Microstructure density generation for backlight display using probability analysis method (United States)

    Lin, Shang-fei; Su, Cheng-yue; Feng, Zu-yong; Li, Xiao-duan


    This paper proposes a new 1D density generation method for micro prisms applied in a light guide plate (LGP) design. It has three parameters, including the width of micro prisms, the ratio of cells and the probability values. After calculation of the new densities, we applied it to a dynamical low discrepancy sequences method to generate the micro prisms distribution. We build models of 2.7 inches, 7 inches and 14 inches in the optical software. Our simulation results indicated that the luminance uniformity ranged between 89.9% and 92.2%, and the light utilizations ranged between 79.5% and 80.0%. This new density generation method is proved to be practicable for middle and small size BLU designs. It also helps to shorten the design period by substituting the determination of the prisms numbers in initialization.

  13. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.


    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron cyclot...

  14. Application of a tangent curve mathematical model for analysis of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds (United States)

    Sigalingging, Riswanti; Herák, David; Kabutey, Abraham; Dajbych, Oldřich; Hrabě, Petr; Mizera, Čestmír


    This paper evaluate the use of a tangent curve mathematical model for representation of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds. Compression machine (Tempos Model 50, Czech Republic) and pressing vessel diameter 60 mm were used for the loading experiment. Varying forces between 50 and 130 kN and speeds ranging from 10, 50, and 100 mm min-1 were applied respectively on the bulk seeds with moisture content 12.37±0.38% w.b. The relationship between force and deformation curves of bulk seeds of pressing height 80 mm was described. The oil point strain was also determined from the different deformation values namely 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm at speed 10 mm min-1. Based on the results obtained, model coefficients were determined for fitting the experimental load and deformation curves. The validity of these coefficients were dependent on the bulk seeds of pressing height, vessel diameter, maximum force 110 kN, and speed 10 mm min-1, where optimal oil yield was observed. The oil point was detected at 45 mm deformation giving the strain value of 0.56 with the corresponding force 16.65±3.51 kN and energy 1.06±0.18 MJ m-3. At the force of 130 kN, a serration effect on the curves was indicated; hence, the compression process was ceased.

  15. Failure Analysis of Wind Turbines by Probability Density Evolution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Liu, W.F.


    . This is not practical due to its excessive computational load. This problem can alternatively be tackled if the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the response process can be realized. The evolutionary PDF can then be integrated on the boundaries of the problem. For this reason we propose to use...... the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM). PDEM can alternatively be used to obtain the distribution of the extreme values of the response process by simulation. This approach requires less computational effort than integrating the evolution of the PDF; but may be less accurate. In this paper we present...

  16. Minimum entropy density method for the time series analysis (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Park, Joongwoo Brian; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Yang, Jae-Suk; Moon, Hie-Tae


    The entropy density is an intuitive and powerful concept to study the complicated nonlinear processes derived from physical systems. We develop the minimum entropy density method (MEDM) to detect the structure scale of a given time series, which is defined as the scale in which the uncertainty is minimized, hence the pattern is revealed most. The MEDM is applied to the financial time series of Standard and Poor’s 500 index from February 1983 to April 2006. Then the temporal behavior of structure scale is obtained and analyzed in relation to the information delivery time and efficient market hypothesis.

  17. Origin, Bulk Chemical Composition and Physical Structure of the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter: A Post-Galileo Analysis (United States)

    Prentice, A. J. R.


    The origin of Jupiter and the Galilean satellite system is examined in the light of the new data that has been obtained by the NASA Galileo Project. In particular, special attention is given to a theory of satellite origin which was put forward at the start of the Galileo Mission and on the basis of which several predictions have now been proven successful. These predictions concern the chemical composition of Jupiter's atmosphere and the physical structure of the satellites. According to the proposed theory of satellite origin, each of the Galilean satellites formed by chemical condensation and gravitational accumulation of solid grains within a concentric family of orbiting gas rings. These rings were cast off equatorially by the rotating proto-Jovian cloud (PJC which contracted gravitationally to form Jupiter some 4 1/2 billion years ago. The PJC formed from the gas and grains left over from the gas ring that had been shed at Jupiter's orbit by the contracting proto-solar cloud (PSC Supersonic turbulent convection provides the means for shedding discrete gas rings. The temperatures T (sub n) of the system of gas rings shed by the PSC and PJC vary with their respective mean orbital radii R (sub n) (n = 0, 1,2,...) according as T (sub n) proportional to R (sub n) (exp -0.9). If the planet Mercury condenses at 1640 K, so accounting for the high density of that planet via a process of chemical fractionation between iron and silicates, then T (sub n) at Jupiter's orbit is 158 K. Only 35% of the water vapour condenses out. Thus fractionation between rock and ice, together with an enhancement in the abundance of solids relative to gas which takes place through gravitational sedimentation of solids onto the mean orbit of the gas ring, ensures nearly equal proportions of rock and ice in each of Ganymede and Callisto. Io and Europa condense above the H20 ice point and consist solely of hydrated rock (h-rock). The Ganymedan condensate consists of h-rock and H20 ice. For

  18. Lee-Yang zeros analysis of finite density lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, P


    coefficients from different ensembles (through the ratio of the normalisations) we are thus able to alleviate the bias in our sampling. We then further develop this method for SU(3) with static quarks by generating a range of canonical ensembles which we combine with our new re-weighting approach. From our SU(2) measurements we establish the existence of a diquark superfluid at high densities and low temperatures. We also determine the position and order of the associated symmetry breaking transitions in the mass - chemical potential plane. From our measurements of static SU(3) we establish that the finite density transition at intermediate coupling is a first order percolation transition. Having addressed the pathologies of the re-weighting method in two nonabelian gauge field theories which are simpler to evaluate numerically, in future work SU(3) QCD can be evaluated at finite density. Recent results from four-fermion interaction models have suggested that new exotic phases form at finite baryon density wh...

  19. Automated Proposition Density Analysis for Discourse in Aphasia (United States)

    Fromm, Davida; Greenhouse, Joel; Hou, Kaiyue; Russell, G. Austin; Cai, Xizhen; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey; MacWhinney, Brian


    Purpose: This study evaluates how proposition density can differentiate between persons with aphasia (PWA) and individuals in a control group, as well as among subtypes of aphasia, on the basis of procedural discourse and personal narratives collected from large samples of participants. Method: Participants were 195 PWA and 168 individuals in a…

  20. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per ... It forms part of the hip joint (at the acetabulum) and part of the knee joint, which is located above. There are four eminences, or protuberances, in the human ...

  1. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua


    In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...

  2. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation of 3D trapped field distribution of single domain SmBCO bulks by Sm+011 TSIG methods (United States)

    Yang, Wanmin; Yang, Pengtao; Wang, Yanan; Li, Qiang


    The lower critical temperature Tc and critical current density Jc are serious weaknesses of SmBCO bulk superconductors fabricated in air for practical applications, because of the Sm3+/Ba2+ solid solution in Sm1+xBa2-xCu3Oy crystals. In this paper, high quality single domain SmBCO bulk samples S1 (ϕ20 mm) and S2 (ϕ32 mm) have been fabricated in air by a new Sm+011 TSIG method. The trapped field of the samples is 0.8 T and 1.15 T at liquid nitrogen temperature for the samples S1 and S2 respectively, which is the strongest trapped field of the SmBCO samples fabricated in air today. The theoretical formula for 3D trapped field distribution have been derived for a cylindrical model with uniformly distributed critical current density Jc based on the Biot Savart law; the cylindrical sample is divided into a series of concentric rings with the same width and thickness, the trapped field of the samples is the summation of magnetic field produced by all the rings, while the magnetic field generated by each ring was worked out by trapezoidal numerical integration based on the Biot Savart law with the critical current density Jc of the samples. It is found that the calculated field of the samples is well in agreement with the experimental results if the reasonable Jc of the samples is adopted. The theoretical calculation result also indicates that the larger the diameter and the thickness of the samples, the stronger the trapped flux density, but the optimal diameter/thickness ratio should be of a reasonable value around one, and it is not so good to fabricated samples with too larger diameter or thickness for practical applications.

  3. A high-resolution linkage map of the Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) produced by a combination of bulked segregant analysis and RNA-Seq. (United States)

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Cho, Youngcho; Kim, Sunggil


    We utilized a combination of BSA and RNA-Seq to identify SNPs linked to the Rfd1 locus, a restorer-of-fertility gene in radish. A high-density linkage map was constructed using this approach. Male fertility of cytoplasmic male sterility conditioned by the Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility cytoplasm can be restored by a restorer-of-fertility locus, Rfd1, in radish. To construct a high-density linkage map and to identify a candidate gene for the Rfd1 locus, bulked segregant analysis and RNA-seq approaches were combined. A total of 26 and 28 million reads produced from male-fertile and male-sterile bulked RNA were mapped to the radish reference unigenes. After stringent screening of SNPs, 327 reliable SNPs of 109 unigenes were selected. Arabidopsis homologs for 101 of the 109 genes were clustered around the 4,000 kb region of Arabidopsis chromosome 3, which was syntenic to the Rfd1 flanking region. Since the reference unigene set was incomplete, the contigs were de novo assembled to identify 134 contigs harboring SNPs. Most of SNP-containing contigs were also clustered on the same syntenic region in Arabidopsis chromosome. A total of 21 molecular markers positioned within a 2.1 cM interval including the Rfd1 locus were developed, based on the selected unigenes and contigs. A segregating population consisting of 10,459 individuals was analyzed to identify recombinants containing crossovers within this interval. A total of 284 identified recombinants were then used to construct a high-density map, which delimited the Rfd1 locus into an 83-kb syntenic interval of Arabidopsis chromosome 3. Since no candidate gene, such as a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR)-coding gene, was found in this interval, 231 unigenes and 491 contigs containing putative PPR motifs were analyzed further, but no PPR gene in linkage disequilibrium with the Rfd1 locus could be found.

  4. Chemical bonding and charge density distribution analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A-site deficient, Lanthanum substituted Ba1−xLa2x/3TiO3 (x=0.000, 0.005, 0.015, 0.020 and 0.025) ceramics have been synthesized by chemical route. The effects of lanthanum dopant on the BaTiO3 lattice and the electron density distributions in the unit cell of the samples were investigated. Structural studies suggested ...

  5. Mangrove canopy density analysis using Sentinel-2A imagery satellite data (United States)

    Wachid, M. N.; Hapsara, R. P.; Cahyo, R. D.; Wahyu, G. N.; Syarif, A. M.; Umarhadi, D. A.; Fitriani, A. N.; Ramadhanningrum, D. P.; Widyatmanti, W.


    Teluk Jor has alluvium surface sediment that came from volcanic materials. Sea wave that relatively calm and the closed beach shape support the existence of mangrove forest at Teluk Jor. Sentinel-2A imagery has a good spatial and spectral resolution for mangrove density study. The regression between samples and the NDVI values of Sentinel-2A used to analyze the mangrove canopy density. Mangrove canopy density was identified using field survey with transect method. The regression analysis shows field data and NDVI value has correlation R=0.7739 and coefficient of determination R2=0.5989. The result of the analysis shows area of low density 397,900 m2, moderate density 336,200 m2, the high density has 110,300 m2 and very high density has 500 m2. This research also found that mangrove genus in Teluk Jor consists of Rhizopora, Ceriops, Aegiceras and Sonneratia.

  6. Multi-Instrument Data Analysis of Thermospheric Density and Winds (United States)

    Pilinski, Marcin

    The Drag and Atmospheric Neutral Density Explorer (DANDE) is a 50 kg, 0.45 meter diameter, spherical spacecraft being developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The goal of the DANDE mission is to make in-situ measurements of density, composition, and winds at altitudes between 200 and 350 km. The relationship between these quantities during both disturbed and quiet atmospheric conditions as well as the relative effect of these parameters on satellite drag will be addressed using simultaneous measurements from two instruments. The first is the Wind and Atmospheric Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) and is a miniaturized electrostatic energy analyzer. The second is an experimental acceleration measuring system which takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to modulate the drag acceleration to a known frequency and uses a suite of commercially available accelerometers as detectors. To evaluate this novel method of atmospheric data collection, a comprehensive model of its components is under development. In addition to being a scientific and operational assessment of the spacecraft data products, this work also represents the engineering error model which helps drive the selection and design of system components. The simulation is composed of environmental, spacecraft, and instrument models and, given inputs such as solar F10.7, results in simulated on-orbit data. These data products are compared to model values so that errors can be determined and cataloged statistically. The errors are then compared to those assumed in assimilative thermosphere modeling studies to evaluate how well a spacecraft like DANDE could be used to improve nowcasting and density determination. The spacecraft model is composed of attitude and orbital dynamics, thermal cycling inputs, and variations in the coefficient of drag. WATS instrument simulation is based upon the statistical error descriptions of an ion-optics study conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Modeling of the

  7. An empirical analysis of freight rate and vessel price volatility transmission in global dry bulk shipping market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dai


    Full Text Available Global dry bulk shipping market is an important element of global economy and trade. Since newbuilding and secondhand vessels are often traded as assets and the freight rate is the key determinant of vessel price, it is important for shipping market participants to understand the market dynamics and price transmission mechanism over time to make suitable strategic decisions. To address this issue, a multi-variate GARCH model was applied in this paper to explore the volatility spillover effects across the vessel markets (including newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets and freight market. Specifically, the BEKK parameterization of the multi-variate GARCH model (BEKK GARCH was proposed to capture the volatility transmission effect from the freight market, newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets in the global dry bulk shipping industry. Empirical results reveal that significant volatility transmission effects exist in each market sector, i.e. capesize, panamax, handymax and handysize. Besides, the market volatility transmission mechanism varies among different vessel types. Moreover, some bilateral effects are found in the dry bulk shipping market, showing that lagged variances could affect the current variance in a counterpart market, regardless of the volatility transmission. A simple ratio is proposed to guide investors optimizing their portfolio allocations. The findings in this paper could provide unique insights for investors to understand the market and hedge their portfolios well.

  8. The impact of agriculture terraces on soil organic matter, aggregate stability, water repellency and bulk density. A study in abandoned and active farms in the Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain. (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Di Prima, Simone; Brevik, Erik; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo


    Soil erosion, land degradation, lack of organic matter, erodible soils, rock outcrops… are a consequence of the human abuse and misuse of the soil resources. And this is a worldwide environmental issue (Novara et al., 2011; Vanlauwe et al., 2015; Musinguzi et al., 2015; Pereira et al., 2015; Mwagno et al., 2016). Agriculture terraces are a strategy to reduce the soil erosion, improve the soil fertility and allow the ploughing (Cerdà et al., 2010; Li et al., 2014). Although this idea is well accepted there are few scientific evidences that demonstrate that soils in the terraced areas are more stable, fertile and sustainable that the soil in non terraced areas. In fact, the ploughing in comparison to the abandoned or not ploughed land results in the soil degradation (Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Gao et al., 2015; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014). This is mainly due to the lack of vegetation that increase the surface runoff (Cerdà et al., 1998; Keesstra et al., 2007). And why is necessary to develop also in terraced landscapes soil erosion control strategies (Mekonnen et al., 2015a; Mekonnen et al., 2015b; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Our objective was to assess the soil organic matter content (Walkley and Black, 1934), the soil bulk density (ring method), the aggregate stabilility (drop impact) and the water repellency (Water Drop Penetration Time test) in four study sites in the Sierra de Enguera. Two sites were terraced: one abandoned 40 years before the measurements and the other still active with olive crops. And two control sites non-terraced. We used the paired plot strategy to compare the impact of terracing and abandonment. At each site we collected randomly 50 soil samples at 0-2 cm, 4-6 and 8-10 cm depth. At each sampling point 100 WDPT measurements where carried out, and one sample for the bulk density, and one for the organic matter, and one for the soil aggregate stability were collected. The soil surface samples shown the largest differences. The

  9. On the application of principal component analysis to the calculation of the bulk integral optical properties for radiation parameterizations in climate models. (United States)

    Baran, Anthony J; Newman, Stuart M


    Rigorous electromagnetic computations required for the calculation of high-resolution monochromatic bulk integral optical properties of irregular atmospheric particles are onerous in memory and in time requirements. Here, it is shown that from a set of 145 monochromatic bulk integral ice optical properties, it is possible to reduce the set to eight hinge wavelengths by using the method of principal component analysis (PCA) regression. From the eight hinge wavelengths, the full set can be reconstructed to within root mean square errors of ≪1%. To obtain optimal reconstruction, the training set must cover as wide a range of parameter space as possible. Rigorous electromagnetic methods can now be routinely applied to represent accurately the integral optical properties of atmospheric particles in climate models.

  10. Estimating the spatial distribution of soil organic matter density and geochemical properties in a polygonal shaped Arctic Tundra using core sample analysis and X-ray computed tomography (United States)

    Soom, F.; Ulrich, C.; Dafflon, B.; Wu, Y.; Kneafsey, T. J.; López, R. D.; Peterson, J.; Hubbard, S. S.


    The Arctic tundra with its permafrost dominated soils is one of the regions most affected by global climate change, and in turn, can also influence the changing climate through biogeochemical processes, including greenhouse gas release or storage. Characterization of shallow permafrost distribution and characteristics are required for predicting ecosystem feedbacks to a changing climate over decadal to century timescales, because they can drive active layer deepening and land surface deformation, which in turn can significantly affect hydrological and biogeochemical responses, including greenhouse gas dynamics. In this study, part of the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE-Arctic), we use X-ray computed tomography (CT) to estimate wet bulk density of cores extracted from a field site near Barrow AK, which extend 2-3m through the active layer into the permafrost. We use multi-dimensional relationships inferred from destructive core sample analysis to infer organic matter density, dry bulk density and ice content, along with some geochemical properties from nondestructive CT-scans along the entire length of the cores, which was not obtained by the spatially limited destructive laboratory analysis. Multi-parameter cross-correlations showed good agreement between soil properties estimated from CT scans versus properties obtained through destructive sampling. Soil properties estimated from cores located in different types of polygons provide valuable information about the vertical distribution of soil and permafrost properties as a function of geomorphology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Vibration at the pedal-pad may contribute to discomfort of foot plantar fascia during driving. This is due to transmission of vibration to the mount, chassis, pedal, and then to the foot plantar fascia. This experimental study is conducted to determine the estimation of peak value using the power spectral density of the vertical vibration input at the foot. The power spectral density value is calculated based on the frequency range between 13 Hz to 18 Hz. This experiment was conducted using 12 subjects testing on three size of pedal-pads; small, medium and large. The result shows that peak value occurs at resonance frequency of 15 Hz. The PSD values at that resonance frequency are 0.251 (m/s2 2/Hz for small pedal-pad, followed by the medium pedal-pad is at 0.387 (m/s2 2/Hz and lastly for the large pedal-pad is at 0.483 (m/s22/Hz. The resultsindicate that during driving, the foot vibration when interact with the large pedal-pad contributed higher stimulus compared with the small and medium pedal-pad. The pedal-pad size plays an important role in the pedal element designs in terms of vibration-transfer from pedal-pads on the feet, particularly to provide comfort to the driver while driving.

  12. Density of mixed alkali borate glasses: A structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doweidar, H. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)]. E-mail:; El-Damrawi, G.M. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); Moustafa, Y.M. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); Ramadan, R.M. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)


    Density of mixed alkali borate glasses has been correlated with the glass structure. It is assumed that in such glasses each alkali oxide associates with a proportional quantity of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The number of BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units related to each type of alkali oxide depends on the total concentration of alkali oxide. It is concluded that in mixed alkali borate glasses the volumes of structural units related to an alkali ion are the same as in the corresponding binary alkali borate glass. This reveals that each type of alkali oxide forms its own borate matrix and behaves as if not affected with the presence of the other alkali oxide. Similar conclusions are valid for borate glasses with three types of alkali oxide.

  13. Periodic Density Functional Theory Solver using Multiresolution Analysis with MADNESS (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Thornton, William


    We describe the first implementation of the all-electron Kohn-Sham density functional periodic solver (DFT) using multi-wavelets and fast integral equations using MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation; The multiresolution nature of a multi-wavelet basis allows for fast computation with guaranteed precision. By reformulating the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue equation into the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, we can avoid using the derivative operator which allows better control of overall precision for the all-electron problem. Other highlights include the development of periodic integral operators with low-rank separation, an adaptable model potential for nuclear potential, and an implementation for Hartree Fock exchange. This work was supported by NSF project OCI-0904972 and made use of resources at the Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. Density Functional Theory using Multiresolution Analysis with MADNESS (United States)

    Thornton, Scott; Harrison, Robert


    We describe the first implementation of the all-electron Kohn-Sham density functional periodic solver (DFT) using multi-wavelets and fast integral equations using MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation; The multiresolution nature of a multi-wavelet basis allows for fast computation with guaranteed precision. By reformulating the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue equation into the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, we can avoid using the derivative operator which allows better control of overall precision for the all-electron problem. Other highlights include the development of periodic integral operators with low-rank separation, an adaptable model potential for the nuclear potential, and an implementation for Hartree-Fock exchange.

  15. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  16. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  17. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat


    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  18. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat


    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  19. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum


    of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M....... bovis ELISA kit and the antigen detecting PathoProof Mastitis Major-3 kit. As none of these are considered a gold standard test for herd-level diagnostics we applied a series of Bayesian latent class analyses for a range of ELISA cut-off values. The negative and positive predictive values were...... calculated for hypothetical true national prevalences (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of infected herds. We estimated that the ELISA test had a median sensitivity and specificity of 60.4 [37.5-96.2 95% Posterior Credibility Interval] and 97.3 [94.0-99.8 95% PCI] at the currently recommended cut-off (37% Optical...

  20. Soil bulk density and biomass partitioning of Brachiaria decumbens in a silvopastoral system Densidade do solo e partição de biomassa de Brachiaria decumbens em um sistema silvopastoril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo


    Full Text Available Shade in silvopastoral systems improves the thermal comfort of animals, but it may also affect the pasture productivity and can contribute to soil compaction in the shaded areas due to the increase in the number of animals looking for comfort. The effect of grazing at various distances from tree rows (under the tree canopy, at 6 and at 12 m away from the trees on the soil bulk density and on the aerial and root biomass of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated in both the dry and the rainy seasons. The study was carried out on an Orthic Ferralsol in a randomized block design with two replications. Tree rows were composed of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium species, and the paddocks were submitted to a rotational stocking management, using Holstein (Bos taurus × Zebu (Bos indicus heifers. The shade intensity in the pasture decreased with an increasing distance from the tree row. Soil bulk density did not vary with the distance from the tree row, but varied seasonally, being greater in the rainy season (1.47 g cm-3 than in the dry season (1.28 g cm-3. Green forage and root mass, expressed as dry matter, were lower under the tree canopy and were greater in the rainy season. There were decreases of 22.3 and 41.4% in the aerial and root biomasses, respectively, in the tree rows. The greatest shoot/root ratio for B. decumbens under moderate and intensive shading indicates a modification in the forage biomass allocation pattern that favours the aerial development in detriment of the root system.O sombreamento em sistemas silvipastoris concorre para o conforto térmico dos animais; no entanto pode afetar a produção do pasto e contribuir para a compactação do solo, pelo aumento da concentração de animais nas áreas sombreadas. Avaliou-se o efeito da distância do renque de árvores (sob a copa das árvores, 6 e 12 m de distancia das árvores na densidade do solo e na biomassa aérea e de raízes de Brachiaria decumbens, nas épocas seca e chuvosa

  1. Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo avaliada por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luís Bamberg


    lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an Albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC. The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of Embrapa Clima Temperado, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L. rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L. rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil. The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no-tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm, indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils.

  2. Segregation analysis of alcoholism in high density families: A replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.; Marazita, M.L.; Hill, S.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    We have previously reported segregation analysis of alcoholism in 35 multigenerational families, each ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics by using the mixed model implemented by POINTER. This analysis suggested that liability to alcoholism was, in part, controlled by a major effect with or without additional multifactorial effects. The hypothesis that the major effect was explained by a single genetic locus with strictly Mendelian transmission was rejected. The purpose of the present analysis was to use the regressive model implemented by the REGD program from the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology computer package (S.A.G.E.) to confirm by replication that a major effect was present in these 35 families. Evidence for the major effect found in Pointer was replicated in the present analysis by using S.A.G.E. Also, we found strong evidence for parental effects that were independent of the major locus transmission from ancestral relatives to children. Mendelian transmission of this major effect was rejected when models incorporated parental effects. When the major effect was calculated adjusting for parental phenotypes, the relative risk of affection for children was about twice as high with affected parents vs. unaffected parents. 25 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Segregation analysis of alcoholism in high density families: a replication. (United States)

    Yuan, H; Marazita, M L; Hill, S Y


    We have previously reported segregation analysis of alcoholism in 35 multigenerational families, each ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics by using the mixed model implemented by POINTER. This analysis suggested that liability to alcoholism was, in part, controlled by a major effect with or without additional multifactorial effects. The hypothesis that the major effect was explained by a single genetic locus with strictly mendelian transmission was rejected. The purpose of the present analysis was to use the regressive model implemented by the REGD program from the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology computer package (S.A.G.E.) to confirm by replication that a major effect was present in these 35 families. Evidence for the major effect found in Pointer was replicated in the present analysis by using S.A.G.E. Also, we found strong evidence for parental effects that were independent of the major locus transmission from ancestral relatives to children. Mendelian transmission of this major effect was rejected when models incorporated parental effects. When the major effect was calculated adjusting for parental phenotypes, the relative risk of affection for children was about twice as high with affected parents vs. unaffected parents.

  4. Singularity analysis of frequency density of isotop age data (United States)

    Cheng, Qiuming


    Frequency distribution (histogram) calculated on the basis of igneous and detrital zircon U-Pb ages has been commonly utilized to interpret the age (range) of magmatic events. The temporal properties of this type of data have also been integrated with other types of isotope data (e.g., neodymium, hafnium, and oxygen) to describe the high magmatic addition rate (MAR) caused by plate subduction. Major peaks are identified to determine pulses of high-volume magmatic flare-ups related to subduction. In this paper, power-law models are applied to analyze these age peaks. The strong singularities of these models indicate that magmatic flare ups might be related to nonlinear phenomena of plate subduction including but being not limited to phase transition, self-organized criticality and multiplicative cascade processes. The case studies chosen for methodology validation include an igneous zircon U-Pb datasets from Gangdese arc, a orogen related to the India-Asia collision and from the Coastal Batholith related to east pacific plate subduction. It was found that the age density around peaks ca 51-50 Ma in both datasets can be fitted by power-law functions with the age interval about 30 - 40 Myr. The positive singularities of the age peaks estimated by these power-law models suggest that these age peaks might be related to magmatic flare-ups caused by multiplicative cascade and self-organized criticality tectonic processes.

  5. Differentiating defects in red oak lumber by discriminant analysis using color, shape, and density (United States)

    B. H. Bond; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman


    Defect color, shape, and density measures aid in the differentiation of knots, bark pockets, stain/mineral streak, and clearwood in red oak, (Quercus rubra). Various color, shape, and density measures were extracted for defects present in color and X-ray images captured using a color line scan camera and an X-ray line scan detector. Analysis of variance was used to...

  6. Managing to low-density lipoprotein particles compared with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a cost-effectiveness analysis. (United States)

    Rizzo, John A; Mallow, Peter J; Waters, Heidi C; Pokrywka, Gregory S


    Meta-analyses of clinical trials have shown that using statins to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular events, and more intensive lowering of LDL-C further decreases the risk of occlusive vascular events. Lipoprotein studies suggest treating patients more aggressively when low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) number is discordantly high in the presence of normal LDL-C levels. Failure to manage LDL-P numbers may lead to additional direct and indirect costs. This analysis modeled direct and indirect costs associated with cardiovascular events due to suboptimal treatment resulting from discordance between LDL-C and LDL-P levels. The analysis was conducted from the payer perspective and the employer perspective, respectively, over a 3-year time period. Clinical data were obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based population study. The employer perspective included indirect costs and quality-adjusted life years in addition to the direct costs and cardiovascular disease events considered in the payer analysis. All costs are reported in 2011 dollars. From the payer perspective, managing LDL-C and LDL-P in comparison with LDL-C alone reduced costs ($21,212) and cardiovascular events (9 events). Similar patterns were observed for managing LDL-P alone in comparison with LDL-C. From the employer perspective, managing both LDL-P alone or in combination with LDL-C also resulted in lower costs, fewer cardiovascular disease events, and increased quality-adjusted life years in comparison with LDL-C. This analysis indicates that the benefits of additional testing to optimally manage LDL-P levels outweigh the costs of more aggressive treatment. These favorable results depended on the cost of drug therapy. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential density and tree survival: an analysis based on South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, we present a tree survival analysis, based on the Weibull distribution function, for the Nelshoogte replicated CCT study, which has been observed for almost 40 years after planting and provides information about tree survival in response to planting espacements ranging from 494 to 2 965 trees per hectare.

  8. Spatial analysis of NDVI readings with difference sampling density (United States)

    Advanced remote sensing technologies provide research an innovative way of collecting spatial data for use in precision agriculture. Sensor information and spatial analysis together allow for a complete understanding of the spatial complexity of a field and its crop. The objective of the study was...

  9. Cannabis publication analysis using density-equalising mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the worldwide research output on cannabis. Methods. In a quantitative approach, items concerning cannabis published between 1900 and 2008 were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science databases developed by the Thompson Institute ...

  10. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk: a mediation analysis. (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Rosner, Bernard A; Liao, Xiaomei; Adami, Hans-Olov; Tamimi, Rulla M


    High mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, it is unclear whether high MD is an intermediate phenotype or whether breast cancer risk factors influence breast cancer risk and MD independently. Our study population included 1290 invasive breast cancer cases and 3422 controls from the Nurses' Health Studies. We estimated the percent of the total association between the risk factor and breast cancer that was mediated by MD. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, the association between history of biopsy-confirmed benign breast disease and risk was partially mediated by percent MD (percent mediated (PM) = 17 %, p age 18) and breast cancer risk were substantially mediated by percent MD (PM = 73 %, p = 0.05 and PM = 82 %, p = 0.04, respectively). In postmenopausal women, the proportion of the associations of childhood somatotype and adolescent somatotype that were mediated by percent MD were lower (PM = 26 %, p = 0.01 for both measures). Hormone therapy use at mammogram was significantly mediated by percent MD in postmenopausal women (PM = 22 %, p risk factors, such as age at menarche or family history of breast cancer, were not mediated by percent MD. Percent MD partially mediated some of the associations between risk factors and breast cancer, though the magnitude varied by risk factor and menopausal status. These findings suggest that high MD may be an intermediate in some biological pathways for breast cancer development.

  11. Influenza: a scientometric and density-equalizing analysis. (United States)

    Fricke, Ralph; Uibel, Stefanie; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A


    Novel influenza in 2009 caused by H1N1, as well as the seasonal influenza, still are a challenge for the public health sectors worldwide. An increasing number of publications referring to this infectious disease make it difficult to distinguish relevant research output. The current study used scientometric indices for a detailed investigation on influenza related research activity and the method of density equalizing mapping to make the differences of the overall research worldwide obvious. The aim of the study was to compare scientific effort over the time as well as geographical distribution including the cooperation on national and international level. Therefore, publication data was retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) of Thomson Scientific. Subsequently the data was analysed in order to show geographical distributions and the development of the research output over the time.The query retrieved 51,418 publications that are listed in WoS for the time interval from 1900 to 2009. There is a continuous increase in research output and general citation activity especially since 1990. The identified all in all 51,418 publications were published by researchers from 151 different countries. Scientists from the USA participate in more than 37 percent of all publications, followed by researchers from the UK and Germany with more than five percent. In addition, the USA is in the focus of international cooperation.In terms of number of publications on influenza, the Journal of Virology ranks first, followed by Vaccine and Virology. The highest impact factor (IF 2009) in this selection can be established for The Lancet (30.75). Robert Webster seems to be the most prolific author contributing the most publications in the field of influenza. This study reveals an increasing and wide research interest in influenza. Nevertheless, citation based-declaration of scientific quality should be considered critically due to distortion by self-citation and co-authorship.

  12. Preservation media analysis for ex vivo measurements of endogenous UV fluorescence of liver fibrosis in bulk samples (United States)

    Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Perez-Garcia, Adolfo; Aleman-García, Nathalie; Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Sánchez-Pérez, Celia; Franco, Walfre; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín.


    Non-subjective, minimally-invasive, and quantifying techniques may support development and evaluation of a fibrosis regression treatment. The build-up of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis may result on changes of the endogenous fluorescence of tissue. In this work, we evaluate the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix in the UV range for several bulk samples of murine hepatic tissue preserved in different media. Chemical changes on tissue, caused by formaldehyde preservation, alter the endogenous fluorescence spectra. To avoid these drawbacks, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium were used. PBS buffer showed to be the less harmful and cost-effective preservation medium to study the endogenous fluorescence in fibrotic tissue.

  13. Flow-through Bulk Optode for Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate and Its Application to Water and Saliva Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández


    Full Text Available A flow-through spectrophotometric bulk optode for the flow-injectiondetermination of thiocyanate is described. As active constituents, the optode incorporatesthe lipophilized pH indicator 5-octadecanoyloxy-2-(4-nitrophenylazophenol andmethyltridodecyl ammonium chloride, dissolved in a plasticized poly(vinylchloridemembrane entrapped in a cellulose support. The optode is applied, in conjunction with theflow injection technique, to the determination of thiocyanate at pH 7.5 (TRIS/H2SO4. Thesensor is readily regenerated with a 10-2 M NaOH carrier solution. The analyticalcharacteristics of this optode with respect to thiocyanate response time, dynamicmeasurement range, reproducibility and selectivity are discussed. The proposed FI methodis applied to the determination of thiocyanate in waters from different sources and in humansaliva samples in order to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers.

  14. Fabrication, Micro-structural Analysis, and Mechanical Testing of High Density Polymeric Foam (United States)

    Marks, Trevor Gustov

    Foams, or what are often called cellular solids, are some of the most widely used materials in the modern era. In general, foam is a porous substance formed by the introduction of gas filled pores into condensed matter; the result is typically a light weight substance with properties related to the base (non-porous) medium. Applications of foams include: vibration dampening, energy mitigation (such as packaging and bike helmets), insulation, filtration, and flotation. The focus of this work is on the properties of flexible elastomeric foam of high relative-density. The bulk of existing literature on elastomeric foam is concerned with foam of low relative-density (ratio of the foam density to the density of the material from which the foam is formed ≤ 0.1). The relationship between the micro-structure of high relative-density foam and its mechanical response has, in large part, not been subjected to systematic investigation heretofore. The present work examines how the micro-structural features of pore shape, size, and location affect the macro-structural response of relative high density foam to compressive loading. In order to carry out this study, methods were developed and employed to control a foam's micro-structure, and hence its mechanical response, with the use of temporary pore forming particles and micron scale inclusions. Advanced microscopy techniques were used to observe, in situ, the evolution of a foam's micro-structure under compressive loading, and the results were correlated with the evolution of the foam's stress - strain response. Additionally, quantitative methods were developed and employed to describe numerically the foam's micro-structural features, such as: (i), pore shape, (ii), pore size, and (iii), the arrangement of the pores with respect to each other. Numerous foams were produced, tested, and subjected to the methodology developed for this study.

  15. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin


    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  16. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.


    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. High-density polyethylene dosimetry by transvinylene FTIR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheikhly, M.


    The formation of transvinylene unsaturation, -CH=CH-, due to free-radical or cationic-initiated dehydrogenation by irradiation, is a basic reaction in polyethylene and is useful for dosimetry at high absorbed doses. The radiation-enhanced infrared absorption having a maximum at nu = 965 cm......(-l) (lambda = 10.36 mu m) is stable in air and can be measured by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The quantitative analysis is a useful means of product end-point dosimetry for radiation processing with gamma rays and electrons, where polyethylene is a component of the processed product....... The transvinylene response in air to gamma radiation is linear with dose and has relatively low yield compared with the response to electrons, whereas the response in deaerated polyethylene samples is also linear, but is more sensitive, and has negligible dose-rate dependence in its response to gamma rays...

  18. Combined Molecular Dynamics, Atoms in Molecules, and IR Studies of the Bulk Monofluoroethanol and Bulk Ethanol To Understand the Role of Organic Fluorine in the Hydrogen Bond Network. (United States)

    Biswas, Biswajit; Mondal, Saptarsi; Singh, Prashant Chandra


    The presence of the fluorocarbon group in fluorinated alcohols makes them an important class of molecules that have diverse applications in the field of separation techniques, synthetic chemistry, polymer industry, and biology. In this paper, we have performed the density function theory calculation along with atom in molecule analysis, molecular dynamics simulation, and IR measurements of bulk monofluoroethanol (MFE) and compared them with the data for bulk ethanol (ETH) to understand the effect of the fluorocarbon group in the structure and the hydrogen bond network of bulk MFE. It has been found that the intramolecular O-H···F hydrogen bond is almost absent in bulk MFE. Molecular dynamics simulation and density function theory calculation along with atom in molecule analysis clearly depict that in the case of bulk MFE, a significant amount of intermolecular O-H···F and C-H···F hydrogen bonds are present along with the intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bond. The presence of intermolecular O-H···F and C-H···F hydrogen bonds causes the difference in the IR spectrum of bulk MFE as compared to bulk ETH. This study clearly depicts that the organic fluorine (fluorocarbon) of MFE acts as a hydrogen bond acceptor and plays a significant role in the structure and hydrogen bond network of bulk MFE through the formation of weak O-H···F as well C-H···F hydrogen bonds, which may be one of the important reasons behind the unique behavior of the fluoroethanols.

  19. A time series analysis of bulk tank somatic cell counts of dairy herds located in Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Gonçalves Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC is widely used to monitore the mammary gland health at the herd and regional level. The BTSCC time series from specific regions or countries can be used to compare the mammary gland health and estimate the trend of subclinical mastitis at the regional level. Three time series of BTSCC from dairy herds located in the USA and the Southeastern Brazil were evaluated from 1995 to 2014. Descriptive statistics and a linear regression model were used to evaluate the data of the BTSCC time series. The mean of annual geometric mean of BTSCC (AGM and the percentage of dairy herds with a BTSCC greater than 400,000 cells mL-1 (%>400 were significantly different (P400 (P400, respectively. The linear regression model for the Brazil time series was not significant (P>0.05 for both dependent variables (AGM and %>400. The Brazil time series showed no increasing or decreasing trend for the AGM and %>400. Consequently, approximately 40 to 50% of the dairy herds from southeastern Brazil will not achieve the regulatory limits for BTSCC over the next years.

  20. Simultaneous Analysis of Losartan Potassium, Amlodipine Besylate, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Bulk and in Tablets by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography with UV-Absorption Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanidhi Santhana Lakshmi


    Full Text Available A Simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method for separation and quantitative analysis of losartan potassium, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations has been established and validated. After extraction with methanol, sample and standard solutions were applied to silica gel plates and developed with chloroform : methanol : acetone : formic acid 7.5 : 1.3 : 0.5 : 0.03 (/// as mobile phase. Zones were scanned densitometrically at 254 nm. The values of amlodipine besylate, hydrochlorothiazide, and losartan potassium were 0.35, 0.57, and 0.74, respectively. Calibration plots were linear in the ranges 500–3000 ng per spot for losartan potassium, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide, the correlation coefficients, r, were 0.998, 0.998, and 0.999, respectively. The suitability of this method for quantitative determination of these compounds was by validation in accordance with the requirements of pharmaceutical regulatory standards. The method can be used for routine analysis of these drugs in bulk and in formulation.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction for calculation of lithospheric mantle density from gravity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    We investigate how uncertainties in seismic and density structure of the crust propagate to uncertainties in mantle density structure. The analysis is based on interpretation of residual upper-mantle gravity anomalies which are calculated by subtracting (stripping) the gravitational effect...... of the crust from the observed satellite gravity field data (GOCE Direct release 3). Thus calculated residual mantle gravity anomalies are caused mainly by a heterogeneous density distribution in the upper mantle. Given a relatively small range of expected compositional density variations in the lithospheric...... mantle, knowledge on uncertainties associated with incomplete information on crustal structure is of utmost importance for progress in gravity modelling. Uncertainties in the residual upper-mantle gravity anomalies result chiefly from uncertainties in (i) seismic VP velocity-density conversion...

  2. Bulk Nanostructured Materials (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.


    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  3. Results of bulk sediment analysis and bioassay testing on selected sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor and Alcatraz disposal site, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J Q; Ward, J A; Woodruff, D L


    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, to perform bulk sediment analysis and oyster larvae bioassays (elutriate) on sediments from Inner Oakland Harbor, California. Analysis of sediment characteristics by MSL indicated elevated priority pollutants, PAHs, pesticides, metals, organotins, and oil and grease concentrations, when compared to Alcatraz Island Dredged Material Disposal Site sediment concentrations. Larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to seawater collected from the Alcatraz Island Site water, and a series of controls using water and sediments collected from Sequim Bay, Washington. Exposure of larvae to the Alcatraz seawater and the 50% and 100% elutriate concentrations from each Oakland sediment resulted in low survival and a high proportion of abnormal larvae compared to Sequim Bay control exposures. MSL identified that field sample collection, preservation, and storage protocols used by Port of Oakland contractors were inconsistent with standard accepted practices. 23 refs., 10 figs., 40 tabs.

  4. On the derivation of the Nakajima-Zwanzig probability density function via white noise analysis (United States)

    Butanas, Bienvenido M.; Caballar, Roland C. F.


    This paper presents an application of white noise analysis in obtaining the probability density function associated with Nakajima-Zwanzig equation. We revisit the derivation of the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation and solve the probability density function. Moreover, with the parametrization, x (t )=xO+∫t0t ∫so sκ (s',s)ω (s')d s'd s , we show that in the absence of memory effects, κ(t, s) ≈ δ(t - s), the obtained probability density for the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation reduces to that of the Gaussian distribution with σ2 = (t-t0).

  5. MRSA: A Density-Equalizing Mapping Analysis of the Global Research Architecture


    Addicks, Johann P.; Stefanie Uibel; Anna-Maria Jensen; Matthias Bundschuh; Doris Klingelhoefer; David A. Groneberg


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has evolved as an alarming public health thread due to its global spread as hospital and community pathogen. Despite this role, a scientometric analysis has not been performed yet. Therefore, the NewQIS platform was used to conduct a combined density-equalizing mapping and scientometric study. As database, the Web of Science was used, and all entries between 1961 and 2007 were analyzed. In total, 7671 entries were identified. Density equaliz...

  6. The gluon density of the proton at low x from a QCD analysis of F$_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, S; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Charlet, M; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Glazov, A; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Lehner, F; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindström, G; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, G; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleif, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schöning, A; Sciacca, G F; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van den Plas, D; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W


    We present a QCD analysis of the proton structure function F_2 measured by the H1 experiment at HERA, combined with data from previous fixed target experiments. The gluon density is extracted from the scaling violations of F_2 in the range 2\\cdot 10^{-4}density is found to rise steeply with decreasing x.

  7. Tapped density optimisation for four agricultural wastes - Part II: Performance analysis and Taguchi-Pareto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade Oluwaseyi Ayodele


    Full Text Available In this attempt, which is a second part of discussions on tapped density optimisation for four agricultural wastes (particles of coconut, periwinkle, palm kernel and egg shells, performance analysis for comparative basis is made. This paper pioneers a study direction in which optimisation of process variables are pursued using Taguchi method integrated with the Pareto 80-20 rule. Negative percentage improvements resulted when the optimal tapped density was compared with the average tapped density. However, the performance analysis between optimal tapped density and the peak tapped density values yielded positive percentage improvements for the four filler particles. The performance analysis results validate the effectiveness of using the Taguchi method in improving the tapped density properties of the filler particles. The application of the Pareto 80-20 rule to the table of parameters and levels produced revised tables of parameters and levels which helped to identify the factor-levels position of each parameter that is economical to optimality. The Pareto 80-20 rule also produced revised S/N response tables which were used to know the relevant S/N ratios that are relevant to optimality.

  8. Cluster Analysis of the Organic Peaks in Bulk Mass Spectra Obtained During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli


    Full Text Available We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel R. H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  9. Density-based energy decomposition analysis for intermolecular interactions with variationally determined intermediate state energies. (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Ayers, Paul W; Zhang, Yingkai


    The first purely density-based energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for intermolecular binding is developed within the density functional theory. The most important feature of this scheme is to variationally determine the frozen density energy, based on a constrained search formalism and implemented with the Wu-Yang algorithm [Q. Wu and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2498 (2003)]. This variational process dispenses with the Heitler-London antisymmetrization of wave functions used in most previous methods and calculates the electrostatic and Pauli repulsion energies together without any distortion of the frozen density, an important fact that enables a clean separation of these two terms from the relaxation (i.e., polarization and charge transfer) terms. The new EDA also employs the constrained density functional theory approach [Q. Wu and T. Van Voorhis, Phys. Rev. A 72, 24502 (2005)] to separate out charge transfer effects. Because the charge transfer energy is based on the density flow in real space, it has a small basis set dependence. Applications of this decomposition to hydrogen bonding in the water dimer and the formamide dimer show that the frozen density energy dominates the binding in these systems, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the interactions. A more detailed examination reveals how the interplay of electrostatics and the Pauli repulsion determines the distance and angular dependence of these hydrogen bonds.

  10. Preparation and certification of two new bulk welding fume reference materials for use in laboratories undertaking analysis of occupational hygiene samples. (United States)

    Butler, Owen; Musgrove, Darren; Stacey, Peter


    Workers can be exposed to fume, arising from welding activities, which contain toxic metals and metalloids. Occupational hygienists need to assess and ultimately minimize such exposure risks. The monitoring of the concentration of particles in workplace air is one assessment approach whereby fume, from representative welding activities, is sampled onto a filter and returned to a laboratory for analysis. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are generally employed as instrumental techniques of choice for the analysis of such filter samples. An inherent difficulty, however, with inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques is that they typically require a sample to be presented for analysis in the form of a solution. The efficiency of the required dissolution step relies heavily upon the skill and experience of the analyst involved. A useful tool in assessing the efficacy of this dissolution step would be the availability and subsequent analysis of welding fume reference materials with stated elemental concentrations and matrices that match as closely as possible the matrix composition of welding fume samples submitted to laboratories for analysis. This article describes work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory to prepare and certify two new bulk welding fume reference materials that can be routinely used by analysts to assess the performance of the digestion procedures they employ in their laboratories.

  11. Field spatial and temporal patterns of soil water content and bulk density changes Padrões espacial e temporal de mudanças da umidade e densidade do solo no campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Timm


    Full Text Available Soil water content (theta and bulk density (rhos greatly influence important soil and plant processes, such as water movement, soil compaction, soil aeration, and plant root system development. Spatial and temporal variability of theta and rhos during different periods of the year and different phases of crops are of fundamental interest. This work involves the characterization of spatial and temporal patterns of theta and rhos during different climatic periods of year, aiming to verify whether there are significant temporal changes in rhos at the soil surface layer when submitted to wetting and drying cycles. The field experiment was carried out in a coffee plantation, Rhodic Kandiudalf soil, clayey texture. Using a neutron/gamma surface probe, theta and rhos were measured meter by meter along a 200 m spatial transect, along an interrow contour line. During the wet period there was no difference of spatial patterns of theta while during the dry period differences were observed, and can be associated to precipitation events. It was also observed that there are rhos temporal changes at the soil surface along the studied period as a consequence of the in situ wetting and drying cycles.Umidade (teta e densidade do solo (ros influenciam importantes processos no solo e planta tais como: movimento de água, compactação do solo, aeração do solo e desenvolvimento radicular. Baseado neste fato, questões referentes à variabilidade espacial e temporal de teta e ros para diferentes períodos do ano e diferentes fases de desenvolvimento da cultura do café tornam-se de extremo interesse. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar padrões espaciais e temporais de teta e ros durante diferentes períodos do ano e verificar se existem mudanças temporais significativas de ros na superfície do solo quando submetida a ciclos de umedecimento/secagem. O experimento foi conduzido em campo cultivado com café em um solo classificado como Nitossolo Vermelho

  12. Tracing the Fingerprint of Chemical Bonds within the Electron Densities of Hydrocarbons: A Comparative Analysis of the Optimized and the Promolecule Densities. (United States)

    Keyvani, Zahra Alimohammadi; Shahbazian, Shant; Zahedi, Mansour


    The equivalence of the molecular graphs emerging from the comparative analysis of the optimized and the promolecule electron densities in two hundred and twenty five unsubstituted hydrocarbons was recently demonstrated [Keyvani et al. Chem. Eur. J. 2016, 22, 5003]. Thus, the molecular graph of an optimized molecular electron density is not shaped by the formation of the C-H and C-C bonds. In the present study, to trace the fingerprint of the C-H and C-C bonds in the electron densities of the same set of hydrocarbons, the amount of electron density and its Laplacian at the (3, -1) critical points associated with these bonds are derived from both optimized and promolecule densities, and compared in a newly proposed comparative analysis. The analysis not only conforms to the qualitative picture of the electron density build up between two atoms upon formation of a bond in between, but also quantifies the resulting accumulation of the electron density at the (3, -1) critical points. The comparative analysis also reveals a unified mode of density accumulation in the case of 2318 studied C-H bonds, but various modes of density accumulation are observed in the case of 1509 studied C-C bonds and they are classified into four groups. The four emerging groups do not always conform to the traditional classification based on the bond orders. Furthermore, four C-C bonds described as exotic bonds in previous studies, for example the inverted C-C bond in 1,1,1-propellane, are naturally distinguished from the analysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Rock-Eval analysis of French forest soils: the influence of depth, soil and vegetation types on SOC thermal stability and bulk chemistry (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Baudin, François; Cecchini, Sébastien; Chenu, Claire; Mériguet, Jacques; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and SOM degradation has multiple consequences on key ecosystem properties like nutrients cycling, soil emissions of greenhouse gases or carbon sequestration potential. With the strong feedbacks between SOM and climate change, it becomes particularly urgent to develop reliable routine methodologies capable of indicating the turnover time of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM and among them, Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of in-situ SOC biogeochemical stability. This technique combines a phase of pyrolysis followed by a phase of oxidation to provide information on both the SOC bulk chemistry and thermal stability. We analyzed with RE6 a set of 495 soils samples from 102 permanent forest sites of the French national network for the long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems (''RENECOFOR'' network). Along with covering pedoclimatic variability at a national level, these samples include a range of 5 depths up to 1 meter (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm). Using RE6 parameters that were previously shown to be correlated to short-term (hydrogen index, HI; T50 CH pyrolysis) or long-term (T50 CO2 oxidation and HI) SOC persistence, and that characterize SOM bulk chemical composition (oxygen index, OI and HI), we tested the influence of depth (n = 5), soil class (n = 6) and vegetation type (n = 3; deciduous, coniferous-fir, coniferous-pine) on SOM thermal stability and bulk chemistry. Results showed that depth was the dominant discriminating factor, affecting significantly all RE6 parameters. With depth, we observed a decrease of the thermally labile SOC pool and an increase of the thermally stable SOC pool, along with an oxidation and a depletion of hydrogen-rich moieties of the SOC. Soil class and vegetation type had contrasted effects on the RE6 parameters but both affected significantly T

  14. Analysis of research output parameters: Density equalizing mapping and citation trend analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welte Tobias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burden of disease studies indicate major socio-economic burdens since many years. They should be used for the allocation of funding. However, imbalances are present in funding policies and therefore benchmarking becomes increasingly important in health services research. Methods The present study assessed benchmarking approaches. Using large data base analyses, research was analyzed for different health research output parameters. The fields of cardiovascular and respiratory medicine served as models to assess irregular patterns of health research. For visualization, density equalizing mapping procedures were used. Results Specific areas of major research activity were identified for European countries and large differences were found. Spatial distribution of published items for cardiac and cardiovascular systems differed in comparison to the distribution for the respiratory system. In general, large countries dominated the overall number of published items. When qualitative measures such as citation analysis were assessed, differing results were achieved. In this category, mostly Scandinavian countries dominated. Conclusion The present approach of comparative output benchmarking can be used to assess institutional operating figures at the national and international level and to analyze imbalances in health and research funding.

  15. Analysis of research output parameters: density equalizing mapping and citation trend analysis. (United States)

    Groneberg-Kloft, Beatrix; Scutaru, Cristian; Fischer, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Kreiter, Carolin; Quarcoo, David


    Burden of disease studies indicate major socio-economic burdens since many years. They should be used for the allocation of funding. However, imbalances are present in funding policies and therefore benchmarking becomes increasingly important in health services research. The present study assessed benchmarking approaches. Using large data base analyses, research was analyzed for different health research output parameters. The fields of cardiovascular and respiratory medicine served as models to assess irregular patterns of health research. For visualization, density equalizing mapping procedures were used. Specific areas of major research activity were identified for European countries and large differences were found. Spatial distribution of published items for cardiac and cardiovascular systems differed in comparison to the distribution for the respiratory system. In general, large countries dominated the overall number of published items. When qualitative measures such as citation analysis were assessed, differing results were achieved. In this category, mostly Scandinavian countries dominated. The present approach of comparative output benchmarking can be used to assess institutional operating figures at the national and international level and to analyze imbalances in health and research funding.

  16. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of Gd(0001): Bulk versus surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultan, Muhammad; Bovensiepen, Uwe [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Lotharstr. 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Melnikov, Alexey [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)


    Ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization of Gd(0001) has been investigated by magneto-induced optical second harmonic generation and the magneto-optical Kerr effect which facilitate a comparison of surface and bulk dynamics. We observe pronounced differences in the transient changes of the surface and bulk sensitive magneto-optical signals which we attribute to transfer of optically excited, spin-polarized carriers between surface and bulk states of the Gd(0001) film. A fluence dependent analysis of the bulk magnetization dynamics results in a weak variation of the demagnetization time constant, which starts at about 0.7 ps and increases by 10% within a fluence variation up to 1 mJ/cm{sup 2}. We compare these results with fluence dependent changes in the transient energy density calculated by the two temperature model. The determined characteristic times of excess energy transfer from the electron system to the lattice, which is mediated by e-ph scattering, range from 0.2 to 0.6 ps. Such a more pronounced fluence dependent change in the characteristic time compared to the observed rather weakly varying demagnetization times suggests a more advanced description of the optically excited state than by the two-temperature model. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Ethnic density effects for adult mental health: systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies. (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Dewey, Michael E; Das-Munshi, Jayati


    Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes. We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016. We obtained additional data from study authors. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis taking into account clustering of estimates within datasets. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity in studies due to ethnicity, country, generation, and area-level deprivation. Our main exposure was ethnic density, defined as the residential concentration of own racial/ethnic minority group. Outcomes included depression, anxiety and the common mental disorders (CMD), suicide, suicidality, psychotic experiences, and psychosis. We included 41 studies in the review, with meta-analysis of 12 studies. In the meta-analyses, we found a large reduction in relative odds of psychotic experiences [odds ratio (OR) 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-0.89)] and suicidal ideation [OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.98)] for each 10 percentage-point increase in own ethnic density. For CMD, depression, and anxiety, associations were indicative of protective effects of own ethnic density; however, results were not statistically significant. Findings from narrative review were consistent with those of the meta-analysis. The findings support consistent protective ethnic density associations across countries and racial/ethnic minority populations as well as mental health outcomes. This may suggest the importance of the social environment in patterning detrimental mental health outcomes in marginalized and excluded population groups.

  18. Density of States FFA analysis of SU(3) lattice gauge theory at a finite density of color sources (United States)

    Giuliani, Mario; Gattringer, Christof


    We present a Density of States calculation with the Functional Fit Approach (DoS FFA) in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with a finite density of static color sources. The DoS FFA uses a parameterized density of states and determines the parameters of the density by fitting data from restricted Monte Carlo simulations with an analytically known function. We discuss the implementation of DoS FFA and the results for a qualitative picture of the phase diagram in a model which is a further step towards implementing DoS FFA in full QCD. We determine the curvature κ in the μ-T phase diagram and find a value close to the results published for full QCD.

  19. Density of States FFA analysis of SU(3 lattice gauge theory at a finite density of color sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Giuliani


    Full Text Available We present a Density of States calculation with the Functional Fit Approach (DoS FFA in SU(3 lattice gauge theory with a finite density of static color sources. The DoS FFA uses a parameterized density of states and determines the parameters of the density by fitting data from restricted Monte Carlo simulations with an analytically known function. We discuss the implementation of DoS FFA and the results for a qualitative picture of the phase diagram in a model which is a further step towards implementing DoS FFA in full QCD. We determine the curvature κ in the μ–T phase diagram and find a value close to the results published for full QCD.

  20. Resolving the bulk δ 15N values of ancient human and animal bone collagen via compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of constituent amino acids (United States)

    Styring, Amy K.; Sealy, Judith C.; Evershed, Richard P.


    Stable nitrogen isotope analysis is a fundamental tool in assessing dietary preferences and trophic positions within contemporary and ancient ecosystems. In order to assess more fully the dietary contributions to human tissue isotope values, a greater understanding of the complex biochemical and physiological factors which underpin bulk collagen δ 15N values is necessary. Determinations of δ 15N values of the individual amino acids which constitute bone collagen are necessary to unravel these relationships, since different amino acids display different δ 15N values according to their biosynthetic origins. A range of collagen isolates from archaeological faunal and human bone ( n = 12 and 11, respectively), representing a spectrum of terrestrial and marine protein origins and diets, were selected from coastal and near-coastal sites at the south-western tip of Africa. The collagens were hydrolysed and δ 15N values of their constituent amino acids determined as N-acetylmethyl esters (NACME) via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The analytical approach employed accounts for 56% of bone collagen nitrogen. Reconstruction of bulk bone collagen δ 15N values reveals a 2‰ offset from bulk collagen δ 15N values which is attributable to the δ 15N value of the amino acids which cannot currently be determined by GC-C-IRMS, notably arginine which comprises 53% of the nitrogen unaccounted for (23% of the total nitrogen). The δ 15N values of individual amino acids provide insights into both the contributions of various amino acids to the bulk δ 15N value of collagen and the factors influencing trophic position and the nitrogen source at the base of the food web. The similarity in the δ 15N values of alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline reflects the common origin of their amino groups from glutamate. The depletion in the δ 15N value of threonine with increasing trophic level indicates a fundamental difference between

  1. Charge Density Analysis and Transport Properties of TTF Based Molecular Nanowires: A DFT Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppannan Selvaraju


    Full Text Available The present study has been performed to understand the charge density distribution and the electrical characteristics of Au and thiol substituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF based molecular nanowire. A quantum chemical calculation has been carried out using DFT method (B3LYP with the LANL2DZ basis set under various applied electric fields (EFs. The bond topological analysis characterizes the terminal Au–S and S–C bonds as well as all the bonds of central TTF unit of the molecule. The variation of electron density and Laplacian of electron density at the bond critical point of bonds for zero and different applied fields reveal the electron density distribution of the molecule. The molecular conformation, the variation of atomic charges and energy density distribution of the molecule have been analyzed for the various levels of applied EFs. The HOMO-LUMO gap calculated from quantum chemical calculations has been compared with the value calculated from the density of states. The variation of dipole moment due to the polarization effect and the I-V characteristics of the molecule for the various applied EFs have been well discussed.

  2. Analysis of the weld strength of the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis was carried out to determine the strength of welded joints in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) dam liners. Samples were collected of welded joints and subjected to tensile tests and creep test. It was observed that the welded joints from field welded samples were much weaker and had a very low straining ...

  3. Optimum element density studies for finite-element thermal analysis of hypersonic aircraft structures (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Olona, Timothy; Muramoto, Kyle M.


    Different finite element models previously set up for thermal analysis of the space shuttle orbiter structure are discussed and their shortcomings identified. Element density criteria are established for the finite element thermal modelings of space shuttle orbiter-type large, hypersonic aircraft structures. These criteria are based on rigorous studies on solution accuracies using different finite element models having different element densities set up for one cell of the orbiter wing. Also, a method for optimization of the transient thermal analysis computer central processing unit (CPU) time is discussed. Based on the newly established element density criteria, the orbiter wing midspan segment was modeled for the examination of thermal analysis solution accuracies and the extent of computation CPU time requirements. The results showed that the distributions of the structural temperatures and the thermal stresses obtained from this wing segment model were satisfactory and the computation CPU time was at the acceptable level. The studies offered the hope that modeling the large, hypersonic aircraft structures using high-density elements for transient thermal analysis is possible if a CPU optimization technique was used.

  4. Response and reliability analysis of nonlinear uncertain dynamical structures by the probability density evolution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Peng, Yongbo; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri


    The paper deals with the response and reliability analysis of hysteretic or geometric nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems of arbitrary dimensionality driven by stochastic processes. The approach is based on the probability density evolution method proposed by Li and Chen (Stochastic dynamics...

  5. [Alkene bromination used for detailed hydrocarbon and bulk hydrocarbon group-type analysis of gasolines containing alkenes]. (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Rong; Yang, Hai-Ying; Li, Chang-Xiu


    The optimized reaction conditions of selective alkene bromination for gasolines containing aromatics and saturated hydrocarbons are presented. By this way, the interfering problem in alkene determination from coeluting saturated hydrocarbons has been solved. So the detailed hydrocarbon analysis can be improved by a simple system containing polar and non-polar columns or by a gas chromatograph coupled with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED). Under the optimized conditions, it was found that the alkene compounds were selectively and completely brominated but the aromatics and alkane compounds were remained unaffected. A simple treatment, 90 s-120 s for reaction and 10 s-20 s for removing the excess bromine, can be easily realized. The treatment is applied for the different types of gasoline containing 0-100% alkene. Besides, one of the most important applications of this treatment is to analyse the hydrocarbons in detail from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The samples in these cases may not be accurately analyzed when using the traditional method of hydrocarbon analysis because of the presence of coeluted interfering olefins above C7.

  6. Surface and bulk 3D analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and X-ray micro CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K., E-mail:; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, B.K.


    Highlights: • Firm linking between two advance techniques: Micro-CT and EPMA for mineral analysis. • Attempt to identify and differentiate the treated gem stone from natural counterpart. • 3D structural and surface elemental analysis of the natural gem stone. - Abstract: The change in surface compositional and bulk structural characteristics of the natural ruby stone, before and after heat treatment with lead oxide has been analyzed using two advance characterization techniques like: X-ray micro CT scan (μ-CT) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The analytical correlation between these two techniques in identification as well as in depth study of the ores and minerals before and after processing has been presented. Also, we describe the aesthetic enhancement of a low quality defective ruby stone by lead oxide filling and the sequential analysis of this ruby stone before and after treatment using these two advanced techniques to identify and to confirm the change in its aesthetic value. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxide on the surface of the ruby have been analyzed using μ-CT and EPMA. Moreover, in this work we describe the advance characterization of the repaired gem stones especially ruby stones. This work will light up the path for in-depth understanding of diffusion mechanism and abstract information of impurity particles inside the minerals. Based on these observations, EPMA and micro CT are shown to be powerful tools for the identification as well as research in gem stones.

  7. Multivariate Chemometric Assisted Analysis of Metformin Hydrochloride, Gliclazide and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride in Bulk Drug and Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Saini


    Full Text Available Purpose: In this work a numerical method, based on the use of spectrophotometric data coupled to partial least squares (PLS regression and net analyte preprocessing combined with classical least square (NAP/CLS multivariate calibration, is reported for the simultaneous determination of metformin hydrochloride (MET, gliclazide (GLZ and pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO in synthetic samples and combined commercial tablets. Methods: Spectra of MET, GLZ and PIO were recorded at concentrations within their linear ranges (5-25 μg/ml, 0.5-8 μg/ml and 0.5-3 μg/ml respectively and were used to compute a total of 25 synthetic mixtures involving 15 calibration and 10 validation sets between wavelength range of 200 and 400 nm in 0.1N HCl. The suitability of the models was decided on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE values of calibration and validation data. Results: The analytical performances of these chemometric methods were characterized by relative prediction errors and recovery studies (% and were compared with each other. These two methods were successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation, tablet, with no interference with excipients as indicated by the recovery study results. Mean recoveries of the commercial formulation set together with the figures of merit (calibration sensitivity, selectivity, limit of detection, limit of quantification etc. were estimated. Conclusion: The proposed methods are simple, rapid and can be easily used as an alternative analysis tool in the quality control of drugs and formulation.

  8. A Validated New Gradient Stability-Indicating LC Method for the Analysis of Doripenem in Bulk and Injection Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaram Kathirvel


    Full Text Available A sensitive, precise, specific, linear, and stability-indicating gradient HPLC method was developed for the estimation of doripenem in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API and in injectable preparations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 stationary phase with a mobile phase gradient consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, and pH 5.2 phosphate buffer. The mobile phase flow rate was 0.8 mL/min, and the eluted compounds were monitored at 210 nm. The method is linear over the range of 0.335 to 76.129 µg/mL. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999. The numbers of theoretical plates and tailing factor for doripenem were 53021 and 0.9, respectively. Doripenem was subjected to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH prescribed hydrolytic (acid, base, and neutral, oxidative, photolytic, and thermal stress conditions. Among all the above-mentioned conditions, the drug was found to be stable under photolytic degradation. Peak homogeneity data for doripenem in the chromatograms from the stressed samples obtained by use of the photodiode array detector demonstrated the specificity of the method for analysis of doripenem in presence of the degradation products. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness.

  9. Fracture behavior analysis of EuBaCuO superconducting ring bulk reinforced by a stainless steel ring during field-cooled magnetization (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T.; Yanagi, Y.; Itoh, Y.; Nakamura, T.


    We have magnetized the EuBaCuO ring bulk reinforced by a stainless steel ring during field-cooled magnetization (FCM) at 50 K under the magnetic fields from 6.3, 7.3 or 8.3 T, in which the ring bulk was broken at the intermediate step of FCM from 8.3 T. To discuss the fracture behavior of the bulk, we have performed the numerical simulation using a three dimensional finite element method for the bulk with realistic superconducting characteristics, and obtained both the electromagnetic hoop stress, {{σ }θ }{{FCM}}, during FCM and thermal hoop stress, {{σ }θ }{{cool}}, under cooling from 300 to 50 K. The difference of the thermal contraction coefficient between the bulk and the stainless steel ring caused an inhomogeneous {{σ }θ }{{cool}} profile with a tensile stress at the outermost edge on the bulk surface under cooling process. The maximum of the total hoop stress, {{σ }θ }{{total}} (={{σ }θ }{{FCM}}+{{σ }θ }{{cool}}), was estimated to be +50 MPa and +59 MPa during FCM from 7.3 T and 8.3 T, respectively. These results suggest that the actual fracture strength of the present ring bulk is between 50 and 59 MPa. The {{σ }θ }{{total}} value should be reduced as low as possible in the whole area of the bulk to avoid the fracture behavior during FCM.

  10. Analysis of the IMAGE RPI electron density data and CHAMP plasmasphere electron density reconstructions with focus on plasmasphere modelling (United States)

    Gerzen, T.; Feltens, J.; Jakowski, N.; Galkin, I.; Reinisch, B.; Zandbergen, R.


    The electron density of the topside ionosphere and the plasmasphere contributes essentially to the overall Total Electron Content (TEC) budget affecting Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals. The plasmasphere can cause half or even more of the GNSS range error budget due to ionospheric propagation errors. This paper presents a comparative study of different plasmasphere and topside ionosphere data aiming at establishing an appropriate database for plasmasphere modelling. We analyze electron density profiles along the geomagnetic field lines derived from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite/Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) records of remote plasma sounding with radio waves. We compare these RPI profiles with 2D reconstructions of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density derived from GNSS based TEC measurements onboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite. Most of the coincidences between IMAGE profiles and CHAMP reconstructions are detected in the region with L-shell between 2 and 5. In general the CHAMP reconstructed electron densities are below the IMAGE profile densities, with median of the CHAMP minus IMAGE residuals around -588 cm-3. Additionally, a comparison is made with electron densities derived from passive radio wave RPI measurements onboard the IMAGE satellite. Over the available 2001-2005 period of IMAGE measurements, the considered combined data from the active and passive RPI operations cover the region within a latitude range of ±60°N, all longitudes, and an L-shell ranging from 1.2 to 15. In the coincidence regions (mainly 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 4), we check the agreement between available active and passive RPI data. The comparison shows that the measurements are well correlated, with a median residual of ∼52 cm-3. The RMS and STD values of the relative residuals are around 22% and 21% respectively. In summary, the results encourage the application of IMAGE RPI data for

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of mast cell infiltrates and microvessel density in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Pyziak, L; Stasikowska-Kanicka, O; Danilewicz, M; Wągrowska-Danilewicz, M


    The aim of the study was to evaluate mast cell concentration and microvessel density in perilesional and intralesional regions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and furthermore to assess the possible relationship between the above-mentioned parameters. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 47 cases of OSCC and 12 cases of normal mucosa were investigated immunohistochemically with anti-CD-31 antibody to stain microvessels and anti-tryptase antibody to visualize mast cells. The degree of vascularization and mast cell infiltration was measured with an image analysis system. The study revealed considerably increased microvessel density and mast cell abundance in intralesional and perilesional regions of OSCCs in comparison to normal mucosa. There was a significant positive correlation between microvessel density and mast cell concentration in both localizations of OSCCs (p therapeutic significance which require further research.

  12. Generation of Native Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Libraries for Nucleosome Density Analysis. (United States)

    Lorzadeh, Alireza; Lopez Gutierrez, Rodrigo; Jackson, Linda; Moksa, Michelle; Hirst, Martin


    We present a modified native chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experimental protocol compatible with a Gaussian mixture distribution based analysis methodology (nucleosome density ChIP-seq; ndChIP-seq) that enables the generation of combined measurements of micrococcal nuclease (MNase) accessibility with histone modification genome-wide. Nucleosome position and local density, and the posttranslational modification of their histone subunits, act in concert to regulate local transcription states. Combinatorial measurements of nucleosome accessibility with histone modification generated by ndChIP-seq allows for the simultaneous interrogation of these features. The ndChIP-seq methodology is applicable to small numbers of primary cells inaccessible to cross-linking based ChIP-seq protocols. Taken together, ndChIP-seq enables the measurement of histone modification in combination with local nucleosome density to obtain new insights into shared mechanisms that regulate RNA transcription within rare primary cell populations.

  13. Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huei-Sen, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Dong-Yih [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gu, Jhen-Wang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China)


    To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: • An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. • The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. • The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. • Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

  14. Thermodynamic, energy efficiency, and power density analysis of reverse electrodialysis power generation with natural salinity gradients. (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Vermaas, David A; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Elimelech, Menachem


    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for RED and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible RED process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible process with maximized power density using a constant-resistance load is then examined to assess the energy conversion efficiency and power density. With equal volumes of seawater and river water, energy conversion efficiency of ∼ 33-44% can be obtained in RED, while the rest is lost through dissipation in the internal resistance of the ion-exchange membrane stack. We show that imperfections in the selectivity of typical ion exchange membranes (namely, co-ion transport, osmosis, and electro-osmosis) can detrimentally lower efficiency by up to 26%, with co-ion leakage being the dominant effect. Further inspection of the power density profile during RED revealed inherent ineffectiveness toward the end of the process. By judicious early discontinuation of the controlled mixing process, the overall power density performance can be considerably enhanced by up to 7-fold, without significant compromise to the energy efficiency. Additionally, membrane resistance was found to be an important factor in determining the power densities attainable. Lastly, the performance of an RED stack was examined for different membrane conductivities and intermembrane distances simulating high performance membranes and stack design. By thoughtful selection of the operating parameters, an efficiency of ∼ 37% and an overall gross power density of 3.5 W/m(2) represent the maximum performance that can potentially be achieved in a seawater-river water RED system with low

  15. Analysis of geometric and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide electrode with different packing densities (United States)

    Lim, Cheolwoong; Yan, Bo; Kang, Huixiao; Song, Zhibin; Lee, Wen Chao; De Andrade, Vincent; De Carlo, Francesco; Yin, Leilei; Kim, Youngsik; Zhu, Likun


    To investigate geometric and electrochemical characteristics of Li ion battery electrode with different packing densities, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode electrodes were fabricated from a 94:3:3 (wt%) mixture of LiCoO2, polymeric binder, and super-P carbon black and calendered to different densities. A synchrotron X-ray nano-computed tomography system with a spatial resolution of 58.2 nm at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was employed to obtain three dimensional morphology data of the electrodes. The morphology data were quantitatively analyzed to characterize their geometric properties, such as porosity, tortuosity, specific surface area, and pore size distribution. The geometric and electrochemical analysis reveal that high packing density electrodes have smaller average pore size and narrower pore size distribution, which improves the electrical contact between carbon-binder matrix and LiCoO2 particles. The better contact improves the capacity and rate capability by reducing the possibility of electrically isolated LiCoO2 particles and increasing the electrochemically active area. The results show that increase of packing density results in higher tortuosity, but electrochemically active area is more crucial to cell performance than tortuosity at up to 3.6 g/cm3 packing density and 4 C rate.

  16. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  17. Toward Identification of Black Lemma and Pericarp Gene Blp1 in Barley Combining Bulked Segregant Analysis and Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaojun Jia


    Full Text Available Black barley is caused by phytomelanin synthesized in lemma and/or pericarp and the trait is controlled by one dominant gene Blp1. The gene is mapped on chromosome 1H by molecular markers, but it is yet to be isolated. Specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq is an effective method for large-scale de novo single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery and genotyping. In the present study, SLAF-seq with bulked segregant analysis (BSA was employed to obtain sufficient markers to fine mapping Blp1 gene in an F2 population derived from Hatiexi No.1 × Zhe5819. Based on SNP screening criteria, a total of 77,542 polymorphic SNPs met the requirements for association analysis. Combining two association analysis methods, the overlapped region with a size of 32.41 Mb on chromosome 1H was obtained as the candidate region of Blp1 gene. According to SLAF-seq data, markers were developed in the target region and were used for mapping the Blp1 gene. Linkage analysis showed that Blp1 co-segregated with HZSNP34 and HZSNP36, and was delimited by two markers (HZSNP35 and HZSNP39 spanning 8.1 cM in 172 homozygous yellow grain F2 plants of Hatiexi No.1 × Zhe5819. More polymorphic markers were screened in the reduced target region and were used to genotype the population. As a result, Blp1 was delimited within a 1.66 Mb on chromosome 1H by the upstream marker HZSNP63 and the downstream marker HZSNP59. Our results demonstrated the utility of SLAF-seq-BSA approach to identify the candidate region and discover polymorphic markers at the specific targeted genomic region.

  18. Spectral analysis, vibrational assignments, NBO analysis, NMR, UV-Vis, hyperpolarizability analysis of 2-aminofluorene by density functional theory. (United States)

    Jone Pradeepa, S; Sundaraganesan, N


    In this present investigation, the collective experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational analysis and NBO analysis has been reported for 2-aminofluorene. FT-IR spectrum was recorded in the range 4000-400 cm(-1). FT-Raman spectrum was recorded in the range 4000-50 cm(-1). The molecular geometry, vibrational spectra, and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) were calculated for 2-aminofluorene using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) model chemistry. (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of 2-aminofluorene were calculated using GIAO method. The computed vibrational and NMR spectra were compared with the experimental results. The total energy distribution (TED) was derived to deepen the understanding of different modes of vibrations contributed by respective wavenumber. The experimental UV-Vis spectra was recorded in the region of 400-200 nm and correlated with simulated spectra by suitably solvated B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) model. The HOMO-LUMO energies were measured with time dependent DFT approach. The nonlinearity of the title compound was confirmed by hyperpolarizabilty examination. Using theoretical calculation Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) was investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. "Understanding" cosmological bulk viscosity


    Zimdahl, Winfried


    A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

  20. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  1. How bandwidth selection algorithms impact exploratory data analysis using kernel density estimation. (United States)

    Harpole, Jared K; Woods, Carol M; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Levinson, Cheri A; Lenze, Eric J


    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) can reveal important features of underlying distributions, and these features often have an impact on inferences and conclusions drawn from data. Graphical analysis is central to EDA, and graphical representations of distributions often benefit from smoothing. A viable method of estimating and graphing the underlying density in EDA is kernel density estimation (KDE). This article provides an introduction to KDE and examines alternative methods for specifying the smoothing bandwidth in terms of their ability to recover the true density. We also illustrate the comparison and use of KDE methods with 2 empirical examples. Simulations were carried out in which we compared 8 bandwidth selection methods (Sheather-Jones plug-in [SJDP], normal rule of thumb, Silverman's rule of thumb, least squares cross-validation, biased cross-validation, and 3 adaptive kernel estimators) using 5 true density shapes (standard normal, positively skewed, bimodal, skewed bimodal, and standard lognormal) and 9 sample sizes (15, 25, 50, 75, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000). Results indicate that, overall, SJDP outperformed all methods. However, for smaller sample sizes (25 to 100) either biased cross-validation or Silverman's rule of thumb was recommended, and for larger sample sizes the adaptive kernel estimator with SJDP was recommended. Information is provided about implementing the recommendations in the R computing language. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Bulk modulus of metals according to structureless pseudopotential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structureless pseudopotential model was fully developed. The developed method was used to calculate the bulk modulus and kinetic energy contribution to the bulk modulus of 46 elemental metals. The results obtained were compared with experimental values and their variation with electron density parameter was studied ...

  3. Endometriosis and its global research architecture: an in-depth density-equalizing mapping analysis


    Br?ggmann, D?rthe; Elizabeth-Martinez, Alexandra; Klingelh?fer, Doris; Quarcoo, David; Jaque, Jenny M; David A. Groneberg


    Background Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases. It is still a chameleon in many aspects and urges intense research activities in the fields of diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Despite the need to foster research in this area, no in-depth analysis of the global architecture of endometriosis research exists yet. Methods We here used the NewQIS platform to conduct a density equalizing mapping study, using the Web of Science as database with endometriosis related entr...

  4. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis


    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Mark J Bolland


    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled tria...

  5. Energy decomposition analysis based on a block-localized wavefunction and multistate density functional theory


    Mo, Yirong; Bao, Peng; Gao, Jiali


    An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functio...

  6. A LEED analysis of the clean surfaces of α-Fe(2)O(3)(0001) and α-Cr(2)O(3)(0001) bulk single crystals. (United States)

    Lübbe, Maike; Moritz, Wolfgang


    We analyzed the (0001) surface structures of hematite and chromia bulk single crystals by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The hematite crystal was annealed in an O(2) atmosphere, p(O(2))≈3 × 10(-8) mbar, for several hours. The chromia crystal was sputtered with Ar(+) ions, E = 1 keV, and afterward heated up to 900 °C for 5 min under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. I(V)-curve data sets of 12 symmetrically independent diffraction spots were measured at room temperature in the energy range E = 150-500 eV. Charging effects hindered measurements at lower energies. Our analysis of the hematite single crystal surface indicates that it is terminated by a single iron layer which is occupied at ≈50%. Relaxation effects along the c-axis are quite large and involve several iron double layers. For the chromia surface the results indicate that termination with a single Cr seems not to hold. Most probably the surface is terminated by two partially occupied Cr sites or chromyl groups. Relaxations in deeper layers are small in contrast to α-Fe(2)O(3)(0001).

  7. Principal component analysis of the CT density histogram to generate parametric response maps of COPD (United States)

    Zha, N.; Capaldi, D. P. I.; Pike, D.; McCormack, D. G.; Cunningham, I. A.; Parraga, G.


    Pulmonary x-ray computed tomography (CT) may be used to characterize emphysema and airways disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One analysis approach - parametric response mapping (PMR) utilizes registered inspiratory and expiratory CT image volumes and CT-density-histogram thresholds, but there is no consensus regarding the threshold values used, or their clinical meaning. Principal-component-analysis (PCA) of the CT density histogram can be exploited to quantify emphysema using data-driven CT-density-histogram thresholds. Thus, the objective of this proof-of-concept demonstration was to develop a PRM approach using PCA-derived thresholds in COPD patients and ex-smokers without airflow limitation. Methods: Fifteen COPD ex-smokers and 5 normal ex-smokers were evaluated. Thoracic CT images were also acquired at full inspiration and full expiration and these images were non-rigidly co-registered. PCA was performed for the CT density histograms, from which the components with the highest eigenvalues greater than one were summed. Since the values of the principal component curve correlate directly with the variability in the sample, the maximum and minimum points on the curve were used as threshold values for the PCA-adjusted PRM technique. Results: A significant correlation was determined between conventional and PCA-adjusted PRM with 3He MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (p<0.001), with CT RA950 (p<0.0001), as well as with 3He MRI ventilation defect percent, a measurement of both small airways disease (p=0.049 and p=0.06, respectively) and emphysema (p=0.02). Conclusions: PRM generated using PCA thresholds of the CT density histogram showed significant correlations with CT and 3He MRI measurements of emphysema, but not airways disease.

  8. MRSA: a density-equalizing mapping analysis of the global research architecture. (United States)

    Addicks, Johann P; Uibel, Stefanie; Jensen, Anna-Maria; Bundschuh, Matthias; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has evolved as an alarming public health thread due to its global spread as hospital and community pathogen. Despite this role, a scientometric analysis has not been performed yet. Therefore, the NewQIS platform was used to conduct a combined density-equalizing mapping and scientometric study. As database, the Web of Science was used, and all entries between 1961 and 2007 were analyzed. In total, 7671 entries were identified. Density equalizing mapping demonstrated a distortion of the world map for the benefit of the USA as leading country with a total output of 2374 publications, followed by the UK (1030) and Japan (862). Citation rate analysis revealed Portugal as leading country with a rate of 35.47 citations per article, followed by New Zealand and Denmark. Country cooperation network analyses showed 743 collaborations with US-UK being most frequent. Network citation analyses indicated the publications that arose from the cooperation of USA and France as well as USA and Japan as the most cited (75.36 and 74.55 citations per collaboration article, respectively). The present study provides the first combined density-equalizing mapping and scientometric analysis of MRSA research. It illustrates the global MRSA research architecture. It can be assumed that this highly relevant topic for public health will achieve even greater dimensions in the future.

  9. MRSA: A Density-Equalizing Mapping Analysis of the Global Research Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann P. Addicks


    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has evolved as an alarming public health thread due to its global spread as hospital and community pathogen. Despite this role, a scientometric analysis has not been performed yet. Therefore, the NewQIS platform was used to conduct a combined density-equalizing mapping and scientometric study. As database, the Web of Science was used, and all entries between 1961 and 2007 were analyzed. In total, 7671 entries were identified. Density equalizing mapping demonstrated a distortion of the world map for the benefit of the USA as leading country with a total output of 2374 publications, followed by the UK (1030 and Japan (862. Citation rate analysis revealed Portugal as leading country with a rate of 35.47 citations per article, followed by New Zealand and Denmark. Country cooperation network analyses showed 743 collaborations with US-UK being most frequent. Network citation analyses indicated the publications that arose from the cooperation of USA and France as well as USA and Japan as the most cited (75.36 and 74.55 citations per collaboration article, respectively. The present study provides the first combined density-equalizing mapping and scientometric analysis of MRSA research. It illustrates the global MRSA research architecture. It can be assumed that this highly relevant topic for public health will achieve even greater dimensions in the future.

  10. Analysis of Structure and Composition of Bacterial Core Communities in Mature Drinking Water Biofilms and Bulk Water of a Citywide Network in Germany (United States)

    Henne, Karsten; Kahlisch, Leila; Brettar, Ingrid


    The bacterial core communities of bulk water and corresponding biofilms of a more than 20-year-old drinking water network were compared using 16S rRNA single-strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprints based on extracted DNA and RNA. The structure and composition of the bacterial core community in the bulk water was highly similar (>70%) across the city of Braunschweig, Germany, whereas all biofilm samples contained a unique community with no overlapping phylotypes from bulk water. Biofilm samples consisted mainly of Alphaproteobacteria (26% of all phylotypes), Gammaproteobacteria (11%), candidate division TM6 (11%), Chlamydiales (9%), and Betaproteobacteria (9%). The bulk water community consisted primarily of Bacteroidetes (25%), Betaproteobacteria (20%), Actinobacteria (16%), and Alphaproteobacteria (11%). All biofilm communities showed higher relative abundances of single phylotypes and a reduced richness compared to bulk water. Only biofilm communities sampled at nearby sampling points showed similar communities irrespective of support materials. In all of our bulk water studies, the community composition determined from 16S rRNA was completely different from the 16S rRNA gene-based community composition, whereas in biofilms both molecular fractions resulted in community compositions that were similar to each other. We hypothesize that a higher fraction of active bacterial phylotypes and a better protection from oxidative stress in drinking water biofilms are responsible for this higher similarity. PMID:22389373

  11. Analysis of structure and composition of bacterial core communities in mature drinking water biofilms and bulk water of a citywide network in Germany. (United States)

    Henne, Karsten; Kahlisch, Leila; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G


    The bacterial core communities of bulk water and corresponding biofilms of a more than 20-year-old drinking water network were compared using 16S rRNA single-strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprints based on extracted DNA and RNA. The structure and composition of the bacterial core community in the bulk water was highly similar (>70%) across the city of Braunschweig, Germany, whereas all biofilm samples contained a unique community with no overlapping phylotypes from bulk water. Biofilm samples consisted mainly of Alphaproteobacteria (26% of all phylotypes), Gammaproteobacteria (11%), candidate division TM6 (11%), Chlamydiales (9%), and Betaproteobacteria (9%). The bulk water community consisted primarily of Bacteroidetes (25%), Betaproteobacteria (20%), Actinobacteria (16%), and Alphaproteobacteria (11%). All biofilm communities showed higher relative abundances of single phylotypes and a reduced richness compared to bulk water. Only biofilm communities sampled at nearby sampling points showed similar communities irrespective of support materials. In all of our bulk water studies, the community composition determined from 16S rRNA was completely different from the 16S rRNA gene-based community composition, whereas in biofilms both molecular fractions resulted in community compositions that were similar to each other. We hypothesize that a higher fraction of active bacterial phylotypes and a better protection from oxidative stress in drinking water biofilms are responsible for this higher similarity.

  12. Improved parameterization of interatomic potentials for rare gas dimers with density-based energy decomposition analysis (United States)

    Zhou, Nengjie; Lu, Zhenyu; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Yingkai


    We examine interatomic interactions for rare gas dimers using the density-based energy decomposition analysis (DEDA) in conjunction with computational results from CCSD(T) at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. The unique DEDA capability of separating frozen density interactions from density relaxation contributions is employed to yield clean interaction components, and the results are found to be consistent with the typical physical picture that density relaxations play a very minimal role in rare gas interactions. Equipped with each interaction component as reference, we develop a new three-term molecular mechanical force field to describe rare gas dimers: a smeared charge multipole model for electrostatics with charge penetration effects, a B3LYP-D3 dispersion term for asymptotically correct long-range attractions that is screened at short-range, and a Born-Mayer exponential function for the repulsion. The resulted force field not only reproduces rare gas interaction energies calculated at the CCSD(T)/CBS level, but also yields each interaction component (electrostatic or van der Waals) which agrees very well with its corresponding reference value. PMID:24908000

  13. Construction and analysis of high-density linkage map using high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Liu

    Full Text Available Linkage maps enable the study of important biological questions. The construction of high-density linkage maps appears more feasible since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS, which eases SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping of large population. However, the marker number explosion and genotyping errors from NGS data challenge the computational efficiency and linkage map quality of linkage study methods. Here we report the HighMap method for constructing high-density linkage maps from NGS data. HighMap employs an iterative ordering and error correction strategy based on a k-nearest neighbor algorithm and a Monte Carlo multipoint maximum likelihood algorithm. Simulation study shows HighMap can create a linkage map with three times as many markers as ordering-only methods while offering more accurate marker orders and stable genetic distances. Using HighMap, we constructed a common carp linkage map with 10,004 markers. The singleton rate was less than one-ninth of that generated by JoinMap4.1. Its total map distance was 5,908 cM, consistent with reports on low-density maps. HighMap is an efficient method for constructing high-density, high-quality linkage maps from high-throughput population NGS data. It will facilitate genome assembling, comparative genomic analysis, and QTL studies. HighMap is available at

  14. Peripheral transverse densities of the baryon octet from chiral effective field theory and dispersion analysis (United States)

    Alarcón, J. M.; Hiller Blin, A. N.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.; Weiss, C.


    The baryon electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of two-dimensional densities describing the distribution of charge and magnetization in transverse space at fixed light-front time. We calculate the transverse densities of the spin-1/2 flavor-octet baryons at peripheral distances b = O (Mπ-1) using methods of relativistic chiral effective field theory (χEFT) and dispersion analysis. The densities are represented as dispersive integrals over the imaginary parts of the form factors in the timelike region (spectral functions). The isovector spectral functions on the two-pion cut t > 4 Mπ2 are calculated using relativistic χEFT including octet and decuplet baryons. The χEFT calculations are extended into the ρ meson mass region using an N / D method that incorporates the pion electromagnetic form factor data. The isoscalar spectral functions are modeled by vector meson poles. We compute the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in the octet baryon states, estimate the uncertainties, and determine the quark flavor decomposition. The approach can be extended to baryon form factors of other operators and the moments of generalized parton distributions.

  15. A spatial analysis of the association between restaurant density and body mass index in Canadian adults. (United States)

    Hollands, Simon; Campbell, M Karen; Gilliland, Jason; Sarma, Sisira


    To investigate the association between fast-food restaurant density and adult body mass index (BMI) in Canada. Individual-level BMI and confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey master file. Locations of the fast-food and full-service chain restaurants and other non-chain restaurants were obtained from the 2008 Infogroup Canada business database. Food outlet density (fast-food, full-service and other) per 10,000 population was calculated for each Forward Sortation Area (FSA). Global (Moran's I) and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation of BMI were assessed. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial auto-regressive error (SARE) methods were used to assess the association between local food environment and adult BMI in Canada. Global and local spatial autocorrelation of BMI were found in our univariate analysis. We found that OLS and SARE estimates were very similar in our multivariate models. An additional fast-food restaurant per 10,000 people at the FSA-level is associated with a 0.022kg/m(2) increase in BMI. On the other hand, other restaurant density is negatively related to BMI. Fast-food restaurant density is positively associated with BMI in Canada. Results suggest that restricting availability of fast-food in local neighborhoods may play a role in obesity prevention. © 2013.

  16. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  17. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Mammary Gland Density in Rodents Using Digital Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Henry J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent models have been used extensively to study mammary gland development and for studies of toxicology and carcinogenesis. Mammary gland gross morphology can visualized via the excision of intact mammary gland chains following fixation and staining with carmine using a tissue preparation referred to as a whole mount. Methods are described for the automated collection of digital images from an entire mammary gland whole mount and for the interrogation of digital data using a "masking" technique available with Image-Pro® plus image analysis software (Mediacybernetics. Silver Spring, MD. Results Parallel to mammographic analysis in humans, measurements of rodent mammary gland density were derived from area-based or volume-based algorithms and included: total circumscribed mammary fat pad mass, mammary epithelial mass, and epithelium-free fat pad mass. These values permitted estimation of absolute mass of mammary epithelium as well as breast density. The biological plausibility of these measurements was evaluated in mammary whole mounts from rats and mice. During mammary gland development, absolute epithelial mass increased linearly without significant changes in mammographic density. Treatment of rodents with tamoxifen, 9-cis-retinoic acid, or ovariectomy, and occurrence of diet induced obesity decreased both absolute epithelial mass and mammographic density. The area and volumetric methods gave similar results. Conclusions Digital image analysis can be used for screening agents for potential impact on reproductive toxicity or carcinogenesis as well as for mechanistic studies, particularly for cumulative effects on mammary epithelial mass as well as translational studies of mechanisms that explain the relationship between epithelial mass and cancer risk.

  19. Calcium intake and bone mineral density as an example of non-linearity and threshold analysis. (United States)

    Breitling, L P


    Non-linearity is a likely phenomenon in bone metabolism, but is often ignored in pertinent epidemiological studies. Using NHANES III data on calcium intake and bone mineral density, the most important non-linear methods are introduced and discussed. The results should motivate researchers to consider non-linearity in this field more frequently. Many relationships in bone metabolism and homeostasis are likely to follow non-linear patterns. Detailed dose-response analyses allowing for non-linear associations nonetheless remain scarce in this field. A detailed analysis of NHANES III data on dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density was used to demonstrate the application and some of the challenges of the most important dose-response methods, including LOESS, categorical analysis, fractional polynomials, restricted cubic splines, and segmented regression. The spline estimate suggested increasing bone mineral density up to a calcium intake of about 1 g/day and a plateau thereafter. In segmented regression, the break-point marking the beginning of the plateau was placed at an intake of 0.58 (95 % confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.82) g/day. Sensitivity analyses suggested a less curved dose-response in women. Knowing about the possibilities and limitations of non-linear dose-response approaches should encourage researchers to consider these methods more frequently in studies on bone health and disease. The example analysis suggested bone mineral density to reach a plateau slightly below current calcium intake recommendations, with fairly pronounced differences of the dose-response shape by sex and menopausal status.

  20. Micromegas in a bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Aune, S; Charpak, Georges; Colas, P; Giganon, Arnaud; Rebourgeard, P C; Salin, P; Rebourgeard, Ph.


    In this paper we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it extremely attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  1. Micromegas in a bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)]. E-mail:; De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Andriamonje, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Aune, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Charpak, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colas, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physcis, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Ferrer, E. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Giganon, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Rebourgeard, Ph. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Salin, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)


    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine.

  2. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin


    as test-positive or test-negative using a cut-off of 50 optical density coefficient %. The spatial global clustering was evaluated through a modified K-function method, and local clusters were identified by scan statistics. The results showed that M. bovis test-positive herds had a dynamic pattern...... in space. The global clustering analysis showed that M. bovis test-positive herds were spatially correlated in rounds one, three and four. These findings were supported to some extent by the local clustering analysis, which found significant high- and low-risk spatial clusters in rounds one and three...... in the north and south of the mainland. The clusters with a high risk of observing test-positive herds did not remain between sampling rounds, indicating that M. bovis did not tend to persist upon emergence in dairy herds. In contrast, the clusters with a low risk of observing test-positive herds persisted...

  3. Pair Interaction Energy Decomposition Analysis for Density Functional Theory and Density-Functional Tight-Binding with an Evaluation of Energy Fluctuations in Molecular Dynamics. (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitri G; Kitaura, Kazuo


    Pair interaction energy decomposition analysis in the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method is extended to treat density functional theory (DFT) and density-functional tight-binding (DFTB). Fluctuations of energy contributions are obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Interactions at the DFT and DFTB levels are compared to the values obtained with Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2), and coupled cluster methods. Hydrogen bonding in water clusters is analyzed. 200 ps NVT molecular dynamics simulations are performed with FMO for two ligands bound to the Trp-cage miniprotein (PDB 1L2Y ); the fluctuations of fragment energies and interactions are analyzed.

  4. Use of ELVIS II platform for random process modelling and analysis of its probability density function (United States)

    Maslennikova, Yu. S.; Nugmanov, I. S.


    The problem of probability density function estimation for a random process is one of the most common in practice. There are several methods to solve this problem. Presented laboratory work uses methods of the mathematical statistics to detect patterns in the realization of random process. On the basis of ergodic theory, we construct algorithm for estimating univariate probability density distribution function for a random process. Correlational analysis of realizations is applied to estimate the necessary size of the sample and the time of observation. Hypothesis testing for two probability distributions (normal and Cauchy) is used on the experimental data, using χ2 criterion. To facilitate understanding and clarity of the problem solved, we use ELVIS II platform and LabVIEW software package that allows us to make the necessary calculations, display results of the experiment and, most importantly, to control the experiment. At the same time students are introduced to a LabVIEW software package and its capabilities.

  5. A European lightning density analysis using 5 years of ATDnet data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anderson


    Full Text Available The Met Office has operated a very low frequency (VLF lightning location network since 1987. The long-range capabilities of this network, referred to in its current form as ATDnet, allow for relatively continuous detection efficiency across Europe with only a limited number of sensors. The wide coverage and continuous data obtained by Arrival Time Differing NETwork (ATDnet are here used to create data sets of lightning density across Europe. Results of annual and monthly detected lightning density using data from 2008–2012 are presented, along with more detailed analysis of statistics and features of interest. No adjustment has been made to the data for regional variations in detection efficiency.

  6. From Metal Cluster to Metal Nanowire: A Topological Analysis of Electron Density and Band Structure Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang


    Full Text Available Abstract:We investigate a theoretical model of molecular metalwire constructed from linear polynuclear metal complexes. In particular we study the linear Crn metal complex and Cr molecular metalwire. The electron density distributions of the model nanowire and the linear Crn metal complexes, with n = 3, 5, and 7, are calculated by employing CRYSTAL98 package with topological analysis. The preliminary results indicate that the bonding types between any two neighboring Cr are all the same, namely the polarized open-shell interaction. The pattern of electron density distribution in metal complexes resembles that of the model Cr nanowire as the number of metal ions increases. The conductivity of the model Cr nanowire is also tested by performing the band structure calculation.

  7. textbf{Tomography of Ionosphere electron density and its abnormity analysis during Wenchuan earthquake } (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Xing, Nan


    A multiple-arc method and Kriging interpolation are applied to obtain VTEC as well as DCB using ground-based GPS data. Given by the time variation characteristics of VTEC and DCB, VTEC is calculated every 30 minutes as local variables, and DCB is calculated every day as global variables. Kriging method, taking the spatial information of VTEC into account, is useful to make VTEC more precise and stable. Meanwhile, based on 3-variable spline basis function, we expand electron density into a linear combination of a set of grid points. Tomography of Ionosphere electron density is made by MART. The results show the coherence with CHAMP occultation results. We applied these two ways to process the ground-based GPS data of Yangzi River Triangle Region in May, 2008 when the shocking earthquake happened in Wenchuan. A simple statistic analysis reveals the response of ionosphere to the earthquake and also the abnormal signal occurred before the earthquake.

  8. Hardening and softening analysis of pure titanium based on the dislocation density during torsion deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Li, Fuguo, E-mail:; Li, Jinghui; Ma, Xinkai; Li, Jiang; Wan, Qiong


    The hardening and softening phenomena during torsion deformation are studied based on the Taylor dislocation model for pure titanium. The hardening and softening phenomena are observed through the hardness analysis during micro-indentation test and micro-hardness test. Besides, the variations of indentation size also verify the existence of hardening and softening phenomena during torsion. The variations of geometric necessary dislocations (GNDs) and statistic store dislocations (SSDs) state that the positions of high dislocation density and low dislocation density correspond to the positions of hardening and softening. The results from the microstructure, grain boundaries evolution and twins analysis indicate the twins play an important role in appearance of hardening and softening phenomena. The appearance of hardening and softening phenomena are attributed to the combination of different slip systems and twinning systems combining with the Schmid Factor (SF) analysis and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The appearance of hardening and softening phenomena can be explained by the Taylor dislocation theory based on TEM analysis. - Highlights: • The phenomena can be characterized by Taylor dislocation model. • The variation of GNDs leads to the phenomena. • The phenomena are proved by micro-hardness, indentation hardness. • The {10-12} twin and {11-24} twin play an important role in the phenomena.

  9. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)


    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  10. A Bulk Segregant Gene Expression Analysis of a Peach Population Reveals Components of the Underlying Mechanism of the Fruit Cold Response (United States)

    Pons, Clara; Martí, Cristina; Forment, Javier; Crisosto, Carlos H.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Granell, Antonio


    Peach fruits subjected for long periods of cold storage are primed to develop chilling injury once fruits are shelf ripened at room temperature. Very little is known about the molecular changes occurring in fruits during cold exposure. To get some insight into this process a transcript profiling analyses was performed on fruits from a PopDG population segregating for chilling injury CI responses. A bulked segregant gene expression analysis based on groups of fruits showing extreme CI responses indicated that the transcriptome of peach fruits was modified already during cold storage consistently with eventual CI development. Most peach cold-responsive genes have orthologs in Arabidopsis that participate in cold acclimation and other stresses responses, while some of them showed expression patterns that differs in fruits according to their susceptibility to develop mealiness. Members of ICE1, CBF1/3 and HOS9 regulons seem to have a prominent role in differential cold responses between low and high sensitive fruits. In high sensitive fruits, an alternative cold response program is detected. This program is probably associated with dehydration/osmotic stress and regulated by ABA, auxins and ethylene. In addition, the observation that tolerant siblings showed a series of genes encoding for stress protective activities with higher expression both at harvest and during cold treatment, suggests that preprogrammed mechanisms could shape fruit ability to tolerate postharvest cold-induced stress. A number of genes differentially expressed were validated and extended to individual genotypes by medium-throughput RT-qPCR. Analyses presented here provide a global view of the responses of peach fruits to cold storage and highlights new peach genes that probably play important roles in the tolerance/sensitivity to cold storage. Our results provide a roadmap for further experiments and would help to develop new postharvest protocols and gene directed breeding strategies to better

  11. The Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Highly Filled Rice Husk Biochar/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang


    Full Text Available In this study, rice husk biochar/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared via melt mixing followed by extrusion. Effects of biochar content and testing temperature on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the composites were studied. Morphological analysis of the rice husk biochar and composites were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that biochar had a positive effect on dynamic viscoelasticity, creep resistance and stress relaxation properties of the composites, but the creep resistance and stress relaxation of the composites decreased with the increase of temperature. SEM analysis showed that HDPE components were embedded in the holes of the rice husk biochar, and it is believed that strong interaction was achieved.

  12. Mendelian randomization analysis to examine for a causal effect of urate on bone mineral density. (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth; Flynn, Tanya; Cadzow, Murray; Bolland, Mark J; Merriman, Tony R


    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations are positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fragility fractures, raising the possibility that urate is a direct mediator of bone density. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to examine whether urate has a causal effect on BMD. We analyzed data from the Generation 3 cohort in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (N = 2501 total; 1265 male, 1236 female). A weighted genetic urate score was calculated using the SLC2A9, ABCG2, SLC17A1, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that explains 3.4% of the variance in serum urate. Mendelian randomization analysis was performed using the two-stage least squares method with >80% power at α = 0.05 to detect an effect size equivalent to that observed in the ordinary least squares analysis between serum urate and total femur BMD. A strong association between serum urate and BMD was observed in the crude ordinary least squares analysis (total femur crude beta = 0.47, p = 1.7E-51). In the two-stage least squares analysis using the weighted genetic urate score as the instrumental variable, no significant relationship was observed between serum urate and BMD (total femur crude beta =-0.36, p = 0.06). Similar findings were observed in both the male and female subgroups, and there was no evidence for causality when individual SNPs were analyzed. Serum urate is strongly associated with BMD. However, controlling for confounders by Mendelian randomization analysis does not provide evidence that increased urate has a causal effect on increasing BMD. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. A statistical analysis of the elastic distortion and dislocation density fields in deformed crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.


    The statistical properties of the elastic distortion fields of dislocations in deforming crystals are investigated using the method of discrete dislocation dynamics to simulate dislocation structures and dislocation density evolution under tensile loading. Probability distribution functions (PDF) and pair correlation functions (PCF) of the simulated internal elastic strains and lattice rotations are generated for tensile strain levels up to 0.85%. The PDFs of simulated lattice rotation are compared with sub-micrometer resolution three-dimensional X-ray microscopy measurements of rotation magnitudes and deformation length scales in 1.0% and 2.3% compression strained Cu single crystals to explore the linkage between experiment and the theoretical analysis. The statistical properties of the deformation simulations are analyzed through determinations of the Nye and Kröner dislocation density tensors. The significance of the magnitudes and the length scales of the elastic strain and the rotation parts of dislocation density tensors are demonstrated, and their relevance to understanding the fundamental aspects of deformation is discussed.

  14. Analysis of local dislocation densities in cold-rolled alloy 690 using transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae-Young; Kim, Sung Woo; Hwang, Seong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Service failure of alloy 690 in NPP has not been reported. However, some research groups reported that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) occurred in severely cold-rolled alloy 690. Transgranular craking was also reported in coll-rolled alloy 690 with a banded structure. In order to understand the effect of cold rolling on the cracking of alloy 690, many research groups have focused on the local strain and the cracked carbide induced by cold-rolling, by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been widely used to characterize structural materials because this technique has superior spatial resolution and allows for the analysis of crystallographic and chemical information. The aim of the present study is to understand the mechanism of the abnormally high crack growth rate (CGR) in cold-rolled alloy 690 with a banded structure. The local dislocation density was measured by TEM to confirm the effects of local strain on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy 690 with a banded structure. The effects of intragranular carbides on the SCC were also evaluated in this study. The local dislocation densities were directly measured using TEM to understand the effect of local strain on the SCC of Ni-based alloy 690 with a banded structure. The dislocation densities in the interior of the grains sharply increased in highly cold-rolled specimens due to intragranular carbide, which acted as a dislocation source.

  15. Breast cancer research output, 1945-2008: a bibliometric and density-equalizing analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W


    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women, with an estimated 194,280 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2009 alone. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research yield in breast cancer from 1945 to 2008, using large-scale data analysis, the employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quality, and density-equalizing mapping. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) Science Citation Expanded database; this was searched using the Boolean operator, \\'OR\\

  16. Density functional theory analysis of hexagonal close-packed elemental metal photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo Li


    Full Text Available A density function theory based analysis of photoemission from hexagonal close packed (hcp metals is presented and the calculated values of the rms transverse momentum (Δp_{T} are in good agreement with the available experimental data on Be [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 237401 (2013] and Mg [Proceedings of LINAC 2002, Gyeongju, Korea (2002]. The lattice constants and work functions of the hcp metals are also examined and are consistent with the available experimental values. In addition, emission from (0001-oriented Be is examined due to the presence of a strong surface state.

  17. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials. (United States)

    Yildirim, T; Ayar, M K; Akdag, M S; Yesilyurt, C


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x-tra Base Bulk Fill). Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and digital radiographs were taken, using a CCD sensor along with an aluminum stepwedge and 1 mm-thick tooth slice. The mean gray level of each aluminum stepwedge and selected materials was measured, using the equal-density area tool of Kodak Dental Imaging software. The equivalent thickness of aluminum for each material was then calculated by using the stepwedge values in the CurveExpert version 1.4 program. The radiopacity of bulk fill flowable composites sorted in descending order as follows: Beautifil Bulk Flowable (2.96 mm Al) = x-tra base bulk fill (2.92 mm Al) = SureFil SDR Flow (2.89 mm Al) > Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (2.51 mm Al) (P materials had a radiopacity greater than dentin and enamel; their adequate radiopacity will help the clinicians during radiographic examination of restorations. Bulk fill composite materials have greater radiopacity, enabling clinicians to distinguish the bulk fill composites from dentin and enamel.

  18. Effects of Three Different Additives and Two Different Bulk Densities on Maize Silage Characteristics, Temperature Profiles, CO2 and O2–Dynamics in Small Scale Silos during Aerobic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helena Jungbluth


    Full Text Available Silage quality and aerobic stability are sometimes insufficient. If management requirements are not met, or to improve silage quality, additives are often used. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different factors on silage during aerobic conditions. Whole-crop forage maize was harvested and 24 buckets (65 L were filled and assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1 control (no treatment; (2 chemical additive (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium acetate; (3 a mixed biological inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilacti; and (4 a mixed biological inoculant containing L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. An untreated variation was also ensiled. Two different densities were adjusted during ensiling. After opening, the temperature was measured for seven days and O2 and CO2 concentrations were analysed. The findings show that the chemical additive very effectively prevented silage from reheating and deteriorating. Aerobic reheating of silage was also successfully inhibited through biological additives and high density.

  19. Analysis of the AlGaN/GaN vertical bulk current on Si, sapphire, and free-standing GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Tomas, A.; Fontsere, A.; Llobet, J. [IMB-CNM-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, CAT (Spain); Placidi, M. [IREC, Jardins Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adria de Besos, Barcelona (Spain); Rennesson, S.; Chenot, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Cordier, Y. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); Baron, N. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); PICOGIGA International, Pl M. Rebuffat, Courtaboeuf 7, 91140 Villejust (France)


    The vertical bulk (drain-bulk) current (I{sub db}) properties of analogous AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures molecular beam epitaxially grown on silicon, sapphire, and free-standing GaN (FS-GaN) have been evaluated in this paper. The experimental I{sub db} (25-300 Degree-Sign C) have been well reproduced with physical models based on a combination of Poole-Frenkel (trap assisted) and hopping (resistive) conduction mechanisms. The thermal activation energies (E{sub a}), the (soft or destructive) vertical breakdown voltage (V{sub B}), and the effect of inverting the drain-bulk polarity have also been comparatively investigated. GaN-on-FS-GaN appears to adhere to the resistive mechanism (E{sub a} = 0.35 eV at T = 25-300 Degree-Sign C; V{sub B} = 840 V), GaN-on-sapphire follows the trap assisted mechanism (E{sub a} = 2.5 eV at T > 265 Degree-Sign C; V{sub B} > 1100 V), and the GaN-on-Si is well reproduced with a combination of the two mechanisms (E{sub a} = 0.35 eV at T > 150 Degree-Sign C; V{sub B} = 420 V). Finally, the relationship between the vertical bulk current and the lateral AlGaN/GaN transistor leakage current is explored.

  20. Lake and bulk sampling chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis on the Bridger-Teton National Forest (USFS Region 4) (United States)

    Jill Grenon; Terry Svalberg; Ted Porwoll; Mark Story


    Air quality monitoring data from several programs in and around the Bridger-Teton (B-T) National Forest - National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), longterm lake monitoring, long-term bulk precipitation monitoring (both snow and rain), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) - were analyzed in this report. Trends were analyzed using...

  1. Armazenamento de água e densidade do solo sob três condições de superfície, em um Cambissol gleico de Lugo, Espanha Soil water storage and bulk density under three conditions of soil surface in a Cambisol of Lugo, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio P. González


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, investigar as variações de armazenamento de água e da densidade do solo de um Cambissol gleico, em Lugo, Espanha, sob três condições de superfície. A avaliação do teor de água e da densidade do solo no campo foi acompanhada com leituras durante 16 meses, usando-se uma sonda de nêutrons gama. Três condições de superfícies foram estudadas: pastagem (Lolium perenne com 4 anos; pastagem com 2 anos e solo descoberto. As avaliações foram realizadas nas profundidades de 0,20, 0,30, 0,60 e 1,20 m. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que: as condições de superfície proporcionaram diferenças no armazenamento de água, até a profundidade de 0,60 m; as variações de armazenamento de água influenciaram a avaliação da densidade do solo; a superfície com o solo descoberto apresentou menor variação no conteúdo de água armazenada enquanto a superfície com a pastagem de 4 anos mostrou maior variação.The present work aimed to investigate the soil water storage and bulk density of a Cambisol gleico in Lugo, Spain, with three conditions of soil surface. Thus, the main objective was to study the conservation of the water in the soil. In order to evaluate the soil water content and bulk density, readings were accomplished during 16 months, using a neutron gamma probe under the field conditions. Three plots were used: plot 1 - pasture (Lolium perenne with 4 years; plot 2 - pasture (Lolium perenne with 2 years and plot 3 - bare soil. The obtained data at depths of 0.20, 0.30, 0.60 and 1.20 m were discussed. Results show that soil surface conditions were different in the soil water storage until the depth of 0.60 m; the variations of soil water storage influenced the bulk density. Soil water storage variations were lower for the bare soil and higher for the soil surface under 4 year pasture.

  2. Numerical analysis of dislocation density and residual stress in a GaN single crystal during the cooling process (United States)

    Nakano, S.; Gao, B.; Kakimoto, K.


    In this study, we investigate the influence of thermal stress on the dislocation density and residual stress in GaN single crystals by numerical analysis. The results show that the dislocation density increases, but the thermal stress does not decrease, and the residual stress increases throughout the cooling process. The reason for this phenomenon is that the dislocation density is higher at the periphery of the crystal and distribution of dislocation density in the crystal is inhomogeneous. Then, the increase of dislocation does not allow the thermal stress on the entire crystal to relax.

  3. Energy decomposition analysis based on a block-localized wavefunction and multistate density functional theory. (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Bao, Peng; Gao, Jiali


    An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functional theory, providing a useful tool to gain insights on intermolecular interactions that would otherwise be difficult to obtain using the delocalized Kohn-Sham DFT. These features allow broad applications of the BLW method to energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis for intermolecular interactions. In this perspective, we outline theoretical aspects of the BLW-ED method, and illustrate its applications in hydrogen-bonding and π-cation intermolecular interactions as well as metal-carbonyl complexes. Future prospects on the development of a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) are presented, making use of block-localized electronic states as the basis configurations.

  4. Vibrational analysis, electronic structure and nonlinear optical properties of Levofloxacin by density functional theory (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Sethu; Rajalakshmi, K.; Kumaresan, Subramanian


    The Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectrum of Levofloxacin was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and a complete vibrational assignment of fundamental vibrational modes of the molecule was carried out using density functional method. The observed fundamental modes have been compared with the harmonic vibrational frequencies computed using DFT (B3LYP) method by employing 6-31 G (d, p) basis sets. The most stable geometry of the molecule under investigation has been determined from the potential energy scan. The first-order hyperpolarizability (βo) and other related properties (μ, αo) of Levofloxacin are calculated using density functional theory (DFT) on a finite field approach. UV-vis spectrum of the molecule was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by DFT using 6-31 G (d, p) basis sets. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that, the charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The other molecular properties like molecular electrostatic potential (MESP), Mulliken population analysis and thermodynamic properties of the title molecule have been calculated.

  5. Forced bulk boiling at high heat fluxes; Erzwungenes Blasensieden bei hohen Waermestromdichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipping, Tobias; Humpfer, Frank; Arnemann, Michael [Hochschule Karlsruhe - Technik und Wirtschaft (HsKA) (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau und Mechatronik fuer Kaelte-, Klima- und Umwelttechnik (IKKU)


    The influence of very high heat flux densities (10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} W/m{sup 2}) on the boiling behavior of R404A is investigated. By using a new evaporator design it is possible to change the evaporating effects even at these high heat flux densities to bulk boiling. This paper focuses on the experimental analysis of the new evaporator by varying the parameters geometry, mass flux, subcooling and fluid velocity. The results show that fluid velocity, mass flux and geometry have a high influence on the transferred heat-flow, while the subcooling of the liquid phase only has a small effect. (orig.)

  6. Control of microbial activity by flow injection analysis during high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Ding, T; Bilitewski, U; Schmid, R D; Korz, D J; Sanders, E A


    The application of an automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for on-line determination of microbial activity, during high cell density cultivations of Escherichia coli is reported. Based on a bioelectrochemical principle, the FIA method used a redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) to facilitate electron transfer from the microorganisms to an electrochemical detector. Assays were carried out using a new sampling device which provided aseptic operation by use of a valve and chemical sterilisation. No sample dilution or pretreatment was necessary for biomass concentrations up to approx. 40 g l-1. The sample volume was 0.5 ml and the overall analysis time was 5 min. FIA signals were found to correlate well with the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Changes in metabolic activity due to low substrate levels or high inhibitor concentrations in the cultivation medium became obvious from the FIA signals.

  7. Mechanical properties of Fe rich Fe–Si alloys: ab initio local bulk-modulus viewpoint (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somesh Kr; Kohyama, Masanori; Tanaka, Shingo; Shiihara, Yoshinori; Saengdeejing, Arkapol; Chen, Ying; Mohri, Tetsuo


    Fe-rich Fe–Si alloys show peculiar bulk-modulus changes depending on the Si concentration in the range of 0–15 at.%Si. In order to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have performed density-functional theory calculations of supercells of Fe–Si alloy models with various Si concentrations. We have applied our recent techniques of ab initio local energy and local stress, by which we can obtain a local bulk modulus of each atom or atomic group as a local constituent of the cell-averaged bulk modulus. A2-phase alloy models are constructed by introducing Si substitution into bcc Fe as uniformly as possible so as to prevent mutual neighboring, while higher Si concentrations over 6.25 at.%Si lead to contacts between SiFe8 cubic clusters via sharing corner Fe atoms. For 12.5 at.%Si, in addition to an A2 model, we deal with partial D03 models containing local D03-like layers consisting of edge-shared SiFe8 cubic clusters. For the cell-averaged bulk modulus, we have successfully reproduced the Si-concentration dependence as a monotonic decrease until 11.11 at.%Si and a recovery at 12.5 at.%Si. The analysis of local bulk moduli of SiFe8 cubic clusters and Fe regions is effective to understand the variations of the cell-averaged bulk modulus. The local bulk moduli of Fe regions become lower for increasing Si concentration, due to the suppression of bulk-like d–d bonding states in narrow Fe regions. For higher Si concentrations till 11.11 at.%Si, corner-shared contacts or 1D chains of SiFe8 clusters lead to remarkable reduction of local bulk moduli of the clusters. At 12 at.%Si, on the other hand, two- or three-dimensional arrangements of corner- or edge-shared SiFe8 cubic clusters show greatly enhanced local bulk moduli, due to quite different bonding nature with much stronger p-d hybridization. The relation among the local bulk moduli, local electronic and magnetic structures, and local configurations such as connectivity of SiFe8 clusters and Fe-region sizes has

  8. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel


    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  9. Analysis and improvement of Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes: bulk, boundary, interface. Similarity and distinctness with finite elements in heterogeneous porous media. (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Silva, Goncalo; Talon, Laurent


    This work focuses on the numerical solution of the Stokes-Brinkman equation for a voxel-type porous-media grid, resolved by one to eight spacings per permeability contrast of 1 to 10 orders in magnitude. It is first analytically demonstrated that the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the linear-finite-element method (FEM) both suffer from the viscosity correction induced by the linear variation of the resistance with the velocity. This numerical artefact may lead to an apparent negative viscosity in low-permeable blocks, inducing spurious velocity oscillations. The two-relaxation-times (TRT) LBM may control this effect thanks to free-tunable two-rates combination Λ. Moreover, the Brinkman-force-based BF-TRT schemes may maintain the nondimensional Darcy group and produce viscosity-independent permeability provided that the spatial distribution of Λ is fixed independently of the kinematic viscosity. Such a property is lost not only in the BF-BGK scheme but also by "partial bounce-back" TRT gray models, as shown in this work. Further, we propose a consistent and improved IBF-TRT model which vanishes viscosity correction via simple specific adjusting of the viscous-mode relaxation rate to local permeability value. This prevents the model from velocity fluctuations and, in parallel, improves for effective permeability measurements, from porous channel to multidimensions. The framework of our exact analysis employs a symbolic approach developed for both LBM and FEM in single and stratified, unconfined, and bounded channels. It shows that even with similar bulk discretization, BF, IBF, and FEM may manifest quite different velocity profiles on the coarse grids due to their intrinsic contrasts in the setting of interface continuity and no-slip conditions. While FEM enforces them on the grid vertexes, the LBM prescribes them implicitly. We derive effective LBM continuity conditions and show that the heterogeneous viscosity correction impacts them, a property also shared

  10. Bone mineral density is decreased in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin


    Previous studies have shown that fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with low level of physical activity and exercise, which may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in fibromyalgia have shown conflicting results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between FMS and BMD. A comprehensive search of the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through May 2016. The inclusion criterion was the observational studies' assessment of the association between fibromyalgia and bone mineral density in adult subjects. Fibromyalgia was diagnosed in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pooled mean difference (MD) of BMD at each site and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. The between-study heterogeneity of effect size was quantified using the Q statistic and I 2 . Data were extracted from four observational studies involving 680 subjects. At lumbar spine (L2-L4), BMD is significantly decreased in patients with FMS compared with controls with pooled MD of -0.02 (95% CI -0.03 to -0.01, P value = 0.003, I 2  = 0%) (Fig. 1). At femoral neck, BMD is not significantly decreased in patients with FMS compared with controls with pooled MD of 0.01 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.01, P value = 0.23, I 2  = 0%) (Fig. 2). In this meta-analysis, we observe that BMD at lumbar spine is decreased in FMS compared with normal individuals. Patients with FMS should be assessed for risk of osteoporosis. Fig. 1 Forest plot of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, for patients with and without fibromyalgia syndrome. CI-confidence interval Fig. 2 Forest plot of bone mineral density at the femoral neck, for patients with and without fibromyalgia

  11. Analysis of 2-d ultrasound cardiac strain imaging using joint probability density functions. (United States)

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy


    Ultrasound frame rates play a key role for accurate cardiac deformation tracking. Insufficient frame rates lead to an increase in signal de-correlation artifacts resulting in erroneous displacement and strain estimation. Joint probability density distributions generated from estimated axial strain and its associated signal-to-noise ratio provide a useful approach to assess the minimum frame rate requirements. Previous reports have demonstrated that bi-modal distributions in the joint probability density indicate inaccurate strain estimation over a cardiac cycle. In this study, we utilize similar analysis to evaluate a 2-D multi-level displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithm for cardiac strain imaging. The effect of different frame rates, final kernel dimensions and a comparison of radio frequency and envelope based processing are evaluated using echo signals derived from a 3-D finite element cardiac model and five healthy volunteers. Cardiac simulation model analysis demonstrates that the minimum frame rates required to obtain accurate joint probability distributions for the signal-to-noise ratio and strain, for a final kernel dimension of 1 λ by 3 A-lines, was around 42 Hz for radio frequency signals. On the other hand, even a frame rate of 250 Hz with envelope signals did not replicate the ideal joint probability distribution. For the volunteer study, clinical data was acquired only at a 34 Hz frame rate, which appears to be sufficient for radio frequency analysis. We also show that an increase in the final kernel dimensions significantly affect the strain probability distribution and joint probability density function generated, with a smaller effect on the variation in the accumulated mean strain estimated over a cardiac cycle. Our results demonstrate that radio frequency frame rates currently achievable on clinical cardiac ultrasound systems are sufficient for accurate analysis of the strain probability distribution, when a multi-level 2-D

  12. Electronic structure of bulk AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np, Pu) and water adsorption on the (111) and (110) surfaces of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} from hybrid density functional theory within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellington, Joseph P.W. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Kerridge, Andrew [Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YP (United Kingdom); Austin, Jonathan [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    Generalised gradient approximation (PBE) and hybrid (PBE0) density functional theory (DFT) within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method have been used to study AnO{sub 2} bulk and surfaces (An = U, Np, Pu). The electronic structure has been investigated by examining the projected density of states (PDOS). While PBE incorrectly predicts these systems to be metallic, PBE0 finds them to be insulators, with the composition of the valence and conduction levels agreeing well with experiment. Molecular and dissociative water adsorption on the (111) and (110) surfaces of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} has been investigated, with that on the (110) surface being stronger than on the (111). Similar energies are found for molecular and dissociative adsorption on the (111) surfaces, while on the (110) there is a clear preference for dissociative adsorption. Adsorption energies and geometries on the (111) surface of UO{sub 2} are in good agreement with recent periodic DFT studies using the GGA+U approach, and our data for dissociative adsorption on the (110) surface of PuO{sub 2} match experiment rather well, especially when dispersion corrections are included. - Graphical abstract: The electronic structures of AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np, Pu) are studied computationally with hybrid density functional theory, and the geometries and energetics of water adsorption on the low index surfaces are presented.

  13. Endometriosis and its global research architecture: an in-depth density-equalizing mapping analysis. (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Elizabeth-Martinez, Alexandra; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Quarcoo, David; Jaque, Jenny M; Groneberg, David A


    Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases. It is still a chameleon in many aspects and urges intense research activities in the fields of diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Despite the need to foster research in this area, no in-depth analysis of the global architecture of endometriosis research exists yet. We here used the NewQIS platform to conduct a density equalizing mapping study, using the Web of Science as database with endometriosis related entries between 1900 and 2009. Density equalizing maps of global endometriosis research encompassing country-specific publication activities, and semi-qualitative indices such as country specific citations, citation rates, h-Indices were created. In total, 11,056 entries related to endometriosis were found. The USA was leading the field with 3705 publications followed by the United Kingdom (952) and Japan (846). Concerning overall citations and country-specific h-Indices, the USA again was the leading nation with 74,592 citations and a modified h-Index of 103, followed by the UK with 15,175 citations (h-Index 57). Regarding the citation rate, Sweden and Belgium were at top positions with rates of 22.46 and 22.26, respectively. Concerning collaborative studies, there was a steep increase in numbers present; analysis of the chronological evolution indicated a strong increase in international collaborations in the past 10 years. This study is the first analysis that illustrates the global endometriosis research architecture. It shows that endometriosis research is constantly gaining importance but also underlines the need for further efforts and investments to foster research and ultimately improve endometriosis management on a global scale.


    Sandhu, Rupninder; Williams, Tyisha; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wesolowska, Ewa; Boyd, Norman F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Troester, Melissa A.


    Purpose Previous studies of breast tissue gene expression have demonstrated that the extratumoral microenvironment has substantial variability across individuals, some of which can be attributed to epidemiologic factors. To evaluate how mammographic density (MD) and breast tissue composition relate to extratumoral microenvironment gene expression, we used data on 121 breast cancer patients from the population-based Polish Women's Breast Cancer Study. Design Breast cancer cases were classified based on a previously reported, biologically-defined extratumoral gene expression signature with two subtypes: an Active subtype, which is associated with high expression of genes related to fibrosis and wound response, and an Inactive subtype, which has high expression of cellular adhesion genes. MD of the contralateral breast was assessed using pre-treatment mammograms and a quantitative, reliable computer-assisted thresholding method. Breast tissue composition was evaluated based on digital image analysis of tissue sections. Results The Inactive extratumoral subtype was associated with significantly higher percentage mammographic density (PD) and dense area (DA) in univariate analysis (PD: p=0.001; DA: p=0.049) and in multivariable analyses adjusted for age and body mass index (PD: p=0.004; DA: p=0.049). Inactive/higher MD tissue was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of stroma and a significantly lower percentage of adipose tissue, with no significant change in epithelial content. Analysis of published gene expression signatures suggested that Inactive/higher MD tissue expressed increased estrogen response and decreased TGF-β signaling. Conclusions By linking novel molecular phenotypes with MD, our results indicate that MD reflects broad transcriptional changes, including changes in both epithelia- and stroma-derived signaling. PMID:23918601

  15. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang


    Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Four cohort, 1 case-control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08-0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.04; P tea consumption group. This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss.

  16. Polonium bulk and surface vibrational dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigrine, Rachid; Bourahla, Boualem [Laboratoire de Physique PEC UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Khater, Antoine


    Calculations are presented for the bulk phonons and for surface Rayleigh phonons and resonances for Polonium, the only element known to form in the simple cubic lattice. The static stability of this lattice has been confirmed recently by ab initio simulations which yield two bulk elastic constants, c{sub 11} and c{sub 12}. Constitutive equations are derived for the isotropic cubic lattice based upon the Fuchs's method. This permits effectively a numerical evaluation of central potential force constants for Polonium from the ab initio results. Numerical calculations are then made for the material vibration dynamics in the force constant model with the use of the matching method. The numerical applications yield for Polonium the bulk phonon branches along[100],[110], and [111], and the Rayleigh phonons and surface resonances along the[010] direction in an unreconstructed (001) surface. The local vibration densities of states are calculated for bulk and surface sites for this element. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Transformation kinetics for surface and bulk nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Elena, E-mail: [University of Milan, Department of Mathematics, via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rios, Paulo R., E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, 27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)] [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)


    A rigorous mathematical approach based on the causal cone and stochastic geometry concepts is used to derive new exact expressions for transformation kinetics theory. General expressions for the mean volume density and the volume fraction are derived for both surface and bulk nucleation in a general Borel subset of R{sup 3}. In practice, probably any specimen shape of engineering interest is going to be a Borel set. An expression is also derived for the important case of polyhedral shape, in which surface nucleation may take place on the faces, edges and vertices of the polyhedron as well as within the bulk. Moreover, explicit expressions are given for surface and bulk nucleation for three specific shapes of engineering relevance: two parallel planes, an infinitely long cylinder and a sphere. Superposition is explained in detail and it permits the treatment of situations in which surface and bulk nucleation take place simultaneously. The new exact expressions presented here result in a significant increase in the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.

  18. Influence of shrub cover vegetal and slope length on soil bulk density; Influencia de la cubierta vegetal arbustiva y la longitud de la ladera sobre la densidad aparente del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienes, R.; Jimenez, R.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia-Estringana, P.; Marques, M. J.


    In arid and semiarid environments of the Mediterranean climate, the shrub species play an important role in the revegetation of abandoned lands, which enables to control the soil losses, organic material and water. In this article are compared the results obtained under different revegetation in abandoned lands in the central area of Spain. In these revegetation has been used two native shrubs: A triplex halimus (Ah) and Retama sphaerocarpa (Rs), and were analyzed the influence of these revegetation in the contents of organic material of soil and apparent density in 5 years time after planting. As control, have been considered the pieces of ground with spontaneous vegetation abandoned in the same date that the shrubs revegetation. Atriplex halimus gives to the soil a covering capable to intercept a big amount of water drops absorbing a great amount part of the kinetic energy of the rain, while provides a microclimates as a result of be able to soften the wind, the temperature and the evaporation-transpiration, which makes it efficient to control the erosion and the desertification (Le Houerou, 2000). Retama sphaerocarpa was chosen because it is a native shrub very characteristic, and, due to its symbiosis with the Bradyrhizobium, enriches the soil in nitrogen, which is taken by the nitrophilous species enhancing the spontaneous vegetal covering. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Scientometric analysis and combined density-equalizing mapping of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vitzthum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is estimated to exert a major burden of disease. Currently, numerous countries have taken legal actions to protect the population against ETS. Numerous studies have been conducted in this field. Therefore, scientometric methods should be used to analyze the accumulated data since there is no such approach available so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: A combination of scientometric methods and novel visualizing procedures were used, including density-equalizing mapping and radar charting techniques. 6,580 ETS-related studies published between 1900 and 2008 were identified in the ISI database. Using different scientometric approaches, a continuous increase of both quantitative and qualitative parameters was found. The combination with density-equalizing calculations demonstrated a leading position of the United States (2,959 items published in terms of quantitative research activities. Charting techniques demonstrated that there are numerous bi- and multilateral networks between different countries and institutions in this field. Again, a leading position of American institutions was found. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive scientometric analysis of data on global scientific activities in the field of environmental tobacco smoke research. The present findings can be used as a benchmark for funding allocation processes.

  20. Hydrogen bond density and strength analysis on hydrated Rutile (110) and Cassiterite (110) surfaces (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Kent, Paul; Bandura, Andrei; Wesolowski, David; Kubicki, James; Sofo, Jorge


    We study the dynamics of water on the surface of cassiterite (110) and rutile (110) using ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation. Water adsorbs and dissociates on these surfaces. This dynamic equilibrium is dominated by the hydrogen bond (h-bond) network at the surface. The h-bond density analysis shows that adsorbed water molecules form higher average number of h-bonds on rutile (˜2.3) as compared to the cassiterite surface (˜2.1). On the other hand, bridging oxygen atoms form higher average number of h-bonds on cassiterite (˜1.4) than rutile surface (˜1.2). Dissociated species are found to have same average number of hydrogen bonds on both surfaces. As a consequence, the rutile surface has higher density of h-bonds at the surface than cassiterite, however, their strength is lower [N. Kumar et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 044706 (2011)]. This delicate balance is responsible for the different dynamical properties of both surfaces.

  1. Propositional idea density in older men's written language: findings from the HIMS study using computerised analysis. (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison; Craig, Hugh; Colyvas, Kim; Hankey, Graeme J; Flicker, Leon


    Decline in linguistic function has been associated with decline in cognitive function in previous research. This research investigated the informativeness of written language samples of Australian men from the Health in Men's Study (HIMS) aged from 76 to 93 years using the Computerised Propositional Idea Density Rater (CPIDR 5.1). In total, 60,255 words in 1147 comments were analysed using a linear-mixed model for statistical analysis. Results indicated no relationship with education level (p = 0.79). Participants for whom English was not their first learnt language showed Propositional Idea Density (PD) scores slightly lower (0.018 per 1 word). Mean PD per 1 word for those for whom English was their first language for comments below 60 words was 0.494 and above 60 words 0.526. Text length was found to have an effect (p = <0.0001). The mean PD was higher than previously reported for men and lower than previously reported for a similar cohort for Australian women.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Pierret


    Full Text Available Measurement of root system attributes is of critical importance to understand and model plant growth. Root length density, the length of roots per unit volume of soil, is one of the important parameters required to understand plant performance. Measuring techniques currently in use to assess this parameter, such as for example core washing, are notoriously imprecise and labour-intensive. Roots and soil being inextricably linked, it is virtually impossible to separate them without loosing a significant amount of the root sample to be measured. This noticeably compromises the accuracy of washing techniques. For this reason, non-invasive measurement approaches are highly desirable. Here, a method based on the combination of X-radiography and image analysis is proposed as a new alternative for the measurement of root length density from intact samples. The successive steps of the method, from sampling to image acquisition are briefly described. A specific measurement algorithm, designed to account for the complex spatial arrangement of the roots within the samples is then presented and discussed in detail.

  3. Direct Visualization of Orbital Flipping in Volborthite by Charge Density Analysis Using Detwinned Data (United States)

    Sugawara, Kento; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujii, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Takafumi; Katayama, Naoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Sawa, Hiroshi


    The distribution of d-orbital valence electrons in volborthite [Cu3V2O7(OH)2 • 2H2O] was investigated by charge density analysis of the multipole model refinement. Diffraction data were obtained by synchrotron radiation single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Data reduction by detwinning of the multiple structural domains was performed using our developed software. In this study, using high-quality data, we demonstrated that the water molecules in volborthite can be located by the hydrogen bonding in cavities that consist of Kagome lattice layers of CuO4(OH)2 and pillars of V2O7. Final multipole refinements before and after the structural phase transition directly visualized the deformation electron density of the valence electrons. We successfully directly visualized the orbital flipping of the d-orbital dx2-y2, which is the highest level of 3d orbitals occupied by d9 electrons in volborthite. The developed techniques and software can be employed for investigations of structural properties of systems with multiple structural domains.

  4. Static and Dynamic Electronic (Hyperpolarizabilities of Dimethylnaphthalene Isomers: Characterization of Spatial Contributions by Density Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alparone


    Full Text Available Static and frequency-dependent electronic (hyperpolarizabilities of the dimethylnaphthalene (DMN isomers were computed in vacuum using the Coulomb-attenuating Density Functional Theory method. The nonlinear optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG and Electro-Optical Pockels Effect (EOPE were investigated at the characteristic Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1064 nm. The response electric properties especially the longitudinal polarizability, polarizability anisotropy, and first-order hyperpolarizability are significantly affected by the position of the methyl groups. The SHG and EOPE techniques can be potentially useful to discriminate the ,-DMN isomers (2,6-DMN < 2,7-DMN < 2,3-DMN as well as the ,-DMN isomers (1,5-DMN < 1,4-DMN < 1,8-DMN. The (hyperpolarizability differences among the investigated DMNs were elucidated through density analysis calculations. The predicted polarizabilities exhibit good linear relationships with the experimental first-order biomass-normalized rate coefficient, a physicochemical property connected to the rates of biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  5. Optimization of vortex pinning at grain boundaries on ex-situ MgB2 bulks synthesized by spark plasma sintering (United States)

    Naito, Tomoyuki; Endo, Yuri; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki


    Grain boundaries are well known to be the predominant pinning centers in MgB2 superconductors. To study the effects of grain boundaries on the trapped field properties of MgB2 bulk, we prepared MgB2 bulks by a spark plasma sintering method using a ball-milled starting powder. The trapped field was maximized for the bulk made from the ball-milled powder with crystallite size, τ, of 27 nm; the highest trapped field, {B}{{T}}, of 2.3 T achieved at 19.3 K was 1.2 times larger than that of the bulk made from the non ball-milled powder (τ = 50 nm). The degradation of the trapped field for the bulk from finer powder (τ = 6 nm) originated mainly from the lowered {T}{{c}}. The critical current density, {J}{{c}}, and the pinning force density, {F}{{p}}, were also maximized for the bulk from τ = 27 nm. The competition between the increase of the numerical density of grain boundaries and the degradation of superconductivity determined the vortex pinning properties for the MgB2 bulks with mechanically refined grains. The scaling analysis for the pinning force density suggested that the change in the dimension of the dominant pinning source from 2D (surface) to 0D (point) was induced by grain refining. Although the nanometric impurity particles such as MgB4, MgO and Mg-B-O were created in the bulk during both ball-milling and spark plasma sintering processes, we considered the point-contact between the refined grains was the predominant point pinning source.

  6. eRDF Analyser: An interactive GUI for electron reduced density function analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Shanmugam


    Full Text Available eRDF Analyser is an interactive MATLAB GUI for reduced density function (RDF or pair distribution function (PDF analysis of amorphous and polycrystalline materials to study their local structure. It is developed as an integrated tool with an easy-to-use interface that offers a streamlined approach to extract RDF from electron diffraction data without the need for external routines. The software incorporates recent developments in scattering factor parameterisation and an automated fitting routine for the atomic scattering curve. It also features an automated optimisation routine for determination of the position of the centre of diffraction patterns recorded using both central and off-centre locations of the incident beam. It is available in both open source code (MATLAB m-file and executable form.

  7. Energy decomposition analysis of single bonds within Kohn-Sham density functional theory. (United States)

    Levine, Daniel S; Head-Gordon, Martin


    An energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for single chemical bonds is presented within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory based on spin projection equations that are exact within wave function theory. Chemical bond energies can then be understood in terms of stabilization caused by spin-coupling augmented by dispersion, polarization, and charge transfer in competition with destabilizing Pauli repulsions. The EDA reveals distinguishing features of chemical bonds ranging across nonpolar, polar, ionic, and charge-shift bonds. The effect of electron correlation is assessed by comparison with Hartree-Fock results. Substituent effects are illustrated by comparing the C-C bond in ethane against that in bis(diamantane), and dispersion stabilization in the latter is quantified. Finally, three metal-metal bonds in experimentally characterized compounds are examined: a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] dimer, the [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] bond in dizincocene, and the Mn-Mn bond in dimanganese decacarbonyl.

  8. Analysis of vibrational, structural, and electronic properties of rivastigmine by density functional theory (United States)

    Prasad, O.; Sinha, L.; Misra, N.; Narayan, V.; Kumar, N.; Kumar, A.


    The present work deals with the structural, electronic, and vibrational analysis of rivastigmine. Rivastigmine, an antidementia medicament, is credited with significant therapeutic effects on the cognitive, functional, and behavioural problems that are commonly associated with Alzheimer’s dementia. For rivastigmine, a number of minimum energy conformations are possible. The geometry of twelve possible conformers has been analyzed and the most stable conformer was further optimized at a higher basis set. The electronic properties and vibrational frequencies were then calculated using a density functional theory at the B3LYP level with the 6-311+G(d, p) basis set. The different molecular surfaces have also been drawn to understand the activity of the molecule. A narrower frontier orbital energy gap in rivastigmine makes it softer and more reactive than water and dimethylfuran. The calculated value of the dipole moment is 2.58 debye.

  9. Global SAXS Data Analysis for Multilamellar Vesicles: Evolution of the Scattering Density Profile (SDP) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heftberger, Peter [University of Graz, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Austria; Kollmitzer, Benjamin [University of Graz, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Austria; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Rappolt, Michael [University of Leeds, UK; Amenitsch, Heinz [Graz University of Technology; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Pabst, georg [University of Graz, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Austria


    The highly successful scattering density profile (SDP) model, used to jointly analyze small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data from unilamellar vesicles, has been adapted for use with data from fully hydrated, liquid crystalline multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Using a genetic algorithm, this new method is capable of providing high-resolution structural information, as well as determining bilayer elastic bending fluctuations from standalone X-ray data. Structural parameters such as bilayer thickness and area per lipid were determined for a series of saturated and unsaturated lipids, as well as binary mixtures with cholesterol. The results are in good agreement with previously reported SDP data, which used both neutron and X-ray data. The inclusion of deuterated and non-deuterated MLV neutron data in the analysis improved the lipid backbone information but did not improve, within experimental error, the structural data regarding bilayer thickness and area per lipid.

  10. eRDF Analyser: An interactive GUI for electron reduced density function analysis (United States)

    Shanmugam, Janaki; Borisenko, Konstantin B.; Chou, Yu-Jen; Kirkland, Angus I.

    eRDF Analyser is an interactive MATLAB GUI for reduced density function (RDF) or pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of amorphous and polycrystalline materials to study their local structure. It is developed as an integrated tool with an easy-to-use interface that offers a streamlined approach to extract RDF from electron diffraction data without the need for external routines. The software incorporates recent developments in scattering factor parameterisation and an automated fitting routine for the atomic scattering curve. It also features an automated optimisation routine for determination of the position of the centre of diffraction patterns recorded using both central and off-centre locations of the incident beam. It is available in both open source code (MATLAB m-file) and executable form.

  11. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Scutaru, Cristian; Kelly, Clare; Glynn, Ronan W.; Perry, Ivan J.


    The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors’ affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139). The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2%) and Japan (7.7%). Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237). Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%). The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues. PMID:26208117

  13. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Geaney

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139. The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2% and Japan (7.7%. Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237. Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%. The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues.

  14. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping. (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Scutaru, Cristian; Kelly, Clare; Glynn, Ronan W; Perry, Ivan J


    The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139). The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2%) and Japan (7.7%). Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237). Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%). The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues.

  15. Bulk viscosity, interaction and the viability of phantom solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Leyva, Yoelsy


    We study the dynamics of a bulk viscosity model in the Eckart approach for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. We have included radiation and dark energy, assumed as perfect fluids, and dark matter treated as an imperfect fluid having bulk viscosity. We also introduce an interaction term between the dark matter and dark energy components. Considering that the bulk viscosity is proportional to the dark matter energy density and imposing a complete cosmological dynamics, we find bounds on the bulk viscosity in order to reproduce a matter-dominated era (MDE). This constraint is independent of the interaction term. Some late time phantom solutions are mathematically possible. However, the constraint imposed by a MDE restricts the interaction parameter, in the phantom solutions, to a region consistent with a null value, eliminating the possibility of late time stable solutions with $w<-1$. From the different cases that we study, the only possible scenario, with bulk viscosity and interac...

  16. Reliability analysis based on a novel density estimation method for structures with correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyu LI


    Full Text Available Estimating the Probability Density Function (PDF of the performance function is a direct way for structural reliability analysis, and the failure probability can be easily obtained by integration in the failure domain. However, efficiently estimating the PDF is still an urgent problem to be solved. The existing fractional moment based maximum entropy has provided a very advanced method for the PDF estimation, whereas the main shortcoming is that it limits the application of the reliability analysis method only to structures with independent inputs. While in fact, structures with correlated inputs always exist in engineering, thus this paper improves the maximum entropy method, and applies the Unscented Transformation (UT technique to compute the fractional moments of the performance function for structures with correlations, which is a very efficient moment estimation method for models with any inputs. The proposed method can precisely estimate the probability distributions of performance functions for structures with correlations. Besides, the number of function evaluations of the proposed method in reliability analysis, which is determined by UT, is really small. Several examples are employed to illustrate the accuracy and advantages of the proposed method.

  17. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado


    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  18. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol


    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  19. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS


    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  20. Bulk and compound-specific isotope analysis of long-chain n-alkanes from a 85,000 year sediment core from Lake Peten Petén Itzá, Guatemala (United States)

    Mays, J.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Curtis, K.; Hodell, D. A.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Escobar, J.; Dutton, A. L.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Guilderson, T. P.


    Sediment core PI-6 from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala possesses an 85-ka record of climate from lowland Central America. Variations in sediment lithology suggest large, abrupt changes in precipitation during the last glacial and deglacial periods, and into the early Holocene. Study of cores from nearby Lake Quexil demonstrated the utility of using the carbon isotopic composition of leaf wax n-alkanes to infer changes in terrestrial vegetation (Huang et al. 2001). Forty-nine samples were taken from composite Petén Itzá core PI-6 to measure carbon isotopes of bulk organic carbon and long-chain n alkanes. Changes in δ13C values indicate shifts in the relative proportion of C3 to C4 biomass. The record shows largest δ13C variations are associated with Heinrich Events. Carbon isotope values in sediments deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) indicate moderate precipitation and little rainfall fluctuation. The deglacial was a period of pronounced climate variability, e.g. the Bölling-Allerod and Younger Dryas. Arid times of the deglacial were inferred from samples with the greatest δ13C values in organic matter, reflecting the largest proportion of C4 plants. Such inferences are supported by stable isotope measurements on ostracod shells and analysis of pollen from the same sample depths in core PI-6. Carbon stable isotope measures on bulk organic carbon and n alkane compounds show similar trends throughout the record and the C:N ratio of Petén Itzá sediments indicates a predominantly allochthonous source for bulk organic matter. Hence, isotope measures on bulk organic carbon (δ13CTOC) in sediments from this lake are sufficient to infer climate-driven shifts in vegetation, making n-alkane extraction and isotope analysis superfluous.

  1. High Force Magnetic Levitation Using Magnetized Superconducting Bulks as a Field Source for Bearing Applications (United States)

    Patel, A.; Giunchi, G.; Albisetti, A. Figini; Shi, Y.; Hopkins, S. C.; Palka, R.; Cardwell, D. A.; Glowacki, B. A.

    The ability of high temperature superconducting bulks to trap magnetic fields of several tesla allows them to generate very high levitation force. This paper reports the development of a bulk-bulk superconducting rotary bearing design which uses superconducting bulks on both the rotor and the stator. An evaluation is made of the effectiveness of pulsed fields for magnetizing bulks. Modeling of the bulks using the perfectly trapped flux model is also reported to assess the limits of the bearing design. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a (RE)BCO-MgB2 bulk bearing capable of force densities of the order of 100N/cm2. The design and construction of a unique system capable of magnetizing a 25 mm (RE)BCO bulk and measuring levitation force between this bulk and a coaxial MgB2 hollow cylinder is outlined.

  2. Magnetic levitation force between a superconducting bulk magnet and a permanent magnet


    Wang, J. J.; He, C. Y.; Meng, L. F.; Li, C.; Han, R. S.; Gao, Z. X.


    The current density in a disk-shaped superconducting bulk magnet and the magnetic levitation force exerted on the superconducting bulk magnet by a cylindrical permanent magnet are calculated from first principles. The effect of the superconducting parameters of the superconducting bulk is taken into account by assuming the voltage-current law and the material law. The magnetic levitation force is dominated by the remnant current density, which is induced by switching off the applied magnetizi...

  3. Yellow fever disease: density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output. (United States)

    Bundschuh, Matthias; Groneberg, David A; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander


    A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported.The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database (WoS) and analyzed as part of the NewQis platform. Then data were extracted from each file, transferred to databases and visualized as diagrams. Partially by means of density-equalizing mapping makes the findings clear and emphasizes the output of the analysis. In the study period from 1900 to 2012 a total of 5,053 yellow fever-associated items were published by 79 countries. The United States (USA) having the highest publication rate at 42% (n = 751) followed by far from Brazil (n = 203), France (n = 149) and the United Kingdom (n = 113). The most productive journals are the "Public Health Reports", the "American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene" and the "Journal of Virology". The gender analysis showed an overall steady increase of female authorship from 1950 to 2011. Brazil is the only country of the five most productive countries with a higher proportion of female scientists. The present data shows an increase in research productivity over the entire study period, in particular an increase of female scientists. Brazil shows a majority of female authors, a fact that is confirmed by other studies.

  4. Association between low bone mineral density and fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu


    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and fibromyalgia (FM). Meta-analyses were performed comparing BMD in FM patients and healthy controls, and in FM patients in subgroups based on ethnicity, BMD site, age, sex, and measurement method. Twelve studies including 695 FM patients and 784 controls were selected. Meta-analysis by ethnicity revealed a significantly lower BMD in the FM group in Caucasian populations [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.144, 95% CI = -0.271-(-0.017), p = 0.026], but not in Turkish populations. Subgroup analysis by BMD site showed that BMD was significantly lower in the FM group than in the control group in the lumbar spine [SMD = -0.588 (medium), 95% CI = -1.142-(-0.033), p = 0.038], but not in the femur neck and hip. Stratification by measurement method revealed a significantly lower BMD in the FM group by dual X-ray absorptiometry and dual-photon absorptiometry [SMD = -0.531 (medium), 95% CI = -1.040-(-0.023), p = 0.041; SMD = -0.315 (small), 95% CI = -0.544-(-0.085), p = 0.007, respectively], but not by quantitative ultrasound, but not by quantitative ultrasound. Subgroup analysis by sex, menopause status, and age revealed a significantly lower BMD in the female FM group [SMD = -0.588 (medium), 95% CI = -1.142-(-0.033), p = 0.038], but not in the pre-menopausal group and the group greater than mean age 50 years old. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that BMD was significantly lower in FM patients in Caucasian and female populations.

  5. Estimation of Bouguer Density Precision: Development of Method for Analysis of La Soufriere Volcano Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Gunawan


    Full Text Available precision of topographic density (Bouguer density estimation by the Nettleton approach is based on a minimum correlation of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The other method, the Parasnis approach, is based on a minimum correlation of Bouguer gravity anomaly and Bouguer correction. The precision of Bouguer density estimates was investigated by both methods on simple 2D syntetic models and under an assumption free-air anomaly consisting of an effect of topography, an effect of intracrustal, and an isostatic compensation. Based on simulation results, Bouguer density estimates were then investigated for a gravity survey of 2005 on La Soufriere Volcano-Guadeloupe area (Antilles Islands. The Bouguer density based on the Parasnis approach is 2.71 g/cm3 for the whole area, except the edifice area where average topography density estimates are 2.21 g/cm3 where Bouguer density estimates from previous gravity survey of 1975 are 2.67 g/cm3. The Bouguer density in La Soufriere Volcano was uncertainly estimated to be 0.1 g/cm3. For the studied area, the density deduced from refraction seismic data is coherent with the recent Bouguer density estimates. New Bouguer anomaly map based on these Bouguer density values allows to a better geological intepretation.    

  6. Dermal digital ridge density of a penal population: Analysis of association and individualization. (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Sharma, Krishan


    The present study is an attempt to analyze an association between dermal digital ridge density and explosive personality based on the study of 100 male prisoners and 50 controls. The control group had higher ridge density than the prisoners. Bilateral differences revealed higher ridge density on left hand than right hand in both the groups, but differences between two groups for directional asymmetry were not significant. Surface area is not correlated with ridge density in all the digits. About 50% of the variation in ridge density may be explained by a single factor which in all probability is the genetic component of variation. Ridge density cannot be used as a marker for assessing individual's height. Individuals having ridge density less than 12 ridges and higher than 15 ridges, i.e. placed on the two extremes were more likely than not to have more explosive personality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and electron temperature related to earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Shen


    Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters have been observed before large earthquakes, but the correlation between different parameters has been less studied in previous research. The present study is focused on the relationship between electron density (Ne and temperature (Te observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite during local nighttime, in which a positive correlation has been revealed near the equator and a weak correlation at mid- and low latitudes over both hemispheres. Based on this normal background analysis, the negative correlation with the lowest percent in all Ne and Te points is studied before and after large earthquakes at mid- and low latitudes. The multiparameter observations exhibited typical synchronous disturbances before the Chile M8.8 earthquake in 2010 and the Pu'er M6.4 in 2007, and Te varied inversely with Ne over the epicentral areas. Moreover, statistical analysis has been done by selecting the orbits at a distance of 1000 km and ±7 days before and after the global earthquakes. Enhanced negative correlation coefficients lower than −0.5 between Ne and Te are found in 42% of points to be connected with earthquakes. The correlation median values at different seismic levels show a clear decrease with earthquakes larger than 7. Finally, the electric-field-coupling model is discussed; furthermore, a digital simulation has been carried out by SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere, which illustrates that the external electric field in the ionosphere can strengthen the negative correlation in Ne and Te at a lower latitude relative to the disturbed source due to the effects of the geomagnetic field. Although seismic activity is not the only source to cause the inverse Ne–Te variations, the present results demonstrate one possibly useful tool in seismo-electromagnetic anomaly differentiation, and a comprehensive analysis with multiple

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: analysis of the global research architecture using density equalizing mapping. (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Berges, Lea; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Bauer, Jan; Bendels, Michael; Louwen, Frank; Jaque, Jenny; Groneberg, David A


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of female infertility worldwide. Although the related research output is constantly growing, no detailed global map of the scientific architecture has so far been created encompassing quantitative, qualitative, socioeconomic and gender aspects. We used the NewQIS platform to assess all PCOS-related publications indexed between 1900 and 2014 in the Web of Science, and applied density equalizing mapping projections, scientometric techniques and economic benchmarking procedures. A total of 6261 PCOS-specific publications and 703 international research collaborations were found. The USA was identified as the most active country in total and collaborative research activity. In the socioeconomic analysis, the USA was also ranked first (25.49 PCOS-related publications per gross domestic product [GDP]/capita), followed by the UK, Italy and Greece. When research activity was related to population size, Scandinavian countries and Greece were leading the field. For many highly productive countries, gender analysis revealed a high ratio of female scientists working on PCOS with the exception of Japan. In this study, we have created the first picture of global PCOS research, which largely differs from other gynaecologic conditions and indicates that most related research and collaborations originate from high-income countries. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis. (United States)

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A


    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  10. [Multiple linear regression and ROC curve analysis of the factors of lumbar spine bone mineral density]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yinxia; Hu, Shaoyong; Hao, Shuai; Yan, Jiewen; Zhang, Lingyan; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shaolin


    To investigate the correlation between the lumbar vertebra bone mineral density (BMD) and age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, waistline, hipline, bone marrow and abdomen fat, and to explore the key factor affecting the BMD. A total of 72 cases were randomly recruited. All the subjects underwent a spectroscopic examination of the third lumber vertebra with single-voxel method in 1.5T MR. Lipid fractions (FF%) were measured. Quantitative CT were also performed to get the BMD of L3 and the corresponding abdomen subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The statistical analysis were performed by SPSS 19.0. Multiple linear regression showed except the age and FF% showed significant difference (P0.05). The correlation of age and FF% with BMD was statistically negatively significant (r=-0.830, -0.521, P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 81.8% and 86.9%, with a threshold of 58.5 years old. And it showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 90.9% and 55.7%, with a threshold of 52.8% for FF%. The lumbar vertebra BMD was significantly and negatively correlated with age and bone marrow FF%, but it was not significantly correlated with gender, height, weight, BMI, waistline, hipline, SAT and VAT. And age was the critical factor.

  11. Orthogonal experiment and analysis of power spectral density on process parameters of pitch tool polishing (United States)

    Meng, Kai; Wan, Yongjian; Wu, Fan; Shen, Lijun; Wu, Hsing-Yu


    Mid to high spatial frequency error (MSFR and HSFR) should be strictly controlled in modern optical systems. Pitch tool polishing (PTP) is an effective ultra-smoothing surface manufacturing method to control MSFR and HSFR. But it is difficult to control because it is affected by a lot of factors. The present paper describes the pitch tool polishing study based on eighteen well-planned orthogonal experiments (OA18 matrix). Five main process factors (abrasive particle size, slurry concentration, pad rotation speed, acidity and polishing time) in pitch tool polishing process were investigated. In this study, power spectral density (PSD) based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data obtained by white light interferometer was used as the results of orthogonal experiments instead of material removal rate and surface roughness. A normalization method of PSD was proposed as the range analysis rule. Three parts of spatial frequency bandwidth were selected and discussed. Acidity is the most important factor in part 1 and slurry concentration is the most significant one in part 2; while acidity is the least influenced one in part 3. The result in each part was explained by two-step material removal mechanism. At last, suggestions in low and high spatial frequency are given for pitch tool polishing.


    Chen, Sike; Sobansky, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.


    Columns containing immobilized lipoproteins were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with these particles by high-performance affinity chromatography. This approach was evaluated by using it to examine the binding of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to the drugs propranolol or verapamil. HDL was immobilized by the Schiff base method onto silica and gave HPLC columns with reproducible binding to propranolol over four to five days of continuous operation at pH 7.4. Frontal analysis experiments indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R/S-propranolol and HDL at 37°C: saturable binding with an association equilibrium constant (Ka) of 1.1–1.9 × 105 M−1, and non-saturable binding with an overall affinity constant (n Ka) of 3.7–4.1 × 104 M−1. Similar results were found at 4 and 27°C. Verapamil also gave similar behavior, with a Ka of 6.0 × 104 M−1 at 37°C for the saturable sites and a n Ka value for the non-saturable sites of 2.5 × 104 M−1. These measured affinities gave good agreement with solution-phase values. The results indicated HPAC can be used to study drug interactions with HDL, providing information that should be valuable in obtaining a better description of how drugs are transported within the body. PMID:19833090

  13. Can molecular projected density of states (PDOS be systematically used in electronic conductance analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Rangel


    Full Text Available Using benzenediamine and benzenedithiol molecular junctions as benchmarks, we investigate the widespread analysis of the quantum transport conductance in terms of the projected density of states (PDOS onto molecular orbitals (MOs. We first consider two different methods for identifying the relevant MOs: (1 diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of the isolated molecule and (2 diagonalization of a submatrix of the junction Hamiltonian constructed by considering only basis elements localized on the molecule. We find that these two methods can lead to substantially different MOs and hence PDOS. Furthermore, within Method 1, the PDOS can differ depending on the isolated molecule chosen to represent the molecular junction (e.g., with or without dangling bonds; within Method 2, the PDOS depends on the chosen basis set. We show that these differences can be critical when the PDOS is used to provide a physical interpretation of the conductance (especially when its value is small, as it happens typically at zero bias. In this work, we propose a new approach in an attempt to reconcile the two traditional methods. Although some improvements were achieved, the main problems remain unsolved. Our results raise more general questions and doubts on a PDOS-based analysis of the conductance.

  14. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York,250 Bedford Park Blvd. W, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Haifa,199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Haifa 31905 (Israel)


    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N{sup 2}. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the “bulk bootstrap.” We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions determine the bulk equations of motion to order 1/N{sup 2}.

  15. Short communication: investigation of Coxiella burnetii occurrence in dairy sheep flocks by bulk-tank milk analysis and antibody level determination. (United States)

    García-Pérez, A L; Astobiza, I; Barandika, J F; Atxaerandio, R; Hurtado, A; Juste, R A


    To estimate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in the dairy sheep population from the Basque Country (northern Spain), a study was carried out combining molecular and serological techniques. First, bulk-tank milk samples from 154 flocks belonging to the Latxa Breed Farmers Association were analyzed by PCR, with 22% of flocks testing positive for C. burnetii. Then, a selection of 34 flocks (7 PCR positive and 17 negative) was investigated for the presence of serum antibodies by ELISA test on 1,011 ewes (approximately 30 ewes per flock). A total of 8.9% of the animals were seropositive, 67.6% of the flocks had at least one seropositive animal, but only in 14.7% of them was seroprevalence greater than 25%. Older ewes showed a significantly greater prevalence (17.5%) compared with yearlings (7.5%) or replacement lambs (1.5%). A marginally significant association was found between seroprevalence and PCR detection of C. burnetii in bulk-tank milk. The widespread distribution of C. burnetii in the region advocates for the implementation of Q fever control strategies and highlights the potential risk of sheep as a reservoir and infection source for other domestic and wildlife species and the human population.

  16. Mismatch Negativity in Recent-Onset and Chronic Schizophrenia: A Current Source Density Analysis (United States)

    Fulham, W. Ross; Michie, Patricia T.; Ward, Philip B.; Rasser, Paul E.; Todd, Juanita; Johnston, Patrick J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Schall, Ulrich


    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential elicited by deviant auditory stimuli. It is presumed to index pre-attentive monitoring of changes in the auditory environment. MMN amplitude is smaller in groups of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. We compared duration-deviant MMN in 16 recent-onset and 19 chronic schizophrenia patients versus age- and sex-matched controls. Reduced frontal MMN was found in both patient groups, involved reduced hemispheric asymmetry, and was correlated with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and negative symptom ratings. A cortically-constrained LORETA analysis, incorporating anatomical data from each individual's MRI, was performed to generate a current source density model of the MMN response over time. This model suggested MMN generation within a temporal, parietal and frontal network, which was right hemisphere dominant only in controls. An exploratory analysis revealed reduced CSD in patients in superior and middle temporal cortex, inferior and superior parietal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and superior and middle frontal cortex. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed. For the early phase of the MMN, patients had reduced bilateral temporal and parietal response and no lateralisation in frontal ROIs. For late MMN, patients had reduced bilateral parietal response and no lateralisation in temporal ROIs. In patients, correlations revealed a link between GAF and the MMN response in parietal cortex. In controls, the frontal response onset was 17 ms later than the temporal and parietal response. In patients, onset latency of the MMN response was delayed in secondary, but not primary, auditory cortex. However amplitude reductions were observed in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. These latency delays may indicate relatively intact information processing upstream of the primary auditory cortex, but impaired primary auditory cortex or cortico-cortical or

  17. Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling (United States)

    Bedell, S. W.; Lauro, P.; Ott, J. A.; Fogel, K.; Sadana, D. K.


    Successful wafer-scale layer transfer from high-quality 2-in. diameter bulk gallium nitride substrates was demonstrated using the Controlled Spalling technique. The crystal quality of both the as-fractured bulk substrate and the spalled GaN film was assessed using transmission electron microscopy analysis, and the defect density was below the detection limit (mid 107 cm-2) for both samples. By using the experimentally determined critical conditions for tensile stress and thickness of the Ni stressor layer, an effective fracture toughness KIC of 1.7 MPa √{m } could be calculated for [0001] fracture using the Suo and Hutchinson mechanical model. The resulting in-plane contraction of the GaN film after spalling permitted a novel method for measuring film strain without knowledge of the elastic properties of the material. This was used to measure the Raman E2(high) peak shift coefficient of Δω(cm-1) = 1411ɛ which, when converted to a stress coefficient (2.95 cm-1/GPa), was in agreement with only one other literature value.

  18. Association between LRP5 polymorphism and bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisman John A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5 was identified to be linked to the variation in BMD in high bone mass pedigrees. Subsequent population-based studies of the association between the LRP5 gene and BMD have yielded conflicting results. The present study was aimed at examining the association between LRP5 gene and BMD by using meta-analysis. Methods A systematic electronic search of literature was conducted to identify all published studies in English on the association between LRP5 gene and osteoporosis-related phenotypes, including bone mineral density and fracture. BMD data were summarized from individual studies by LRP5 genotype, and a synthesis of data was performed with random-effects meta-analyses. After excluding studies on animal and review papers, there were 19 studies for the synthesis. Among these studies, 10 studies used the rs3736228 (A1330V polymorphism and reported BMD values. Results The 10 eligible studies comprised 16,705 individuals, with the majority being women (n = 8444, aged between 18 – 81 years. The overall distribution of genotype frequencies was: AA, 68%, AV and VV, 32%. However, the genotype frequency varied significantly within as well as between ethnic populations. On random-effects meta-analysis, lumbar spine BMD among individuals with the AA genotype was on average 0.018 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.012 to 0.023 g/cm2 higher than those with either AV or VV genotype. Similarly, femoral neck BMD among carriers of the AA genotype was 0.011 (95%CI: 0.004 to 0.017 g/cm2 higher than those without the genotype. While there was no significant heterogeneity in the association between the A1330V polymorphism and lumbar spine BMD (p = 0.55, the association was heterogeneous for femoral neck BMD (p = 0.05. The probability that the difference is greater than one standard deviation was 0.34 for femoral neck BMD and 0.54 for lumbar spine BMD. Conclusion These results

  19. Analysis of multi-layered films. [determining dye densities by applying a regression analysis to the spectral response of the composite transparency (United States)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Voss, A. W.


    Dye densities of multi-layered films are determined by applying a regression analysis to the spectral response of the composite transparency. The amount of dye in each layer is determined by fitting the sum of the individual dye layer densities to the measured dye densities. From this, dye content constants are calculated. Methods of calculating equivalent exposures are discussed. Equivalent exposures are a constant amount of energy over a limited band-width that will give the same dye content constants as the real incident energy. Methods of using these equivalent exposures for analysis of photographic data are presented.

  20. Analysis of DNA strand-specific differential expression with high density tiling microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antequera Francisco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarray technology allows the analysis of genome structure and dynamics at genome-wide scale. Expression microarrays (EMA contain probes for annotated open reading frames (ORF and are widely used for the analysis of differential gene expression. By contrast, tiling microarrays (TMA have a much higher probe density and provide unbiased genome-wide coverage. The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol to exploit the high resolution of TMAs for quantitative measurement of DNA strand-specific differential expression of annotated and non-annotated transcripts. Results We extensively filtered probes present in Affymetrix Genechip Yeast Genome 2.0 expression and GeneChip S. pombe 1.0FR tiling microarrays to generate custom Chip Description Files (CDF in order to compare their efficiency. We experimentally tested the potential of our approach by measuring the differential expression of 4904 genes in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe growing under conditions of oxidative stress. The results showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.943 between both platforms, indicating that TMAs are as reliable as EMAs for quantitative expression analysis. A significant advantage of TMAs over EMAs is the possibility of detecting non-annotated transcripts generated only under specific physiological conditions. To take full advantage of this property, we have used a target-labelling protocol that preserves the original polarity of the transcripts and, therefore, allows the strand-specific differential expression of non-annotated transcripts to be determined. By using a segmentation algorithm prior to generating the corresponding custom CDFs, we identified and quantitatively measured the expression of 510 transcripts longer than 180 nucleotides and not overlapping previously annotated ORFs that were differentially expressed at least 2-fold under oxidative stress. Conclusions We show that the information derived from TMA

  1. Correlations Between Magnetic Flux and Levitation Force of HTS Bulk Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Qian, Nan; Li, Haitao; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang


    In order to clarify the correlations between magnetic flux and levitation force of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk, we measured the magnetic flux density on bottom and top surfaces of a bulk superconductor while vertically moving above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The levitation force of the bulk superconductor was measured simultaneously. In this study, the HTS bulk was moved down and up for three times between field-cooling position and working position above the PMG, followed by a relaxation measurement of 300 s at the minimum height position. During the whole processes, the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor were recorded and collected by a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform and a self-developed maglev measurement system, respectively. The magnetic flux density on the bottom surface reflected the induced field in the superconductor bulk, while on the top, it reveals the penetrated magnetic flux. The results show that the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor are in direct correlation from the viewpoint of inner supercurrent. In general, this work is instructive for understanding the connection of the magnetic flux density, the inner current density and the levitation behavior of HTS bulk employed in a maglev system. Meanwhile, this magnetic flux density measurement method has enriched present experimental evaluation methods of maglev system.

  2. Quantitative breast density analysis using tomosynthesis and comparison with MRI and digital mammography. (United States)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Jie-Fan; Lo, Chung-Ming; Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Su Hyun; Shin, Sung Ui; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chang, Ruey-Feng


    Breast density at mammography has been used as markers of breast cancer risk. However, newly introduced tomosynthesis and computer-aided quantitative method could provide more reliable breast density evaluation. In the experiment, 98 tomosynthesis image volumes were obtained from 98 women. For each case, an automatic skin removal was used and followed by a fuzzy c-mean (FCM) classifier which separated the fibroglandular tissues from other tissues in breast area. Finally, percent of breast density and breast volume were calculated and the results were compared with MRI. In addition, the percent of breast density and breast area of digital mammography calculated using the software Cumulus (University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.) were also compared with 3-D modalities. Percent of breast density and breast volume, which were computed from tomosynthesis, MRI and digital mammography were 17.37% ± 4.39% and 607.12 cm 3  ± 323.01 cm 3 , 20.3% ± 8.6% and 537.59 cm 3  ± 287.74 cm 3 , and 12.03% ± 4.08%, respectively. There were significant correlations on breast density as well as volume between tomosynthesis and MRI (R = 0.482 and R = 0.805), tomosynthesis and breast density with breast area of digital mammography (R = 0.789 and R = 0.877), and MRI and breast density with breast area of digital mammography (R = 0.482 and R = 0.857) (all P values density and breast volume evaluated from tomosynthesis, MRI and breast density and breast area of digital mammographic images have significant correlations and indicate that tomosynthesis could provide useful 3-D information on breast density through proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inviscid linear stability analysis of two fluid columns of different densities subject to gravity (United States)

    Prathama, Aditya; Pantano, Carlos


    We investigate the inviscid linear stability of vertical interface between two fluid columns of different densities under the influence of gravity. In this flow arrangement, the two free streams are continuously accelerating, in contrast to the canonical Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities whose base flows are stationary (or weakly time dependent). In these classical cases, the temporal evolution of the interface can be expressed as Fourier or Laplace solutions in time. This is not possible in our case; instead, we employ the initial value problem method to solve the equations analytically. The results, expressed in terms of the well-known parabolic cylinder function, indicate that the instability grows as the exponential of a quadratic function of time. The analysis shows that in this accelerating Kelvin-Helmholtz configuration, the interface is unconditionally unstable at all wave modes, despite the presence of surface tension. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0002382) and the California Institute of Technology.

  4. Multifactorial analysis of risk factors for reduced bone mineral density among postmenopausal women (United States)

    Opala, Tomasz; Kleka, Paweł; Chuchracki, Marek


    Introduction The study aimed to determine the risk factors for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal women. Material and methods Two hundred and fifty-three postmenopausal women were included to the study. The study group consisted of 85 women with osteoporosis (mean age: 59.9 years) and 168 with osteopenia (mean age: 57.8 years). Patients were assigned to groups according to their BMD measured in the lumbar spine, hip and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteocalcin and bone resorption by measuring serum C-terminal type I α-collagen chain telopeptide. Results Multiple regression analysis for lumbar spine showed association of age (p = 0.001), parental history of fracture (p = 0.05), use of hormone replacement therapy (p = 0.034), bisphosphonates therapy (p femoral neck and hip total showed association of age (p = 0.001), parental history of fracture (p = 0.049), use of bisphosphonates (p femoral neck and hip total. Conclusions The present study demonstrated correlations between the variables and BMD, which are known and widely described in the literature. Osteoporosis and osteopenia in Polish subjects appear to be associated with several known risk factors that are well described in the literature. PMID:22662008

  5. Dietary saturated fat intake is inversely associated with bone density in humans: analysis of NHANES III. (United States)

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Hartman, Terryl J; Maczuga, Steven A; Graubard, Barry I


    Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies. Of the few human studies that have been conducted, relatively small numbers of subjects and/or primarily female subjects were included. The present study assessed the relation of dietary fat to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women using NHANES III data (n = 14,850). Multivariate models using SAS-callable SUDAAN were used to adjust for the sampling scheme. Models were adjusted for age, sex, weight, height, race, total energy and calcium intakes, smoking, and weight-bearing exercise. Data from women were further adjusted for use of hormone replacement therapy. Including dietary protein, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the model did not influence the outcome. Analysis of covariance was used to generate mean BMD by quintile of total and saturated fat intake for 4 sex/age groups. Saturated fat intake was negatively associated with BMD at several hip sites. The greatest effects were seen among men saturated fat intake (BMD, 95% CI: highest quintile: 0.922 g/cm2, 0.909-0.935; lowest quintile: 0.963 g/cm2, 95% CI: 0.950-0.976). These data indicate that BMD is negatively associated with saturated fat intake, and that men may be particularly vulnerable to these effects.

  6. Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol intake: A nationwide health survey analysis of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Dong Jang

    Full Text Available Among a variety of relevant factors of osteoporosis, the association between alcohol intake and postmenopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was evaluated in this study.Among a total of 31,596 subjects, males, premenopausal women, participants without BMD data were excluded. Finally, a total number of subjects in the study was 3,312. The frequency and amount of alcohol intake were determined by self-reported questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Mean femoral BMD for light drinkers was statistically significantly greater than that for heavy drinkers and non-drinkers. We observed the characteristic trends for BMD by drinking frequency; the mean BMD gradually increased from non-drinkers to the participants who drank 2-3 times per week; these participants exhibited the highest BMD. Participants who drank alcohol greater than 4 times per week showed a lower BMD. In the risk factor analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis (at femoral neck was 1.68 in non-drinkers and 1.70 in heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers.Light alcohol intake (2-3 times per week and 1-2 or 5-6 glasses per occasion in South Korean postmenopausal women was related to high femoral BMD. Non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had approximately a 1.7-times greater risk for osteoporosis than light drinkers.

  7. Micro-strain, dislocation density and surface chemical state analysis of multication thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaram, P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, MES Ponnani College Ponnani, Kerala (India); Pradyumnan, P.P. [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India); Karazhanov, S.Zh. [Department for Solar Energy, Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)


    Multication complex metal oxide thin films are rapidly expanding the class of materials with many technologically important applications. Herein this work, the surface of the pulsed laser deposited thin films of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and multinary compounds obtained by substitution/co-substitution of Sn{sup 4+} with In{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} are studied by X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy (X-PES) method. Peaks corresponding to the elements of Zn, Sn, Ga, In and O on the film surface has been identified and contribution of the elements has been studied by the computer aided surface analysis (CASA) software. Binding energies, full-width at half maximum (FWHM), spin-orbit splitting energies, asymmetric peak-shape fitting parameters and quantification of elements in the films are discussed. Studies of structural properties of the films by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique showed inverse spinel type lattice with preferential orientation. Micro-strain, dislocation density and crystallite sizes in the film surface have been estimated.

  8. Nuclear imaging analysis of human low-density lipoprotein biodistribution in rabbits and monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R.V.; Fleming, R.M.; Ryan, J.W.; Williams, K.A.; Stark, V.J.; Lathrop, K.A.; Harper, P.V. (Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Illinois (USA))


    We have evaluated the biodistribution of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) radiolabeled with 99mTc or with {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose in rabbits and in rhesus monkeys. Biodistribution was assessed after intravenous injection of radiolabeled LDL by quantitative analysis of scintigrams, counting of excreta, and counting of tissues at necropsy. Both rabbits and monkeys showed lower renal uptake ({sup 123}I:99mTc {approximately} 1:3, as regional percent injected activity corrected for physical decay) and excretion (1:2 to 1:4), but higher hepatic (1.5:1 to 2:1) and cardiac (1.7:1 to 4:1) uptake of {sup 123}I than of 99mTc. Adrenals were visualized in normolipemic animals with {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose-LDL but not with 99mTc-LDL. Hyperlipemic animals showed increased cardiac (up to six-fold) and decreased hepatic activity (by 50%-60%) of both radionuclides. We conclude that {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose-LDL is better suited than 99mTc-LDL for dynamic studies of LDL metabolism in vivo.

  9. Analysis of root growth from a phenotyping data set using a density-based model. (United States)

    Kalogiros, Dimitris I; Adu, Michael O; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R; Draye, Xavier; Ptashnyk, Mariya; Bengough, A Glyn; Dupuy, Lionel X


    Major research efforts are targeting the improved performance of root systems for more efficient use of water and nutrients by crops. However, characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is challenging, because roots are difficult objects to observe and analyse. A model-based analysis of RSA traits from phenotyping image data is presented. The model can successfully back-calculate growth parameters without the need to measure individual roots. The mathematical model uses partial differential equations to describe root system development. Methods based on kernel estimators were used to quantify root density distributions from experimental image data, and different optimization approaches to parameterize the model were tested. The model was tested on root images of a set of 89 Brassica rapa L. individuals of the same genotype grown for 14 d after sowing on blue filter paper. Optimized root growth parameters enabled the final (modelled) length of the main root axes to be matched within 1% of their mean values observed in experiments. Parameterized values for elongation rates were within ±4% of the values measured directly on images. Future work should investigate the time dependency of growth parameters using time-lapse image data. The approach is a potentially powerful quantitative technique for identifying crop genotypes with more efficient root systems, using (even incomplete) data from high-throughput phenotyping systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  10. Whole-cell analysis of low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages using STEM tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Baudoin

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of heavy materials such as gold can be used as markers in quantitative electron microscopic studies of protein distributions in cells with nanometer spatial resolution. Studying nanoparticles within the context of cells is also relevant for nanotoxicological research. Here, we report a method to quantify the locations and the number of nanoparticles, and of clusters of nanoparticles inside whole eukaryotic cells in three dimensions using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM tomography. Whole-mount fixed cellular samples were prepared, avoiding sectioning or slicing. The level of membrane staining was kept much lower than is common practice in transmission electron microscopy (TEM, such that the nanoparticles could be detected throughout the entire cellular thickness. Tilt-series were recorded with a limited tilt-range of 80° thereby preventing excessive beam broadening occurring at higher tilt angles. The 3D locations of the nanoparticles were nevertheless determined with high precision using computation. The obtained information differed from that obtained with conventional TEM tomography data since the nanoparticles were highlighted while only faint contrast was obtained on the cellular material. Similar as in fluorescence microscopy, a particular set of labels can be studied. This method was applied to study the fate of sequentially up-taken low-density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated to gold nanoparticles in macrophages. Analysis of a 3D reconstruction revealed that newly up-taken LDL-gold was delivered to lysosomes containing previously up-taken LDL-gold thereby forming onion-like clusters.

  11. Evaluation of localized muscle fatigue using power spectral density analysis of the electromyogram (United States)

    Lafevers, E. V.


    Surface electromyograms (EMGs) taken from three upper torso muscles during a push-pull task were analyzed by a power spectral density technique to determine the operational feasibility of the technique for identifying changes in the EMGs resulting from muscular fatigue. The EMGs were taken from four subjects under two conditions (1) in shirtsleeves and (2) in a pressurized space suit. This study confirmed that frequency analysis of dynamic muscle activity is capable of providing reliable data for many industrial applications where fatigue may be of practical interest. The results showed significant effects of the pressurized space suit on the pattern of shirtsleeve fatigue responses of the muscles. The data also revealed (1) reliable differences between muscles in fatigue-induced responses to various locations in the reach envelope at which the subjects were required to perform the push-pull exercise and (2) the differential sensitivity of muscles to the various reach positions in terms of fatigue-related shifts in EMG power.

  12. Meta-analysis of walking for preservation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Carroll, Sean


    Whilst exercise is recommended for optimum bone health in adult women, there are few systematic reviews of the efficacy of walking as singular exercise therapy for postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prescribed walking programmes on bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine in postmenopausal women and to determine if effects are modified by variations in protocol design. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled trials. Electronic bibliographic databases, key journals and reference lists of reviews and articles were searched to identify studies for inclusion. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of walking on lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip BMD, measured by radiographic techniques, among sedentary postmenopausal women were eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for eligibility. Reported absolute BMD outcomes were combined in the analysis. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated using a fixed and random-effects models. Heterogeneity among trials was examined using the Q statistic and I2 methods. Potential publication bias was assessed through funnel plot inspection. Assessment of trial quality was also performed using the widely used instrument devised by Jadad et al. [Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJM, Gavaghan DJ, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: Is blinding necessary? Cont Clin Trials 1996; 17:1-12]. Eight trials were eligible for inclusion. Treatment duration ranged from 6 to 24 months. All eight trials reported BMD data at the lumbar spine following walking interventions among postmenopausal women. Meta-analysis showed no significant change in BMD at this site [WMD (fixed-effect) 0.007 g/cm2 95% CI (-0.001 to 0.016); P=0.09)]. BMD data at the femoral neck were available from five trials among postmenopausal women

  13. Perbandingan tingkat kebocoran mikro resin komposit bulk-filldengan teknik penumpatan oblique incremental dan bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Puja Permana


    Full Text Available Micoleakage comparison of bulk-fillcomposite beetwen oblique incremental and bulk placement techniques. Resin composite bulk-fill was a new type of resin composite that speed up application process of composite. The concept of bulk-fill composite allows composite to fill at a depth of 4 mm and minimizes polymerization shrinkage. This study aims to determine the comparison of placement techniques (oblique incremental/bulk of bulk-fill composite on microleakage in class I preparations. Thirty two human maxillary premolar were stored in distilled water, then Class I preparations were made with the depth of the cavity which was 4 mm (3 x 3 x 4. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups, group 1 uses oblique incremental placement technique and group 2 with bulk placement technique. Samples were stored in an incubator at a temperature of 37 °C for 24 hours, then it was thermocycled manually, 100 cycles at temperature between 5 °C and 55 °C. Microleakage was measured using a digital microscope with a 100 X magnification in millimeters using a microscope micrometer calibration ruler with 0,1 mm level of accuracy after immersion in 0,3% methylene blue and sectioned using separating disc. The result of this study revealed that in group 1 microleakage range was 1.0 mm - 2.7 mm with an average 1.625 mm, and in group 2 microleakage range was 3.6 mm - 4.0 mm with an average of 3.763 mm. The data were analyzed using T-test. The analysis showed a significant difference between two groups (p <0.05. The conclusion of this study was bulk-fill composite in class I cavities with oblique incremental placement technique produces less microleakage than bulk placement technique.   ABSTRAK Resin komposit bulk-fill adalah resin komposit yang dirancang untuk mempercepat proses aplikasi resin komposit. Konsep bulk-fill memungkinkan resin komposit ditumpat sekaligus 4 mm dan mengalami pengerutan polimerisasi minimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek teknik

  14. Interface Shape and Growth Rate Analysis of Se/GaAs Bulk Crystals Grown in the NASA Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) (United States)

    Bly, J. M.; Kaforey, M. L.; Matthiesen, D. H.; Chait, A.


    Selenium-doped gallium arsenide, Se/GaAs, bulk crystals have been grown on earth using NASA's crystal growth furnace (CGF) in preparation for microgravity experimentation on the USML-2 spacelab mission. Peltier cooling pulses of 50 ms duration, 2040 A magnitude, and 0.0033 Hz frequency were used to successfully demark the melt-solid interface at known times during the crystal growth process. Post-growth characterization included interface shape measurement, growth rate calculation, and growth rate transient determinations. It was found that the interface shapes were always slightly concave into the solid. The curvature of the seeding interfaces was typically 1.5 mm for the 15 mm diameter samples. This was in agreement with the predicted interface shapes and positions relative to the furnace determined using a numerical model of the sample/ampoule/cartridge assembly (SACA).

  15. Comparison of manual & automated analysis methods for corneal endothelial cell density measurements by specular microscopy. (United States)

    Huang, Jianyan; Maram, Jyotsna; Tepelus, Tudor C; Modak, Cristina; Marion, Ken; Sadda, SriniVas R; Chopra, Vikas; Lee, Olivia L


    To determine the reliability of corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) obtained by automated specular microscopy versus that of validated manual methods and factors that predict such reliability. Sharp central images from 94 control and 106 glaucomatous eyes were captured with Konan specular microscope NSP-9900. All images were analyzed by trained graders using Konan CellChek Software, employing the fully- and semi-automated methods as well as Center Method. Images with low cell count (input cells number <100) and/or guttata were compared with the Center and Flex-Center Methods. ECDs were compared and absolute error was used to assess variation. The effect on ECD of age, cell count, cell size, and cell size variation was evaluated. No significant difference was observed between the Center and Flex-Center Methods in corneas with guttata (p=0.48) or low ECD (p=0.11). No difference (p=0.32) was observed in ECD of normal controls <40 yrs old between the fully-automated method and manual Center Method. However, in older controls and glaucomatous eyes, ECD was overestimated by the fully-automated method (p=0.034) and semi-automated method (p=0.025) as compared to manual method. Our findings show that automated analysis significantly overestimates ECD in the eyes with high polymegathism and/or large cell size, compared to the manual method. Therefore, we discourage reliance upon the fully-automated method alone to perform specular microscopy analysis, particularly if an accurate ECD value is imperative. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Speed from light: growth rate and bulk flow at z ˜ 0.1 from improved SDSS DR13 photometry (United States)

    Feix, M.; Branchini, E.; Nusser, A.


    Observed galaxy luminosities (derived from redshifts) hold information on the large-scale peculiar velocity field in the form of spatially correlated scatter, which allows for bounds on bulk flows and the growth rate of matter density perturbations using large galaxy redshift surveys. We apply this luminosity approach to galaxies from the recent SDSS Data Release 13. Our goal is twofold. First, we take advantage of the recalibrated photometry to identify possible systematic errors relevant to our previous analysis of earlier data. Second, we seek improved constraints on the bulk flow and the normalized growth rate fσ8 at z ˜ 0.1. Our results confirm the robustness of our method. Bulk flow amplitudes, estimated in two redshift bins with 0.02 z1 z2 generation photometric catalogues.

  17. Global architecture of gestational diabetes research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis. (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Richter, Theresa; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander; Bundschuh, Matthias; Jaque, Jenny; Groneberg, David A


    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with substantial morbidity for mothers and their offspring. While clinical and basic research activities on this important disease grow constantly, there is no concise analysis of global architecture of GDM research. Hence, it was the objective of this study to assess the global scientific performance chronologically, geographically and in relation to existing research networks and gender distribution of publishing authors. On the basis of the New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science (NewQIS) platform, scientometric methods were combined with modern visualizing techniques such as density equalizing mapping, and the Web of Science database was used to assess GDM-related entries from 1900 to 2012. Twelve thousand five hundred four GDM-related publications were identified and analyzed. The USA (4295 publications) and the UK (1354 publications) dominated the field concerning research activity, overall citations and country-specific Hirsch-Index, which quantified the impact of a country's published research on the scientific community. Semi-qualitative indices such as country-specific citation rates ranked New Zealand and the UK at top positions. Annual collaborative publications increased steeply between the years 1990 and 2012 (71 to 1157 respectively). Subject category analysis pointed to a minor interest of public health issues in GDM research. Gender analysis in terms of publication authorship revealed a clear dominance of the male gender until 2005; then a trend towards gender equity started and the activity of female scientists grew visibly in many countries. The country-specific gender analysis revealed large differences, i.e. female scientists dominated the scientific output in the USA, whereas the majority of research was published by male authors in countries such as Japan. This study provides the first global sketch of GDM research architecture. While North-American and Western-European countries were

  18. Radiation effects in bulk silicon (United States)

    Claeys, Cor; Vanhellemont, Jan


    This paper highlights important aspects related to irradiation effects in bulk silicon. Some basic principles related to the interaction of radiation with material, i.e. ionization and atomic displacement, are briefly reviewed. A physical understanding of radiation effects strongly depends on the availability of appropriate analytical tools. These tools are critically accessed from a silicon bulk viewpoint. More detailed information, related to the properties of the bulk damage and some dedicated application aspects, is given for both electron and proton irradiations. Emphasis is placed on radiation environments encountered during space missions and on their influence on the electrical performance of devices such as memories and image sensors.

  19. Explaining density-dependent regulation in earthworm populations using life-history analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammenga, J.E.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Weeks, J.M.


    At present there is little knowledge about how density regulates population growth rate and to what extent this is determined by life-history patterns. We compared density dependent population consequences in the Nicholsonian sense based oil experimental observations and life-history modeling for

  20. A Geospatial Statistical Analysis of the Density of Lottery Outlets within Ethnically Concentrated Neighborhoods (United States)

    Wiggins, Lyna; Nower, Lia; Mayers, Raymond Sanchez; Peterson, N. Andrew


    This study examines the density of lottery outlets within ethnically concentrated neighborhoods in Middlesex County, New Jersey, using geospatial statistical analyses. No prior studies have empirically examined the relationship between lottery outlet density and population demographics. Results indicate that lottery outlets were not randomly…

  1. Effect of plasma density on diffusion rates due to wave particle interactions with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss: extreme event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sicard-Piet


    Full Text Available Wave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.

  2. Effect of plasma density on diffusion rates due to wave particle interactions with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss: extreme event analysis (United States)

    Sicard-Piet, A.; Boscher, D.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Maget, V.


    Wave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.

  3. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue


    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    In the first procedure, sliced cassava chips are soaked in water for 3 days; in the second . procedure, the sliced cassava chips are heaped together and covered with straw for 3 days (air- fermentation). .... Model RVI with an FK/SVII profiled measuring system and a shear rate of 54 rpm. The measuring temperature was kept ...

  5. SMEX04 Bulk Density and Rock Fraction Data: Arizona (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  6. SMEX04 Bulk Density and Rock Fraction Data: Sonora (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  7. Reactivity of biogenic silica: Surface versus bulk charge density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loucaides, S.; Behrends, T.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Acid–base titrations were carried out at three different ionic strengths (0.01, 0.1 and 0.7 M NaCl) on a range of marine and continental biosiliceous materials. The large variability in electrical charging behavior of the various materials is consistent with the existence of two pools of ionizable

  8. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope (United States)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.


    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  9. Genetic analysis of the relationship between bone mineral density and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayong Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have examined the association between the polymorphisms of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5, but previous results have been inconclusive. Thus we performed a meta-analysis of studies on the association between the LRP5 polymorphisms and bone mineral density (BMD to assess their pooled effects. METHODS: Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science were searched for eligible publications. Weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies with 25773 subjects were considered in this meta-analysis. Of them, 17 examined the association between the A1330V polymorphism and BMD, 8 were focused on the V667M polymorphism, and 2 analyzed the Q89R polymorphism. Individuals with the A1330V AA genotype showed significantly higher BMD than those with the AV/VV genotypes [at lumbar spine (LS: WMD = 0.02 g/cm², 95% CI = 0.01-0.03, P < 10⁻⁴; at femur neck (FN: WMD = 0.01 g/cm², 95% CI = 0.00-0.02, P = 0.01] or VV genotype (at LS: WMD = 0.02 g/cm², 95% CI = 0.01-0.04, P = 0.01. Significant associations were also detected in the analysis for V667M (VV vs. VM/MM: WMD at LS = 0.02 g/cm², 95% CI = 0.02-0.03, P < 10⁻⁵; WMD at FN = 0.01 g/cm², 95% CI = 0.01-0.02, P = 0.0002. As for Q89R, subjects with the QQ genotype tended to have higher BMD than those with the QR/RR genotypes at FN (WMD = 0.03 g/cm², 95% CI = 0.01-0.05, P = 0.005. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the LRP5 polymorphisms may be modestly associated with BMD of LS and FN.

  10. Proceedings of BulkTrans '89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Papers were presented on bulk commodity demand; steel industry bulk trades; grains and the world food economy; steam coal and cement demand; shipping profitability; bulk carrier design and economics; bulk ports and terminals; ship unloading; computers in bulk terminals; and conveyors and stockyard equipment.

  11. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)


    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  12. Combatting bulking sludge with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, B.; Heine, W.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering


    Bulking and floating sludge cause great problems in many waste water treatment plants with biological nutrient removal. The purification as well as the sludge digestion process can be affected. These problems are due to the interlaced structure of filamentous microorganisms, which have an impact on the sludge's settling behaviour. Foam is able to build up a stable layer, which does not settle in the secondary clarifier. Foam in digestion causes a reduction of the degree of stabilisation and of the biogas production. We use low-frequency ultrasound to combat filamentous organisms in bulking sludge. Low-frequency ultrasound is suitable to create high local shear stresses, which are capable of breaking the filamentous structures of the sludge. After preliminary lab-scale tests now a full-scale new ultrasound equipment is operating at Reinfeld sewage treatment plant, Germany. The objective of this study is to explore the best ultrasound configuration to destroy the filamentous structure of bulking and foaming sludge in a substainable way. Later this study will also look into the effects of ultrasound treated bulking sludge on the anaerobic digestion process. Up to now results show that the settling behaviour of bulking sludge is improved. The minimal ultrasound energy input for destruction of bulking structure was determined. (orig.)

  13. Feasibility of high-density climate reconstruction based on Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) collected tree-ring data (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Shih-Yu Wang; John D. Shaw


    This study introduces a novel tree-ring dataset, with unparalleled spatial density, for use as a climate proxy. Ancillary Douglas fir and pinyon pine tree-ring data collected by the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA data) were subjected to a series of tests to determine their feasibility as climate proxies. First, temporal coherence between...

  14. Determining the von Mises stress power spectral density for frequency domain fatigue analysis including out-of-phase stress components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonte, M.H.A.; de Boer, Andries; Liebregts, R.

    This paper provides a new formula to take into account phase differences in the determination of an equivalent von Mises stress power spectral density (PSD) from multiple random inputs. The obtained von Mises PSD can subsequently be used for fatigue analysis. The formula was derived for use in the

  15. Effect of Carbonate Matrix on δ15N Analysis Tested for Simple Bulk Combustion on Coupled Elemental Analyzer-GC-IRMS (United States)

    Saxena, D.; Grossman, E. L.; Maupin, C. R.; Roark, B.; O'Dea, A.


    Nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N) have been extensively used to reconstruct trophic structure, anthropogenic nutrient loading, ecosystem dynamics, and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and marine systems. Extending similar efforts to deep time is critical to investigate sources and fluxes of nutrients in past oceans, and explore causes of biotic turnover. To test the fidelity of N-isotope analyses of biogenic carbonate samples by simple bulk combustion, we performed two sets of experiments involving varying proportions of reagent CaCO3 (0, 2, 35 mg) and three organic standards (3.7-47.2 µg) viz. USGS40 (δ15NAir = -4.52‰), USGS41 (δ15NAir = +47.57‰), and in-house standard Rice (δ15NAir = +1.18‰). At high N contents (15-47.2 µg), δ15N values for CaCO3-amended samples are consistently either 0.5‰ higher (USGS40, -4.5‰), equivalent (Rice, 1.2‰), or 0.5‰ lower (USGS41, 47.6‰) relative to unamended samples. The difference thus depends on the δ15N of the standard relative to air. With decreasing N content (10-15 µg), δ15N values for CaCO3-amended samples diverge from expected values, with 35 mg CaCO3 samples diverging at the highest N content and 0 mg CaCO3 samples at the lowest (10 µg). The latter matches the lower sample-size limit for accurate measurement under the experimental conditions. At very low sample size (3.7-10 µg), all unamended standards show decreasing δ15N with decreasing N content, presumably because of non-linearity in instrument electronics and ion source behavior. The δ15N values of amended USGS41 also decrease with decreasing N content, but those of amended USGS40 and Rice samples increase, with samples containing more CaCO3 (35 versus 2 mg) showing greater deviation from expected values. Potential causes for deviation in δ15N values with CaCO3 amendments include N2 contamination from tin capsules and reagent CaCO3, and incomplete combustion due to energy consumption during CaCO3 decomposition. While tin capsules and reagent Ca


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva


    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  17. Action-potential discharge in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: current source-density analysis. (United States)

    Richardson, T L; Turner, R W; Miller, J J


    1. The site of origin of evoked action-potential discharge in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was investigated using the in vitro rat hippocampal slice preparation. 2. Action-potential discharge in pyramidal cells was evoked by stimulation of efferent pyramidal cell fibers in the alveus (antidromic) or afferent synaptic inputs in stratum oriens (SO) or stratum radiatum (SR). Laminar profiles of evoked extracellular field potentials were recorded at 25-micron intervals along the entire dendrosomatic axis of the pyramidal cell and a one-dimensional current source-density analysis was applied. 3. Suprathreshold stimulation of the alveus evoked an antidromic population spike response and current sink with the shortest peak latency in stratum pyramidale or proximal stratum oriens. A biphasic positive/negative potential associated with a current source/sink was recorded in dendritic regions, with both components increasing in peak latency with distance from the border of stratum pyramidale. 4. Suprathreshold stimulation of SO or SR evoked a population spike response superimposed upon the underlying synaptic depolarization at all levels of the dendrosomatic axis. The shortest latency population spike and current sink were recorded in stratum pyramidale or proximal stratum oriens. In dendritic regions, a biphasic positive/negative potential and current source/sink conducted with increasing latency from the border of stratum pyramidale. 5. A direct comparison of alvear- and SR-evoked responses revealed a basic similarity in population spike potentials and associated sink/source relationships at both the somatic and dendritic level and a similar shift in peak latency of spike components along the pyramidal cell axis. 6. It is concluded that the initial site for generation of a spike along the dendrosomatic axis of the pyramidal cell following antidromic or orthodromic stimulation is in the region of the cell body layer (soma or axon hillock). Action-potential discharge in

  18. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Bolland, Mark J


    To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) in participants aged over 50 with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, total body, or forearm as an outcome. We identified 59 eligible randomised controlled trials: 15 studied dietary sources of calcium (n=1533) and 51 studied calcium supplements (n=12,257). Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources increased BMD by 0.6-1.0% at the total hip and total body at one year and by 0.7-1.8% at these sites and the lumbar spine and femoral neck at two years. There was no effect on BMD in the forearm. Calcium supplements increased BMD by 0.7-1.8% at all five skeletal sites at one, two, and over two and a half years, but the size of the increase in BMD at later time points was similar to the increase at one year. Increases in BMD were similar in trials of dietary sources of calcium and calcium supplements (except at the forearm), in trials of calcium monotherapy versus co-administered calcium and vitamin D, in trials with calcium doses of ≥ 1000 versus 500 mg/day, and in trials where the baseline dietary calcium intake was calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD, which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture. © Tai et al 2015.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Gait Maturation in Children Using Nonparametric Probability Density Function Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xiang


    Full Text Available Analysis of gait dynamics in children may help understand the development of neuromuscular control and maturation of locomotor function. This paper applied the nonparametric Parzen-window estimation method to establish the probability density function (PDF models for the stride interval time series of 50 children (25 boys and 25 girls. Four statistical parameters, in terms of averaged stride interval (ASI, variation of stride interval (VSI, PDF skewness (SK, and PDF kurtosis (KU, were computed with the Parzen-window PDFs to study the maturation of stride interval in children. By analyzing the results of the children in three age groups (aged 3–5 years, 6–8 years, and 10–14 years, we summarize the key findings of the present study as follows. (1 The gait cycle duration, in terms of ASI, increases until 14 years of age. On the other hand, the gait variability, in terms of VSI, decreases rapidly until 8 years of age, and then continues to decrease at a slower rate. (2 The SK values of both the histograms and Parzen-window PDFs for all of the three age groups are positive, which indicates an imbalance in the stride interval distribution within an age group. However, such an imbalance would be meliorated when the children grow up. (3 The KU values of both the histograms and Parzen-window PDFs decrease with the body growth in children, which suggests that the musculoskeletal growth enables the children to modulate a gait cadence with ease. (4 The SK and KU results also demonstrate the superiority of the Parzen-window PDF estimation method to the Gaussian distribution modeling, for the study of gait maturation in children.

  20. Time density curve analysis for C-arm FDCT PBV imaging. (United States)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V


    Parenchymal blood volume (PBV) estimation using C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) assumes a steady-state contrast concentration in cerebral vasculature for the scan duration. Using time density curve (TDC) analysis, we explored if the steady-state assumption is met for C-arm CT PBV scans, and how consistent the contrast-material dynamics in cerebral vasculature are across patients. Thirty C-arm FDCT datasets of 26 patients with aneurysmal-SAH, acquired as part of a prospective study comparing C-arm CT PBV with MR-PWI, were analysed. TDCs were extracted from the 2D rotational projections. Goodness-of-fit of TDCs to a steady-state horizontal-line-model and the statistical similarity among the individual TDCs were tested. Influence of the differences in TDC characteristics on the agreement of resulting PBV measurements with MR-CBV was calculated. Despite identical scan parameters and contrast-injection-protocol, the individual TDCs were statistically non-identical (p < 0.01). Using Dunn's multiple comparisons test, of the total 435 individual comparisons among the 30 TDCs, 330 comparisons (62%) reached statistical significance for difference. All TDCs deviated significantly (p < 0.01) from the steady-state horizontal-line-model. PBV values of those datasets for which the TDCs showed largest deviations from the steady-state model demonstrated poor agreement and correlation with MR-CBV, compared with the PBV values of those datasets for which the TDCs were closer to steady-state. For clinical C-arm CT PBV examinations, the administered contrast material does not reach the assumed 'ideal steady-state' for the duration of scan. Using a prolonged injection protocol, the degree to which the TDCs approximate the ideal steady-state influences the agreement of resulting PBV measurements with MR-CBV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Vape Shop Density and Socio-Demographic Disparities: A US Census Tract Analysis. (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang; Catley, Delwyn


    Vape shops are an emerging business specializing in the sales and promotion of e-cigarette, e-juice, and other vaping products. This study sought to evaluate the associations between vape shop density and socio-demographic characteristics at the US census tract level. Vape shop data (n = 9943) were collected from three online directories:,, and Addresses of vape shops were geocoded and the density per 10 000 people was estimated at each US census tract. Zero inflated negative binomial regression model was performed to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with vape shop density. Overall, there was a higher vape shop density in urban versus nonurban census tracts. In urban areas, higher vape shop density was associated with larger proportions of Hispanics and Asians, adults aged 18-44 years old and higher poverty, while the decrease in vape shop density was associated with larger proportions of population under 18 years old, higher education, larger household size, and a higher percentage of owner occupied housing units. In nonurban areas, higher vape shop density was associated larger proportions of African Americans and Hispanics, smaller household size and a lower percentage of owner occupied housing units. At the national level, there are inequalities of vape shop density by some socio-demographic characteristics and heterogeneity between urban and nonurban areas. Vape shops are more likely to be concentrated in areas where people with a higher risk for vaping and smoking reside. Our findings could inform initiatives aimed at a stronger licensing requirement for vape shops and federal and state-level regulations of this industry to prevent vape shop from targeting minority and other socially disadvantaged groups.

  2. Tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and youth smoking behaviour: a multi-level analysis


    Leatherdale Scott T; Chan Wing C


    Abstract Background Youth smoking prevention should be a public health priority. It is not only vital to prevent youth from smoking but also to prevent non-smoking youth from becoming susceptible to smoking. Past research has examined factors associated with youth's susceptibility to become a future smoker, but research has yet to examine tobacco retailer density and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The objectives of this study are to examine how tobacco retailer density surroun...

  3. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng


    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Snakebite Envenoming – A Combined Density Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Analysis of the Publication History (United States)

    Groneberg, David A.; Geier, Victoria; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander


    Estimates suggest that more than 25,000 to 125,000 people die annually from snakebite envenomation worldwide. In contrast to this major disease burden, thorough bibliometric studies do not exist so far that illustrate the overall research activity over a long time span. Therefore, the NewQIS-platform conducted an analysis on snakebite envenoming using the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. To determine and assess changes regarding the scientific activities and to specifically address the more recent situation we analyzed two time intervals (t). During the first time interval from 1900 to 2007 (t1) 13,015 publications (p) were identified. In the following period (2008–2016 = t2) 4,982 publications were identified by the same search strategy. They originate from 114 (t1) respectively 121 countries (t2), with the USA (p = 3518), Brazil (p = 1100) and Japan (p = 961) being most productive in the first period, and the USA (p = 1087), Brazil (p = 991) and China (p = 378) in the second period, respectively. Setting the publication numbers in relation to GDP/capita, Brazil leads with 92 publications per 10,000 Int$GDP/capita, followed by India with 79 publications per 10000 Int$GDP/capita (t1). Comparing the country’s publication activity with the Human Development Index level indicates that the majority of the publications is published by highly developed countries. When calculating the average citation rates (citations per published item = CR) mainly European countries show the highest ranks: From 1900–2007 Sweden ranks first with a CR = 27, followed by the Netherlands (CR = 24.8), Switzerland (CR = 23), Spain, Austria and the USA (CR = 22). From 2008 to 2016 the highest rate achieves Switzerland with a value of 24.6, followed by Belgium (CR = 18.1), Spain (CR = 16.7), Costa Rica (CR = 14.9) and Netherlands (CR = 14). Compared with this, the USA was placed at rank 13 (CR = 9,5). In summary, the present study represents the first density-equalizing map

  5. Snakebite Envenoming - A Combined Density Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Analysis of the Publication History.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Groneberg


    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that more than 25,000 to 125,000 people die annually from snakebite envenomation worldwide. In contrast to this major disease burden, thorough bibliometric studies do not exist so far that illustrate the overall research activity over a long time span. Therefore, the NewQIS-platform conducted an analysis on snakebite envenoming using the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. To determine and assess changes regarding the scientific activities and to specifically address the more recent situation we analyzed two time intervals (t. During the first time interval from 1900 to 2007 (t1 13,015 publications (p were identified. In the following period (2008-2016 = t2 4,982 publications were identified by the same search strategy. They originate from 114 (t1 respectively 121 countries (t2, with the USA (p = 3518, Brazil (p = 1100 and Japan (p = 961 being most productive in the first period, and the USA (p = 1087, Brazil (p = 991 and China (p = 378 in the second period, respectively. Setting the publication numbers in relation to GDP/capita, Brazil leads with 92 publications per 10,000 Int$GDP/capita, followed by India with 79 publications per 10000 Int$GDP/capita (t1. Comparing the country's publication activity with the Human Development Index level indicates that the majority of the publications is published by highly developed countries. When calculating the average citation rates (citations per published item = CR mainly European countries show the highest ranks: From 1900-2007 Sweden ranks first with a CR = 27, followed by the Netherlands (CR = 24.8, Switzerland (CR = 23, Spain, Austria and the USA (CR = 22. From 2008 to 2016 the highest rate achieves Switzerland with a value of 24.6, followed by Belgium (CR = 18.1, Spain (CR = 16.7, Costa Rica (CR = 14.9 and Netherlands (CR = 14. Compared with this, the USA was placed at rank 13 (CR = 9,5. In summary, the present study represents the first density-equalizing map projection and

  6. Snakebite Envenoming - A Combined Density Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Analysis of the Publication History. (United States)

    Groneberg, David A; Geier, Victoria; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander; Kuch, Ulrich; Kloft, Beatrix


    Estimates suggest that more than 25,000 to 125,000 people die annually from snakebite envenomation worldwide. In contrast to this major disease burden, thorough bibliometric studies do not exist so far that illustrate the overall research activity over a long time span. Therefore, the NewQIS-platform conducted an analysis on snakebite envenoming using the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. To determine and assess changes regarding the scientific activities and to specifically address the more recent situation we analyzed two time intervals (t). During the first time interval from 1900 to 2007 (t1) 13,015 publications (p) were identified. In the following period (2008-2016 = t2) 4,982 publications were identified by the same search strategy. They originate from 114 (t1) respectively 121 countries (t2), with the USA (p = 3518), Brazil (p = 1100) and Japan (p = 961) being most productive in the first period, and the USA (p = 1087), Brazil (p = 991) and China (p = 378) in the second period, respectively. Setting the publication numbers in relation to GDP/capita, Brazil leads with 92 publications per 10,000 Int$GDP/capita, followed by India with 79 publications per 10000 Int$GDP/capita (t1). Comparing the country's publication activity with the Human Development Index level indicates that the majority of the publications is published by highly developed countries. When calculating the average citation rates (citations per published item = CR) mainly European countries show the highest ranks: From 1900-2007 Sweden ranks first with a CR = 27, followed by the Netherlands (CR = 24.8), Switzerland (CR = 23), Spain, Austria and the USA (CR = 22). From 2008 to 2016 the highest rate achieves Switzerland with a value of 24.6, followed by Belgium (CR = 18.1), Spain (CR = 16.7), Costa Rica (CR = 14.9) and Netherlands (CR = 14). Compared with this, the USA was placed at rank 13 (CR = 9,5). In summary, the present study represents the first density-equalizing map projection

  7. Maternal depression research: socioeconomic analysis and density-equalizing mapping of the global research architecture. (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Wagner, Christina; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Schöffel, Norman; Bendels, Michael; Louwen, Frank; Jaque, Jenny; Groneberg, David A


    Maternal depression can be accounted for one of the most common complications during pregnancy and the postpartum period affecting women all over the world. So far, no detailed map of the worldwide maternal depression research architecture has been constructed, which encompasses aspects of research activity, quality, and also socioeconomic features. Using the NewQIS platform, density-equalizing mapping projections, scientometric techniques, and economic benchmarking procedures were applied to evaluate global maternal depression research for the period between 1900 and 2012. In total, 7330 related publications and 3335 international collaborations were identified. The USA was the most active country concerning collaborations and total research activity. In the socioeconomic analysis of research activity in high-income countries, Australia was ranked first with an average of 412.05 maternal depression-related publications per 1000 billion US$ GDP (Q 1 ), followed by the UK (Q 1  = 373.51) and Canada (Q 1  = 306.32). The group of upper-middle-income countries was led by South Africa (Q 1  = 145.67), followed by Turkey (Q 1  = 91.8). China authored 11.95 maternal depression-related publications per 1000 billion US$ GDP. The USA had the highest activity of maternal depression research per GDP in billion US$ per capita (Q 2  = 60.86). When research activity was related to population size (Q 3  = publications per Mio. inhabitants), Australia (Q 3  = 26.44) was leading the field, followed by Norway (Q 3  = 18.48). Gender analysis revealed a relatively high degree of female scientists involved in this field of research with pronounced differences between single subject areas. In summary, we here present the first picture of the global scientific development in maternal depression research over a period of more than 100 years. The research landscape is clearly dominated by North American and Western European countries, with only minor

  8. Analysis of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (XP-CNV Identified the Association of rp1 with Resistance to Goss's Wilt of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hu


    Full Text Available Goss's wilt (GW of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP. Copy number variation (CNV analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups. The CNV genes include the previously identified common rust resistant locus rp1. Multiple Rp1 accessions with distinct rp1 haplotypes in an otherwise susceptible accession exhibited hypersensitive responses upon inoculation. GW provides an excellent system for the genetic dissection of diseases caused by closely related subspecies of C. michiganesis. Further work will facilitate breeding strategies to control GW and provide needed insight into the resistance mechanism of important related diseases such as bacterial canker of tomato and bacterial ring rot of potato.

  9. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.


    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  10. Analysis of the H-mode density limit in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak using bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernert, Matthias


    The high confinement mode (H-mode) is the operational scenario foreseen for ITER, DEMO and future fusion power plants. At high densities, which are favourable in order to maximize the fusion power, a back transition from the H-mode to the low confinement mode (L-mode) is observed. This H-mode density limit (HDL) occurs at densities on the order of, but below, the Greenwald density. In this thesis, the HDL is revisited in the fully tungsten walled ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (AUG). In AUG discharges, four distinct operational phases were identified in the approach towards the HDL. First, there is a stable H-mode, where the plasma density increases at steady confinement, followed by a degrading H-mode, where the core electron density is fixed and the confinement, expressed as the energy confinement time, reduces. In the third phase, the breakdown of the H-mode and transition to the L-mode, the overall electron density is fixed and the confinement decreases further, leading, finally, to an L-mode, where the density increases again at a steady confinement at typical L-mode values until the disruptive Greenwald limit is reached. These four phases are reproducible, quasi-stable plasma regimes and provide a framework in which the HDL can be further analysed. Radiation losses and several other mechanisms, that were proposed as explanations for the HDL, are ruled out for the current set of AUG experiments with tungsten walls. In addition, a threshold of the radial electric field or of the power flux into the divertor appears to be responsible for the final transition back to L-mode, however, it does not determine the onset of the HDL. The observation of the four phases is explained by the combination of two mechanisms: a fueling limit due to an outward shift of the ionization profile and an additional energy loss channel, which decreases the confinement. The latter is most likely created by an increased radial convective transport at the edge of the plasma. It is shown that the

  11. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue. (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji


    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current.

  12. Correlation between radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around dental implant and resonance frequency of dental implant (United States)

    Prawoko, S. S.; Nelwan, L. C.; Odang, R. W.; Kusdhany, L. S.


    The histomorphometric test is the gold standard for dental implant stability quantification; however, it is invasive, and therefore, it is inapplicable to clinical patients. Consequently, accurate and objective alternative methods are required. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and digital radiographic analysis are noninvasive methods with excellent objectivity and reproducibility. To analyze the correlation between the radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around a dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant. Digital radiographic images for 35 samples were obtained, and the resonance frequency of the dental implant was acquired using Osstell ISQ immediately after dental implant placement and on third-month follow-up. The alveolar bone density around the dental implant was subsequently analyzed using SIDEXIS-XG software. No significant correlation was reported between the alveolar bone density around the dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant (r = -0.102 at baseline, r = 0.146 at follow-up, p > 0.05). However, the alveolar bone density and resonance frequency showed a significant difference throughout the healing period (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: Digital dental radiographs and Osstell ISQ showed excellent objectivity and reproducibility in quantifying dental implant stability. Nonetheless, no significant correlation was observed between the results obtained using these two methods.

  13. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.


    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  14. Simultaneous low-density lipoprotein-C lowering and high-density lipoprotein-C elevation for optimum cardiovascular disease prevention with various drug classes, and their combinations: a meta-analysis of 23 randomized lipid trials. (United States)

    Brown, B Greg; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Zhao, Xue-Qiao


    Our analysis presents an alternative hypothesis to the prevailing view that low-density lipoprotein-C is the only important target of lipid therapy. Two recently published studies showed surprising results. In the Armed Forces Regression Study, low-density lipoprotein-C was lowered only 22% with cholystyramine, niacin and gemfibrozil. Coronary stenosis regressed, however, and the primary clinical event rate was reduced by 54%. Conversely, in the FIELD trial, the primary event rate reduction was only 11% (P = NS). These differences appeared to be explained largely by the difference in high-density lipoprotein response to these regimens (38 vs. 3%). This meta-analysis of 23 trials strongly supports the notion that the sum of percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein-C plus percent increase in high-density lipoprotein-C predicts benefits much more effectively than either lipoprotein component. Epidemiology suggests that the cardiovascular event rate is reduced by nearly 1% for each 1% reduction in low-density lipoprotein-C and by at least 1% for each 1% increase in high-density lipoprotein. These effects are statistically independent; thus, for moderate lipid changes, they are additive. If this simple algorithm is proven accurate, a 30% high-density lipoprotein-C increase and a 40% low-density lipoprotein-C reduction would result in a nearly 70% CHD risk reduction - and a revolution in cardiovascular prevention.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging. Density equalizing mapping analysis of global research architecture; Magnetresonanztomographie. Eine Density-equalizing-mapping-Analyse der globalen Forschungsarchitektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, D.; Schwarze, B.; Groneberg, D.A.; Schwarzer, M. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt/M, Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin und Umweltmedizin, Frankfurt/M (Germany)


    Despite the great medical importance, there is still no comprehensive scientometric analysis regarding the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the development of the importance for the healthcare system. This paper evaluated and analyzed the entire research publication results on the topic of MRI for the period 1981-2007 based on scientometric methods and parameters. A scientometric analysis (database: ISI Web of Science 1981-2007, search terms MRI and magnetic resonance imaging) was performed. The following parameters were analyzed: number of publications, countries of publication, number of citations, citation rate and collaborations, using various analytical and display techniques, including density equalizing map projections. Most of the 49,122 publications on MRI could be attributed to the USA (32.5 %), which also has the most cooperative collaborations. Within Europe, Germany (10.3 %) is the country with the highest number of publications followed by the UK (9.3 %). The western industrialized nations dominate over the rest of the world in terms of scientific developments of MRI. The thematic focus of the publications lies in the fields of radiology and neuroscience. In addition to the journal Neurology most scientific articles were published in Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Circulation. The results show that the current trend is continuing and the scientific interest in MRI is continuously increasing. (orig.) [German] Trotz der grossen medizinischen Bedeutung existiert bis heute keine umfassende szientometrische Analyse bzgl. der Forschungsergebnisse zur Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und der Entwicklung ihrer Bedeutung fuer das Gesundheitssystem. Im vorliegenden Beitrag soll anhand szientometrischer Methoden und Parameter das gesamte Forschungsaufkommen zum Thema MRT fuer den Zeitraum 1981-2007 evaluiert und analysiert werden. Es wurde eine szientometrische Analyse (Datenbank: ISI-Web of Science, 1981-2007; Suchterm &apos

  16. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Emin


    Full Text Available We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR. The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  17. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, David, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Akhtari, Massoud [Semple Institutes for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ellingson, B. M. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mathern, G. W. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  18. Analysis of the levitation force of pure and starch/polystyrene/MWCNT added bulk MgB2 superconductors using frozen image model under zero field cooling condition (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.


    The measurement of superconducting levitation force between permanent magnet and polycrystalline samples of pure and MgB2 added with starch, polystyrene (PS) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) have been performed under zero field cooling (ZFC) condition at 20 K in both descending and ascending modes. For this, the bulk pellets were synthesized by conventional solid state sintering technique. The XRD data indicate well developed MgB2 phase. However, a decrease in lattice parameter 'a = b' have been observed for doped MgB2 samples. Superconducting transition temperature of MgB2 also decreases with starch/PS/MWCNT addition. Unlike MWCNT, the addition of starch/polystyrene is found to enhance the levitation force of MgB2 superconductor. The levitation force between PM and investigated pellets in ZFC condition is explained well in terms of the updated version of modified frozen image model and the magnetic moment originated due to vertical motion of the superconductors have been estimated. It may be noted that except for MWCNT, addition of starch/PS in MgB2 improves the magnetic moment generated by vertical movement of pure MgB2. However, this improvement is more pronounced for 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2, which indicates more flux trapping and hence better levitation properties in 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2. The vertical stiffness estimated for pure and starch/PS/MWCNT doped MgB2 samples indicate that the levitation force are more sensitive in the region close to the PM.

  19. Thermal analysis of bulk filled composite resin polymerization using various light curing modes according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sang Chang


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymerization temperature of a bulk filled composite resin light-activated with various light curing modes using infrared thermography according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Composite resin (AeliteFlo, Bisco, Schaumburg, IL, USA was inserted into a Class II cavity prepared in the Teflon blocks and was cured with a LED light curing unit (Dr's Light, GoodDoctors Co., Seoul, Korea using various light curing modes for 20 s. Polymerization temperature was measured with an infrared thermographic camera (Thermovision 900 SW/TE, Agema Infra-red Systems AB, Danderyd, Sweden for 40 s at measurement spots adjacent to the cavity wall and in the middle of the cavity from the surface to a 4 mm depth. Data were analyzed according to the light curing modes with one-way ANOVA, and according to curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The peak polymerization temperature of the composite resin was not affected by the light curing modes. According to the curing depth, the peak polymerization temperature at the depth of 1 mm to 3 mm was significantly higher than that at the depth of 4 mm, and on the surface. The peak polymerization temperature of the spots in the middle of the cavity was higher than that measured in spots adjacent to the cavity wall. CONCLUSION: In the photopolymerization of the composite resin, the temperature was higher in the middle of the cavity compared to the outer surface or at the internal walls of the prepared cavity.

  20. Stockholder projector analysis: a Hilbert-space partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix with orthogonal projectors. (United States)

    Vanfleteren, Diederik; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick; Ayers, Paul W; Waroquier, Michel


    A previously introduced partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix over atoms and bonds [D. Vanfleteren et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 231103 (2010)] is investigated in detail. Orthogonal projection operators are used to define atomic subspaces, as in Natural Population Analysis. The orthogonal projection operators are constructed with a recursive scheme. These operators are chemically relevant and obey a stockholder principle, familiar from the Hirshfeld-I partitioning of the electron density. The stockholder principle is extended to density matrices, where the orthogonal projectors are considered to be atomic fractions of the summed contributions. All calculations are performed as matrix manipulations in one-electron Hilbert space. Mathematical proofs and numerical evidence concerning this recursive scheme are provided in the present paper. The advantages associated with the use of these stockholder projection operators are examined with respect to covalent bond orders, bond polarization, and transferability.

  1. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Tanzania-1, at different heights in grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos


    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.

  2. Mammographic Density Phenotypes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis (United States)

    Graff, Rebecca E.; Ursin, Giske; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie; Baglietto, Laura; Vachon, Celine; Bakker, Marije F.; Giles, Graham G.; Chia, Kee Seng; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Hislop, Greg; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Hopper, John L.; Krishnan, Kavitha; Li, Jingmei; Li, Qing; Pagano, Ian; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wong, Chia Siong; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Boyd, Norman F.; van Gils, Carla H.


    Background Fibroglandular breast tissue appears dense on mammogram, whereas fat appears nondense. It is unclear whether absolute or percentage dense area more strongly predicts breast cancer risk and whether absolute nondense area is independently associated with risk. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case–control studies providing results from logistic regressions for associations between one standard deviation (SD) increments in mammographic density phenotypes and breast cancer risk. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All tests were two-sided with P less than .05 considered to be statistically significant. Results Among premenopausal women (n = 1776 case patients; n = 2834 control subjects), summary odds ratios were 1.37 (95% CI = 1.29 to 1.47) for absolute dense area, 0.78 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86) for absolute nondense area, and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.39 to 1.66) for percentage dense area when pooling estimates adjusted for age, body mass index, and parity. Corresponding odds ratios among postmenopausal women (n = 6643 case patients; n = 11187 control subjects) were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.31 to 1.44), 0.79 (95% CI = 0.73 to 0.85), and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.44 to 1.64). After additional adjustment for absolute dense area, associations between absolute nondense area and breast cancer became attenuated or null in several studies and summary odds ratios became 0.82 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.94; P heterogeneity = .02) for premenopausal and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.75 to 0.96; P heterogeneity women. Conclusions The results suggest that percentage dense area is a stronger breast cancer risk factor than absolute dense area. Absolute nondense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether the association is independent of absolute dense area. PMID:24816206

  3. [Cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins: critical review of the methods of analysis and personal data]. (United States)

    Orso Giacone, G


    It is widely known that atherosclerosis through its complication, i.e. heart and brain infarction, is at the present the main cause of death. The atherosclerotic process has been shown in correlation with hyperlipemia especially as far as the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol level is concerned. A preminent role in removing cholesterol from tissues and arterial walls then in preventing atherosclerosis is played by a specific class of plasma lipoproteins, the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Since the HDL-colesterol level seems to have an inverse correlation with the atherosclerotic disease it is of primary importance to define a reliable and reproducible technique to measure it. One of the aims of this paper was to examine the different methods now available for such a determination. This analysis has underlined the discrepancy among the reference values reported in the literature. However, all the authors agree that only the simultaneous measurement of total and HDL-colesterol levels is of prognostic value. Personal studies are here reported on the relationship between total and HDL-colesterol levels and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The two mentioned laboratory analyses have been performed on blood samples from 250 between male and female human subjects of different age. The obtained results show that the highest HDL-colesterol concentrations determined by a lipoprotein precipitation procedure with dextran sulphate, are typical in the first ten years of life both in male and in female, while the lowest levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol have been evintiated during the fifth decade of life, when the total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular complications rich the highest values. In a following set of investigations, the already examined blood parameters together with the risk factor values have been examined in two groups of subjects, the first one represented by adult healthy persons the second one by patients of similar age from a cardiovascular

  4. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  5. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism Val158Met and mammographic density: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Kallionpää, Roope A; Uusitalo, Elina; Peltonen, Juha


    The Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme reduces the methylation of catechol estrogens, which may affect mammographic density. High mammographic density is a known risk factor of breast cancer. Our aim was to perform meta-analysis of the effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on mammographic density. Original studies reporting data on mammographic density, stratified by the presence of COMT Val158Met polymorphism, were identified and combined using genetic models Met/Val vs. Val/Val, Met/Met vs. Val/Val, Val/Met+Met/Met vs. Val/Val (dominant model) and Met/Met vs. Val/Met+Val/Val (recessive model). Subgroup analyses by breast cancer status, menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were also performed. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effect in percent mammographic density was -1.41 (CI -2.86 to 0.05; P=0.06) in the recessive model. Exclusion of breast cancer patients increased the effect size to -1.93 (CI -3.49 to -0.37; P=0.02). The results suggested opposite effect of COMT Val158Met for postmenopausal users of HRT versus premenopausal women or postmenopausal non-users of HRT. COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be associated with mammographic density at least in healthy women. Menopausal status and HRT should be taken into account in future studies to avoid masking of the underlying effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldıray TURHAN


    Full Text Available In this study, warp tension change has been studied by changing weft density from a lower to a higher value in a weaving machine with electronic take up and electronic let off motions. For this purpose firstly, warp tension and cloth fell distance were measured at certain intervals from the beginning of weaving with a new weft density. Secondly, the length of fabric woven until the cloth fell reached its steady state value was determined. Finally, the warp tension measured until the steady state cloth fell values was analysed.

  7. Analysis of Electronic Densities and Integrated Doses in Multiform Glioblastomas Stereotactic Radiotherapy (United States)

    Barón-Aznar, C.; Moreno-Jiménez, S.; Celis, M. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.


    Integrated dose is the total energy delivered in a radiotherapy target. This physical parameter could be a predictor for complications such as brain edema and radionecrosis after stereotactic radiotherapy treatments for brain tumors. Integrated Dose depends on the tissue density and volume. Using CT patients images from the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery and BrainScansoftware, this work presents the mean density of 21 multiform glioblastomas, comparative results for normal tissue and estimated integrated dose for each case. The relationship between integrated dose and the probability of complications is discussed.

  8. Analysis of current density and specific absorption rate in biological tissue surrounding transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nukaya, Masayuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji


    This paper reports on the current density and specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis of biological tissue surrounding an air-core transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. The electromagnetic field in the biological tissue is analyzed by the transmission line modeling method, and the current density and SAR as a function of frequency, output voltage, output power, and coil dimension are calculated. The biological tissue of the model has three layers including the skin, fat, and muscle. The results of simulation analysis show SARs to be very small at any given transmission conditions, about 2-14 mW/kg, compared to the basic restrictions of the International Commission on nonionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP; 2 W/kg), while the current density divided by the ICNIRP's basic restrictions gets smaller as the frequency rises and the output voltage falls. It is possible to transfer energy below the ICNIRP's basic restrictions when the frequency is over 250 kHz and the output voltage is under 24 V. Also, the parts of the biological tissue that maximized the current density differ by frequencies; in the low frequency is muscle and in the high frequency is skin. The boundary is in the vicinity of the frequency 600-1000 kHz.

  9. A study of influence of material properties on magnetic flux density induced in magneto rheological damper through finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurubasavaraju T. M.


    Full Text Available Magnetorheological fluids are smart materials, which are responsive to the external stimulus and changes their rheological properties. The damper performance (damping force is dependent on the magnetic flux density induced at the annular gap. Magnetic flux density developed at fluid flow gap of MR damper due to external applied current is also dependent on materials properties of components of MR damper (such as piston head, outer cylinder and piston rod. The present paper discus about the influence of different materials selected for components of the MR damper on magnetic effect using magnetostatic analysis. Different materials such as magnetic and low carbon steels are considered for piston head of the MR damper and magnetic flux density induced at fluid flow gap (filled with MR fluid is computed for different DC current applied to the electromagnetic coil. Developed magnetic flux is used for calculating the damper force using analytical method for each case. The low carbon steel has higher magnetic permeability hence maximum magnetic flux could pass through the piston head, which leads to higher value of magnetic effect induction at the annular gap. From the analysis results it is observed that the magnetic steel and low carbon steel piston head provided maximum magnetic flux density. Eventually the higher damping force can be observed for same case.

  10. Comparative analysis of bacterial community composition in bulk tank raw milk by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods using the viability dye propidium monoazide. (United States)

    Weber, Mareike; Geißert, Janina; Kruse, Myriam; Lipski, André


    Microbial diversity of 3 raw milk samples after 72 h of storage at 4 °C in a bulk tank was analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent methods. The culture-dependent approach was based on the isolation of bacteria on complex and selective media, chemotaxonomic differentiation of isolates, and subsequent identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture-independent approach included the treatment of raw milk with the dye propidium monoazide before direct DNA extraction by mechanic and enzymatic cell lysis approaches, and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The selective detection of viable bacteria improved the comparability between bacterial compositions of raw milk based on culture-dependent and -independent methods, which was the major objective of this study. Several bacterial species of the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were detected by the culture-dependent method, whereas mainly bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria as well as low proportions of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were detected by the culture-independent method. This led to the conclusion that the phylum Firmicutes was strongly discriminated by the culture-independent approach. Generally, species richness detected by the culture-dependent method was higher than that detected by the culture-independent method for all samples. However, few taxa could be detected solely by the direct DNA-based method. In conclusion, the combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods led to the detection of the highest bacterial diversity for the raw milk samples analyzed. It was shown that DNA extraction from raw milk as the essential step in culture-independent methods causes the discrimination of taxa by incomplete cell lysis. Treatment of raw milk with the viability dye propidium monoazide was optimized for the application in raw milk without former removal of milk ingredients and proved to be a suitable tool to ensure comparability

  11. Design and theoretical analysis of a resonant sensor for liquid density measurement. (United States)

    Zheng, Dezhi; Shi, Jiying; Fan, Shangchun


    In order to increase the accuracy of on-line liquid density measurements, a sensor equipped with a tuning fork as the resonant sensitive component is designed in this paper. It is a quasi-digital sensor with simple structure and high precision. The sensor is based on resonance theory and composed of a sensitive unit and a closed-loop control unit, where the sensitive unit consists of the actuator, the resonant tuning fork and the detector and the closed-loop control unit comprises precondition circuit, digital signal processing and control unit, analog-to-digital converter and digital-to-analog converter. An approximate parameters model of the tuning fork is established and the impact of liquid density, position of the tuning fork, temperature and structural parameters on the natural frequency of the tuning fork are also analyzed. On this basis, a tuning fork liquid density measurement sensor is developed. In addition, experimental testing on the sensor has been carried out on standard calibration facilities under constant 20 °C, and the sensor coefficients are calibrated. The experimental results show that the repeatability error is about 0.03% and the accuracy is about 0.4 kg/m(3). The results also confirm that the method to increase the accuracy of liquid density measurement is feasible.

  12. Densities of Pure Ionic Liquids and Mixtures: Modeling and Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.


    Our two-parameter corresponding states model for liquid densities and compressibilities has been extended to more pure ionic liquids and to their mixtures with one or two solvents. A total of 19 new group contributions (5 new cations and 14 new anions) have been obtained for predicting pressure...

  13. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12, wrestling 8, Judo ...

  14. A Longitudinal Analysis of Densities within the Pedestrian Sheds around Metro Stations. The Case of Tehran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand E. Masoumi


    Full Text Available Evaluation of spatial accessibility to public transportation has a weak background in many emerging countries, including Iran. Transit-Oriented Development is of great interest among Iranian planners and academics, but little is known about transit orientation provided by major public transport systems exemplified by the Tehran Metro. Statistical difference tests and polynomial regression done in this study show how residential densities within walking distances of metro stations established at different times after 1998 are significantly different. Both population and employment densities have decreased in more recent stations compared to those opened between 2005 and 2010. Moreover, one-way T-Tests comparing the population and densities of older lines with those of newer lines reveal that, in most cases, densities within walking distances of stations of older lines are higher. The paper concludes that lack of proper site selection and failing to locate new stations near job centers and highly populated areas threatens the transit-friendliness that emerged in the early years after establishing the first metro station in 1998.

  15. Analysis of the photophysical properties of zearalenone using density functional theory (United States)

    The intrinsic photophysical properties of the resorcylic acid moiety of zearalenone offer a convenient label free method to determine zearalenone levels in contaminated agricultural products. Density functional theory and steady-state fluorescence methods were applied to investigate the role of stru...

  16. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 25, 2010 ... This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12,.

  17. Pattern Persistence in European Trade Union Density: A longitudinal analysis 1950-97

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.


    Using annual data on aggregate union membership and density in fourteen European countries, the authors examine the short-term and long-term determinants of the post-war pattern of union growth and decline in Western Europe since 1950. In an attempt to explain the observed convergence in trends and

  18. Relativistic analysis of nuclear ground state densities at 135 to 200 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fitting of differential cross-section and analyzing power, and the appearance of wine-bottle- bottom shaped Re Ueff (r) in the transition energy region, sensitively depends on the input nuclear ground state densities and are not solely the relativistic characteristic signatures. We also found that the wine-bottle-bottom shaped ...

  19. Analytical and numerical analysis of charge carriers extracted by linearly increasing voltage in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure relevant to bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (United States)

    Yumnam, Nivedita; Hirwa, Hippolyte; Wagner, Veit


    Analysis of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage is conducted on metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors in a structure relevant to organic solar cells. For this analysis, an analytical model is developed and is used to determine the conductivity of the active layer. Numerical simulations of the transient current were performed as a way to confirm the applicability of our analytical model and other analytical models existing in the literature. Our analysis is applied to poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) : phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) which allows to determine the electron and hole mobility independently. A combination of experimental data analysis and numerical simulations reveals the effect of trap states on the transient current and where this contribution is crucial for data analysis.

  20. Symmetry energy in nuclear density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee Knoxville, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Reinhard, P.G. [Universitaet Erlangen/Nuernberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Erlangen (Germany); Satula, W. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Vretenar, D. [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia)


    The nuclear symmetry energy represents a response to the neutron-proton asymmetry. In this paper we discuss various aspects of symmetry energy in the framework of nuclear density functional theory, considering both non-relativistic and relativistic self-consistent mean-field realizations side by side. Key observables pertaining to bulk nucleonic matter and finite nuclei are reviewed. Constraints on the symmetry energy and correlations between observables and symmetry energy parameters, using statistical covariance analysis, are investigated. Perspectives for future work are outlined in the context of ongoing experimental efforts. (orig.)

  1. Stereoscopy of dust density waves under microgravity: Velocity distributions and phase-resolved single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpel, Michael, E-mail:; Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bockwoldt, Tim; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Ole Menzel, Kristoffer [ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research Center, 5405 Dättwil (Switzerland)


    Experiments on dust-density waves have been performed in dusty plasmas under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. Three-dimensional measurements of a dust density wave on a single particle level are presented. The dust particles have been tracked for many oscillation periods. A Hilbert analysis is applied to obtain trajectory parameters such as oscillation amplitude and three-dimensional velocity amplitude. While the transverse motion is found to be thermal, the velocity distribution in wave propagation direction can be explained by harmonic oscillations with added Gaussian (thermal) noise. Additionally, it is shown that the wave properties can be reconstructed by means of a pseudo-stroboscopic approach. Finally, the energy dissipation mechanism from the kinetic oscillation energy to thermal motion is discussed and presented using phase-resolved analysis.

  2. Calculation of Boil-Off Gas (BOG Generation of KC-1 Membrane LNG Tank with High Density Rigid Polyurethane Foam by Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hyeonwon


    Full Text Available Recently, a new type of LNG tank named “KC-1 membrane LNG tank” has been developed by Korean Gas Corporation (KOGAS, and Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI is currently building KC-1 membrane type LNG carriers. Unlike other LNG tanks, the KC-1 membrane LNG tank has a single-insulation structure rather than a double-insulation structure. For a given tank’s boundary condition, heat transfer analysis is performed from the external to the internal environment of the LNG tank by numerical simulation for three tanks. In each tank, the main thermally resistant layer of insulation is assembled with a High density rigid Polyurethane Foam (H-PUF, which is blown with one of three different types of hydrofluorocarbons-namely-HFC-365mfc, 245fa, and 245fa-e (enhanced. Advantage of such blowing agents is that it has a lower Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP than HCFC-141b or carbon dioxide (CO2 that has been used in the past as well as having low thermal conductivity. A Reduced Order Model is utilized to a 3-dimensional section of the insulation to calculate equivalent thermal conductivity. The equivalent thermal conductivity of the insulation is then applied to the rest of LNG tank, reducing the size of tank simulation domain as well as computation time. Tank’s two external and internal boundary conditions used are those defined by the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC and the United States Coast Guard (USCG conditions. Boil-off Rate (BOR of the tank that has the insulation with H-PUF blown with HFC-245fa resulted in 0.0927 %/day and 0.0745 %/day for IGC and USCG conditions, respectively.

  3. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja


    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  4. Bulk fields with brane terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, F. del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales (CAFPE), Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Perez-Victoria, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Santiago, J. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    In theories with branes, bulk fields get in general divergent corrections localized on these defects. Hence, the corresponding brane terms are renormalized and should be included in the effective theory from the very beginning. We review the phenomenology associated to brane kinetic terms for different spins and backgrounds, and point out that renormalization is required already at the classical level. (orig.)

  5. Improving the Accuracy of Mapping Urban Vegetation Carbon Density by Combining Shadow Remove, Spectral Unmixing Analysis and Spatial Modeling (United States)

    Qie, G.; Wang, G.; Wang, M.


    Mixed pixels and shadows due to buildings in urban areas impede accurate estimation and mapping of city vegetation carbon density. In most of previous studies, these factors are often ignored, which thus result in underestimation of city vegetation carbon density. In this study we presented an integrated methodology to improve the accuracy of mapping city vegetation carbon density. Firstly, we applied a linear shadow remove analysis (LSRA) on remotely sensed Landsat 8 images to reduce the shadow effects on carbon estimation. Secondly, we integrated a linear spectral unmixing analysis (LSUA) with a linear stepwise regression (LSR), a logistic model-based stepwise regression (LMSR) and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), and utilized and compared the integrated models on shadow-removed images to map vegetation carbon density. This methodology was examined in Shenzhen City of Southeast China. A data set from a total of 175 sample plots measured in 2013 and 2014 was used to train the models. The independent variables statistically significantly contributing to improving the fit of the models to the data and reducing the sum of squared errors were selected from a total of 608 variables derived from different image band combinations and transformations. The vegetation fraction from LSUA was then added into the models as an important independent variable. The estimates obtained were evaluated using a cross-validation method. Our results showed that higher accuracies were obtained from the integrated models compared with the ones using traditional methods which ignore the effects of mixed pixels and shadows. This study indicates that the integrated method has great potential on improving the accuracy of urban vegetation carbon density estimation. Key words: Urban vegetation carbon, shadow, spectral unmixing, spatial modeling, Landsat 8 images

  6. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret


    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of Tensegrity Structures with Redundancies, by Implementing a Comprehensive Equilibrium Equations Method with Force Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiades Elliotis


    Full Text Available A general approach is presented to analyze tensegrity structures by examining their equilibrium. It belongs to the class of equilibrium equations methods with force densities. The redundancies are treated by employing Castigliano’s second theorem, which gives the additional required equations. The partial derivatives, which appear in the additional equations, are numerically replaced by statically acceptable internal forces which are applied on the structure. For both statically determinate and indeterminate tensegrity structures, the properties of the resulting linear system of equations give an indication about structural stability. This method requires a relatively small number of computations, it is direct (there is no iteration procedure and calculation of auxiliary parameters and is characterized by its simplicity. It is tested on both 2D and 3D tensegrity structures. Results obtained with the method compare favorably with those obtained by the Dynamic Relaxation Method or the Adaptive Force Density Method.

  8. A Vygotskian analysis of preservice teachers' conceptions of dissolving and density (United States)

    Shaker elJishi, Ziad

    The purpose of this study was to examine the content knowledge of 64 elementary preservice teachers for the concepts of dissolving and density. Vygotsky's (1987) theory of concept development was used as a framework to categorize concepts and misconceptions resulting from evidences of preservice teacher knowledge including pre/post concept maps, writing artifacts, pre/post face-to-face interviews, examination results, and drawings. Statistical significances were found for pre- and post-concept map scores for dissolving (t = -5.773, p Vygotsky's notion of complex thinking and were unable to transform their thinking to the scientific conceptual level. That is, they were unable to articulate an understanding of either the process of dissolving or density that included a unified system of knowledge characterized as abstract, generalizable and hierarchical. Results suggest the need to instruct preservice elementary science teachers about the particulate nature of matter, intermolecular forces, and the Archimedes' principle.

  9. Survey and analysis of optical density of dental films processed manually in portable dark chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Miguel

    Full Text Available Introduction Intraoral film processing can be performed manually using chambers manufactured from opaque material to prevent light from entering and consequently blurring images. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether portable darkrooms used in offices, clinics and educational institutions prevent the entry of light during the processing of intraoral films. Methods To this end, tests were carried out and images were analyzed by measuring the optical base-plus-fog densities (ODs upon imaging. Results Review of the OD measurements revealed that in 70.7% of the evaluated manual portable revelation cameras, the base-plus-veil density of intraoral films was not in accord with that of the protocol reference. Discussion The results of this work can be used to identify chambers that are commonly exposed to light from fluorescent lamps and solar lighting.

  10. Thermal Experimental Analysis for Dielectric Characterization of High Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Thabet Mohamed


    Full Text Available The importance of nanoparticles in controlling physical properties of polymeric nanocomposite materials leads us to study effects of these nanoparticles on electric and dielectric properties of polymers in industry In this research, the dielectric behaviour of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE nanocomposites materials that filled with nanoparticles of clay or fumed silica has been investigated at various frequencies (10 Hz-1 kHz and temperatures (20-60°C. Dielectric spectroscopy has been used to characterize ionic conduction, then, the effects of nanoparticles concentration on the dielectric losses and capacitive charge of the new nanocomposites can be stated. Capacitive charge and loss tangent in high density polyethylene nanocomposites are measured by dielectric spectroscopy. Different dielectric behaviour has been observed depending on type and concentration of nanoparticles under variant thermal conditions.

  11. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest


    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Varga


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse sugar beet growth in field conditions during 2014 growing season. Sugar beet (hybrid Serenade, KWS was sown on March 18th at inter–row spacing of 50 cm and four different intra–row spacings: 13 cm, 15 cm,17 cm and 19 cm. During the growing season sugar beet plants samples were taken in eight terms from June to September. In each sampling term sugar beet leaf and root fresh weight (g/plant were determined. Also, diameter, number and distance between cambium rings and the number of cambium rings of 1 cm diameter were determined at the cross section of the widest hypocotyl part. Sowing density had a significant effect (P≤0.05 on all observed parameters. Average fresh leaf weight for all densities of 717.84 g/plant was the highest in late July and early August. Generally, during the growing season the plants sown at wider intra–row spacings (17 and 19 cm had on average higher root weight compared to average root weight in narrower intra–row spacings (13 and 15 cm. Average root diameter of all sowing densities increases from 4.13 cm in the first decade of June to 12.51 cm in the second decade of September wherein the diameter varied from 11.55 cm (intra–row spacing 13 cm to 14.79 cm (intra–row spacing 19 cm. Intensive formation of cambium rings for all densities was found out in June, where at the beginning of the June, the average number of cambium rings was 4.9, while and at the end of it was 7.3. In September, sugar beet root had on average of 8.4 cambium rings. On July 30th the largest number of cambium rings at 1 cm root diameter was on the average 1.52.

  13. CH spectroscopy for carbon chemical erosion analysis in high density low temperature hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.


    The CH A-X molecular band is measured upon seeding the hydrogen plasma in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI [electron temperature T-e=0.1-2.5 eV and electron density n(e)=(0.5-5) X 10(20) m(-3)] with methane. Calculated inverse photon efficiencies for these conditions range from 3 up to

  14. Systematic analysis of hot Yb{sup *} isotopes using the energy density formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Deepika; Sharma, Manoj K.; Rajni [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India); Kumar, Raj [University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova (Italy); Gupta, Raj K. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)


    A systematic study of the spin-orbit density interaction potential is carried out, with spherical as well as deformed choices of nuclei, for a variety of near-symmetric and asymmetric colliding nuclei leading to various isotopes of the compound nucleus Yb{sup *}, using the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi formulation (ETF) of the Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF). We observe that the spin-orbit density interaction barrier height (V{sub JB}) and barrier position (R{sub JB}) increase systematically with the increase in number of neutrons in both the projectile and target, for spherical systems. On allowing deformation effects with optimum orientations, the barrier-height increases by a large order of magnitude, as compared to the spherical case, in going from {sup 156}Yb{sup *} to {sup 172}Yb{sup *} nuclear systems formed via near-symmetric Ni+Mo or asymmetric O+Sm colliding nuclei, except that for the oblate-shaped nuclei, the V{sub JB} is the highest and R{sub JB} shifts towards a smaller (compact) interaction radius. The temperature does not change the behavior of spin-orbit density dependent (V{sub J}) and independent (V{sub P}) interaction potentials, except for some minor changes in the magnitude. The orientation degree of freedom also plays an important role in modifying the barrier characteristics and hence produces a large effect on the fusion cross section. The fusion excitation function of the compound nuclei {sup 160,} {sup 164}Yb{sup *} formed in different incoming channels, show clearly that the new forces GSkI and KDE0v1 respond better than the old SIII force. Among the first two, KDE0v1 seems to perform better. The fusion cross-sections are also predicted for a few other isotopes of Yb{sup *}. (orig.)

  15. Error Analysis of a Fractional Time-Stepping Technique for Incompressible Flows with Variable Density

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J.-L.


    In this paper we analyze the convergence properties of a new fractional time-stepping technique for the solution of the variable density incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main feature of this method is that, contrary to other existing algorithms, the pressure is determined by just solving one Poisson equation per time step. First-order error estimates are proved, and stability of a formally second-order variant of the method is established. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Densidade do solo e infiltração de água como indicadores da qualidade física de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico em recuperação Soil bulk density and water infiltration rate as indicators of physical quality recovery of an oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cristina Alves


    maneira semelhante na recuperação da sua qualidade, porém a combinação lodo de esgoto mais braquiária proporciona maior altura de planta da espécie gonçalo-alves.The increasing need for food, space and other conditions for human survival generate greater anthropic interferences with the environment. Intensively and improperly tilled soils are degraded and illegal civil construction in rural areas is causing problems. Different techniques are being used to ameliorate these soils, mainly by the addition of organic matter, but information on the time required for soil recovery, influence of the organic matter type and on indicators of soil alterations is still rare. Our study aimed to recover the properties of an Oxisol used for the leveling and implantation of the hydroelectric power station of Ilha Solteira, São Paulo. Bulk density and water infiltration rate were used as indicators of soil physical quality. The experiment was carried out in an area where a layer of 8.60 m of soil had been removed. The experiment had a randomized block design with five replicates and five treatments: control plot (open soil without amelioration; tree species Gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; Gonçalo-alves + Canavalia ensiformis; Gonçalo-alves + Raphanus sativus; and Gonçalo-alves + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 Mg ha-1. Bulk density was evaluated before and 356 days after treatment installation, whereas soil water infiltration was determined 188 days after treatment installation. Improvements in the soil quality where obtained with tillage and sewage sludge and green manure application. Bulk density and soil water infiltration were useful as indicators of the improvements. Different sources of organic matter added to the soil and the action of soil tillage interact in a similar way in the recovery of soil quality, but the Gonçalo-alves trees grew highest with the combination of sewage sludge and Brachiaria decumbens.

  17. The role of Lecane rotifers in activated sludge bulking control. (United States)

    Fiałkowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka


    Experiments were conducted on Lecane inermis feeding on filamentous bacteria and living in activated sludge to determine if the rotifers can control the growth of the bacteria responsible for bulking. The experiments showed that Lecane are capable of significantly reducing the density of Microthrix parvicella filaments. The rotifers not only survived the transfer from the culture to the activated sludge, but they multiplied quickly when foraging on filamentous bacteria. By reducing the number of filaments, the rotifers improved settling properties of the sludge. This is apparently the first report on the possibility of using rotifers to control bulking.

  18. Analysis of density-dependent binding of glycans by lectins using carbohydrate microarrays. (United States)

    Tian, Xizhe; Pai, Jaeyoung; Shin, Injae


    To investigate the density-dependent binding of glycans by lectins using carbohydrate microarrays, a number of C-terminal hydrazide-conjugated neoglycopeptides with various valences and different spatial arrangements of the sugar ligands were prepared on a solid support. The synthetic strategy includes (1) assembly of alkyne-linked peptides possessing C-terminal hydrazide on a solid support, (2) coupling of azide-linked, unprotected sugars to the alkyne-linked peptides on the solid support utilizing click chemistry, and (3) release of the neoglycopeptides from the solid support. By using this synthetic methodology, sixty five neoglycopeptides with a valency ranging from 1 to 4 and different spatial arrangements of the carbohydrate ligands were generated. Carbohydrate microarrays were constructed by immobilizing the prepared neoglycopeptides on epoxide-derivatized glass slides and were used to analyze the density-dependent binding of glycans by lectins. The results of binding property determinations show that lectin binding is highly dependent on the surface glycan density. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. On the Analysis of the Discretized Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Xiao; Ulbrich, Michael; Yuan, Yaxiang


    In this paper, we study a few theoretical issues in the discretized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). The equivalence between either a local or global minimizer of the KS total energy minimization problem and the solution to the KS equation is established under certain assumptions. The nonzero charge densities of a strong local minimizer are shown to be bounded below by a positive constant uniformly. We analyze the self-consistent field (SCF) iteration by formulating the KS equation as a fixed point map with respect to the potential. The Jacobian of these fixed point maps is derived explicitly. Both global and local convergence of the simple mixing scheme can be established if the gap between the occupied states and unoccupied states is sufficiently large. This assumption can be relaxed if the charge density is computed using the Fermi-Dirac distribution and it is not required if there is no exchange correlation functional in the total energy functional. Although our assumption on the gap is ver...

  20. Stochastic analysis of transverse dispersion in density-coupled transport in aquifers (United States)

    Welty, C.; Kane, A. C.; Kauffman, L.J.


    Spectral perturbation techniques have been used previously to derive integral expressions for dispersive mixing in concentration-dependent transport in three-dimensional, heterogeneous porous media, where fluid density and viscosity are functions of solute concentration. Whereas earlier work focused on evaluating longitudinal dispersivity in isotropic media and incorporating the result in a mean one-dimensional transport model, the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation of the complete dispersion tensor, including the more general case of anisotropic media. Approximate analytic expressions for all components of the macroscopic dispersivity tensor are derived, and the tensor is shown to be asymmetric. The tensor is separated into its symmetric and antisymmetric parts, where the symmetric part is used to calculate the principal components and principal directions of dispersivity, and the antisymmetric part of the tensor is shown to modify the velocity of the solute body compared to that of the background fluid. An example set of numerical simulations incorporating the tensor illustrates the effect of density-coupled dispersivity on a sinking plume in an aquifer. The simulations show that the effective transverse vertical spreading in a sinking plume to be significantly greater than would be predicted by a standard density-coupled transport model that does not incorporate the coupling in the dispersivity tensor.

  1. FRW Bulk Viscous Cosmology with Modified Chaplygin Gas in Flat Space

    CERN Document Server

    Saadat, H


    In this paper we study FRW bulk viscous cosmology in presence of modified Chaplygin gas. We write modified Friedmann equations due to bulk viscosity and Chaplygin gas and obtain time-dependent energy density for the special case of flat space.

  2. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo


    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improvements in discrimination of bulk and trace elements in long-wavelength double pulse LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.R., E-mail:; Diwakar, P.K., E-mail:; Harilal, S.S., E-mail:; Hassanein, A., E-mail:


    In this work we study the effectiveness of long-wavelength heating in double pulse (DP) LIBS, quantitatively comparing figures of merit with those from traditional single pulse (SP) LIBS. The first laser pulse serves as the source of sample ablation, creating an aerosol-like plume that is subsequently reheated by the second laser pulse. At power densities used, the long-wavelength CO{sub 2} laser pulse does not ablate any of the solid sample in the atmospheric conditions investigated, meaning plasma emission and enhanced signal can be entirely attributed to the reheated plume rather than increased sample ablation. The signal discrimination was improved significantly using long-wavelength DP-LIBS. For bulk elemental analysis, DP-LIBS provided maximum enhancements of about 14 and 15 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, compared to SP-LIBS using the same quantity of ablated sample. For trace elemental analysis, maximum enhancements of about 7 and 4 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, were observed. These improvements are attributed to effective coupling between the second heating pulse and expanding plume and more efficient excitation of plume species than from the single pulse alone. Most significant improvements were observed in the case of low prepulse energy and minimal sample ablation. While bulk elemental analysis observed improvements for all prepulse energies studied, trace element discrimination only significantly improved for the lowest prepulse energy studied. - Highlights: • Enhancement by improved coupling and excitation efficiency, not increased ablated mass • S/N enhancements of 14 and 7 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • S/B enhancements of 15 and 4 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • Max enhancement observed for smaller quantities of ablated sample • Significant conclusions for delicate, mass-limited samples.

  4. Evaluation of high grid strip densities based on the moiré artifact analysis for quality assurance: Simulation and experiment (United States)

    Je, U. K.; Park, C. K.; Lim, H. W.; Cho, H. S.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, K. S.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, G. A.; Kang, S. Y.; Park, J. E.; Kim, W. S.; Jeon, D. H.; Woo, T. H.


    We have recently developed precise x-ray grids having strip densities in the range of 100 - 250 lines/inch by adopting the precision sawing process and carbon interspace material for the demands of specific x-ray imaging techniques. However, quality assurance in the grid manufacturing has not yet satisfactorily conducted because grid strips of a high strip density are often invisible through an x-ray nondestructive testing with a flat-panel detector of an ordinary pixel resolution (>100 μm). In this work, we propose a useful method to evaluate actual grid strip densities over the Nyquist sampling rate based on the moiré artifact analysis. We performed a systematic simulation and experiment with several sample grids and a detector having a 143- μm pixel resolution to verify the proposed quality assurance method. According to our results, the relative differences between the nominal and the evaluated grid strip densities were within 0.2% and 1.8% in the simulation and experiment, respectively, which demonstrates that the proposed method is viable with an ordinary detector having a moderate pixel resolution for quality assurance in grid manufacturing.

  5. Analysis of the Relationship between Density and Mechanical Strength of Lightened Gypsums: Proposal for a Coefficient of Lightening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Santa Cruz Astorqui


    Full Text Available This article develops a relationship between the reduction of density in lightened gypsum and the addition of expanded and/or extruded polystyrene waste from the construction sector and their mechanical behavior. The equations determined in this study allow us to know the flexural and compressive strengths of a lightened gypsum/plaster compound once its density is known. The results show that there is an exponential relationship between the density of the compound and its strength. The methodology followed included a compilation of the results obtained in previous research works on lightweight gypsums, analyzing the relationship between density and mechanical strength and comparing them with the equations developed in this research. The results obtained by previous researchers have a good adjustment with the proposed models, and only perlite compounds present greater deviations in the compressive strength analysis. Also, a dimensionless lightening coefficient is defined which can help to determine the best application for a lightweight gypsum compound, comparing it with an ideal lightweight gypsum.

  6. Measurement of hydroxyapatite density and Knoop hardness in sound human enamel and a correlational analysis between them. (United States)

    He, Bing; Huang, Shengbin; Jing, Junjun; Hao, Yuqing


    The aim of this study was to measure the hydroxyapatite (HAP) density and Knoop hardness (KHN) of enamel slabs and to analyse the relationship between them. Twenty enamel slabs (10 lingual sides and 10 buccal sides) were prepared and scanned with micro-CT. Tomographic images of each slab from dental cusp to dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) were reconstructed. On these three-dimensional (3D) images, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined at an interval of 50 microm, and the HAP density for each ROI was calculated. Then the polished surfaces were indented from cusp to DEJ at intervals of 50 microm with a Knoop indenter. Finally, the data were analysed with one-way ANOVA, Student's t-test, and linear regression analysis. The HAP density and KHN decreased from the dental cusp to DEJ. Both HAP density and KHN in the outer-layer enamel were significantly higher than those in the middle- or inner-layer enamel (Penamel in the outer, middle and inner layers, respectively (P>0.05). The KHN in the outer-layer enamel of the lingual sides was significantly lower than that of the buccal sides (Pdental cusp to DEJ, and the two properties are highly correlated. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. STEM-EELS analysis reveals stable high-density He in nanopores of amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. (United States)

    Schierholz, Roland; Lacroix, Bertrand; Godinho, Vanda; Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Duchamp, Martial; Fernández, Asunción


    A broad interest has been showed recently on the study of nanostructuring of thin films and surfaces obtained by low-energy He plasma treatments and He incorporation via magnetron sputtering. In this paper spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to locate and characterize the He state in nanoporous amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. A dedicated MATLAB program was developed to quantify the helium density inside individual pores based on the energy position shift or peak intensity of the He K-edge. A good agreement was observed between the high density (∼35-60 at nm(-3)) and pressure (0.3-1.0 GPa) values obtained in nanoscale analysis and the values derived from macroscopic measurements (the composition obtained by proton backscattering spectroscopy coupled to the macroscopic porosity estimated from ellipsometry). This work provides new insights into these novel porous coatings, providing evidence of high-density He located inside the pores and validating the methodology applied here to characterize the formation of pores filled with the helium process gas during deposition. A similar stabilization of condensed He bubbles has been previously demonstrated by high-energy He ion implantation in metals and is newly demonstrated here using a widely employed methodology, magnetron sputtering, for achieving coatings with a high density of homogeneously distributed pores and He storage capacities as high as 21 at%.

  8. Whole brain analysis of postmortem density changes of grey and white matter on computed tomography by statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Katsube, Takashi; Kitagaki, Hajime [Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Izumo-shi, Shimane (Japan); Kanayama, Hidekazu; Tada, Keiji; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Shimane University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Izumo-shi, Shimane (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Legal Medicine, Izumo-shi, Shimane (Japan); Kawakami, Kazunori [Fujifilm RI Pharma, Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This study examined the usefulness of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for investigating postmortem changes on brain computed tomography (CT). This retrospective study included 128 patients (23 - 100 years old) without cerebral abnormalities who underwent unenhanced brain CT before and after death. The antemortem CT (AMCT) scans and postmortem CT (PMCT) scans were spatially normalized using our original brain CT template, and postmortem changes of CT values (in Hounsfield units; HU) were analysed by the SPM technique. Compared with AMCT scans, 58.6 % and 98.4 % of PMCT scans showed loss of the cerebral sulci and an unclear grey matter (GM)-white matter (WM) interface, respectively. SPM analysis revealed a significant decrease in cortical GM density within 70 min after death on PMCT scans, suggesting cytotoxic brain oedema. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the density of the WM, lenticular nucleus and thalamus more than 120 min after death. The SPM technique demonstrated typical postmortem changes on brain CT scans, and revealed that the unclear GM-WM interface on early PMCT scans is caused by a rapid decrease in cortical GM density combined with a delayed increase in WM density. SPM may be useful for assessment of whole brain postmortem changes. (orig.)

  9. Harmonic analysis of the ionospheric electron densities retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements (United States)

    Masoumi, S.; Safari, A.; Sharifi, M.; Sam Khaniani, A.


    In order to investigate regular variations of the ionosphere, the least-squares harmonic estimation is applied to the time series of ionospheric electron densities in the region of Iran derived from about five years of Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPS RO) observations by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites. Although the obtained results are slightly different from the expected ones due to the low horizontal resolution of RO measurements, high vertical resolution of the observations enables us to detect not only the Total Electron Content (TEC) variations, but also periodic patterns of electron densities in different altitudes of the ionosphere. Dominant diurnal and annual signals, together with their Fourier series decompositions, and also periods close to 27 days are obtained, which is consistent with the previous analyses on TEC. In the equatorial anomaly band, the annual component is weaker than its Fourier decomposition periods. In particular, the semiannual period dominates the annual component, which is probably due to the effect of geomagnetic field. By the investigation of the frequencies at different local times, the semiannual signal is more significant than the annual one in the daytime, while the annual frequency is dominant at night. By the detection of the phases of the components, it is revealed that the annual signal has its maximum in summer at high altitudes, and in winter at lower altitudes. This suggests the effect of neutral compositions in the lower atmosphere. Further, the semiannual component peaks around equinox during the day, while its maximum mostly occurs in solstice at night. Since RO measurements can be used to derive TEC along the signal path between a GPS satellite and a receiver, study on the potentiality of using these observations for the prediction of electron densities and its application to the ionospheric correction of the single frequency receivers is suggested.

  10. [Analysis of elderly outpatients in relation to nutritional status, sarcopenia, renal function, and bone density]. (United States)

    Salmaso, Franciany Viana; Vigário, Patrícia dos Santos; Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho de; Madeira, Miguel; Vieira Netto, Leonardo; Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss de


    To evaluate relationships between nutritional status, sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older women. We studied 44 women, 67-94 years, by mini-nutritional assessment (MAN), glomerular filtration corr. 1.73 m(2), body mass index (BMI), arm circumference and calf (CP and CB), bone mineral density and body composition, DXA (fat mass MG; lean MM). We gauge sarcopenia: IMM MM = MSS + MIS/height(2). We used the Pearson correlation coefficient, p nutritional status and body composition; and major influences on BMD were nutritional status and fat mass.

  11. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPTLC Method for Analysis of Rasagiline Mesylate in the Bulk Drug and Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaram Kathirvel


    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for analysis of rasagiline mesylate in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatography on silica gel 60 F254 plates with 6 : 1 : 2(v/v/v butanol-methanol water as mobile phase furnished compact spots at Rf  0.76±0.01. Densitometric analysis was performed at 254 nm. To show the specificity of the method, rasagiline mesylate was subjected to acid, base, neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal decomposition, and the peaks of degradation products were well resolved from that of the pure drug. Linear regression analysis revealed a good linear relationship between peak area and amount of rasagiline mesylate in the range of 100–350 ng/band. The minimum amount of rasagiline mesylate that could be authentically detected and quantified was 11.12 and 37.21 ng/band, respectively. The method was validated, in accordance with ICH guidelines for precision, accuracy, and robustness. Since the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be regarded as stability indicating.

  12. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others


    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  13. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.


    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  14. Classification and assessment of retrieved electron density maps in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging using multivariate analysis. (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi


    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is one of the techniques used to visualize structures of non-crystalline particles of micrometer to submicrometer size from materials and biological science. In the structural analysis of CXDI, the electron density map of a sample particle can theoretically be reconstructed from a diffraction pattern by using phase-retrieval (PR) algorithms. However, in practice, the reconstruction is difficult because diffraction patterns are affected by Poisson noise and miss data in small-angle regions due to the beam stop and the saturation of detector pixels. In contrast to X-ray protein crystallography, in which the phases of diffracted waves are experimentally estimated, phase retrieval in CXDI relies entirely on the computational procedure driven by the PR algorithms. Thus, objective criteria and methods to assess the accuracy of retrieved electron density maps are necessary in addition to conventional parameters monitoring the convergence of PR calculations. Here, a data analysis scheme, named ASURA, is proposed which selects the most probable electron density maps from a set of maps retrieved from 1000 different random seeds for a diffraction pattern. Each electron density map composed of J pixels is expressed as a point in a J-dimensional space. Principal component analysis is applied to describe characteristics in the distribution of the maps in the J-dimensional space. When the distribution is characterized by a small number of principal components, the distribution is classified using the k-means clustering method. The classified maps are evaluated by several parameters to assess the quality of the maps. Using the proposed scheme, structure analysis of a diffraction pattern from a non-crystalline particle is conducted in two stages: estimation of the overall shape and determination of the fine structure inside the support shape. In each stage, the most accurate and probable density maps are objectively selected. The validity

  15. Bulk-mediated surface transport in the presence of bias (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M.


    Surface transport, when the particle is allowed to leave the surface, travel in the bulk for some time, and then return to the surface, is referred to as bulk-mediated surface transport. Recently, we proposed a formalism that significantly simplifies analysis of bulk-mediated surface diffusion [A. M. Berezhkovskii, L. Dagdug, and S. M. Bezrukov, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084103 (2015)]. Here this formalism is extended to bulk-mediated surface transport in the presence of bias, i.e., when the particle has arbitrary drift velocities on the surface and in the bulk. A key advantage of our approach is that the transport problem reduces to that of a two-state problem of the particle transitions between the surface and the bulk. The latter can be solved with relative ease. The formalism is used to find the Laplace transforms of the first two moments of the particle displacement over the surface in time t at arbitrary values of the particle drift velocities and diffusivities on the surface and in the bulk. This allows us to analyze in detail the time dependence of the effective drift velocity of the particle on the surface, which can be highly nontrivial.

  16. Analysis of the surface density and reactivity of perfluorophenylazide and the impact on ligand immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, Gilad, E-mail:; Castner, David G. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 351653, Seattle, Washington 98195-1653 (United States); Tyagi, Anuradha; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hui; Yan, Mingdi, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207-0751 (United States)


    Perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) chemistry is a novel method for tailoring the surface properties of solid surfaces and nanoparticles. It is general and versatile, and has proven to be an efficient way to immobilize graphene, proteins, carbohydrates, and synthetic polymers. The main thrust of this work is to provide a detailed investigation on the chemical composition and surface density of the PFPA tailored surface. Specifically, gold surfaces were treated with PFPA-derivatized (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol) (PFPA-MUTEG) mixed with 2-[2-(2-mercaptoethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol (MDEG) at varying solution mole ratios. Complementary analytical techniques were employed to characterize the resulting films including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to detect fingerprints of the PFPA group, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry to study the homogeneity and uniformity of the films, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structures to study the electronic and chemical structure of the PFPA groups. Results from these studies show that the films prepared from 90:10 and 80:20 PFPA-MUTEG/MDEG mixed solutions exhibited the highest surface density of PFPA and the most homogeneous coverage on the surface. A functional assay using surface plasmon resonance with carbohydrates covalently immobilized onto the PFPA-modified surfaces showed the highest binding affinity for lectin on the PFPA-MUTEG/MDEG film prepared from a 90:10 solution.

  17. Effect of Paricalcitol on Bone Density After Kidney Transplantation: Analysis of 2 Transplant Centers. (United States)

    Žilinská, Zuzana; Dedinská, Ivana; Breza, Ján; Laca, Ludovít


    The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of bone disease in patients with chronic kidney disease recommend periodic measurement of serum calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels after kidney transplantation, with the frequencies that will vary according to the severity of bone disease and graft function. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is indicated in the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of treatment with paricalcitol among our kidney transplant recipients. We monitored the effect of paricalcitol on bone density; the plasma levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus; and proteinuria and calciuria. Comparisons were made between these parameters before treatment and 12 months after treatment. Eighty-eight kidney transplant recipients with a mean age at the time of transplantation of 47.1 ± 10.5 years were receiving paricalcitol. On average, paricalcitol was included into the treatment for 48 months from transplantation (median, 27 months). The patients had significantly improved bone density (P < .001), significantly lower parathyroid hormone levels (P < .001), and significantly decreased proteinuria (P = .02) after 12 months of treatment. During the treatment with paricalcitol, the immunosuppressive therapy, dose of prednisone, body mass index, and vitamin D levels had not significantly changed. Nor had any significant change occurred to graft function. Paricalcitol is an effective therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients.

  18. Analysis of percent density estimates from digital breast tomosynthesis projection images (United States)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Kontos, Despina; Zhang, Cuiping; Yaffe, Martin J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.


    Women with dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer. Breast density is typically measured as the percent density (PD), the percentage of non-fatty (i.e., dense) tissue in breast images. Mammographic PD estimates vary, in part, due to the projective nature of mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel radiographic method in which 3D images of the breast are reconstructed from a small number of projection (source) images, acquired at different positions of the x-ray focus. DBT provides superior visualization of breast tissue and has improved sensitivity and specificity as compared to mammography. Our long-term goal is to test the hypothesis that PD obtained from DBT is superior in estimating cancer risk compared with other modalities. As a first step, we have analyzed the PD estimates from DBT source projections since the results would be independent of the reconstruction method. We estimated PD from MLO mammograms (PD M) and from individual DBT projections (PD T). We observed good agreement between PD M and PD T from the central projection images of 40 women. This suggests that variations in breast positioning, dose, and scatter between mammography and DBT do not negatively affect PD estimation. The PD T estimated from individual DBT projections of nine women varied with the angle between the projections. This variation is caused by the 3D arrangement of the breast dense tissue and the acquisition geometry.

  19. Analysis of Observation Data of Earth-Rockfill Dam Based on Cloud Probability Distribution Density Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liwei


    Full Text Available Monitoring data on an earth-rockfill dam constitutes a form of spatial data. Such data include much uncertainty owing to the limitation of measurement information, material parameters, load, geometry size, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the calculation model. So the cloud probability density of the monitoring data must be addressed. In this paper, the cloud theory model was used to address the uncertainty transition between the qualitative concept and the quantitative description. Then an improved algorithm of cloud probability distribution density based on a backward cloud generator was proposed. This was used to effectively convert certain parcels of accurate data into concepts which can be described by proper qualitative linguistic values. Such qualitative description was addressed as cloud numerical characteristics-- {Ex, En, He}, which could represent the characteristics of all cloud drops. The algorithm was then applied to analyze the observation data of a piezometric tube in an earth-rockfill dam. And experiment results proved that the proposed algorithm was feasible, through which, we could reveal the changing regularity of piezometric tube’s water level. And the damage of