Sample records for bulk crustal shortening

  1. Chronology of wrinkle ridge formation and rate of crustal shortening on Lunae Planum, Mars (United States)

    Karagoz, Oguzcan; Aksoy, M. Ersen; Erkeling, Gino


    The Lunae Planum, a plain between the Tharsis Montes and the Acidalia Planitia on Mars, represents a transitional zone from a volcanic rise to a lowland plain, respectively. From West to East at N20°, topography changes from 600 m to -750 m. Here, several wrinkle ridges that are compressional tectonic features formed by folding and thrust faulting [1], mark the surficial deformation of the martian crust. From the analysis of >25 wrinkle ridges in earlier studies a total shortening of ˜1840 m and a compressive strain of 0.29% has been suggested for the Lunae Planum [2]. In this study, we investigate the chronological order of geomorphic structures and determine the timing and duration of the crustal shortening of Lunae Planum. We use remote sensing mapping techniques [3] and crater size-frequency distribution measurements (CSFD) [e.g.,4,5]. In our analyses, we use HRSC (12.5 m/pixel), CTX (6 m/pixel) and HiRISE (0.3 m/pixel) satellite images and digital terrain models to document geomorphic structures such as wrinkles ridges, impact craters, crater ejecta blankets and intermontane plains. Our CSFD measurements of wrinkle ridges reveal an age distribution from 3.9 Ga to 3.0 Ga, with surfaces getting younger towards the East. Our findings are in accordance with earlier observations of greater shortening amounts towards the West (in older ridges) [2]. The age distribution of wrinkle ridges suggests a 9 Ma time interval for the proposed 1840 m horizontal shortening at a deformation rate of 2.04 x 10-3 mm/yr for compressional deformation on the Lunae Planum. [1] Watters, T.R., 2004, Elastic dislocation modeling of wrinkle ridges on Mars, Icarus, 171, 284-294. [2] Plescia, J.B., 1991.Wrinkle ridges in Lunae Planum, Mars: implications for shortening and strain. Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 913-916. [3] Greeley, R. and Guest, J.E., 1987. Geologic map of the eastern equatorial region of Mars. USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map. [4] Hartmann, W. K., and Neukum, G

  2. Evidence of miocene crustal shortening in the North Qilian Shan from cenozoic stratigraphy of the Western Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovet, P.M.; Ritts, B.D.; Gehrels, G.; Abbink, A.O.; Darby, B.; Hourigan, J.


    New sedimentologic, stratigraphie, and compositional data from the Paleogene-Neogene stratigraphie succession exposed in the northwest Hexi Corridor and within the North Qilian Shan, provide evidence to suggest that crustal shortening in the North Qilian Shan fold-thrust belt initiated during die

  3. Espisodic detachment of Martian crustal magnetic fields leading to bulk atmospheric plasma escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain, D A; Baker, A H; Briggs, J; Eastwood, J P; Halekas, J S; Phan, T


    We present an analysis of magnetic field and suprathermal electron measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft that reveals isolated magnetic structures filled with Martian atmospheric plasma located downstream from strong crustal magnetic fields with respect to the flowing solar wind. The structures are characterized by magnetic field enhancements and rotations characteristic of magnetic flux ropes, and characteristic ionospheric electron energy distributions with angular distributions distinct from surrounding regions. These observations indicate that significant amounts of atmosphere are intermittently being carried away from Mars by a bulk removal process: the top portions of crustal field loops are stretched through interaction with the solar wind and detach via magnetic reconnection. This process occurs frequently and may account for as much as 10% of the total present-day ion escape from Mars.

  4. Determining relative bulk viscosity of kilometre-scale crustal units using field observations and numerical modelling (United States)

    Gardner, Robyn L.; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R.


    Though the rheology of kilometre-scale polymineralic rock units is crucial for reliable large-scale, geotectonic models, this information is difficult to obtain. In geotectonic models, a layer is defined as an entity at the kilometre scale, even though it is heterogeneous at the millimetre to metre scale. Here, we use the shape characteristics of the boundaries between rock units to derive the relative bulk viscosity of those units at the kilometre scale. We examine the shape of a vertically oriented ultramafic, harzburgitic-lherzolitic unit, which developed a kilometre-scale pinch and swell structure at mid-crustal conditions ( 600 °C, 8.5 kbar), in the Anita Shear Zone, New Zealand. The ultramafic layer is embedded between a typical polymineralic paragneiss to the west, and a feldspar-quartz-hornblende orthogneiss, to the east. Notably, the boundaries on either side of the ultramafic layer give the ultramafics an asymmetric shape. Microstructural analysis shows that deformation was dominated by dislocation creep (n = 3). Based on the inferred rheological behaviour from the field, a series of numerical simulations are performed. Relative and absolute values are derived for bulk viscosity of the rock units by comparing boundary tortuosity difference measured on the field example and the numerical series. Our analysis shows that during deformation at mid-crustal conditions, paragneisses can be 30 times less viscous than an ultramafic unit, whereas orthogneisses have intermediate viscosity, 3 times greater than the paragneisses. If we assume a strain rate of 10- 14 s- 1 the ultramafic, orthogneiss and paragneiss have syn-deformational viscosities of 3 × 1022, 2.3 × 1021 and 9.4 × 1020 Pa s, respectively. Our study shows pinch and swell structures are useful as a gauge to assess relative bulk viscosity of rock units based on shape characteristics at the kilometre scale and in non-Newtonian flow regimes, even where heterogeneity occurs within the units at the

  5. Early Neogene foreland of the Zagros, implications for the initial closure of the Neo-Tethys and kinematics of crustal shortening (United States)

    Pirouz, Mortaza; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Bahroudi, Abbas


    . Palinspastic restoration of structural cross-sections and crustal volume conservation comprise only ca. 200 km of shortening across the Zagros and metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan belt implying that at least 150 km of the Arabian crust was underthrust beneath Eurasia without contributing to crustal thickening, possibly due to eclogitization.

  6. Upper crustal shortening and forward modeling of the Himalayan thrust belt along the Budhi-Gandaki River, central Nepal (United States)

    Khanal, Subodha; Robinson, Delores M.


    A balanced cross-section along the Budhi-Gandaki River in central Nepal between the Main Central thrust, including displacement on that fault, and the Main Frontal thrust reveals a minimum total shortening of 400 km. Minimum displacement on major orogen-scale structures include 116 km on the Main Central thrust, 110 km on the Ramgarh thrust, 95 km on the Trishuli thrust, and 56 km in the Lesser Himalayan duplex. The balanced cross-section was also incrementally forward modeled assuming a generally forward-breaking sequence of thrusting, where early faults and hanging-wall structures are passively carried from the hinterland toward the foreland. The approximate correspondence of the forward modeled result to observe present day geometries suggest that the section interpretation is viable and admissible. In the balanced cross-section, the Trishuli thrust is the roof thrust for the Lesser Himalayan duplex. The forward model and reconstruction emphasize that the Lesser Himalayan duplex grew by incorporating rock from the footwall and transferring it to the hanging wall along the Main Himalayan thrust. As the duplex developed, the Lesser Himalayan ramp migrated southward. The movement of Lesser Himalayan thrust sheets over the ramp pushed the Lesser Himalayan rock and the overburdens of the Greater and Tibetan Himalayan rock toward the erosional surface. This vertical structural movement caused by footwall collapse and duplexing, in combination with erosion, exhumed the Lesser Himalaya.

  7. Plate convergence, crustal delamination, extrusion tectonics and minimization of shortening work as main controlling factors of the recent Mediterranean deformation pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Babbucci


    Full Text Available It is argued that the time-space distribution of major post middle Miocene deformation events in the Central-Eastern Mediterranean region, deduced from the relevant literature, can be coherently explained as a consequence of the convergence between the Africa/Arabia and Eurasia blocks. This plate convergence has mainly been accommodated by the consumption of the thinnest parts of the Northern African (Ionian and Levantine basins and peri-Adriatic margins. During each evolutionary phase the space distribution of trench zones is controlled by the basic physical requirement of minimizing the work of horizontal forces, induced by plate convergence, against the resisting forces, i.e., the cohesion of the upper brittle crustal layer and the buoyancy forces at the consuming boundaries. The significant changes of tectonic styles which determined the transition from one phase to the next, like those which occurred around the Messinian and the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, were determined by the suture of consuming boundaries. When such an event occurs, the system must activate alternative consuming processes to accommodate the convergence of the major confining blocks. The observed deformations in the study area suggest that this tectonic reorganization mostly developed by the lateral extrusion of crustal wedges away from the sutured borders. This mechanism allowed the translation of maximum horizontal stresses from the locked collisional fronts to the zones where consumable lithosphere was still present, in order to activate the next consuming processes. The extensional episodes which led to the formation of basins and troughs in the Tyrrhenian and Aegean zones are interpreted as secondary effects of the outward escape of crustal wedges, like those which occurred in response to longitudinal compressional regimes in the Apennines and Aegean regions.

  8. On ultrahigh temperature crustal metamorphism: Phase equilibria, trace element thermometry, bulk composition, heat sources, timescales and tectonic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kelsey


    Full Text Available Ultrahigh temperature (UHT metamorphism is the most thermally extreme form of regional crustal metamorphism, with temperatures exceeding 900 °C. UHT crustal metamorphism is recognised in more than 50 localities globally in the metamorphic rock record and is accepted as ‘normal’ in the spectrum of regional crustal processes. UHT metamorphism is typically identified on the basis of diagnostic mineral assemblages such as sapphirine + quartz, orthopyroxene + sillimanite ± quartz and osumilite in Mg–Al-rich rock compositions, now usually coupled with pseudosection-based thermobarometry using internally-consistent thermodynamic data sets and/or Al-in-Orthopyroxene and ternary feldspar thermobarometry. Significant progress in the understanding of regional UHT metamorphism in recent years includes: (1 development of a ferric iron activity–composition thermodynamic model for sapphirine, allowing phase diagram calculations for oxidised rock compositions; (2 quantification of UHT conditions via trace element thermometry, with Zr-in-rutile more commonly recording higher temperatures than Ti-in-zircon. Rutile is likely to be stable at peak UHT conditions whereas zircon may only grow as UHT rocks are cooling. In addition, the extent to which Zr diffuses out of rutile is controlled by chemical communication with zircon; (3 more fully recognising and utilising temperature-dependent thermal properties of the crust, and the possible range of heat sources causing metamorphism in geodynamic modelling studies; (4 recognising that crust partially melted either in a previous event or earlier in a long-duration event has greater capacity than fertile, unmelted crust to achieve UHT conditions due to the heat energy consumed by partial melting reactions; (5 more strongly linking U–Pb geochronological data from zircon and monazite to P–T points or path segments through using Y + REE partitioning between accessory and major phases, as well as phase

  9. Flow of ultra-hot Precambrian orogens and the making of crustal layering in Phanerozoic orogenic plateaux (United States)

    Chardon, Dominique; Gapais, Denis; Cagnard, Florence; Jayananda, Mudlappa; Peucat, Jean-Jacques


    Reassessment of structural / metamorphic properties of ultra-hot Precambrian orogens and shortening of model weak lithospheres support a syn-convergence flow mode on an orogen scale, with a large component of horizontal finite elongation parallel to the orogen. This orogen-scale flow mode combines distributed shortening, gravity-driven flow, lateral escape, and three-dimensional mass redistribution of buried supracrustal rocks, magmas and migmatites in a thick fluid lower crust. This combination preserves a nearly flat surface and Moho. The upper crust maintains a nearly constant thickness by real-time erosion and near-field clastic sedimentation and by ablation at its base by burial of pop-downs into the lower crust. Steady state regime of these orogens is allowed by activation of an attachment layer that maintains kinematic compatibility between the thin and dominantly plastic upper crust and a thick "water bed" of lower crust. Because very thin lithospheres of orogenic plateaux and Precambrian hot orogens have similar thermomechanical structures, bulk orogenic flow comparable to that governing Precambrian hot orogens should actually operate through today's orogenic plateaux as well. Thus, syn-convergence flow fabrics documented on exposed crustal sections of ancient hot orogens that have not undergone collapse may be used to infer the nature of flow fabrics that are imaged by geophysical techniques beneath orogenic plateaux. We provide a detailed geological perspective on syn-convergence crustal flow in relation to magma emplacement and partial melting on a wide oblique crustal transition of the Neoarchean ultra-hot orogen of Southern India. We document sub-horizontal bulk longitudinal flow of the partially molten lower crust over a protracted period of 60 Ma. Bulk flow results from the interplay of (1) pervasive longitudinal transtensional flow of the partially molten crust, (2) longitudinal coaxial flow on flat fabrics in early plutons, (3) distributed, orogen

  10. Crustal permeability (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.


    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  11. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  12. Relation between relief and crustal structure in the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain) using DEM-GIS analysis (United States)

    Llana-Fúnez, Sergio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Ballesteros, Daniel; María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Valenzuela, Pablo; López-Fernández, Carlos; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Meléndez, Mónica; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Fernández-Viejo, Gabriela


    The Cantabrian Mountains show a linear E-W trend parallel to the northern coast of Iberia peninsula, from the Pyrenees to Galicia, where it looses its trend and linearity. The western end of the linear segment of the orogen coincides with a change in the style of structures, accommodating the N-S shortening during the convergence between Europe and Iberia plates. We study the relief of the 230 km-long segment of the linear range between the Cantabria and Galicia re- gions, up to 2,650 m altitude. The bulk trend of the orogeny is controlled by the orientation of alpine thrusts that accommodate the shortening in relation to plate convergence. The Alpine Orogeny produced crustal thickening and the present day topography. Crustal thickness varies from 30 km in Eastern Cantabrian Mountains to 45-55 km at the Middle part of these mountains. The collision between European and African plates localized in northern Iberia from the Eocene to Oligocene and later migrated to southern Iberia during the Miocene. No major tectonic convergence was accommodated in the Cantabrians Mountains since the Oligocene, entering the orogen an erosional phase since then. The GIS-analysis present here, using 5 and 25 m-resolution DEMs by the Spanish National Geographical Institute, aims to identify the major features and to characterize the overall relief of the Cantabrians Mountains. In our preliminary approach, we present swath profiles, major river basins, watershed, longitudinal profiles of major rivers and hypsometric curves from selected areas that cover the studied orogen segment. Major tectonic structures control the location and orientation of the main watershed of the mountain range, but also the orientation of some local watersheds, e.g. associated to the Llanera thrust or the Ventaniella (strike-slip) fault. An unexpected result is that the average altitude along the water divide is 1,500 m, regardless of the large differences in crustal thickness along the study area. Most

  13. Crustal structure of a Proterozoic craton boundary: east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, imaged with passive seismic and gravity anomaly data (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Brisbout, Lucy; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Murdie, Ruth


    We use passive seismic and gravity data to characterize the crustal structure and the crust-mantle boundary of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen in Western Australia, a Proterozoic orogen that reworked the southern and southeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. The crustal thickness pattern retrieved from receiver functions shows a belt of substantially thickened crust - about 10 km thicker than the surrounding regions - that follows the trend of the orogen, but narrows to the southwest. Common conversion point profiles show a clear transition from a wide, symmetric Moho trough in the northeast to a one-sided, north-western Moho dip in the southwest, where the Moho appears to underthrust the craton towards its interior. The change from a Moho trough to an underthrust Moho appears to coincide with the inferred trace of the Ida Fault, a major terrane boundary within the Yilgarn Craton. Bulk crustal vp/vs ratios are mostly in the felsic to intermediate range, with clearly elevated values (≥1.8) at stations in the Fraser Zone granulite facies, dominantly mafic metamorphic rocks. Forward modelling of gravity anomaly data using the retrieved Moho geometry as a geometric constraint shows that a conspicuous, elongated gravity low on the northwestern side of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen is almost certainly caused by thickened Archean crust. To obtain a model that resembles the regional gravity pattern the following assumptions are necessary: high-density rocks occur in the upper crustal portion of the Fraser Zone, at depth inside the Moho trough and in parts of the eastern Nornalup Zone east of the Moho trough. Although our gravity models do not constrain at which crustal level these high-density rocks occur, active deep seismic surveys suggest that large extents of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen's lower crust include a Mesoproterozoic magmatic underplate known as the Gunnadorrah Seismic Province. The simplest interpretation of the imaged crustal structure is that

  14. Bone shortening of clavicular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsmark, A. H.; Muhareb Udby, P.; Ban, I.


    Background: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim...... of this study was to investigate if three commonly scientifically used measurement methods were interchangeable to each other. Methods: A retrospective study using radiographs collected as part of a previous study on clavicular fractures. Two independent raters measured clavicle shortening on 60 patients using......, Weir's protocol for Standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman plots. Results: None of the methods were directly interchangeable. The side difference method by Lazarides et al. was the most reliable of the three methods, but had a high proportion of post-fracture...

  15. Crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles (United States)

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.


    More than 36,000 km of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles have been collected in China since 1958. However, the results of these profiles are not well known in the West due to the language barrier. In this paper, we summarize the crustal structure of China with a new contour map of crustal thickness, nine representative crustal columns, and maps showing profile locations, average crustal velocity, and Pn velocity. The most remarkable aspect of the crustal structure of China is the well known 70+ km thickness of the crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The thick (45-70 km) crust of western China is separated from the thinner (30-45 km) crust of eastern China by the north-south trending seismic belt (105??E). The average crustal velocity of China ranges from 6.15 to 6.45 km/s, indicating a felsic-to-intermediate bulk crustal composition. Upper mantle (Pn) velocities are 8.0 ?? 0.2 km/s, equal to the global continental average. We interpret these results in terms of the most recent thermo-tectonic events that have modified the crust. In much of eastern China, Cenoxoic crustal extension has produced a thin crust with a low average crustal velocity, similar to western Europe and the Basin and Range Province, western USA. In western China, Mesozoic and Cenoxoic arc-continent and continent-continent collisions have led to crustal growth and thickening. Inferences on the process of crustal thickening are provided by the deep crustal velocity structure as determined by DSS profiles and other seismological studies. A high velocity (7.0-7.4 km/s) lower-crustal layer has been reported in western China only beneath the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. We identity this high-velocity layer as the cold lower crust of the subducting Indian plate. As the Indian crust is injected northward into the Tibetan lower crust, it heats and assimilates by partial melting, a process that results in a reduction in the seismic velocity of the lower crust in the central and northern Tibetan Plateau

  16. T2 shortening in childhood moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, J. [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260 (Japan); Sugita, K. [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260 (Japan); Tanabe, Y. [Division of Neurology, Chiba Children`s Hospital, 579-1 Heta, Midori-ku, Chiba-shi 266 (Japan); Ito, C. [Division of Neurosurgery, Chiba Children`s Hospital, 579-1 Heta, Midori-ku, Chiba-shi 266 (Japan); Date, H. [Division of Neurosurgery, Chiba Children`s Hospital, 579-1 Heta, Midori-ku, Chiba-shi 266 (Japan); Niimi, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260 (Japan)


    We examined T2 shortening in six children with infarcts due to moyamoya disease to clarify whether there are characteristic patterns of T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter. Profound T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter was observed in the acute stage of infarct in two cases, which changed to high intensity in the chronic stage; in this stage no T2 shortening was demonstrated in any case. Neither haemorrhagic infarction nor calcification was seen on CT or MRI. There could be longitudinally different T2 shortening patterns between infarcts due to moyamoya disease and other disorders. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: Crustal-scale Grenville subdivisions (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.


    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  18. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau. (United States)

    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.


    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  19. Lunar Crustal Stratigraphy (United States)

    McCallum, I. S.; O'Brien, H. E.


    Intense bombardment during the first 600 Ma of lunar history has rendered the task of reconstructing the stratigraphy of the lunar crust especially difficult. On a planetary scale, the distribution of lithologies around multi-ringed basins coupled with orbital geochemical data reveal that the lunar crust is heterogeneous both laterally and vertically. Ejecta from the large multi-ringed basins is exclusively of crustal origin since twenty five years of lunar sample study have failed to identify any unequivocal mantle samples. Given the most recent determination of crustal thickness, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of around 60 km. In the younger multi-ringed basins (Orientale and Imbrium), the occurrence of anorthosites in inner rings is consistent with an anorthositic upper crust (Al2O3 = 26-28 wt.%). On the other hand, basin impact melts, most notably the low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) composition associated with the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins, are distinctly more mafic with a composition corresponding to norite (Al2O3 ~ 20 wt.%). Cratering models suggest that such melts are generated at the lower to middle crustal depths (30 to 60 km). The paucity of unequivocal deep-seated crystalline plutonic rocks is also consistent with cratering models which suggest that unmelted rock fragments in ejecta blankets are most likely derived from the upper part of the crust. Consequently, the possibility exists that no crystalline lunar samples from deeper that ~30 km are present in the returned sample collection.

  20. Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning System measurements (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Genrich, J. F.; Stevens, C. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Subarya, C.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Calais, E.


    We present the crustal motion velocity field for the Indonesian archipelago based on Global Positioning System (GPS) field surveys conducted from 1991 to 1997, and 2001, totaling more than 150 sites, as well as on a reanalysis of global tracking data in the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center archive from 1991 to 2001 in International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000. We compute poles of rotation for the Australia, Eurasia, and Pacific plates based on our analysis of the global GPS data. We find that regional tectonics is dominated by the interaction of four discrete, rotating blocks spanning significant areas of the Sunda Shelf, the South Banda arc, the Bird's Head region of New Guinea, and East Sulawesi. The largest, the Sunda Shelf block (SSH), is estimated to be moving 6 ± 3 mm/yr SE relative to Eurasia. The South Banda block (SBB) rotates clockwise relative to both the SSH and Australia plate, resulting in 15 ± 8 mm/yr of motion across the Timor trough and 60 ± 3 mm/yr of shortening across the Flores Sea. Southern New Guinea forms part of the Australia plate from which the Bird's Head block (BHB) moves rapidly WSW, subducting beneath the Seram trough. The East Sulawesi block rotates clockwise about a nearby axis with respect to the Sunda Shelf, thereby transferring east-west shortening between the Pacific and Eurasia plates into north-south shortening across the North Sulawesi trench. Except for the Sunda Shelf, the crustal blocks are all experiencing significant internal deformation. In this respect, crustal motion in those regions does not fit the microplate tectonics model.

  1. Rice bran oil an alternate bakery shortening. (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Jassal, Vishaldeep; Thind, S S; Aggarwal, Poonam


    Studies were carried out to replace bakery shortening with refined rice bran oil in bread preparation. Physico-chemical properties of bakery shortening and rice bran oil were studied. Rice bran oil was found to have a higher content of essential fatty acid linoleic acid (34.98%) as compared to that of bakery shortening (5.14%). Chemical composition of wheat flour used was also evaluation. Bread samples were prepared by replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Breads were examined for bread making quality i.e. loaf weight, loaf height, loaf volume and specific volume and organoleptic quality i.e. appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability on a 9 point hedonic scale. Statistical analysis regarding bread making quality and organoleptic quality of bread revealed that bread making and organoleptic quality of breads prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level varied significantly from that of control. Statistically significant variations were observed in the texture of breads prepared with shortening from that prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level.

  2. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf


    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  3. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation. (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Ai, Zi Sheng; Shao, Jin; Yang, Tieyi


    The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures. Eighty-six patients with femoral neck fractures were treated using three parallel cannulated screws between May 2004 and January 2011. The shortening of the femoral neck in the horizontal (X), vertical (Y), and along the resultant along the (Z) vector (X➝, Y➝, Z➝) was measured on anteroposterior radiographs corrected by screw diameter and analyzed using TraumaCad software. Age, gender, Garden classification, Garden's alignment index, Pauwels angle, Singh index, body mass index and weight-bearing time were also analyzed. Follow-up duration was 8 to 36 months. Significant femoral neck shortening of the abductor lever arm (greater than 5 mm) was present in 33 of 86 (38.4%) patients. Average Harris score (HSS) was 90.05 ± 7.04 (range: 71 to 100). The 5 predictors for shortening greater than 5 mm in the multivariate logistic regression model were age, Singh index, Pauwels classification, Garden's alignment index and body mass index. Femoral neck shortening associated with three parallel cannulated screws for fixation of femoral neck fractures is a common phenomenon. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation is affected by multiple cofactors.

  4. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka


    .... However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases...

  5. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence: e0140189

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryusaku Matsumoto; Hidenori Fukuoka; Genzo Iguchi; Yukiko Odake; Kenichi Yoshida; Hironori Bando; Kentaro Suda; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Michiko Takahashi; Shozo Yamada; Wataru Ogawa; Yutaka Takahashi


    .... However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases...

  6. A Shortened versus Standard Matched Postpartum Magnesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulphate is currently the most ideal drug for the treatment of eclampsia but its use in Nigeria is still limited due its cost and clinicians inexperience with the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a shortened postpartum course of magnesium sulphate is as effective as the standard Pritchard ...

  7. The nature of crustal reflectivity at the southwest Iberian margin (United States)

    Buffett, G. G.; Torne, M.; Carbonell, R.; Melchiorre, M.; Vergés, J.; Fernàndez, M.


    Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired over the northern margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian margin) places new constraints on the upper crustal structure of the Guadalquivir-Portimão Bank. The data presented have been processed with optimized stacking and interval velocity models, a better approach to multiple attenuation, preserved amplitude information to derive the nature of seismic reflectivity, and accurate time-to-depth conversion after migration. The reprocessed data reveal a bright upper crustal reflector just underneath the Paleozoic basement that spatially coincides with the local positive free-air gravity high called the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High. To investigate the nature of this reflector and to decipher whether it could be associated with pieces of mantle material emplaced at upper crustal levels, we calculated its reflection coefficient and compared it to a buried high-density ultramafic body (serpentinized peridotite) at the Gorringe Bank. Its reflection coefficient ratio with respect to the sea floor differs by only 4.6% with that calculated for the high-density ultramafic body of the Gorringe Bank, while it differs by 35.8% compared to a drilled Miocene limestone unconformity. This means that the Gulf of Cádiz reflector has a velocity and/or density contrast similar to the peridotite at the Gorringe Bank. However, considering the depth at which it is found (between 2.0 and 4.0 km) and the available geological information, it seems unlikely that the estimated shortening from the Oligocene to present is sufficient to emplace pieces of mantle material at these shallow levels. Therefore, and despite the similarity in its reflection coefficient with the peridotites of the Gorringe Bank, our preferred interpretation is that the upper crustal Gulf of Cádiz reflector represents the seismic response of high-density intracrustal magmatic intrusions that may partially contribute to the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High.

  8. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  9. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.


    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mo...

  10. Evaluating Crustal Contamination Effects on the Lithophile Trace Element Budget of Shergottites (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Ferdous, J.; Peslier, A. H.


    The origin of the incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched compositions of shergottites has been a point of contention for decades [1-2]. Two scenarios have been proposed, the first is that enriched shergottite compositions reflect an ITE-enriched mantle source, whereas in the second, the ITE enrichment reflects crustal contamination of mantle-derived parent magmas. Evidence supporting the first scenario is that the ITE-enriched shergottite compositions are consistent with the outcomes of magma ocean crystallization [3], and that Os-Nd isotope relationships for shergottites cannot be explained by realistic crustal contamination models [4]. In contrast, Cl and S isotopes are consistent with shergottite magmas interacting with Mars crust [5,6], and ITE-enriched olivine-hosted melt inclusions and interstitial glass are found in depleted shergottite Yamato 980459 [7]. These findings indicate that some level of crustal interaction occurred but the question of whether ITE-enrichments in some bulk shergottites reflect crustal contamination remains open. Recently, a Mars crustal breccia meteorite has been found, NWA 7034 and its paired stones, that is our best analogue to an average of Mars ancient crust [8-10]. This allows for better constraints on crustal contamination of shergottite magmas. We modeled magma-crust mixing and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) using ITE-depleted shergottite compositions and bulk NWA 7034 and its clasts as end-members. The results of these models indicate that crustal contamination can only explain the ITE-enriched compositions of some bulk shergottites under unusual circumstances. It is thus likely that the shergottite range of compositions reflects primarily mantle sources.

  11. Crustal architecture beneath the Tibet-Ordos transition zone, NE Tibet, and the implications for plateau expansion (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Gao, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui; Keller, G. R.; Xu, Xiao; Li, Hongqiang; Encarnacion, John


    Most previous studies of the Tibetan Plateau have focused on the processes of crustal thickening and subsequent outward growth. However, lithospheric structure across the tectonic boundaries of the plateau has not yet been fully imaged, and therefore, how geological structures evolved in association with the lateral expansion of the margins remains unclear. Here together with interpretation of regional aeromagnetic anomalies, we employ a recently acquired 165 km long deep seismic reflection image that crosses the northeastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau. The resulting crustal "architecture" suggests that crustal shortening is a primary driver for plateau uplift of northeastern Tibet and that the Xiaoguan Shan to the east of the Liupan Shan belt marks the easternmost edge of the strata that has been affected by the northeastward growth of the plateau. In addition, decoupled crustal deformation owing to differential structural integrity has been accommodated during the subsequent northeastward growth of the plateau.

  12. Shortening Scarf osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus. Does shortening affect the outcome? (United States)

    Karpe, Prasad; Killen, Marie C; Pollock, Raymond D; Limaye, Rajiv


    Translation and shortening of Scarf osteotomy allows correction of severe hallux valgus deformity. Shortening may result in transfer metatarsalgia. To evaluate outcome of patients undergoing shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Fifteen patients (20feet, mean age 58 years) underwent shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Outcomes were pre and postoperative AOFAS scores, IM and HV angles, patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 25 months (range 22-30). The IM angle improved from a median of 18.60 (range 13.4-26.20) preoperatively to 9.70 (range 8.0-13.70) postoperatively (8.9; 95% CI=7.6-10.3; phallux valgus deformities with no transfer metatarsalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on flagellar shortening in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherniack, J.


    Flagellar shortening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was promoted by sodium chloride, pyrophosphate (sodium, potassium and ammonium salts), EDTA and EGTA, succinate, citrate and oxalate (sodium salts), caffeine and aminophylline. Removal of calcium from the medium potentiated the effects of these agents in inducing shortening. Investigations of the release of phosphorylated compounds to the medium during pyrophosphate-induced flagellar shortening of cells pre-labelled with /sup 32/P, revealed an as yet unidentified /sup 32/P-labelled compound with distinct chromatographic properties. Chromatography and electrophoresis indicates that it is a small, highly polar molecule with a high charge to mass ratio, containing thermo- and acid-labile phosphate linkages. Investigations showed of the release of /sup 35/S-labelled protein to the medium from cells pre-labelled with /sup 35/S-sulfate showed that flagellated cells released two prominent polypeptides which comigrated with ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-flagellar tubulin on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, while deflagellated cells did not.

  14. Contemporary crustal movement of southeastern Tibet: Constraints from dense GPS measurements (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjin; Shen, Wen-Bin


    The ongoing collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate brings up N-S crustal shortening and thickening of the Tibet Plateau, but its dynamic mechanisms remain controversial yet. As one of the most tectonically active regions of the world, South-Eastern Tibet (SET) has been greatly paid attention to by many geoscientists. Here we present the latest three-dimensional GPS velocity field to constrain the present-day tectonic process of SET, which may highlight the complex vertical crustal deformation. Improved data processing strategies are adopted to enhance the strain patterns throughout SET. The crustal uplifting and subsidence are dominated by regional deep tectonic dynamic processes. Results show that the Gongga Shan is uplifting with 1-1.5 mm/yr. Nevertheless, an anomalous crustal uplifting of ~8.7 mm/yr and negative horizontal dilation rates of 40-50 nstrain/yr throughout the Longmenshan structure reveal that this structure is caused by the intracontinental subduction of the Yangtze Craton. The Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault is a major active sinistral strike-slip fault which strikes essentially and consistently with the maximum shear strain rates. These observations suggest that the upper crustal deformation is closely related with the regulation and coupling of deep material.

  15. Shortening-induced force depression in human adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, C J; De Haan, A; Jones, D A; Sargeant, A J


    1. The effects of single isovelocity shortening contractions on force production of the electrically stimulated human adductor pollicis muscle were investigated in seven healthy male subjects. 2. Redeveloped isometric force immediately following isovelocity shortening was always depressed compared

  16. Shortening induced force depression in human adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; de Haan, A.; Jones, D.A.; Sargeant, A.J.


    1. The effects of single isovelocity shortening contractions on force production of the electrically stimulated human adductor pollicis muscle were investigated in seven healthy male subjects. 2. Redeveloped isometric force immediately following isovelocity shortening was always depressed compared

  17. Renal failure induces telomere shortening in the rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, L. S.; Windt, W. A.; Roks, A. J.; van Dokkum, R. P.; Schoemaker, R. G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Henning, R. H.

    Background. Renal failure aggravates pathological cardiac remodelling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling is associated with telomere shortening, a marker for biological ageing. We investigated whether mild and severe renal failure shorten cardiac telomeres and excessively

  18. Crustal structure of Central Sicily (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo


    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  19. Early Miocene shortening in the lower Comondú Group in Baja California Sur (México) (United States)

    Bonini, Marco; Cerca, Mariano; Moratti, Giovanna; López-Martínez, Margarita; Corti, Giacomo; Gracia-Marroquín, Diego


    The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene volcaniclastic deposits of Baja California Sur form most of the exposed western margin of the Gulf of California rift. In some places these deposits, collectively referred to as Comondú Group, show complex deformation patterns given by the coexistence of tectonic and gravitational features. The area north of La Paz is characterized by the occurrence of several slump bodies, which are displaced by normal faults connected with the rift opening. In some places we have identified 100's m scale thrust-related folds and reverse faults that we have interpreted as shortening features. The latter displace the slump layers and are offset by the normal faults. If confirmed, this would represent the first report of a shortening event in the Early Miocene volcaniclastic deposits of Baja California Sur. The observed shortening has modest magnitude (ca 3-5% bulk shortening), and has been detected in a sector extending over 100 km north from La Paz. New 40Ar-39*Ar ages, integrated with existing radiometric age datasets, constrain the timing of this shortening episode. The rocks affected by shortening have ages between 24 and 21 Ma, and are capped by undeformed volcanic rocks with ages spanning between 19.4 and 17.2 Ma. These relationships define an intra-Early Miocene unconformity, which we interpret to be related to the shortening deformation. The available timing constraints allow us to infer that a main ENE-to-ESE-trending shortening was short-lived, possibly ca. 19.4-21 Ma. The account of this shortening event may shed some light on the complex subduction and microplate processes that preceded the continental rifting of the Gulf of California.

  20. Crustal Deformation In Northeastern Italy. (United States)

    Zerbini, S.; Romagnoli, C.; Richter, B.; Lago, L.; Domenichini, F.; Simon, D.

    Four permanent GPS stations have been installed in northeastern Italy starting mid 1996. Three stations: Bologna, Medicina and Porto Corsini are located in the south- eastern Po Plain, while the fourth one was set up in the Trieste harbor. The network was installed to monitor vertical crustal movements at tide gauge sites and in sub- siding areas of the Po Plain. At Medicina, since October 1996, it is also operative a superconducting gravimeter periodically controlled by means of absolute gravity mea- surements. The stations, which are distributed around the northern edge of the Adria plate, provide information on vertical and horizontal displacements related to crustal deformation. The temporal behavior of the Adria plate, in response to the convergence of the surrounding regions, has been presumably more complex than a simple horizon- tal displacement and, most likely, involved flexural bending processes. The GPS and the continuous gravity data have been analyzed and interpreted to estimate vertical and horizontal rates at the four sites. The presence of relevant seasonal signals has been identified in the series of station coordinates as well as in the gravity data. These fluc- tuations, if not accounted for, may corrupt the high precision estimate of the long-term trends.

  1. Crustal structure of western Hispaniola (Haiti) from a teleseismic receiver function study (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Guerrier, K.; Keir, D.; Stuart, G.; Clouard, V.; Gallacher, R.; Ulysse, S.; Boisson, D.; Bien-aimé Momplaisir, R.; Saint Preux, F.; Prépetit, C.; Saurel, J.-M.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Meyer, B.


    Haiti, located at the northern Caribbean plate boundary, records a geological history of terrane accretion from Cretaceous island arc formations to the Eocene to Recent oblique collision with the Bahamas platform. Little is presently known about the underlying crustal structure of the island. We analyze P-waveforms arriving at 27 temporary broadband seismic stations deployed over a distance of 200 km across the major terrane boundaries in Haiti to determine the crustal structure of western Hispaniola. We compute teleseismic receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multi-Taper method and determine crustal thickness and bulk composition (Vp/Vs) using the H-k stacking method. Three distinctive and fault-bounded crustal domains, defined by their characteristic Moho depth distributions and bulk crustal Vp/Vs, are imaged across Haiti. We relate these domains to three crustal terranes that have been accreted along the plate boundary during the northeastwards displacement of the Caribbean plate and are presently being deformed in a localized fold and thrust belt. In the northern domain, made up of volcanic arc facies, the crust has a thickness of 23 km and Vp/Vs of 1.75 ± 0.1 typical of average continental crust. The crust in the southern domain is part of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (Caribbean LIP), and is 22 km thick with Vp/Vs of 1.80 ± 0.03 consistent with plume-related rocks of late Cretaceous age. Significantly thicker, the crust in central Haiti has values of Moho depths averaging 41 km and with Vp/Vs of 1.80 ± 0.05. We propose that the central domain is likely constructed of an island arc upper crust with fragments of dense material originating from mafic lavas or LIP material. We produce a crustal profile along a N-S transect across Haiti accounting for the surface geology, shallow structural history, and new seismological constraints provided by variations of crustal thickness and bulk composition.

  2. Implications of Quaternary volcanism at Cerro Tuzgle for crustal and mantle evolution of the Puna Plateau, Central Andes, Argentina (United States)

    Coira, Beatriz; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg


    element arguments indicate that the bulk contaminant was more silicic than the Tuzgle ignimbrite and left a residue with a high pressure mineralogy. Crustal shortening processes transported upper crustal contaminants to depths where melting occurred. These contaminants mixed with mafic magmas that were fractionating mafic phases at high pressure. Silicic melts formed at depth by these processes accumulated at a mid to upper crustal discontinuity (decollement). The Tuzgle ignimbrite erupted from this level when melting rates were highest. Subsequent lavas are mixtures of contaminated mafic magmas and ponded silicic melts. Feldspar and quartz phenocrysts in the lavas are phenocrysts from the ponded silicic magmas.

  3. Crustal rheology of the Himalaya and Southern Tibet inferred from magnetotelluric data (United States)

    Unsworth, M. J.; Jones, A. G.; Wei, W.; Marquis, G.; Gokarn, S. G.; Spratt, J. E.; Bedrosian, Paul; Booker, John; Leshou, Chen; Clarke, Greg; Shenghui, Li; Chanhong, Lin; Ming, Deng; Sheng, Jin; Solon, Kurt; Handong, Tan; Ledo, Juanjo; Roberts, Brian


    The Cenozoic collision between the Indian and Asian continents formed the Tibetan plateau, beginning about 70million years ago. Since this time, at least 1,400km of convergence has been accommodated by a combination of underthrusting of Indian and Asian lithosphere, crustal shortening, horizontal extrusion and lithospheric delamination. Rocks exposed in the Himalaya show evidence of crustal melting and are thought to have been exhumed by rapid erosion and climatically forced crustal flow. Magnetotelluric data can be used to image subsurface electrical resistivity, a parameter sensitive to the presence of interconnected fluids in the host rock matrix, even at low volume fractions. Here we present magnetotelluric data from the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen from 77°E to 92°E, which show that low resistivity, interpreted as a partially molten layer, is present along at least 1,000km of the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The inferred low viscosity of this layer is consistent with the development of climatically forced crustal flow in Southern Tibet.

  4. New images of the crustal structure beneath eastern Tibet from a high-density seismic array (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Tian, Xiaobo; Gao, Rui; Wang, Gaochun; Wu, Zhenbo; Zhou, Beibei; Tan, Ping; Nie, Shitan; Yu, Guiping; Zhu, Gaohua; Xu, Xiao


    An east-west trending, high-density seismic array was deployed along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau to investigate its eastward expansion. The 160 km long array spans the Ruoergai basin, Minjiang fault, Minshan Mountains, Tazang fault, and West Qinling. The array included 330 short-period seismographs spaced at 500 m intervals, which recorded teleseismic 3-component waveforms over a one month period. P-wave receiver functions calculated from 35 teleseismic events provided an image of crustal structure. The results show a massive thrust nappe structure around the Minshan Mountains and beneath the Minjiang fault. We suggest that this nappe formed after the closure of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean. The resultant Triassic thrusting contributed to partial uplift of the eastern Ruoergai basin and the Minshan Mountains in middle-to-late Miocene time. Receiver function images show that the Tazang fault is a crustal-scale rupture cutting across the Moho. The western Tazang fault appears as a nearly vertical strike-slip fault accommodating left lateral shear at the terminus of the eastern Kunlun fault. After clockwise rotation from an approximate east-west orientation to a nearly north-south orientation, the eastern Tazang fault became a west-dipping thrust fault, which caused crustal thickening beneath the Minshan Mountains and the West Qinling. Our results suggest that late Cenozoic uplift of the eastern margin of the plateau is produced by eastward overthrusting and crustal shortening, processes that absorbed slip along the Tazang and Kunlun faults.

  5. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  6. Structural evolution of a composite middle to lower crustal section: The Sierra de Pie de Palo, northwest Argentina (United States)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Roeske, S. M.; McClelland, W. C.; Jourdan, F.; Iriondo, A.; Renne, P. R.; Vervoort, J. D.; Vujovich, G. I.


    The Sierra de Pie de Palo of northwest Argentina preserves middle to lower crustal metamorphic rocks that were penetratively deformed during Ordovician accretion of the Precordillera terrane to the Gondwana margin. New structural, petrologic, and geochronologic data from a 40 km structural transect reveals that the Sierra de Pie de Palo preserves a middle to lower crustal ductile thrust complex consisting of individual structural units and not an intact ophiolite and cover sequence. Top-to-the-west thrusting occurred intermittently on discrete ductile shear zones from ˜515 to ˜417 Ma and generally propagated toward the foreland with progressive deformation. Ordovician crustal shortening and peak metamorphic temperatures in the central portion of the Sierra de Pie de Palo were synchronous with retro-arc shortening and magmatic flare-up within the Famatina arc. Accretion of the Precordillera terrane resulted in the end of arc flare-up and the onset of synconvergent extension by ˜439 Ma. Continued synextensional to postextensional convergence was accommodated along progressively lower grade shear zones following terrane accretion and the establishment of a new plate margin west of the Precordillera terrane. The results support models of Cordilleran orogens that link voluminous arc magmatism to periods of regional shortening. The deformation, metamorphic, and magmatic history within the Sierra de Pie de Palo is consistent with models placing the region adjacent to the Famatina margin in the middle Cambrian and not as basement to the Precordillera terrane.

  7. Three-dimensional crustal deformations and strain field features constrained by dense GPS measurements in Northeastern Tibet (United States)

    Zhang, Tengxu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Pan, Yuanjin


    The ongoing collision between the India plate and Eurasia plate brings N-S crustal shortening and thickening of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, using measurements from 40 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) we determine the latest three-dimensional crustal deformations in the NET region, and based on the Principal component analysis (PCA) technique we calculate and correct the common mode errors (CME). We also use GRACE observations to determine the deformations caused by surface pressure, non-tidal oceanic mass loading and hydrological loading. We find both GPS and GRACE observations show significant seasonal variation, and the observed seasonal vertical variation exhibits a good agreement with GRACE. The annual peak-to-peak amplitudes are between 3 and 40 mm/yr. The corrected vertical crustal deformation indicate that both the crustal uplift and subsidence are anisotropic in NET, and that the maximum uplift rate in the Longmen Shan fault reach 9.5mm/yr. We further use the horizontal velocity to calculate the strain rates throughout the NET. The result indicates that the shear band maintains feature consistent with the strike-slip fault along the Longmen Shan fault and Haiyuan fault. The crustal compression and extension can describe the uplifting and sinking of the crustal in a reasonable way. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733302) and NSFCs (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Spatial Information and Geomatics (Grant No.1103108-12); Open Fund of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Spatial Information and Geomatics (Grant Nos. 15-140-07-32 and 14-045-24-17). Keywords: Continuous GPS observation; GRACE observation; principal component analysis; common mode error; crustal vertical deformation; strain rates

  8. Recent crustal movement and great earthquakes in Qinghai-Tibet sub-plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Liangqian


    Full Text Available Crustal movement and incremental-movement data observed repeatedly at GPS stations during 1999–2009 were analyzed to study the effect of two earthquakes of Ms8.1 and Ms8.0 that occurred in 2001 and 2008, respectively, in Qinghai-Tibet sub-plate and its eastern margin. The result revealed certain anomalous pre-earthquake deformation and some large co-seismic changes. Prior to the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, the seismogenic Kunlunshan fault zone became a geographic boundary between different regional movements. At the time of the earthquake, there was an average cross-fault crustal shortening of −1.04 m and an average right-lateral strike slip of 0.76 m along the ruptured segment, as well as a strain-energy release of −62. 66 × 10.7.

  9. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  10. Ethanol Induced Shortening of DNA in Nanochannels (United States)

    Gemmen, Greg; Reisner, Walter; Tegenfeldt, Jonas; Linke, Heiner


    The confinement of DNA in nanochannels has greatly facilitated the study of DNA polymer physics and holds promise as a powerful tool for genomic sequencing. Ethanol precipitation of DNA is a common tool in molecular biology, typically in >70% [EtOH]. Even at lower ethanol concentrations, however, DNA transforms from B-form to A-form, a shorter yet slightly less twisted conformation. Accordingly, we isolated individual YOYO-1 labeled λ-DNA molecules in 100nmx100nm channels in 0, 20, 40 and 60% [EtOH]. We observed a dramatic shortening in the mean measured lengths with increasing [EtOH] and a broadening of the distribution of measured lengths at the intermediate concentrations. These observed lengths are less than those expected from fully A-form λ-DNA, suggesting that poor solvency effects are involved. Also, substantial spatial variations in intensity in a small number of molecules at the higher [EtOH] suggest the presence of higher order DNA conformations, in accord with the observation that the effective persistence length of DNA has been greatly reduced.

  11. On the undetected error probability for shortened Hamming codes (United States)

    Fujiwara, T.; Kasami, T.; Kitai, A.; Lin, S.


    Shortened Hamming codes are widely used for error detection in data communications. In this paper, a method for computing the probability of an undetected error for these codes is presented. This method is then used to evaluate the error-detection performance of the shortened codes obtained from the two distance-four Hamming codes adopted by CCITT X.25 for error control for packet-switched networks. It is shown that shortening a code does affect its error-detection performance.

  12. Ulnar shortening osteotomy with a new sliding-hole plate. (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Löw, Steffen; Krimmer, Hermann


    Ulnar shortening osteotomy represents a common procedure for surgical treatment of the ulnar impaction syndrome but is still associated with complications like malrotation, angulation, or malunion because of incomplete closure of the osteotomy gap. Therefore, the authors developed a special 7-hole compression plate that allows fixation of the ulna before the osteotomy is carried out to prevent rotation. With this plate, a shortening of up to 10 mm is possible and the compression holes allow closure of the osteotomy gap. The plate has been used in 23 ulnar shortening cases at their center with good results. The authors describe the technique and report their results of ulnar shortening with this device.

  13. Matrix effects on the crystallization behaviour of butter and roll-in shortening in laminated bakery products. (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G


    Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own. Both hydrogenated roll-in shortenings and butter experienced only minor changes, largely retaining their β' polymorphs, but the non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant conversion from β' to the β form. However, this conversion did not take place immediately upon cooling, but after approximately 24h of storage time. The fat contained within the croissants exhibited a significantly lower SFC than the same fats in bulk. Further, DSC results demonstrated that a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat in a croissant than the same fat in bulk, observed visually as broader peaks in the melting endotherms. Analysis of croissant firmness over storage time, measured as the maximum force required to cut a croissant was used as an indication of potential sensory consequences. Results suggested that only croissants prepared with non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant changes in firmness over one week of storage. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the shortenings and the ingredients of the croissant matrix, and given the differences observed between roll-in fats used, the extent of interaction is potentially influenced by the composition of the roll-in fat itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analogue Models of Polyphase Deformation Around a Built-in Thicker Crustal Block. (United States)

    Cerca, M.; Ferrari, L.; Bonini, M.; Corti, G.


    Analogue models of polyphase convergence involving crustal differences in strength and density give insights on lateral and vertical strain propagation during the Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary in southern Mexico. Analogue models reproduced a two-phase deformation characterised by a first stage of east directed compression (11 %\\ bulk shortening; b.s.), followed by a second stage of left-lateral transpression directed N 15° E (17 %\\ b. s.). Models were designed to simulate two-layer vertical rheology, a brittle upper crust and a lower ductile crust (silicon+sand) with a thicker built-in parallelepiped-shaped block in the upper crust. Maintaining this basic array, we varied the structure of the rigid block using sand or plastic clay, as well as its position (adjacent or separated from a moving wall in the second deformation phase). In all models, similar structures formed around the block: (1) a north-south striking fold-and-thrust belt produced in the first phase, which distance of propagation decreases where the block is present; (2) a main left-lateral transpressive structure in the second phase; (3) counter clockwise rotations and refolding of the first phase structures in the western side of the block; (4) a fold-and-thrust belt paralleling the geometry of the block in front of its north and eastern sides and; (5) vertical upheaval of the block. In the case of the models with the block separated from the moving wall, the transpression was concentrated in the boundary of the block with the adjacent crust and exhumation of the lower crust was observed south of this limit. Models were compared with the deformation observed around the Mixteco-Oaxaca Block (MOB) of southern Mexico. Most structures were reproduced by the models, but structures observed in nature within the MOB were not accurately reproduced. This is likely due to the action of pre-existing structures that influenced the deformation. The similarity of the modeled structures and natural prototype

  15. Crustal Thickness and Structure in Southern Chile: Patagonia plate assembly structures and continental arc modifications (United States)

    Rodriguez, E. E.; Russo, R. M.


    expected velocity discontinuity at the Moho by juxtaposing crustal blocks of different thicknesses. We also observe an extensive, undulating mid-crustal converter between 12-20 km depth. Peaks and troughs of this surface strike E-W, implying that the surface may have formed during N-S crustal shortening. If so, this surface likely formed during Paleozoic assembly of Patagonia.

  16. Active tectonics and drainage evolution in the Tunisian Atlas driven by interaction between crustal shortening and slab pull (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Pérez-Peña, Jose Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Gracia, Eulalia; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Ranero, César R.


    Active tectonics in North Africa is fundamentally driven by NW-SE directed slow convergence between the Nubia and Eurasia plates, leading to a region of thrust and strike-slip faulting. In this paper we analyze the morphometric characteristics of the little-studied northern Tunisia sector. The study aimed at identifying previously unknown active tectonic structures, and to further understand the mechanisms that drive the drainage evolution in this region of slow convergence. The interpretation of morphometric data was supported with a field campaign of a selection of structures. The analysis indicates that recent fluvial captures have been the main factor rejuvenating drainage catchments. The Medjerda River, which is the main catchment in northern Tunisia, has increased its drainage area during the Quaternary by capturing adjacent axial valleys to the north and south of its drainage divide. These captures are probably driven by gradual uplift of adjacent axial valleys by reverse/oblique faults or associated folds like El Alia-Teboursouk and Dkhila faults. Our fieldwork found that these faults cut Holocene colluvial fans containing seismites like clastic dikes and sand volcanoes, indicating recent seismogenic faulting. The growth and stabilization of the axial Medjerda River against the natural tendency of transverse drainages might be caused by a combination of dynamic topography and transpressive tectonics. The orientation of the large axial Medjerda drainage that runs from eastern Algeria towards northeastern Tunisia into the Gulf of Tunis, might be the associated to negative buoyancy caused by the underlying Nubia slab at its mouth, together with uplift of the Medjerda headwaters along the South Atlassic dextral transfer zone.

  17. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka


    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  18. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section 319.701 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings...

  19. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength Rheology and Seismicity (CSRS-2017). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 328-328 ...

  20. Crustal Structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan (United States)

    El Tahir, Nada; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi; Durrheim, Raymond


    The Khartoum basin is one of several Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central Africa Rift System. Little is known about the deep crustal structure of this basin, and this limited knowledge hampers the development of a more detailed understanding of its origin and evolution. Constraints on crustal structure in Sudan are only available through regional gravity studies and continental-scale tomography models, but these studies have poor resolution in the Khartoum basin. Here, we investigate the crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum basin beneath 3 permanent seismic stations in Khartoum, Sudan through the H-k stacking of receiver functions and the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities. Our H-k-stacking results indicate that crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km and that crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. These results are consistent with 1D velocity models developed from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities, which display similar estimates for crustal thickness and an average shear-wave velocity of 3.7 km/s for the basin's crust. Our results provide the first seismic estimate of Moho depth for a basin in Sudan and, when compared to average crustal thickness for the unrifted Proterozoic crust in eastern Africa, reveal that at most a few kilometers of crustal thinning has occurred beneath the Khartoum basin.

  1. Bulk Nanostructured Materials (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.


    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  2. Frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening. (United States)

    Omar, M N; Nor-Nazuha, M N; Nor-Dalilah, M N; Sahri, M M


    In order to evaluate the frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening against standard olein, the fresh potato chips were fried in both frying media using an open fryer. After frying the chips for 40 h in an open batch fryer, it was found that the frying quality of palm-based solid frying shortening was better than standard palm olein in terms of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values, Total Polar Content (TPC) and Total Polymeric Material (TPM). Solid shortening gave FFA, TPC and TPM values of 0.7, 15.3 and 2.67%, respectively, whilst standard palm olein gave values for FFA, TPC and TPM of 1.2, 19.6 and 3.10%, respectively. In terms of sensory mean scores, sensory panelists preferred the color of potato chips fried in solid shortening on the first day of frying, while on the third and fifth day of frying there were no significant differences (p potato chips fried in solid shortening. These findings show that the palm-based solid shortening is better than palm olein when used for deep fat frying in terms of FFA values, total polar content and total polymeric material, especially for starch-based products such as potato chips. The result also shows that, in terms of sensory mean scores, after frying for 40 h, the sensory panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispiness for potato chips fried in palm-based solid shortening.

  3. Crustal imaging of the Northwest Himalaya and its foredeep region from teleseismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowrav Saikia


    Full Text Available Over 450 receiver functions from 8 broadband stations located in the Indo-Gangetic plain and Northwest Himalayan region are analyzed to examine the crustal properties across the contiguous region. We identified the P-to-S phase beneath each station and estimated the crustal thickness from time delay of this phase with respect to the direct P arrival. With the help of the slant stacking technique, we determined bulk crustal chemical properties and validated our estimate of crustal thickness. The Moho was encountered in the Indo-Gangetic plain at an average depth of 33 km and thickened towards the Northwest Himalaya with the Moho depth varying from 37 to 52 km. The thickest crust matched the highest topography, which is strong evidence of the occurrence of a crustal root of the mountain range. The time domain iterative linearized inversion technique is used to invert radial receiver functions to wave velocity structures for both tectonic regimes. From the forward modelling, we found mid-crustal low-velocity layers at different patches at a depth of 10–30 km in the Northwest Himalaya region. The presence of melts may be inferred in the mid crust with high values of Poisson ratio (σ ≥ 0.260 for the stations in the Northwest Himalaya. Towards south in the Indo-Gangetic alluvium plain, we estimated a medium to higher value of Poisson ratio (0.240 ≤ σ ≤ 0.290, but velocity modelling implies absence of an intracrustal low-velocity zone around the region.

  4. Crustal structure of north Peru from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions (United States)

    Condori, Cristobal; França, George S.; Tavera, Hernando J.; Albuquerque, Diogo F.; Bishop, Brandon T.; Beck, Susan L.


    In this study, we present results from teleseismic receiver functions, in order to investigate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath northern Peru. A total number of 981 receiver functions were analyzed, from data recorded by 28 broadband seismic stations from the Peruvian permanent seismic network, the regional temporary SisNort network and one CTBTO station. The Moho depth and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio were determined at each station using the H-k stacking technique to identify the arrival times of primary P to S conversion and crustal reverberations (PpPms, PpSs + PsPms). The results show that the Moho depth correlates well with the surface topography and varies significantly from west to east, showing a shallow depth of around 25 km near the coast, a maximum depth of 55-60 km beneath the Andean Cordillera, and a depth of 35-40 km further to the east in the Amazonian Basin. The bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges between 1.60 and 1.88 with the mean of 1.75. Higher values between 1.75 and 1.88 are found beneath the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, consistent with a mafic composition in the lower crust. In contrast values vary from 1.60 to 1.75 in the extreme flanks of the Eastern and Western Cordillera indicating a felsic composition. We find a positive relationship between crustal thickness, Vp/Vs ratio, the Bouguer anomaly, and topography. These results are consistent with previous studies in other parts of Peru (central and southern regions) and provide the first crustal thickness estimates for the high cordillera in northern Peru.

  5. Surgically shortened vagina lengthened by laparoscopic Davydov procedure. (United States)

    Moriarty, Christopher R; Miklos, John R; Moore, Robert D


    The laparoscopic Davydov procedure is a neovagina surgical technique most commonly used in patients with vaginal agenesis. We present a unique case of vaginal length restoration using this procedure in a patient with vaginal shortening after multiple vaginal surgeries. A 62-year-old patient presented to our office after multiple vaginal surgeries with symptoms suggestive of cystocele, rectocele, vaginal vault prolapse, and dyspareunia. Excessive vaginal shortening and a painful vaginal apex were also noted upon initial examination. A laparoscopic Davydov procedure was performed to lengthen the vagina and to eliminate the apical pain. The laparoscopic Davydov procedure is a surgical option for patients with surgically shortened vaginas and dyspareunia.

  6. GPS-derived estimates of crustal deformation in the central and north Ionian Sea, Greece: 3-yr results from NOANET continuous network data (United States)

    Ganas, A.; Marinou, A.; Anastasiou, D.; Paradissis, D.; Papazissi, K.; Tzavaras, P.; Drakatos, G.


    Ionian Sea (western Greece) is a plate-boundary region of high seismicity and complex tectonics, dominated by frequent earthquake activity along the right-lateral Cephalonia transform fault. We present an analysis of 30-s GPS data from five (5) continuous stations of NOANET (NOA permanent GPS network) spanning the period 2007-2010. Our results show N-S crustal shortening onshore Lefkada island of the order of 2-3 mm/yr which is probably related to increased locking on the offshore Lefkada fault. We also calculated a large difference (1:3) in the principal strain rate amplitude between extension and shortening for the central Ionian Sea.

  7. Microbial life in ridge flank crustal fluids. (United States)

    Huber, Julie A; Johnson, H Paul; Butterfield, David A; Baross, John A


    To determine the microbial community diversity within old oceanic crust, a novel sampling strategy was used to collect crustal fluids at Baby Bare Seamount, a 3.5 Ma old outcrop located in the north-east Pacific Ocean on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Stainless steel probes were driven directly into the igneous ocean crust to obtain samples of ridge flank crustal fluids. Genetic signatures and enrichment cultures of microorganisms demonstrate that these crustal fluids host a microbial community composed of species indigenous to the subseafloor, including anaerobic thermophiles, and species from other deep-sea habitats, such as seawater and sediments. Evidence using molecular techniques indicates the presence of a relatively small but active microbial population, dominated by bacteria. The microbial community diversity found in the crustal fluids may indicate habitat variability in old oceanic crust, with inputs of nutrients from seawater, sediment pore-water fluids and possibly hydrothermal sources. This report further supports the presence of an indigenous microbial community in ridge flank crustal fluids and advances our understanding of the potential physiological and phylogenetic diversity of this community.

  8. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S


    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  9. Augmentation of deglutitive thyrohyoid muscle shortening by the Shaker Exercise. (United States)

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn; Shaker, Reza


    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation.

  10. Trace element differences between Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crustal components: Implications for crustal growth processes (United States)

    Tarney, J.; Wyborn, L. E. A.; Sheraton, J. W.; Wyborn, D.


    Critical to models for continental crust growth and recycling are the processes through which crustal growth takes place. In particular, it is important to know whether these processes have changed fundamentally with time in response to the earth's thermal evolution, and whether the crustal compositions generated are compatible with crustal remobilization, crustal recycling, or represent primary additions. There are some significant and consistent differences in the major and trace element compositions of crustal components with time which have important implications for crustal growth processes. These will be illustrated with reference to Archean rocks from a number of shield areas, Proterozoic granitoids from Australia and elsewhere, Palaeozoic granitoids from Australia and Scotland, and Mesozoic - recent granitoids from present continental margin belts. Surprisingly some rather simple and consistent patterns energy using this technique. There are then significant differences in compositions of granitoid crustal additions throughout geological time, with a particular type of granitoid apparently dominating a particular time period. This implies that the tectonic processes giving rise to granite generation have changed in response to the earth's thermal evolution.

  11. Experimental and modelling evidence of shortening heat in cardiac muscle. (United States)

    Tran, Kenneth; Han, June-Chiew; Crampin, Edmund John; Taberner, Andrew James; Loiselle, Denis Scott


    Heat associated with muscle shortening has been repeatedly demonstrated in skeletal muscle, but its existence in cardiac muscle remains contentious after five decades of study. By iterating between experiments and computational modelling, we show compelling evidence for the existence of shortening heat in cardiac muscle and reveal, mechanistically, the source of this excess heat. Our results clarify a long-standing uncertainty in the field of cardiac muscle energetics. We provide a revised partitioning of cardiac muscle energy expenditure to include this newly revealed thermal component. When a muscle shortens against an afterload, the heat that it liberates is greater than that produced by the same muscle contracting isometrically at the same level of force. This excess heat is defined as 'shortening heat', and has been repeatedly demonstrated in skeletal muscle but not in cardiac muscle. Given the micro-structural similarities between these two muscle types, and since we imagine that shortening heat is the thermal accompaniment of cross-bridge cycling, we have re-examined this issue. Using our flow-through microcalorimeter, we measured force and heat generated by isolated rat trabeculae undergoing isometric contractions at different muscle lengths and work-loop (shortening) contractions at different afterloads. We simulated these experimental protocols using a thermodynamically constrained model of cross-bridge cycling and probed the mechanisms underpinning shortening heat. Predictions generated by the model were subsequently validated by a further set of experiments. Both our experimental and modelling results show convincing evidence for the existence of shortening heat in cardiac muscle. Its magnitude is inversely related to the afterload or, equivalently, directly related to the extent of shortening. Computational simulations reveal that the heat of shortening arises from the cycling of cross-bridges, and that the rate of ATP hydrolysis is more sensitive to

  12. Self-perceived penile shortening after radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Carlsson, S; Nilsson, A E; Johansson, E; Nyberg, T; Akre, O; Steineck, G


    The postoperative effect on penile length after radical prostatectomy has been the subject of studies with conflicting results. We analyzed self-perceived penile shortening, quality of life and self-esteem after radical prostatectomy. In this cross-sectional study of a cohort of 1411 men who underwent a radical prostatectomy at Karolinska University Hospital between 2002 and 2006, we used a study-specific questionnaire. Patients and controls were asked about their perceived penile shortening by comparing present penile length now and at age 30 years. All subjects were also asked about their present quality of life and self-esteem. Patients were compared with 442 age-matched population-based controls. Among 1288 who underwent radical prostatectomy and answered the questionnaire (response rate 91%), 663 patients reported self-perceived penile shortening (55%), as compared with 85 (26%) of 350 men in the control group, corresponding to a relative risk (RR) of 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.6) of self-perceived penile shortening compared with the age-matched control group. Age, grade of erectile dysfunction and angina were correlated with self-perceived penile shortening in both the operated and the control group. After adjustments for all of these mentioned potential confounders, we obtained a RR of 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.1) of self-perceived penile shortening compared with the controls. We also found that self-assessed penile shortening was associated with a RR of 1.2 (95% CI 1.1-1.3) for a low-to-moderate self-assessed quality of life and a RR of 1.2 (95% CI 1.1-1.4) for a low-to-moderate self estimation of self-esteem. Extensive nerve-sparing technique seems to be associated with less self-perceived penile shortening compared with radical prostatectomy with lower degree of nerve-sparing approach. These data indicate that radical prostatectomy is associated with self-perceived penile shortening and suggests that erectile function is a key factor in penile

  13. Building the Pamir-Tibetan Plateau—Crustal stacking, extensional collapse, and lateral extrusion in the Central Pamir: 1. Geometry and kinematics (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Schneider, Susanne; Stübner, Konstanze; Stearns, Michael A.; Gulzar, Muhammad A.; Hacker, Bradley R.


    Asian deep crust exposed in the Pamir permits determination of the amount, sequence, and interaction of shortening, extension, and lateral extrusion over 30 km of crustal section during the India-Asia collision. In the Central Pamir, gneiss domes and their hanging walls record Paleogene tripling of the 7-10 km thick Phanerozoic upper crustal strata; total crustal thickness may have amounted to 90 km. Two thrust sheets, comprising Cambro-Ordovician, respectively, Carboniferous to Paleogene strata, straddle the domes. Amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks within the domes—equivalent to lower grade rocks outside the domes—form fold nappes with dome-scale wavelengths. E-W stretching occurred contemporaneously with top-to- N imbrication and folding. At 22-12 Ma, bivergent (top-to-N and top-to-S), normal-sense shear zones exhumed the crystalline rocks; most of the extension occurred along the northern dome margins. Shortening resumed at 12 Ma with opposite-sense thrusting and folding focused along the dome margins. Throughout the building of the Central and South Pamir, dominant N-S shortening interacted with E-W extension along mostly dextral shear/fault zones. In the Neogene, shear is concentrated along a dextral wrench corridor south of the domes. We interpret the Paleogene shortening to record thickening and northward growth of the Pamir-Tibetan Plateau and short-lived Miocene crustal extension as gravitational adjustment, i.e., collapse, of the thickened Asian crust to Indian slab breakoff. Synconvergent Paleogene lateral extrusion thickened the Afghan Hindu Kush crust west of the India-Asia collision, and the Miocene-Recent dextral shear and E-W extension have accommodated collapse of the Pamir Plateau into the Tajik depression.

  14. Strain data recorded in Xinjiang and their bearing on Tianshan’s uplift/shortening and Tarim basin’s rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jingxiang


    Full Text Available Based on the continuous strain data recorded in Xinjiang since 1985, we discuss the mechanisms of Tianshan’s uplift and Tarim basin’s clockwise rotation. The results indicate; 1 The principal – compression directions in Tianshan are nearly NS, and their intersection angles with regional structures and mountains are nearly perpendicular, which is in accordance with Tianshan’s uplift and crustal shortening. 2 The principal compressions around Tarim basin tend to facilitate the regional faults’ left-lateral strike-slip movements and the basin’s clockwise rotation. These phenomena of uplift/shortening and rotation are fundamentally the results of India plate’s northward push on Euro-Asia plate, and the associated Pamir arc’s rapid northward movement and regional blocks’ interaction.

  15. Crustal architecture and geodynamics of North Queensland, Australia: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling (United States)

    Korsch, R. J.; Huston, D. L.; Henderson, R. A.; Blewett, R. S.; Withnall, I. W.; Fergusson, C. L.; Collins, W. J.; Saygin, E.; Kositcin, N.; Meixner, A. J.; Chopping, R.; Henson, P. A.; Champion, D. C.; Hutton, L. J.; Wormald, R.; Holzschuh, J.; Costelloe, R. D.


    A deep crustal seismic reflection and magnetotelluric survey, conducted in 2007, established the architecture and geodynamic framework of north Queensland, Australia. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include the discovery of a major, west-dipping, Paleoproterozoic (or older) crustal boundary, considered to be an ancient suture zone, separating relatively nonreflective, thick crust of the Mount Isa Province from thinner, two layered crust to the east. Farther to the east, a second major crustal boundary also dips west or southwest, offsetting the Moho and extending below it, and is interpreted as a fossil subduction zone. Across the region, the lower crust is mostly highly reflective and is subdivided into three mappable seismic provinces, but they have not been tracked to the surface. In the east, the Greenvale and Charters Towers Provinces, part of the Thomson Orogen, have been mapped on the surface as two discrete provinces, but the seismic interpretation raises the possibility that these two provinces are continuous in the subsurface, and also extend northwards to beneath the Hodgkinson Province, originally forming part of an extensive Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin. Continuation of the Thomson Orogen at depth beneath the Hodgkinson and Broken River Provinces suggests that these provinces (which formed in an oceanic environment, possibly as an accretionary wedge at a convergent margin) have been thrust westwards onto the older continental passive margin. The Tasman Line, originally defined to represent the eastern limit of Precambrian rocks in Australia, has a complicated geometry in three dimensions, which is related to regional deformational events during the Paleozoic. Overall, the seismic data show evidence for a continental margin with a long history (Paleoproterozoic to early Mesozoic) but showing only limited outward growth by crustal accretion, because of a repeated history of overthrust shortening during repeated

  16. Crustal uplift of the Precambrian cratons due to metamorphism in crustal rocks under infiltration of mantle fluids (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergey; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    Precambrian cratons cover about 70% of the total area of the continents. During the last several million years cratonic areas underwent rapid uplift, from 100-200 m in East Europe to 1000-1500 m Southern Africa. Shortening of the Precambrian crust terminated half a billion years ago or earlier and this popular mechanism cannot be applied to its recent uplift. Large thickness of cratonic mantle lithosphere, 100-200 km in most regions, together with its low density precludes delamination of this layer and magmatic underplating as possible causes of recent uplift. It cannot be precluded that in some cratonic regions recent uplift occurred due to delamination of the lower part of mantle lithosphere with the density increased by metasomatism. Even a small uplift of ≥ 100-200 m would require delamination of a thick layer of mantle lithosphere. As a result a temperature drop of > 200 C would arise at the base of the lithosphere producing a shear wave velocities drop of > 2%. According to the seismic tomography data such a drop in VS is observed only in some regions with the Precambrian lithosphere, e.g., in Northeastern Africa. Spatial distribution of the Precambrian cratons is quite different from that predicted by the main models of dynamic topography in the mantle. Moreover, many uplifted blocks are bounded by steep slopes hundreds of meters to one kilometer high and only tens of kilometers wide. Such slopes could not have been formed by bending of thick cratonic lithosphere under the forces acting from below. Their recent formation indicates rock expansion within the crust at shallow depth comparable with the slope width. Rocks formed at the pressure P ˜ 0.5-1.0 GPa are widespread on the Precambrian cratons. This indicates that during their lifetime a layer of rocks ˜ 15-30 km thick has been removed from the crustal surface by denudation. As a result rocks which were initially located in the lower crust emerged to the middle or upper crust. Due to metamorphic

  17. The undetected error probability for shortened hamming codes (United States)

    Costello, D. J., Jr.; Lin, S.


    Hamming or shortened Hamming codes are widely used for error detection in data communications. For example, the CCITT (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) recommendation X.25 for packet-switched data networks adopts a distance-4 cyclic Hamming code with 16 parity-check bits for error detection. The natural length of this code is n = 2(15)-1 = 32,767. In practice the length of a data packet is no more than a few thousand bits which is much shorter than the natural length of the code. Consequently, a shortened version of thecode is used. Often the length of a data packet varies, say from a few hundred bits to a few thousand bits, hence the code must be shortened by various degrees. Shortening affects the performance of the code. The error-detection performance of shortened Hamming codes, particularly the codes obtained from the distance-4 Hamming codes adopted by CCITT recommendation X.25, is investigated. A method for computing the probability of an undetected error is presented.

  18. Nd isotopes and crustal growth rate (United States)

    Albarede, F.


    Sm/Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth is discussed. In order to constrain Sm/Nd fractionation between continental crust and depleted mantle, an extensive data base of isotopic measurements (assumed to be adequately representative of continental crust) was compiled. The results imply that the evolution of depleted mantles was roughly linear, with no major discontinuities over the course of geologic time. This is different from other determinations of depleting mantle evolution, which show nonlinear behavior. The Sm/Nd evolution lines for continental crust and depleted mantle intersect between 3.8 to 4.0 Ga, which may indicate that the onset of continental growth was later than 4.5 Ga. A mathematical model is described, the results of which imply that time integrated crustal additions from the mantle are about 1.8 to 2.5 cu km/a, whereas crustal subtractions by sediment recycling are about 0.6 to 1.5 cu km/a. This results in a net time integrated crustal growth rate of about 1 cu km/a, which is similar to present day rates determined, for example, by Reymer and Schubert.

  19. Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    El Tahir, N


    Full Text Available The crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum Basin has been investigated using data from 3 permanent seismic stations within 40 km of Khartoum and two modeling methods, H–k stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion...

  20. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  1. "Understanding" cosmological bulk viscosity


    Zimdahl, Winfried


    A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

  2. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  3. Topography of the Betics: crustal thickening, dynamic topography and relief inheritance (United States)

    Janowski, Marianne; Loget, Nicolas; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Husson, Laurent; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand


    The main mechanism that explains high orogenic topographies is the isostatic adjustment due to crustal thickening. However in the Betic Cordillera (South Spain), the present-day elevation and crustal thickness are not correlated. That is at odds with the general premise of isostasy and requires reappraising the question of the driving mechanisms leading to the current topography. The Betics are located at the western edge of the alpine Mediterranean belt. Its Cenozoic orogenic building was disrupted by a major crustal thinning event induced by a slab rollback in the internal zones (Alboran domain) during Neogene. Topography was largely levelled and flooded by the sea during Neogene extension, and then has been folded since the Late Tortonian inversion. The present-day topography shows flat summits still preserved from fluvial regression in the internal zones (central and eastern Betics). These low-relief surfaces may be inherited from the Neogene planation toward sea-level as rocks cooling histories inferred from low-temperature thermochronology seem to point it out. Post-Tortonian shortening estimated thanks to a crustal-scale N-S cross-section in the eastern Betics (at the Sierra Nevada longitude) does not exceed few kilometers which is much lower than the shortening required by isostatic equilibrium, and is thus insufficient to explain the post-Tortonian topography building. We tested the hypothesis that mantle dynamics could in fact be an important mechanism that explains the topography of the Betics. We first computed the residual topography (i.e. the non-isostatic component of the elevation) using the most recent published Moho mapping of the area. In the western Betics, our results show important negative residual topography (down to -3 km) possibly associated with the west-Alboran slab suction. In the eastern Betics however, positive residual topography is important (up to +3 km) and can be explained by the dynamic mantle support of the topography, possibly

  4. Effectiveness of hyoscine butyl bromide in shortening the first stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prolonged labour from cervical dystocia or stasis is one of the common indications for caesarean delivery. Hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB), an anticholinergic and antispasmodic drug, has been found effective in shortening the first stage of labour with no adverse effects on feto-maternal outcomes.

  5. Knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch (SDA) therapy in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, self‑designed‑structured questionnaires were distributed among specialists (SP), residents (RES), and ...

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 3, 2015 ... Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch (SDA) therapy in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaires were distributed among specialists (SP), residents ...

  7. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cases. Key words: Attitude, dentist, knowledge, shortened dental arch. Date of Acceptance: 03-Aug-2015. Address for correspondence: Dr. F Vohra,. Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, College ... Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University Technology MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia. Access this article online.

  9. On the Shortcomings of Shortened Tests: A Literature Review (United States)

    Kruyen, Peter M.; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas


    To efficiently assess multiple psychological constructs and to minimize the burden on respondents, psychologists increasingly use shortened versions of existing tests. However, compared to the longer test, a shorter test version may have a substantial impact on the reliability and the validity of the test scores in psychological research and…

  10. Using potentially life-shortening drugs in neonates and infants. (United States)

    van der Heide, A; van der Maas, P J; van der Wal, G; Kollée, L A; de Leeuw, R


    To describe the frequency, background, and impact of decisions to give analgesic or other drugs that may, intentionally or unintentionally, shorten the life-span of severely ill neonates. The Netherlands. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were mailed in The Netherlands to physicians reporting 338 consecutive deaths of infants under 1 yr of age from August through November 1995. None. Questions were asked about medical end-of-life decisions preceding the death of the infant and about the decision-making process. Potentially life-shortening drugs, mostly opioids, were given in 37% of all deaths. The estimated effect in terms of the shortening of life was modern medicine in dying in neonatology. Most physicians caring for neonates feel that palliative medication may be warranted in dying infants, even if it shortens life. A distinction between intentionally ending life and providing adequate terminal care by alleviating pain or other symptoms, which is important in moral and judicial terms, is probably not easily made for some of these patients.

  11. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency in subjects with shortened dental arch (SDA) before and after restoration with removable partial denture (RPD). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on 36 consecutive patients. The subjects were asked to chew 5 g of ...

  12. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin


    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identified...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J


    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  14. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  15. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  16. Micromegas in a bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Aune, S; Charpak, Georges; Colas, P; Giganon, Arnaud; Rebourgeard, P C; Salin, P; Rebourgeard, Ph.


    In this paper we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it extremely attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  17. Micromegas in a bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)]. E-mail:; De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Andriamonje, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Aune, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Charpak, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colas, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physcis, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Ferrer, E. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Giganon, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Rebourgeard, Ph. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Salin, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)


    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine.

  18. Reports on crustal movements and deformations. [bibliography (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.; Peck, T.


    This Catalog of Reports on Crustal Movements and Deformation is a structured bibliography of scientific papers on the movements of the Earth crust. The catalog summarizes by various subjects papers containing data on the movement of the Earth's surface due to tectonic processes. In preparing the catalog we have included studies of tectonic plate motions, spreading and convergence, microplate rotation, regional crustal deformation strain accumulation and deformations associated with the earthquake cycle, and fault motion. We have also included several papers dealing with models of tectonic plate motion and with crustal stress. Papers which discuss tectonic and geologic history but which do not present rates of movements or deformations and papers which are primarily theoretical analyses have been excluded from the catalog. An index of authors cross-referenced to their publications also appears in the catalog. The catalog covers articles appearing in reviewed technical journals during the years 1970-1981. Although there are citations from about twenty journals most of the items come from the following publications: Journal of Geophysical Research, Tectonophysics, Geological Society of America Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Nature, Science, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, and Geology.

  19. Active shortening of the Cascadia forearc and implications for seismic hazards of the Puget Lowland (United States)

    Johnson, S.Y.; Blakely, R.J.; Stephenson, W.J.; Dadisman, S.V.; Fisher, M.A.


    Margin-parallel shortening of the Cascadia forearc is a consequence of oblique subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America. Strike-slip, thrust, and oblique crustal faults beneath the densely populated Puget Lowland accommodate much of this north-south compression, resulting in large crustal earthquakes. To better understand this forearc deformation and improve earthquake hazard, assessment, we here use seismic reflection surveys, coastal exposures of Pleistocene strata, potential-field data, and airborne laser swath mapping to document and interpret a significant structural boundary near the City of Tacoma. This boundary is a complex structural zone characterized by two distinct segments. The northwest trending, eastern segment, extending from Tacoma to Carr Inlet, is formed by the broad (??? 11.5 km), southwest dipping (??? 11??-2??) Rosedale monocline. This monocline raises Crescent Formation basement about 2.5 km, resulting in a moderate gravity gradient. We interpret the Rosedale monocline as a fault-bend fold, forming above a deep thrust fault. Within the Rosedale monocline, inferred Quaternary strata thin northward and form a growth triangle that is 4.1 to 6.6 km wide at its base, suggesting ??? 2-3 mm/yr of slip on the underlying thrust. The western section of the >40-km-long, north dipping Tacoma fault, extending from Hood Canal to Carr Inlet, forms the western segment of the Tacoma basin margin. Structural relief on this portion of the basin margin may be several kilometers, resulting in steep gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies. Quaternary structural relief along the Tacoma fault is as much as 350-400 m, indicating a minimum slip rate of about 0.2 mm/yr. The inferred eastern section of the Tacoma fault (east of Carr Inlet) crosses the southern part of the Seattle uplift, has variable geometry along strike, and diminished structural relief. The Tacoma fault is regarded as a north dipping backthrust to the Seattle fault, so that slip on a

  20. Crustal thickness and composition beneath the High Lava Plains of Eastern Oregon from teleseismic receiver functions (United States)

    Eagar, K. C.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Carlson, R. W.


    The nature of the crust beneath the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon is fundamental for understanding the origins of widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the region. Eruptions of flood basalts in the southern Cascadian back arc peaked ~17-15 Ma, and were followed by distributed bimodal volcanism along two perpendicular migrating tracks; the Snake River Plain and the High Lava Plains. The orientations of eruptive centers have led to several competing hypotheses about their cause, including a deep mantle plume, slab retreat and asthenospheric inflow, lithospheric delamination, and lithospheric extension. The goal of this project is to constrain the nature, geometry, and depth of the Moho across the High Lava Plains, which will shed light on questions regarding crustal influence on melt generation and differentiation and the degree of magmatic underplating. In this study, we analyze teleseismic receiver functions from 118 stations of the High Lava Plains temporary broadband array, 34 nearby EarthScope/USArray stations, and 5 other regional broadband stations to determine bulk crustal features of thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ). Applying the H-κ stacking method, we search for the best-fitting solution of timing predictions for direct and multiple P-to-S conversions from the Moho interface. Converting Vp/Vs to Poisson ratio, which is dependent primarily upon rock composition, allows for comparison with other direct geological observations. Preliminary results show that the crust of the High Lava Plains is relatively thin (~31 km) with a very sharp gradient to thicker crust (~42 km) at the western edge of the Owyhee Plateau in southwestern Idaho. This gradient is co-located with the western margin of Precambrian North America and is in the vicinity of the Jordan Craters volcanic center. The sharp topography of the Moho might have been a factor in melt migration beneath this area. West of the High Lava Plains, the crust thickens to ~40 km into the Cascade volcanic arc

  1. Crustal structure of the Carpathian orogen from receiver function analysis: how craton subduction and active delamination affect the crust (United States)

    Petrescu, Laura; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan


    The Carpathian arc is an uncommon curved collisional system, involving the subduction of the Eastern European craton and the Proterozoic Moesian platform beneath younger European microplates. The Cenozoic collision led to the closure of the Tethys Oceanic basin, portions of which are actively breaking off or delaminating beneath the orogen, generating deep mantle earthquakes. Neogene volcanism, possibly related to subduction slab roll-back, also formed a band of presently extinct volcanoes in the back-arc region. The Carpathian embayment is thus an ideal laboratory to investigate crustal processes related to subduction of cratonic material, multiple plate junctions and active delamination. To better understand how the crustal structure changes from the Eastern European cratonic foreland, across the curved subduction zone, to the younger European microplates, we analyse teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations located across eastern and southern Carpathians, in Romania and Moldova. We processed data from permanent seismic networks (The Romanian National Seismic Network) as well as data from temporary deployments such as CALIXTO (Carpathian Arc Lithosphere X-Tomography) and SCP (South Carpathian Project). Using extended multi-taper spectral division, we compute and analyse radial and transverse receiver functions. Energy on the transverse component may be an indicator of crustal anisotropy or the existence of intracrustal dipping interfaces. Using phase-weighted H-k stacking of receiver functions, we estimate the crustal thickness and the bulk crustal Poisson's ratio as well as the seismic sharpness of the Moho discontinuity. Furthermore, we invert receiver functions to obtain the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath individual stations, which provide concurrent information on the Moho nature. Our results provide a better understanding of crustal structure across complex collisional systems involving the subduction of

  2. A Late Quaternary shortening rate for the frontal thrust of the Andean Precordillera north of Mendoza (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Kuhlmann, J.; Hetzel, R.; Mingorance, F.; Ramos, V. A.


    Although large historical earthquakes occurred in the Andean back-arc region between 28° and 34°S - for instance Mendoza was destroyed by an earthquake of magnitude MS = 7.0 in 1861 - the slip rates of active faults remain unknown. We report a slip rate for the 50-km-long Las Penas thrust, which constitutes the frontal thrust of the Precordillera. In its southern part, a well preserved fluvial terrace along La Escondida Creek (Costa et al., 2000) is displaced vertically by 10.6 ± 0.7 m as documented by several fault scarp profiles. Apart from radiocarbon dating of plant remnants, three different approaches for 10Be exposure dating have been applied to constrain the age of the terrace. Amalgamated sandstone pebbles (corrected for an inherited 10Be component using similar pebbles from the active creek) and a depth profile obtained from four sand samples yield 10Be exposure ages of 12.2 ± 1.5 and 11.3 ± 2.0 kyr, respectively. Both ages are in excellent agreement with the 14C age of 12.61 ± 0.20 cal kyr BP. In contrast, 10Be ages of five sandstone boulders vary significantly and exceed the age of the terrace by 10 to 70 kyr, which demonstrates that the widely used assumption of a negligible inherited component is not valid here. The age of the river terrace combined with the vertical fault offset yields an uplift rate of ~0.8 mm/yr for the Las Penas thrust. Combined with the fault dip of 25°, we determine a Late Quaternary horizontal shortening rate of ~1.8 mm/yr, which is about 40% of the GPS derived shortening rate of 4.5 ± 1.7 mm/yr in the back-arc region of the Andes (Brooks et al., 2003). References Brooks, B.A., Bevis, M., Smalley, R., Kendrick, E., Manceda, R., Lauria, E., Maturana, R. & Araujo, M. (2003): Crustal motion in the Southern Andes (26° - 36°S): Do the Andes behave like a microplate? Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4 (10), pp. 14, 1085, doi 10.1029/2003GC000505. Costa, C.H., Gardini, C.E., Diederix, H., Cortés, J.M. (2000): The Andean orogenic

  3. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard


    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... and carbohydrate mimetics. Such polyhydroxylated compounds are conveniently synthesized from carbohydrates, however, due to the scarcity of many sugars from nature, efficient methods for transformation of readily available carbohydrates into valuable chiral building blocks are required. The work presented...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  4. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres in vivo? A review. (United States)

    Reichert, Sophie; Stier, Antoine


    The length of telomeres, the protective caps of chromosomes, is increasingly used as a biomarker of individual health state because it has been shown to predict chances of survival in a range of endothermic species including humans. Oxidative stress is presumed to be a major cause of telomere shortening, but most evidence to date comes from in vitro cultured cells. The importance of oxidative stress as a determinant of telomere shortening in vivo remains less clear and has recently been questioned. We, therefore, reviewed correlative and experimental studies investigating the links between oxidative stress and telomere shortening in vivo While correlative studies provide equivocal support for a connection between oxidative stress and telomere attrition (10 of 18 studies), most experimental studies published so far (seven of eight studies) partially or fully support this hypothesis. Yet, this link seems to be tissue-dependent in some cases, or restricted to particular categories of individual (e.g. sex-dependent) in other cases. More experimental studies, especially those decreasing antioxidant protection or increasing pro-oxidant generation, are required to further our understanding of the importance of oxidative stress in determining telomere length in vivo Studies comparing growing versus adult individuals, or proliferative versus non-proliferative tissues would provide particularly important insights. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Safety of shortened infusion times for combined ipilimumab and nivolumab. (United States)

    Gassenmaier, Maximilian; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Scheu, Alexander; Wagner, Nikolaus Benjamin; Kofler, Lukas; Mueller, Alisa; Doecker, Dennis; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Garbe, Claus; Forschner, Andrea


    Combined ipilimumab and nivolumab induces encouraging response rates in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma. However, the approved protocol for dual checkpoint inhibition (3 mg/kg ipilimumab over 90 min and 1 mg/kg nivolumab over 60 min) is time-intensive and several trials have shown that both single agents can be safely administered at faster infusion rates. To investigate whether combined checkpoint inhibition with 3 mg/kg ipilimumab and 1 mg/kg nivolumab can be safely administered over 30 min per agent. We reviewed the rate of infusion-related reactions (IRRs) in the first 12 months of our single-institution experience using shortened infusion times for combined checkpoint inhibition with ipilimumab and nivolumab. Between May 24, 2016 and June 10, 2017, a total of 46 melanoma patients received 100 shortened cycles of combined 3 mg/kg ipilimumab and 1 mg/kg nivolumab. One patient (2.2%; 1/46) had a questionable reaction after administration of 1 mg/kg nivolumab over 30 min, but none of the other patients had a bona fide IRR. Shortened infusion times for combined ipilimumab and nivolumab treatment are safe, thereby facilitating a more efficient use of outpatient facilities and enhancing patient's convenience.

  6. Ulnar shortening osteotomy with a premounted sliding-hole plate. (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Karle, Birgit; Löw, Steffen; Krimmer, Hermann


    Ulnar shortening osteotomy represents a common procedure for various ulnar-sided wrist disorders but is still associated with complications like malrotation, angulation, or nonunion because of incomplete closure of the osteotomy gap. We describe the use of a newly developed palmarly placed sliding-hole dynamic compression plate that allows fixation of the ulna before the oblique osteotomy is carried out. We performed ulnar shortening osteotomy on 27 consecutive patients. The indication was ulnar impaction syndrome in 25 patients and symptomatic ulnar plus variance secondary to malunited distal radial fracture in 2 patients. The mean preoperative ulnar variance was +2.1 mm (range, +1 mm to +8 mm). All patients were evaluated before and after surgery and graded with the Disability of Arm-Shoulder-Hand (DASH) scoring system. All 27 osteotomies healed uneventfully over an average of 9.2 +/- 2.1 weeks. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was -2.1 mm (range, -3.1 mm to 0 mm). There were significant improvements in DASH score, pain, and grip strength at an average follow-up of 8.1 months. Six patients complained of plate irritation. Favorable results suggest that ulnar shortening osteotomy using an oblique osteotomy and a premounted sliding-hole compression plate avoids malrotation and angulation and is associated with satisfactory outcomes. This device does not require an assisting device, which minimizes the surgical exposure of the ulna. Palmar placement of the plate seems to reduce hardware irritation.

  7. Hardware Location and Clinical Outcome in Ulna Shortening Osteotomy. (United States)

    Megerle, Kai; Hellmich, Susanne; Germann, Günter; Sauerbier, Michael


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of plate location during ulna shortening osteotomy on the incidence of hardware irritation and clinical outcome. Forty patients (17 women, 23 men; mean age, 47 years) who underwent a shortening osteotomy of the ulna due to idiopathic ulna impaction syndrome were examined after a mean of 36 months. All complications and secondary procedures were extracted from the patients' records. The rate of hardware removal was higher in patients who had a dorsal placement of the plate in comparison with ulnar or palmar placements, although this difference was not statistically significant. Apart from hardware irritation, there were 4 nonunions, 1 secondary osteoarthritis of the distal radioulnar joint, and 1 case of chronic irritation of the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, which required secondary surgery. The incidence of secondary surgery other than hardware removal was not significantly related to the original location of the plate. Secondary surgery after ulnar shortening osteotomy is common. However, we found no difference in clinical outcomes based on plate location.

  8. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  9. A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow (United States)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel


    Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude

  10. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    , or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps are excluded from the new crustal database. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition problems and interpretation limitations, a special attention......-dependence (we use tectono-thermal ages) of crustal parameters allows for distinguishing the effects of various tectonic processes on the crustal structure. The analysis provides the basis for studies of crustal evolution and geodynamic process in the region where the age of tectonic structures spans over ~4 Ga...

  11. Short-Term Clinical Outcomes of Radial Shortening Osteotomy and Capitates Shortening Osteotomy in Kienböck Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Afshar


    Full Text Available Background:  There is no consensus on the best surgical treatment in Kienböck disease. We compared the shortterm outcomes of radial shortening osteotomy and capitate shortening osteotomy in patients affected with this disease.  Methods:  In a retrospective study of 21 patients with Lichtman stage IIIA of Kienböck disease, 12 patients with an average follow up of 3.2 ± 0.6 years had radial shortening osteotomy (group I and 9 patients with an average follow up of 3.1 ± 0.7 years had capitate shortening osteotomy (group II. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, operated side, initial Lichtman stage, and follow-up duration. At the last follow-up the patients were evaluated for pain, wrist range of motion, grip strength, wrist functional status and change in their Lichtman stage. The overall results were evaluated by the Cooney wrist function score and DASH score.  Results:  All the patients in the two groups had improvement of their wrist pains. According to the Cooney wrist function score group I had 1 excellent, 9 good, and 2 fair scores and group II had 1 excellent, 6 good, and 2 fair scores. Comparisons between the means of pain VAS scores, wrist range of movement, grip strength, DASH score, and Cooney wrist function score in the two groups were not significant. Also, the changes of the Lichtman stage in the two groups were not significant. Conclusions:  Both groups had reasonable short-term outcomes. We were unable to recognize a substantial clinical difference between the two surgical treatments in short-term outcomes.

  12. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel


    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  13. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin


    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  14. Seismic evidence of crustal heterogeneity beneath the northwestern Deccan volcanic province of India from joint inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements and P receiver functions (United States)

    Deshpande, Akshaya; Mohan, Gollapally


    The northwestern Deccan volcanic province (NWDVP) of India, encompassing the Saurashtra peninsula and the adjoining Gulf of Cambay, is investigated through joint inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and teleseis- mic P receiver functions, to estimate the crustal and shallow upper mantle shear wave velocity (Vs) structure. The Mw ˜ 7.7 Bhuj earthquake and the post Bhuj regional events, recorded during the period 2001-2010 at 7 stations along 37 source-receiver paths were used along with 35 teleseismic events. A joint curve fitting inversion technique is applied to obtain a best fit for the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves for time periods 5-50 s and high quality crustal P wave receiver functions obtained at each station. Significant crustal heterogeneity is observed within the study region with the average crustal Vs ranging from 3.5 km/s to 3.8 km/s with the paths cutting across the Gulf of Cambay exhibiting large reduction in shear wave velocities. Utilizing the average crustal Vs ≈ 3.66 km/s estimated for Saurashtra, together with the average crustal P wave velocity (Vp) ≈ 6.54 km/s derived independently through deep seismic sounding studies, yields a bulk Vp/Vs ratio of 1.786 or an equivalent crustal Poisson's ratio of 0.271. A major contribution to the high Poisson's ratio comes from the 12 to 16 km thick lower crustal layers with shear velocities ranging from 3.8 km/s to 4.19 km/s suggesting widespread magmatic underplating due to emplacement of mafic cumulates in the lower crust. The shallow uppermost mantle shear velocities are in the range 4.2-4.5 km/s averaging 4.36 km/ s, which is less than that observed for the Indian shield, indicating the effects of residual thermal anomaly. The variation in the crustal Vs, high Poisson's ratios and low upper mantle shear velocities reflect the thermal and compositional effects of the Deccan volcanism which are manifested in terms of pervasive presence of mafic dykes

  15. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.


    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  16. Crustal permeability: Introduction to the special issue (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom


    The topic of crustal permeability is of broad interest in light of the controlling effect of permeability on diverse geologic processes and also timely in light of the practical challenges associated with emerging technologies such as hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production (‘fracking’), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. This special issue of Geofluids is also motivated by the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic concept of permeability as a static material property that exerts control on fluid flow and the perspective of economic geologists, geophysicists, and crustal petrologists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. Issues associated with fracking, enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration have already begun to promote a constructive dialog between the static and dynamic views of permeability, and here we have made a conscious effort to include both viewpoints. This special issue also focuses on the quantification of permeability, encompassing both direct measurement of permeability in the uppermost crust and inferential permeability estimates, mainly for the deeper crust.

  17. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials. (United States)

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong


    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  19. The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.


    The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.

  20. A relook into the crustal architecture of Laxmi Ridge, northeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    derived free-air gravity (FAG) data to derive the crustal structure of Laxmi Ridge and adjacent areas. 2D and 3D crustal modelling suggests that the high resolution FAG low associated with the ridge is due to underplating and that it is of ...

  1. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  2. Shortening-induced force depression is modulated in a time- and speed-dependent manner following a stretch-shortening cycle. (United States)

    Fortuna, Rafael; Groeber, Martin; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Power, Geoffrey A; Herzog, Walter


    The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression, FD) or greater (residual force enhancement, RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanism underlying these phenomena is not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory, with few studies investigating the effects of FD and RFE in stretching-shortening cycle (SSC). The purpose of this study was to perform SSC, where the time between the end of stretch and the end of shortening was manipulated by (1) adding a pause between stretch and shortening (protocol 1) or (2) performing the shortening contraction at different speeds (protocol 2). The results show that, in protocol 1, FD was reduced for SSC with a 0-sec and 0.5-sec interval between stretching and shortening, but was the same for SSC with a 1-sec interval compared to the pure FD condition. In protocol 2, FD was reduced for SSC with shortening speeds of 30 and 60°/sec, but was the same for shortening speeds of 15 and 20°/sec compared to the pure FD condition. These findings provide evidence that stretch preceding shortening affects FD in a time- and speed-dependent manner, providing new information on the potential mechanism of FD and RFE. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Telomere shortening as genetic risk factor of liver cirrhosis. (United States)

    Carulli, Lucia


    Cirrhosis is the main complication of chronic liver disease, leads to progressive liver function impairment and is the main risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Liver failure at endstage cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality with liver transplantation as the only possible treatment at this stage. The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although the common factors leading to liver injury, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol consume or fatty liver disease can be identified in the majority of patients a small percentage of patients have no apparent risk factors. Moreover given the same risk factors, some patients progress to cirrhosis whereas others have a benign course, the reason remains unclear. In order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is s essential to understand the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. The identification of genetic risk factors associated with cirrhosis is one of the possible approach to achieve these goal. In the past years several studies have supported the role of telomere shortening and cirrhosis. In the recent year several studies on the relation between several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and cirrhosis have been published; it has been proposed also a cirrhosis risk score based on seven SNPs. Also epidemiological studies on identical twins and in different ethnic groups have been supporting the importance of the role of genetic risk factors. Finally in the very recent years it has been suggested that telomere shortening may represent a genetic risk factor for the development of cirrhosis.

  4. Crustal deformation evidences for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere at the Nubia-Iberia plate boundary (Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José


    A spatially dense crustal velocity field, based on up to 15 years of GNSS observations at more than 380 sites and extensively covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa, allow us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. We detected a slow large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to a local pole located closely to the northwestern sector of the Pyrenean mountain range (Palano et al., 2015). Although this crustal deformation pattern could suggest a rigid rotating lithosphere block, this model would predict significant shortening along the Western (off-shore Lisbon) and North Iberian margin which cannot totally ruled out but currently is not clearly observed. Conversely, we favour the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. Furthermore, the western Mediterranean basin appears fragmented into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures and trapped within the Nubia-Eurasia collision, are currently accommodating most of the plate convergence rate. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. Most of the observed crustal ground deformation can be attributed to processes driven by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary. Nevertheless, the observed deformation field infers a very low convergence rates as observed also at the eastern side of the western Mediterranean, along the Calabro Peloritan Arc, by space geodesy (e.g. Palano, 2015). References Palano M. (2015). On the present

  5. Detailed crustal thickness variations beneath the Illinois Basin area: Implications for crustal evolution of the midcontinent (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotao; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Gilbert, Hersh; Rupp, John; Larson, Timothy H.; Chen, Chen; Carpenter, N. Seth


    We present high-resolution imaging results of crustal and upper mantle velocity discontinuities across the Illinois Basin area using both common conversion point stacking and plane wave migration methods applied to P wave receiver functions from the EarthScope Ozark, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky experiment. The images reveal unusually thick crust (up to 62 km) throughout the central and southeastern Illinois Basin area. A significant Moho gradient underlies the NW trending Ste. Genevieve Fault Zone, which delineates the boundary between the Illinois Basin and Ozark Dome. Relatively thinner crust (Proterozoic convergent margin tectonics around 1.55-1.35 Ga; (3) by Late Precambrian magmatic underplating at the base of older crust, associated with the creation of the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province around 1.3 Ga; and (4) through crustal "relamination" during an episode of Proterozoic flat-slab subduction beneath the Illinois Basin, possibly associated with the Grenville Orogeny.

  6. Mapping crustal thinning beneath the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Chevrot, Sebastien; Verges, Jaume; Sylvander, Matthieu; Ruiz, Mario; Antonio-Vigil, Amanda


    The eastern termination of the Pyrenees is a complex region marked by two large tectonic events, the building of the Pyrenees during the Alpine orogeny and the Neogene extensional processes associated to the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block and the opening of the Valencia Trough. This complex tectonic history has left major imprints in crustal structures. Previous studies based on gravity data and active seismic profiles have documented a crustal thinning from 40-45 km about 80 km to the west of the Mediterranean coastline to less than 25 km beneath the eastern termination of the Pyrenees. To progress in the knowledge of the geometry of this transition, two passive seismic profiles have been acquired from mid 2015 to late 2016 within the OROGEN project, an academic-industrial collaboration between CNRS-Total-BRGM and CSIC. Up to 38 broad-band stations were deployed along two orthogonal lines, with an interstation spacing close to 10 km. First results of receiver function migration on the E-W profile suggest a smooth Moho thinning smoothly from 40 km beneath the western termination of the line to 23 km close to the coastline. The NNE-SSW profile shows a clearly defined Moho beneath Iberia, slightly deepening from 32 to 35 km northwards, a 28-30 km thick crust underneath the North Pyrenean Front Thrust and a complex geometry in the Axial Zone. Data from natural events located in the Gulf of Roses and near the intersecting point of the profiles have been recorded along the lines, hence allowing to produce wide angle reflection/refraction profiles providing additional constraints on the geometry of the crust/mantle boundary in the Eastern Pyrenees. These new results will be integrated with the available geophysical and geologic information for a more accurate geodynamical interpretation of the results. (Additional founding by the MISTERIOS project, CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R)

  7. Evolution of crustal thickening in the central Andes, Bolivia (United States)

    Eichelberger, Nathan; McQuarrie, Nadine; Ryan, Jamie; Karimi, Bobak; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George


    Paleoelevation histories from the central Andes in Bolivia have suggested that the geodynamic evolution of the region has been punctuated by periods of large-scale lithospheric removal that drive rapid increases in elevation at the surface. Here, we evaluate viable times and locations of material loss using a map-view reconstruction of the Bolivian orocline displacement field to forward-model predicted crustal thicknesses. Two volumetric models are presented that test assumed pre-deformation crustal thicknesses of 35 km and 40 km. Both models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved first in the northern Eastern Cordillera (EC) by 30-20 Ma but remained below modern in the southern EC until ≤10 Ma. The Altiplano is predicted to have achieved modern crustal thickness after 10 Ma but only with a pre-deformation thickness of 50 km, including 10 km of sediment. At the final stage, the models predict 8-25% regional excess crustal volume compared to modern thickness, largely concentrated in the northern EC. The excess predicted volume from 20 to 0 Ma can be accounted for by: 1) crustal flow to the WC and/or Peru, 2) localized removal of the lower crust, or 3) a combination of the two. Only models with initial crustal thicknesses >35 km predict excess volumes sufficient to account for potential crustal thickness deficits in Peru and allow for lower crustal loss. However, both initial thickness models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved over the same time periods that paleoelevation histories indicate the development of modern elevations. Localized removal of lower crust is only necessary in the northern EC where crustal thickness exceeds modern by 20 Ma, prior to paleoelevation estimates of modern elevations by 15 Ma. In the Altiplano, crustal thicknesses match modern values at 10 Ma and can only exceed modern values by 5 Ma, post-dating when modern elevations were thought to have been established. Collectively, these models predict that

  8. Incidence, Magnitude, and Predictors of Shortening in Young Femoral Neck Fractures. (United States)

    Stockton, David J; Lefaivre, Kelly A; Deakin, Daniel E; Osterhoff, Georg; Yamada, Andrew; Broekhuyse, Henry M; OʼBrien, Peter J; Slobogean, Gerard P


    To describe the incidence and magnitude of femoral neck fracture shortening in patients age younger than 60 years. Secondarily, to examine predictors of fracture shortening. Retrospective chart review. Level I trauma centre. Sixty-five patients with a median age of 51 years (interquartile range: 42-56 years) were included. Seventy-one percent were male, 75% were displaced fractures, and 78% were treated with cancellous screws. Internal fixation with multiple cancellous screws or sliding hip screw (SHS) + derotation screw. Radiographic femoral neck shortening at a minimum of 6 weeks after fixation. Fifty-four percent of patients had ≥5 mm of femoral neck shortening (22% had between ≥5 and fractures shortened more than undisplaced fractures (mean: 8.1 vs. 2.2 mm, P fractures treated with SHS + derotation screw shortened more than fractures with cancellous screws alone (10.7 vs. 5.5 mm, P = 0.03). Even when adjusting for initial fracture displacement, fractures treated with SHS + derotation screw shortened an average of 2.2 mm more than fractures treated with screws alone (P = 0.03). The incidence of clinically significant shortening in our young femoral neck fracture population was higher than anticipated, and 32% of patients experienced severe shortening of >1 cm. Our findings highlight the need for further research to determine the impact of severe shortening on functional outcome and to determine if implant selection affects fracture shortening. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten


    with similar investigations in 1992 and 1995. A gradual decline of TFA in Danish margarines was observed. From 1992 to 1995, a reduction of TFA from 10.4 to 3.6% took place in margarines with 20-40% linoleic acid. In 1999, TFA was practically absent in all the margarines, but it remained unchanged...... in shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years...

  10. Patellar tendon shortening for flexed knee gait in spastic diplegia. (United States)

    Sossai, Roberto; Vavken, Patrick; Brunner, Reinald; Camathias, Carlo; Graham, H Kerr; Rutz, Erich


    We evaluated the outcome of three different approaches to the management of flexed knee gait patients with spastic diplegia. The three surgical procedures were patellar tendon shortening (PTS), PTS combined with rotational osteotomies of the femur and/or tibia, and PTS combined with supracondylar extension osteotomy (SEO) of the distal femur. The primary outcome measure was gait kinematics. The knee gait variable score (GVS) and the gait profile score (GPS) were derived from gait kinematics. 24 patients (16 male and 8 female), mean age 16.1 years (SD 5.8 years), who had surgery between 2002 and 2008, were followed for a mean of 22 months. Knee extension during gait improved by a mean of 20° throughout the gait cycle, with an improvement in the knee GVS of 14° (pdiplegia is both feasible and appropriate. Level III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Institute of Radiology, Linz (Austria); Schmid, A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)


    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  12. Hypercapnic hyperventilation shortens emergence time from isoflurane anesthesia. (United States)

    Sakata, Derek J; Gopalakrishnan, Nishant A; Orr, Joseph A; White, Julia L; Westenskow, Dwayne R


    To shorten emergence time after a procedure using volatile anesthesia, 78% of anesthesiologists recently surveyed used hyperventilation to rapidly clear the anesthetic from the lungs. Hyperventilation has not been universally adapted into clinical practice because it also decreases the Paco2, which decreases cerebral bloodflow and depresses respiratory drive. Adding deadspace to the patient's airway may be a simple and safe method of maintaining a normal or slightly increased Paco2 during hyperventilation. We evaluated the differences in emergence time in 20 surgical patients undergoing 1 MAC of isoflurane under mild hypocapnia (ETco2 approximately 28 mmHg) and mild hypercapnia (ETco2 approximately 55 mmHg). The minute ventilation in half the patients was doubled during emergence, and hypercapnia was maintained by insertion of additional airway deadspace to keep the ETco2 close to 55 mmHg during hyperventilation. A charcoal canister adsorbed the volatile anesthetic from the deadspace. Fresh gas flows were increased to 10 L/min during emergence in all patients. The time between turning off the vaporizer and the time when the patients opened their eyes and mouths, the time of tracheal extubation, and the time for normalized bispectral index to increase to 0.95 were faster whenever hypercapnic hyperventilation was maintained using rebreathing and anesthetic adsorption (P anesthesia can be shortened significantly by using hyperventilation to rapidly clear the anesthetic from the lungs and CO2 rebreathing to induce hypercapnia during hyperventilation. The device should be considered when it is important to provide a rapid emergence, especially after surgical procedures where a high concentration of the volatile anesthetic was maintained right up to the end of the procedure, or where surgery ends abruptly and without warning.

  13. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.). (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W


    Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  14. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eLoudon


    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to unfold and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  15. Grustal shortening in the Alpine Orogen: Results from deep seismic reflection profiling in the eastern Swiss Alps, Line NFP 20-east (United States)

    Pfiffner, O. A.; Frei, W.; Valasek, P.; StäUble, M.; Levato, L.; Dubois, L.; Schmid, S. M.; Smithson, S. B.


    The deep crustal seismic line NFP 20-EAST crosses almost the entire Swiss Alps. Despite the complex geometry of the well-exposed nappe structure and the considerable axial plunge of some of the units, the Vibroseis survey yielded coherent reflections from several individually identifiable nappe contacts. In the northern part of the survey the Vibroseis data closely match the internal structure of the Helvetic nappes and the underlying autochthonous-parautochthonous Mesozoic sediments. On the northern flank of the Aar massif, an external basement uplift, these Mesozoic sediments seem to rise from a depth of approximately 7-8 km below sea level to the surface in a series of steps which is interpreted to represent crustal shortening achieved by a combination of folding and thrusting. In the southern part of the survey it was possible to image a number of thin slivers of Mesozoic carbonates pinched between slabs of Penninic basement nappes as well as nappe contacts between lithologically contrasting units. In addition, it seems that the Insubric fault zone, which marks the contact between the Penninic zone and the Southern Alps and which outcrops about 30 km to the south of the survey, shows up as steeply north dipping reflections. The lower European crust in the northern part of the survey is relatively transparent as opposed to the Adriatic lower crust, whose reflective nature may stem from shear zones associated with Mesozoic crustal stretching. The base of both the European and Adriatic crust coincides with a 1-s-thick band of laterally discontinuous reflections. This reflection Moho drops to greater depths going from the north toward the center of the Alpine chain, where it disappears with a steep southerly dip. The Moho reappears as a reflection band farther south. This Moho gap is situated above the lithospheric root and may be caused by perturbations related to subduction of lower crustal material. The crustal-scale structure obtained from the Vibroseis data

  16. Radiation effects in bulk silicon (United States)

    Claeys, Cor; Vanhellemont, Jan


    This paper highlights important aspects related to irradiation effects in bulk silicon. Some basic principles related to the interaction of radiation with material, i.e. ionization and atomic displacement, are briefly reviewed. A physical understanding of radiation effects strongly depends on the availability of appropriate analytical tools. These tools are critically accessed from a silicon bulk viewpoint. More detailed information, related to the properties of the bulk damage and some dedicated application aspects, is given for both electron and proton irradiations. Emphasis is placed on radiation environments encountered during space missions and on their influence on the electrical performance of devices such as memories and image sensors.

  17. Contraction-specific differences in maximal muscle power during stretch-shortening cycle movements in elderly males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Simonsen, Erik Bruun


    Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions......Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions...

  18. Binge-type behavior in rats consuming trans-fat-free shortening. (United States)

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W


    Studies from this and another laboratory involving an animal model of binge-type behavior have used vegetable shortening containing trans-fats. Due to reformulations by vegetable shortening manufacturers to remove trans-fats from their products, only trans-fat-free shortenings are now available. The goal of the present study was to assess binge-type behavior in rats with trans-fat and trans-free vegetable shortening. Trans-fat-free shortening was provided to three different groups of non-food-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats on different schedules of access: continuous access (24 h/day-7 days/week), daily access (1 h every day), and intermittent access (1 h on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays). Trans-fat shortening was provided to a fourth group on the intermittent access schedule. A fifth group had no shortening access (chow only). Both intermittent groups (trans-fat-free and trans-fat) consumed significantly more shortening during the 1-h period of availability than did the daily group, and there was no difference in shortening intakes between the intermittent groups. These results are identical to previous reports of binge-type behavior in rats using this model. Thus, binge-type behavior in the present behavioral model depends upon the schedule of access, not the presence of trans-fats in the shortening.

  19. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    m2 for stable ... Keywords. Cambay basin; P-wave velocity; heat flow; heat generation; 2-D modelling; crustal thermal structure; Moho depth; Curie isotherm. ... major disadvantage of ignoring the effect of lateral variation in the heat production ...

  20. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope (United States)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.


    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  1. Crustal Structure beneath Mexico from Receiver Functions (United States)

    Espindola, V.; Quintanar, L.; Espindola, J.


    The Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN) is Mexico's official organism in charge of the observation of seismicity in the country. Operated by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, it counts with 32 broadband stations deployed throughout the country. The coverage includes most of the geologic provinces of the territory, which vary widely in their geologic characteristics. The availability of records from teleseisms at those stations makes feasible to obtain sound and homogeneous estimates of the structure of the crust in the Mexican territory through the analysis of receiver functions (RF). In this work we present the results of the analysis of RF obtained from events registered from 1998 to 2009 in the 32 stations of the SSN. The RF technique, which uses converted phases at major velocity discontinuities, is a well established technique to infer the velocity contrasts and thickness of the underlying crust. Using this method we were able to infer the depth of the Moho, a major intracrustal discontinuity and in some cases the depth to the base of the subducting plate. We present maps of crustal thickness in Mexico, which varies between about 29 km in the Yucatan peninsula to more than 40 km in central Mexico. Poisson's coefficient varies between 0.19 and 0.30. The position of the descending slab shows a large variation in the subduction angle (from about 6° in the SE margin of the Pacific coast to about 60° in the NW ) as has been found from other techniques.

  2. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone


    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  3. Proceedings of BulkTrans '89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Papers were presented on bulk commodity demand; steel industry bulk trades; grains and the world food economy; steam coal and cement demand; shipping profitability; bulk carrier design and economics; bulk ports and terminals; ship unloading; computers in bulk terminals; and conveyors and stockyard equipment.

  4. Combatting bulking sludge with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, B.; Heine, W.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering


    Bulking and floating sludge cause great problems in many waste water treatment plants with biological nutrient removal. The purification as well as the sludge digestion process can be affected. These problems are due to the interlaced structure of filamentous microorganisms, which have an impact on the sludge's settling behaviour. Foam is able to build up a stable layer, which does not settle in the secondary clarifier. Foam in digestion causes a reduction of the degree of stabilisation and of the biogas production. We use low-frequency ultrasound to combat filamentous organisms in bulking sludge. Low-frequency ultrasound is suitable to create high local shear stresses, which are capable of breaking the filamentous structures of the sludge. After preliminary lab-scale tests now a full-scale new ultrasound equipment is operating at Reinfeld sewage treatment plant, Germany. The objective of this study is to explore the best ultrasound configuration to destroy the filamentous structure of bulking and foaming sludge in a substainable way. Later this study will also look into the effects of ultrasound treated bulking sludge on the anaerobic digestion process. Up to now results show that the settling behaviour of bulking sludge is improved. The minimal ultrasound energy input for destruction of bulking structure was determined. (orig.)

  5. The Sub-Crustal Stress Field in the Taiwan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer and Mehdi Eshagh


    Full Text Available We investigate the sub-crustal stress in the Taiwan region. A tectonic configuration in this region is dominated by a collision between the Philippine oceanic plate and the Eurasian continental margin. The horizontal components of the sub-crustal stress are computed based on the modified _ formulae in terms of the stress function with a subsequent numerical differentiation. This modification increases the (degree-dependent convergence domain of the asymptotically-convergent series and consequently allows evaluating the stress components to a spectral resolution, which is compatible with currently available global crustal models. Moreover, the solution to the Vening _ (VMM inverse isostasy problem is explicitly incorporated in the stress function definition. The sub-crustal stress is then computed for a variable Moho geometry, instead of assuming only a constant Moho depth. The regional results reveal that the Philippine plate subduction underneath the Eurasian continental margin generates the shear sub-crustal stress along the Ryukyu Trench. Some stress anomalies associated with this subduction are also detected along both sides of the Okinawa Trough. A tensional stress along this divergent tectonic plate boundary is attributed to a back-arc rifting. The sub-crustal stress, which is generated by a (reverse subduction of the Eurasian plate under the Philippine plate, propagates along both sides of the Luzon (volcanic Arc. This stress field has a prevailing compressional pattern.

  6. Crustal thickness investigation on three broadband stations in Northern Sumatra (United States)

    Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Soedjatmiko, B.; Amran, A.


    We present a preliminary result of crustal thickness in Northern Sumatra from receiver function analysis and grid search. Total of 111 teleseismic events from three broadband stations (TPTI, KCSI, and BSI) of IA-Network were used to calculate the receiver functions. We identified direct P and S arrival from the receiver function. Converted phases Ps were relatively clear for all three broadband stations. Ps-P time was estimated about 2 - 3 s, 2 s, and 5 - 6 s for station TPTI, KCSI, and BSI, respectively. We applied H-k stacking method to obtain crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath the three broadband stations. At station TPTI, we obtained the crustal thickness is about 19.54 ± 3.84 km, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.73 ± 0.14. At station KCSI, the crustal thickness was estimated to be 37.07 ± 4.47 km, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.84 ± 0.10. At station BSI, which is located to the north of these two stations, the crustal thickness was estimated to be 40.56 ± 2.26 km, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.81 ± 0.05. These results show relatively large variation of crustal thickness in the Northern Sumatra.

  7. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng


    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  8. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi


    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  9. Hypercapnic hyperventilation shortens emergence time from Propofol and Isoflurane anesthesia. (United States)

    Yaraghi, Ahmad; Golparvar, Mohammad; Talakoub, Reihanak; Sateie, Hossein; Mehrabi, Ali


    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of hypercapnic hyperventilation and normocapnic normoventilation on emergence time from propofol and isoflurane anesthesia. In this clinical trial, the differences in emergence time were evaluated in 80 patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery in Alzahra University hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2011-2012. Patients were randomly divided into four groups (groups 1-4) receiving isoflurane hypercapnic hyperventilation, isoflurane normocapnic normoventilation, propofol hypercapnic hyperventilation, and propofol normocapnic normoventilation, respectively. Hypercapnia was maintained by adding CO2 to the patient's inspired gas during hyperventilation. The emergence time and the duration of stay in recovery room in the four groups were measured and compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference tests. The average emergence time in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were (11.3 ± 3.2), (15.2 ± 3.8), (9 ± 4.2) and (11.8 ± 5.3) min, respectively. These differences were significant (P = 0.001). In patients receiving propofol hypercapnic hyperventilation, the emergence time was faster than in other groups. There was also a significant difference in duration of stay in recovery room between the groups (P = 0.004). Patients who received isoflurane hypercapnic hyperventilation had a shortest length of stay in the recovery room. The emergence time after intravenous anesthesia with propofol can be shortened significantly by using hyperventilation and hypercapnia, without any side effects.

  10. Hypercapnia shortens emergence time from inhaled anesthesia in pigs. (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nishant A; Sakata, Derek J; Orr, Joseph A; McJames, Scott; Westenskow, Dwayne R


    Anesthetic clearance from the lungs and the circle rebreathing system can be maximized using hyperventilation and high fresh gas flows. However, the concomitant clearance of CO2 decreases PAco2, thereby decreasing cerebral blood flow and slowing the clearance of anesthetic from the brain. This study shows that in addition to hyperventilation, hypercapnia (CO2 infusion or rebreathing) is a significant factor in decreasing emergence time from inhaled anesthesia. We anesthetized seven pigs with 2 MACPIG of isoflurane and four with 2 MACPIG of sevoflurane. After 2 h, anesthesia was discontinued, and the animals were hyperventilated. The time to movement of multiple limbs was measured under hypocapnic (end-tidal CO2 = 22 mm Hg) and hypercapnic (end-tidal CO2 = 55 mm Hg) conditions. The time between turning off the vaporizer and to movement of multiple limbs was faster with hypercapnia during hyperventilation. Emergence time from isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia was shortened by an average of 65% with rebreathing or with the use of a CO2 controller (P hyperventilation, may be used clinically to decrease emergence time from inhaled anesthesia. These time savings might reduce drug costs. In addition, higher PAco2 during emergence may enhance respiratory drive and airway protection after tracheal extubation.

  11. Utilization of zero-trans non-interesterified and interesterified shortenings in cookie production. (United States)

    Dinç, Saliha; Javidipour, Issa; Ozbas, Ozen Özboy; Tekin, Aziz


    The effects of zero-trans chemically interesterified (in-es) and non-interesterified (non-in-es) cottonseed (CO), hazelnut (HO) and olive oil (OO) and their blends (25, 50 and 75%) with palm oil (PO) were studied in the production of cookies. All the experimental shortenings had zero-trans fatty acids (TFA) while the shortening contained 14.20% TFA. Incorporation of CO in PO considerably increased the linoleic acid content whereas the raising of HO and OO ratio in the blend increased the oleic acid content. Zero-TFA and lower saturated /unsaturated fatty acid ratio (SFA/UFA) of some of the experimental shortenings indicated an important in nutritional properties of cookies produced from these experimental shortenings. Cookies with in-es shortenings showed significantly higher (p cookie shortenings with zero-TFA.

  12. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.


    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  13. Precambrian Crustal Evolution of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis (Invited) (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Helffrich, G. R.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.


    The processes that formed, thickened and thinned the early Earth's crust remain poorly known. The onset of modern plate tectonics, for example, could be as far back as the Hadean or as late as the Neoproterozoic. In many cratons, vertical processes are believed to have been dominant (dome-and-keel tectonics, e.g. Pilbara craton), while others are hypothesised to have formed by the progressive accretion of different terranes (e.g. Superior craton). The Hudson Bay region represents one of the largest areas of Precambrian geology on the planet, with ages spanning 2 billion years (3.9-1.8 Ga). The western Churchill province contains the predominantly Paleo- to Mesoarchean Rae domain and the Neoarchean Hearne domain, and is welded to the Superior craton by the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, a Himalayan scale feature which extends for more than 4500 km along strike. The Churchill has received comparatively little scientific investigation due to its remote location and harsh climate. In order to test hypotheses on crustal formation and evolution during the Precambrian, teleseismic receiver functions have been analysed for more than 30 stations located on the key geological features in the vicinity of Hudson Bay. Across the entire Rae domain, a dominantly felsic crust with a sharp Moho is observed. Little evidence exists to interpret the vast extent of the felsic crust in terms of subduction related processes. Within the granite-greenstone terranes of the Hearne domain, a more intermediate bulk composition and complex Moho signature may be representative of an oceanic affinity for the crust, suggesting accretionary processes acted there. In the Quebec-Baffin Island region, bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are dominated by effects associated with the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and appear to map out the first-order shape of the indenting lower-plate. Correlation between terrane age and receiver function-derived crustal structure suggests that the crust in northern Canada was

  14. Plume-driven plumbing and crustal formation in Iceland (United States)

    Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Vogfjord, K.; Nettles, M.; Ekstrom, G.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Foulger, G.R.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Julian, B.R.; Pritchard, M.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.


    Through combination of surface wave and body wave constraints we derive a three-dimensional (3-D) crustal S velocity model and Moho map for Iceland. It reveals a vast plumbing system feeding mantle plume melt into upper crustal magma chambers where crustal formation takes place. The method is based on the partitioned waveform inversion to which we add additional observations. Love waves from six local events recorded on the HOTSPOT-SIL networks are fitted, Sn travel times from the same events measured, previous observations of crustal thickness are added, and all three sets of constraints simultaneously inverted for our 3-D model. In the upper crust (0-15 km) an elongated low-velocity region extends along the length of the Northern, Eastern and Western Neovolcanic Zones. The lowest velocities (-7%) are found at 5-10 km below the two most active volcanic complexes: Hekla and Bardarbunga-Grimsvotn. In the lower crust (>15 km) the low-velocity region can be represented as a vertical cylinder beneath central Iceland. The low-velocity structure is interpreted as the thermal halo of pipe work which connects the region of melt generation in the uppermost mantle beneath central Iceland to active volcanoes along the neovolcanic zones. Crustal thickness in Iceland varies from 15-20 km beneath the Reykjanes Peninsula, Krafla and the extinct Snfellsnes rift zone, to 46 km beneath central Iceland. The average crustal thickness is 29 km. The variations in thickness can be explained in terms of the temporal variation in plume productivity over the last ~20 Myr, the Snfellsnes rift zone being active during a minimum in plume productivity. Variations in crustal thickness do not depart significantly from an isostatically predicted crustal thickness. The best fit linear isostatic relation implies an average density jump of 4% across the Moho. Rare earth element inversions of basalt compositions on Iceland suggest a melt thickness (i.e., crustal thickness) of 15-20 km, given passive

  15. Physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of palm diacylglycerol bakery shortening during storage. (United States)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah; Affandi Yusoff, Mohd Suria; Lai, Oi-Ming


    Diacylglycerol (DAG), which has health-enhancing properties, is sometimes added to bakery shortening to produce baked products with enhanced physical functionality. Nevertheless, the quantity present is often too little to exert any positive healthful effects. This research aimed to produce bakery shortenings containing significant amounts of palm diacyglycerol (PDG). Physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of the PDG bakery shortenings during 3 months storage were evaluated and compared with those of commercial bakery shortening (CS). PDG bakery shortenings (DS55, DS64 and DS73) had less significant increments in slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and hardness during storage as compared to CS. Unlike CS, melting behaviour and viscoelastic properties of PDG bakery shortenings remained unchanged during storage. As for polymorphic transformation, CS contained only β crystals after 8 weeks of storage. PDG bakery shortenings managed to retard polymorphic transformation for up to 10 weeks of storage in DS55 and 12 weeks of storage in DS64 and DS73. PDG bakery shortenings had similar if not better storage stability as compared to CS. This is mainly due to the ability of DAG to retard polymorphic transformation from β' to β crystals. Thus, incorporation of DAG improved physical functionality of bakery shortening. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Different Muscle-Energetics during Shortening and Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jarosch


    Full Text Available The helical shape of the thin filaments causes their passive counterclockwise rotation during muscle stretch that increases tensile stress and torque at first by unwinding and then by winding up the four anchoring Z-filaments. This means storage of energy in the series elastic Z-filaments and a considerable decrease of the liberated energy of heat and work to (h—wap, where h is the heat energy and wap the stretch energy induced from outside by an apparatus. The steep thin filament helix with an inclination angle of 70° promotes the passive rotation during stretch, but impedes the smooth sliding of shortening by increased friction and production of frictional heat. The frictional heat may be produced by the contact with the myosin cross-bridges: (1 when they passively snap on drilling thin filaments from cleft to cleft over a distance 2 × 2.7 nm = 5.4 nm between the globular actin monomers in one groove, causing stepwise motion; or (2 when they passively cycle from one helical groove to the next (distance 36 nm. The latter causes more heat and may take place on rotating thin filaments without an effective forward drilling (“idle rotation”, e.g., when they produce “unexplained heat” at the beginning of an isometric tetanus. In an Appendix to this paper the different states of muscle are defined. The function of its most important components is described and rotation model and power-stroke model of muscular contraction is compared.

  17. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: [Department of physics, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India); Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, IIT Bombay-400076, Mumbai (India)


    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ∼5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  18. Deep Crustal Structure Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Christeson, Gail; Eddy, Drew; van Avendonk, Harm; Norton, Ian; Karner, Garry; Johnson, Chris; Kneller, Erik; Snedden, John


    The Gulf of Mexico is a small ocean basin between the US and Mexico that opened up soon after the breakup of Pangea. Although the area has been heavily surveyed with seismic reflection profiles, the deep structure of the region is poorly understood because of lack of penetration beneath the thick sediments and salt. We present the results of two wide-angle seismic refraction profiles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico that constrain seismic velocities and thicknesses of the sediments and crust from the continental shelf to deep ocean basin. Profile GUMBO 3 extends 523 km from offshore Alabama south-southwest via the De Soto Canyon to the central Gulf of Mexico, while GUMBO 4 extends 507 km from the northwestern Florida peninsula across the Florida Escarpment to the central Gulf of Mexico. On both profiles, ocean bottom seismometers were positioned at 12-km spacing, and recorded air gun shots at offsets >100 km. We use a tomographic inversion of first-arrival and secondary travel time picks from these data to build a layered velocity model (water, sediments, crystalline crust, mantle) along each profile. On GUMBO 3 and GUMBO 4 the thickness of crystalline crust from the continental shelf to the deep basin decreases from ~25 km to ~7 km (GUMBO 4) or ~8 km (GUMBO 3) over a horizontal distance of ~150 km. Velocities of 7-7.5 km/s are observed at the base of the crust along most of GUMBO 3, while velocities of 6.5-7 km/s are observed at similar depths along GUMBO 4. We suggest that higher lower crustal velocities, and thicker oceanic crust, on GUMBO 3 compared to GUMBO 4 may be explained by elevated syn-rift mantle temperatures in the vicinity of the De Soto Canyon and South Georgia Rift during rifting and continental breakup. We have integrated seismic refraction, seismic reflection, and well data to interpret sequence stratigraphic units along GUMBO 3 and GUMBO 4. We have constructed a geologic history of the late-Jurassic/early-Cretaceous, beginning first with Louann

  19. A hill type model of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle that accounts for shortening history effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Linden, B.J.J.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.


    The aim of the present study was to develop a Hill type muscle model that accounts for the effects of shortening history. For this purpose, a function was derived that relates force depression to starting length, shortening amplitude and contraction velocity. History parameters were determined from

  20. Limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, Maciej [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Poznan (Poland); Ignys-O' Byrne, Anna [J. Strus City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland); Ignys, Iwona [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan (Poland); Wroblewska, Katarzyna [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland)


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the frequency of limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment. The correlation between the mode of treatment as well as the occurrence of pathological fracture, cyst location, volume, and locularity were examined. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 135 patients where 80 underwent curettage and bone grafting and 55 were administered methylprednisolone injection with a mean time to follow-up of 12 years. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation, limb shortening was found in ten patients when the data before and after treatment was compared. Limb shortening ranging from 1 to 5 cm during the course of the treatment was observed: six in humerus, two in femur, two in tibia. Those with epiphyseal changes, magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the degree of growth plate damage was performed. Patients with and without limb shortening did not differ statistically regarding the applied method of treatment. The cyst volume was significantly larger in the group of patients with limb shortening when compared to the group of patients with no limb shortening. In patients treated with curettage and bone grafting, the mode of treatment does not increase the frequency of occurrence of iatrogenic limb shortening. In patients with limb shortening, a statistically significant larger volume of the cyst was observed. (orig.)

  1. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, W. van der; Ouwehand, C.; van Rijn, P.; Lee, N.C.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Jolles, J.


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively

  2. The shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item response Theory- based psychometric analyses and normative data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, W.; Ouwehand, C.; van Rijn, P.; Lee, N.C.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Jolles, J.


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively

  3. Influence of muscle geometry on shortening speed of fibre, aponeurosis and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Huijing, P. A.


    The influence of muscle geometry on muscle shortening of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat was studied. Using cinematography, GM geometry was studied during isokinetic concentric activity at muscle lengths ranging from 85 to 105% of the optimum muscle length. The shortening speed of

  4. Shortened preoperative fasting for prevention of complications associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Xu, Duo; Zhu, Xuejiao; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Liqing


    Objective Routine fasting (12 h) is always applied before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but prolonged preoperative fasting causes thirst, hunger, and irritability as well as dehydration, low blood glucose, insulin resistance and other adverse reactions. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a shortened preoperative fasting period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to 20 November 2015 and selected controlled trials with a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We assessed the results by performing a meta-analysis using a variety of outcome measures and investigated the heterogeneity by subgroup analysis. Results Eleven trials were included. Forest plots showed that a shortened fasting time reduced the operative risk and patient discomfort. A shortened fasting time also reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting as well as operative vomiting. With respect to glucose metabolism, a shortened fasting time significantly reduced abnormalities in the ratio of insulin sensitivity. The C-reactive protein concentration was also reduced by a shortened fasting time. Conclusions A shortened preoperative fasting time increases patients' postoperative comfort, improves insulin resistance, and reduces stress responses. This evidence supports the clinical application of a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  5. Assisting High School Students with Career Indecision Using a Shortened Form of the Career Construction Interview (United States)

    Rehfuss, Mark C.; Sickinger, Pamela H.


    A shortened form of the Career Construction Interview (CCI) was used to help high school students struggling with the career decision making process. The shortened instrument is described, as well as, its use with eleventh grade high school students who had low levels of career concern and career curiosity. Students who completed the exercise…

  6. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty


    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  7. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja


    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  8. Bulk fields with brane terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, F. del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales (CAFPE), Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Perez-Victoria, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Santiago, J. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    In theories with branes, bulk fields get in general divergent corrections localized on these defects. Hence, the corresponding brane terms are renormalized and should be included in the effective theory from the very beginning. We review the phenomenology associated to brane kinetic terms for different spins and backgrounds, and point out that renormalization is required already at the classical level. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.


    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  10. Combined crustal-geological cross-section of Ellesmere Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian; Oakey, Gordon

    Ellesmere Island, in Canada’s Arctic, consists of a series of ~SW-NE trending tectonic provinces, the crustal structure and geological expression of which represent a combination of interplate, accretionary orogenesis in the Palaeozoic and, most recently, intraplate deformation in the Cenozoic...... (Eurekan “Orogeny”). An almost complete absence of information about the crustal or lithosphere structure of Ellesmere Island has been addressed by the acquisition of teleseismic data between 2010 and 2012 on a passive seismological array called ELLITE (“Ellesmere Island Teleseismic Experiment......”). The ELLITE array consisted of seven broadband stations, deployed for two years on a 520 km long, N-S orientated profile and was logistically supported by the GSC (Canada) and SEIS-UK. Extracted Receiver Functions (RFs) and a resulting composite two-dimensional crustal scale cross-section of Ellesmere Island...

  11. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.


    and underthusting of AD mantle below PA from southwest to northeast. The Moho fragmentation correlates well with major upper crustal structures and is supported by gravity, seismic, and geodetic data. An analysis of crustal thickening suggests that active convergence is associated with continued thrusting...... and lateral extrusion in the central Eastern Alps and thickening of the Adriatic indenter under the Southern Alps. According to the velocity relations at the triple junction, PA moves relative to EU and AD along ENE and SE striking faults, mainly by strike slip. An eastward directed extensional component...

  12. Rheology of Melt-bearing Crustal Rocks (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Medvedev, S.; Handy, M. R.


    A review and reinterpretation of previous experimental data on the deformation of melt-bearing crustal rocks (Rosenberg and Handy, 2005) revealed that the relationship of aggregate strength to melt fraction is non-linear, even if plotted on a linear ordinate and abscissa. At melt fractions, Φ 0.07, the dependence of aggregate strength on Φ is significantly greater than at Φ > 0.07. This melt fraction (Φ= 0.07) marks the transition from a significant increase in the proportion of melt-bearing grain boundaries up to this point to a minor increase thereafter. Therefore, we suggest that the increase of melt-interconnectivity causes the dramatic strength drop between the solidus and a melt fraction of 0.07. A second strength drop occurs at higher melt fractions and corresponds to the breakdown of the solid (crystal) framework, corresponding to the well-known "rheologically critical melt percentage" (RCMP; Arzi, 1978). Although the strength drop at the RCMP is about 4 orders of magnitude, the absolute value of this drop is small compared to the absolute strength of the unmelted aggregate, rendering the RCMP invisible in a linear aggregate strength vs. melt fraction diagram. Predicting the rheological properties and thresholds of melt-bearing crust on the basis of the results and interpretations above is very difficult, because the rheological data base was obtained from experiments performed at undrained conditions in the brittle field. These conditions are unlikely to represent the flow of partially melted crust. The measured strength of most of the experimentally deformed, partially-melted samples corresponds to their maximum differential stress, before the onset of brittle failure, not to their viscous strength during "ductile" (viscous) flow. To overcome these problems, we extrapolated a theoretically-derived flow law for partially melted granite deforming by diffusion-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (Paterson, 2001) and an experimentally-derived flow law for

  13. Crystal Histories and Crustal Magmas: Insights into Magma Storage from U-Series Crystal Ages (United States)

    Cooper, K. M.


    The dynamic processes operating within crustal magma reservoirs control many aspects of the chemical composition of erupted magmas, and crystals in volcanic rocks can provide a temporally-constrained archive of these changing environments. A new compilation of 238U-230Th ages of accessory phases and 238U-230Th-226Ra ages of bulk mineral separates of major phases documents that crystals in individual samples often have ages spanning most of the history of a volcanic center. Somewhat surprisingly, this observation holds for surface analyses as well as interior analyses, indicating that the latest stages of growth took place at different times for different grains. Nevertheless, average ages of surfaces are younger than interiors (as expected), and the dominant surface age population is often within error of eruption age. In contrast to accessory phase ages, less than half of the bulk separate 238U-230Th-226Ra ages for major phases are more than 10 kyr older than eruption. This suggests that major phases may in general reflect a later stage of development of an eruptible magma body than do accessory phases, or that the extent of discordance between ages of major and accessory phases reflects the extent to which a crystal mush was remobilized during processes leading to eruption. Crystal ages are most useful for illuminating magmatic processes when combined with crystal-scale trace-element or isotopic data, and I will present several case studies where such combined data sets exist. For example, at Yellowstone and at Okataina Caldera Complex, New Zealand, the combination zircon surface and interior analyses (of age, Hf isotopic, and trace-element data) with bulk dating and in-situ trace-element and isotopic compositions of feldspar allows a comparison of the early history of storage in a crystal mush with the later history of melt extraction and further crystallization prior to eruption, thus tracking development of erupted magma bodies from storage through eruption.

  14. Seismic Imaging across the Moroccan Atlas (SIMA): An effort to constrain the crustal thickness of the Atlas Mountains (United States)

    Carbonell, R.; Ayarza, P.; Harnafi, M.; Teixell, A.; Kchikah, A.; Martí, D.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M.; Charroud, M.; Amrhar, M.


    The Atlas Mountains are a young intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt located at the southern edge of the diffuse plate boundary zone separating Africa and Europe. The Atlas features a high topography that locally exceeds 4000 m. However, geological and preliminary geophysical studies suggest that it has experienced less than 25% of shortening and moderate crustal thickening. These observations rise the question of the origin of the Atlas high elevation. Potential field geophysical studies and previous low-resolution refraction experiments report a maximum crustal thickness of ~40 km, suggesting that the range is out of isostatic equilibrium at a crustal level and that an asthenospheric upwelling is needed to support the mountain load. These models, however, lack the constraints that would provide the knowledge of the precise Moho depth. In order to fulfill this requirement and to constrain the seismic velocity structure of this mountain system, a 700 km long, seismic wide-angle reflection and refraction transect has been recently acquired by an international team. The north-south transect extends from the Sahara Desert south of Merzouga, to Ceuta at the Gibraltar arc, crossing the High and Middle Atlas and the Rif mountains. Seismic energy released at 6 shot points generated by the detonation of 1 TN of explosives was recorded by ~ 900 Reftek-125a seismic recorders from the IRIS-PASSCAL pool. Seismic stations were deployed with an average spacing of 650-750 m. The 6 shot points were located within the southern part of the transect with a shot spacing of ~60-70 km. Preliminary analysis of data shows an uneven distribution of the energy, providing a poor signal/ratio relation at longest offsets, thus hindering the identification of the deepest phases. However, crustal phases (Pg and PiP) and mantle reflected/refracted phases (PmP and Pn) are present in most of the shot gathers. Preliminary modelling of these phases leads to an estimation of the changes in the

  15. Lower-crustal flow and detachment in the North American Cordillera: a consequence of Cordillera-wide high temperatures (United States)

    Hyndman, R. D.


    In this paper, I make the case for widespread lower-crustal detachment and flow in the North American Cordillera. An indicator that geologically recent flow has occurred comes from seismic structure data showing the crust in most of the Cordillera from Mexico to Alaska is uniformly thin, 33 ± 3 km, with a remarkably flat Moho. The flat Moho is in spite of extensive normal faulting and shortening that might be expected to deform the Moho. It has been concluded previously that the high topographic elevations are due to thermal expansion from Cordillera-wide high temperatures compared to stable areas, not due to a crustal root. I argue that the constant crustal thickness and flat Moho also are a consequence of temperatures sufficiently hot for flow in the lower crust. Lower-crust detachment and flow has previously been inferred for Tibet and the high Andes where the crust is thick such that unusually high temperatures are expected. More surprising is the similar conclusion for the Basin and Range of western USA where the crust is thin, but high temperatures have been inferred to result from current extension. There are now adequate data to conclude the Basin and Range is not unique in crustal thickness or in temperature. The crust in most of the Cordillera is similarly hot in common with many other backarcs. Five thermal constraints are discussed that indicate that for most of the Cordillera, the temperature at the Moho is 800-850 °C compared to 400-450 °C in stable areas. At these temperatures, the effective viscosity is low enough for flow near the base of the crust. The backarc Moho may be viewed as a boundary between almost 'liquid' lower crust over a higher viscosity, but still weak upper mantle. The temperatures are sufficiently high for the Moho to relax to a nearly horizontal gravitational equipotential over a few tens of millions of years. The inference of a weak lower crust also suggests that topography over horizontal scales of over 100 km must be short

  16. Crustal Gravitational Potential Energy Change and Subduction Earthquakes (United States)

    Zhu, P. P.


    Crustal gravitational potential energy (GPE) change induced by earthquakes is an important subject in geophysics and seismology. For the past forty years the research on this subject stayed in the stage of qualitative estimate. In recent few years the 3D dynamic faulting theory provided a quantitative solution of this subject. The theory deduced a quantitative calculating formula for the crustal GPE change using the mathematic method of tensor analysis under the principal stresses system. This formula contains only the vertical principal stress, rupture area, slip, dip, and rake; it does not include the horizontal principal stresses. It is just involved in simple mathematical operations and does not hold complicated surface or volume integrals. Moreover, the hanging wall vertical moving (up or down) height has a very simple expression containing only slip, dip, and rake. The above results are significant to investigate crustal GPE change. Commonly, the vertical principal stress is related to the gravitational field, substituting the relationship between the vertical principal stress and gravitational force into the above formula yields an alternative formula of crustal GPE change. The alternative formula indicates that even with lack of in situ borehole measured stress data, scientists can still quantitatively calculate crustal GPE change. The 3D dynamic faulting theory can be used for research on continental fault earthquakes; it also can be applied to investigate subduction earthquakes between oceanic and continental plates. Subduction earthquakes hold three types: (a) crust only on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (b) crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (c) crust only on the vertical up side of the partial rupture area, and crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the remaining rupture area. For each type we provide its quantitative formula of the crustal GPE change. We also establish a simplified model (called

  17. Crustal structure across the Central American Volcanic Arc in Costa Rica from TICO-CAVA seismic refraction data (United States)

    Hayes, J. L.; Holbrook, W. S.; Lizarralde, D.; Avendonck, H.; Bullock, A. D.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Harder, S. H.; Alvarado, G. E.


    modeled beneath Barva volcano at 5 km depth, possibly indicating a relict magma chamber; these results agree with models of magma chambers at 2.5-5 km depth in a neighboring volcano, Irazú. Overall, velocities across the Central American Volcanic arc in Costa Rica are at the low-velocity extreme of modern arc velocities and higher than average bulk continental crust (Christensen and Mooney, 1995). Mid-crustal velocities in the Paleocene arc are ~0.3 km/s slower than those in the active arc and are within the error of bulk continental crust, suggesting more felsic magmatism during subduction initiation.

  18. Fatigue-induced reductions of torque and shortening velocity are muscle dependent. (United States)

    Cheng, Arthur J; Rice, Charles L


    In addition to torque (force) loss during dynamic fatiguing contractions, an important aspect of fatigue is the reduction in shortening velocity. Relatively few reports have studied changes in shortening velocity in response to fatigue, and inconsistencies in the results might depend on the muscle tested. To better understand fatigue-related changes in shortening velocity in different muscles, we compared the fatigue response of two muscles in humans with different physiological properties using the same criterion for task failure. During separate sessions for the triceps brachii and soleus, 10 young males performed repetitive shortening contractions with a moderate load (50% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque) until they achieved a 50% reduction in loaded shortening velocity at task failure. In the unfatigued condition, these muscles expressed different physiological features with similar power output but approximately 1.5 times slower shortening velocity, approximately 1.4 times slower normalized evoked 50-Hz maximum rate of relaxation, and approximately 47% lower postactivation potentiation in the soleus compared with the triceps brachii. During the fatiguing task, significantly less total work was performed in the soleus ( approximately 1986 J) compared with the triceps brachii ( approximately 3940 J), suggesting greater endurance in the triceps brachii. Despite similar relative reductions in shortening velocity in both muscles at task failure, the soleus had a smaller reduction in MVC torque than the triceps brachii at task failure. Furthermore, in both muscles, there was a greater reduction at task failure and a faster restoration of shortening velocity compared with MVC torque. Our findings suggest that fatigue-related mechanisms that reduce torque are not the same as those that reduce shortening velocity.

  19. Multiple causes of fatigue during shortening contractions in rat slow twitch skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Halvorsen Hortemo

    Full Text Available Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was induced in rat soleus muscles with maintained blood supply by in situ shortening contractions at 37°C. Muscles were stimulated repeatedly (1 s on/off at 30 Hz for 15 min against a constant load, allowing the muscle to shorten and perform work. Fatigue and subsequent recovery was examined at 20 s, 100 s and 15 min exercise. The effects of prior exercise were investigated in a second exercise bout. Fatigue developed in three distinct phases. During the first 20 s the regulatory protein Myosin Light Chain-2 (slow isoform, MLC-2s was rapidly dephosphorylated in parallel with reduced rate of force development and reduced shortening. In the second phase there was degradation of high-energy phosphates and accumulation of lactate, and these changes were related to slowing of muscle relengthening and relaxation, culminating at 100 s exercise. Slowing of relaxation was also associated with increased leak of calcium from the SR. During the third phase of exercise there was restoration of high-energy phosphates and elimination of lactate, and the slowing of relaxation disappeared, whereas dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening prevailed. Prior exercise improved relaxation parameters in a subsequent exercise bout, and we propose that this effect is a result of less accumulation of lactate due to more rapid onset of oxidative metabolism. The correlation between dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening was confirmed in various experimental settings, and we suggest MLC-2s as an

  20. Force depression following muscle shortening of voluntarily activated and electrically stimulated human adductor pollicis. (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Dong; Herzog, Walter


    The purpose of this study was to investigate steady-state force depression following active muscle shortening in human adductor pollicis during voluntary and electrically induced contractions. Subjects (n = 12; age 28 +/- 5 years; 7 males and 5 females) performed isometric reference contractions and isometric-shortening-isometric contractions, using maximal voluntary effort and near-maximal electrical stimulation. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces produced following active muscle shortening with the purely isometric reference forces obtained at the corresponding muscle length. In order to test for effects of the shortening conditions on the steady-state force depression, the amplitude and speed of shortening were changed systematically in a random order but balanced design. Thumb adduction force and carpometacarpal joint angle were continuously measured using a custom-designed dynamometer. During voluntary contractions, muscle activation was recorded using electromyography and the superimposed twitch technique. During electrically induced contractions, muscle stiffness was assessed using a quick-stretch method. Force depression during voluntary contractions, with a constant level of muscle activation, was similar to that obtained during electrically induced contractions. Force depression increased with increasing amplitudes of shortening (9.9 +/- 1.6%, 15.6 +/- 2.4% and 22.4 +/- 2.4% for 10, 20 and 30 deg of shortening, respectively) and decreased with increasing speeds of shortening (27.1 +/- 2.5%, 19.3 +/- 1.6% and 15.6 +/- 1.8% for 20, 60 and 300 deg s(-1) of shortening, respectively), regardless of the activation method. Muscle stiffness was significantly lower in the force-depressed state (5.9 +/- 0.2 N deg(-1)) compared with that of the isometric reference contractions (7.2 +/- 0.3 N deg(-1)), and decreased with increasing force depression (6.6 +/- 0.5, 6.0 +/- 0.5 and 5.3 +/- 0.4 N deg(-1) for the 10, 20 and 30 deg

  1. Preboundary lengthening and preaccentual shortening across syllables in a trisyllabic word in English. (United States)

    Cho, Taehong; Kim, Jiseung; Kim, Sahyang


    This study demonstrates some new aspects of preboundary lengthening and preaccentual shortening on a test word banana in American English. Preboundary lengthening was found to be extended to the initial unstressed syllable beyond the main-stressed syllable, presenting more complexity than has previously been assumed. Preaccentual shortening was observed regardless of boundary strength or the stress pattern (trochaic vs iambic) of the following context word, suggesting that it operates globally at an utterance level. The locus of preaccentual shortening, however, was modulated by prosodic boundary: It is realized on the final vowel IP-finally but on the non-final stressed vowel IP-medially.

  2. Gravity Constraints On The Crustal Structure of Northern Tunisia (United States)

    Jallouli, Chokri; Mickus, Kevin L.; Turki, Mohamed M.

    Bouguer gravity data were analyzed to determine the general crustal and upper mantle structure in northern Tunisia. Residual gravity anomalies were determined by removing the gravitational effect of crustal thickness variations imaged by regional seismic experiments. Residual gravity anomalies contain short wavelength anomalies superimposed on a long wavelength component that decreases in amplitude northward towards the Tunisian coastline. An edge enhancement analysis (e.g., enhanced analytic signals) of the short wavelength anomalies suggests a previously unknown east-west trending gravity anomaly south of 37°N with source depths between 3 and 7 km. Modeling of the regional, residual and Bouguer gravity anomalies indicate there are two possible solutions for the residual gravity decreasing in northern Tunisia: 1) thickening of Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments north of a strike-slip faults or 2) a crustal and upper mantle low density zone interpreted to be crustal material of the remnant subducted African plate. The latter result is favored based on seismic tomographic images of the Mediterranean region which implies subducting material exists under the African coast, geologic interpretations suggesting the Tell Atlas may be a thrust wedge accreted by underplating of the African continental crust and seismic refraction models indicating a thinning of sediments in northern Tunisia. The east-west trending gravity anomalies south of 37°N corresponds to an important structural feature that could be either a strike slip/transform fault or the northern edge the African plate.

  3. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio

    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  4. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 3. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan and Kerala basins, western continental margin of India. Sheena V Dev M Radhakrishna Shyam Chand C Subrahmanyam. Volume 121 Issue 3 June 2012 pp 813-822 ...

  5. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.


    The subject of this paper concerns the seismic modelling of the crustal structure in the transition zone from the Bohemian Massif, across the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps to the Southern Alps, mainly on the territory of Austria. The CEL10/Alp04 profile crosses the triple point of the Europe...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Oakey, Gordon

    Island is poorly investigated, which leads to large ambiguity and uncertainty of geological interpretations, especially on a crustal and lithospheric scale. To fill this information gap a seismological survey (ELLITE) was performed. A north-south oriented and ~520 km long array, consisting of 7 broadband...

  7. Using Crustal Fluids to Peer Into the Subseafloor Microbial Habitat (United States)

    Huber, J. A.


    In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from the basement are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. These low-temperature crustal fluids are ubiquitous at both active hydrothermal systems and ridge flank environments. Over the last 15 years, studies of the microbial communities in crustal fluids from eruptive events, drill holes, ridge flanks, and hydrothermal seamounts have revealed a phylogenetically and physiologically diverse microbial community, representing a wide spectrum of thermal tolerances and metabolic strategies from both the subseafloor and the deep sea. In addition, emerging technologies in seafloor sampling capacity and microbial ecology are rapidly increasing our ability to study this difficult habitat. This presentation will provide an overview of what we have learned about the population structure, genomic repertoire, and physiological function of microbes in crustal fluids and what the future holds for subseafloor biosphere research. Data will be integrated with geochemical measurements in crustal environments to better define the subseafloor habitat and its resident microbial community.

  8. Crustal thickness of Turkey determined by receiver function (United States)

    Tezel, Timur; Shibutani, Takuo; Kaypak, Bülent


    Two-hundred and sixty-seven teleseismic events with a moment magnitude greater than 5.5 which occurred between January 2005 and October 2010 were analyzed to determine the Moho depth variation beneath Turkey by using the Receiver Function (RF) technique. The RF technique was applied to 120 broadband seismic stations, which were already deployed in the area permanently by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD). The RFs were stacked considering back-azimuth, slowness and waveform similarities to enhance the signal/noise ratio. The genetic algorithm (GA) was used to obtain both 1-D shear-wave speed model and the Moho depth beneath each seismic station. A data set consisting of 112 shear-speed models derived from RFs revealed the crustal structure of Turkey. For imaging, several 2-D profiles of depth-migrated RFs were constructed to delineate the fine crustal structure. The Moho discontinuity is clearly seen on all profiles and the mid-crustal velocity discontinuity within the crust is observed in some profiles. The depth of the Moho varies between 24 and 48 km. The thinnest crustal thickness is located on the coast of Western Turkey, and the deepest Moho boundary is observed in Eastern Turkey. The shear wave velocities vary between 4.0 km/s and 4.5 km/s in the uppermost mantle beneath Turkey.

  9. A proposed concept for a crustal dynamics information management network (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.; Renfrow, J. T.


    The findings of a requirements and feasibility analysis of the present and potential producers, users, and repositories of space-derived geodetic information are summarized. A proposed concept is presented for a crustal dynamics information management network that would apply state of the art concepts of information management technology to meet the expanding needs of the producers, users, and archivists of this geodetic information.

  10. Vertical crustal movements in Southern California, 1974 to 1978 (United States)

    Burford, R.O.; Gilmore, Thomas D.


    An extensive resurvey of most of the first-order leveling network in southern California, known as the Southern California Releveling Program (SCRP), was carried out during the first 5 months of 1978. The primary scientific purpose of these measurements was to rapidly update the vertical control record throughout a recently uplifted region of southern California in order to more thoroughly document the vertical component of tectonic movement and to provide a reliable base for comparison with future levelings. Analyses of historic first-order leveling results have clearly demonstrated that a broad crustal upwarping, largely contained within a region consisting of the Transverse Ranges province and an area along the intervening section of the San Andreas fault system, had developed between about 1959 and 1974. Unfortunately, there is strong evidence that parts of the 1978 SCRP data are contaminated by the effects of intrasurvey tectonic deformation, limited surficial failures, and, less certainly, magnetically induced systematic error associated with the use of automatic levels. However, any distortions in leveling results caused by these or other factors are not so serious as to render the SCRP data useless. In fact, the bulk of these data can be accepted at face value, and most of the remaining data can be incorporated with some caution to augment the more reliable parts of the network. The evaluation of the 1978 leveling is based on a combination of circuit-misclosures, local timing of the field observations, analysis of profiles of apparent height changes derived from comparisons with previous levelings, and an analysis of the position and orientation of the various routes in relation to the regional structural grain and the gradients of differential vertical motion established by previous investigations. Comparisons of the 1978 SCRP results with the latest of the previous surveys along each route retained in the analysis show that all but about one-third of the

  11. Bulk density of small meteoroids (United States)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.


    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  12. Seismic velocity and crustal thickness inversions: Moon and Mars (United States)

    Drilleau, Melanie; Blanchette-Guertin, Jean-François; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Wieczorek, Mark


    We present results from new inversions of seismic data arrival times acquired by the Apollo active and passive experiments. Markov chain Monte Carlo inversions are used to constrain (i) 1-D lunar crustal and upper mantle velocity models and (ii) 3-D lateral crustal thickness models under the Apollo stations and the artificial and natural impact sites. A full 3-D model of the lunar crustal thickness is then obtained using the GRAIL gravimetric data, anchored by the crustal thicknesses under each Apollo station and impact site. To avoid the use of any seismic reference model, a Bayesian inversion technique is implemented. The advantage of such an approach is to obtain robust probability density functions of interior structure parameters governed by uncertainties on the seismic data arrival times. 1-D seismic velocities are parameterized using C1-Bézier curves, which allow the exploration of both smoothly varying models and first-order discontinuities. The parameters of the inversion include the seismic velocities of P and S waves as a function of depth, the thickness of the crust under each Apollo station and impact epicentre. The forward problem consists in a ray tracing method enabling both the relocation of the natural impact epicenters, and the computation of time corrections associated to the surface topography and the crustal thickness variations under the stations and impact sites. The results show geology-related differences between the different sites, which are due to contrasts in megaregolith thickness and to shallow subsurface composition and structure. Some of the finer structural elements might be difficult to constrain and might fall within the uncertainties of the dataset. However, we use the more precise LROC-located epicentral locations for the lunar modules and Saturn-IV upper stage artificial impacts, reducing some of the uncertainties observed in past studies. In the framework of the NASA InSight/SEIS mission to Mars, the method developed in

  13. Towards seismic data inversion for crustal thermo-chemical structure: what thermodynamics say (United States)

    Diaferia, Giovanni; Cammarano, Fabio


    Unraveling the temperature distribution and composition of Earth's Crust is key to understanding its origin, evolution and mechanical behavior. Models of compressional (VP) and shear (VS) velocity and the mapping of seismic discontinuities are derived from seismological studies and interpreted in terms of temperature and composition. Nonetheless seismic models require approximations and assumptions that can be geologically inconsistent or poorly justified. Moreover, the relationship between the seismic and material properties of rocks are often non-linear and non-unique. A better and more quantitative understanding of rock behavior with respect to temperature, pressure, composition and water content is necessary, to clarify the limits and feasibility of seismic methods in inferring geological features. We use thermodynamic modeling to predict bulk seismic velocities and densities of proposed (both dry and hydrous) compositions for the upper, middle and lower crust in the Italian province, at varying temperature and pressure. A comparison is made with the VP and VS from the EPCrust model (Molinari & Morelli, 2011) and the ones from Molinari et al. (2015), based on ambient noise surface wave inversion. We find that different dry compositions proposed for the Italian crust would be seismically indistinguishable. The variation induced by a different composition is always lower than that caused by temperature and water content. Moreover, a mechanical mix of different chemical compositions produces bulk seismic properties which correspond, within errors, to what obtained by modeling their average composition. For these reasons, a global composition for the Crust (i.e Rudnick and Gao [2003]) can be used as a reasonable approximation. The presence of water, although important to retrieve the correct crustal mineralogy, does not affect significantly seismic velocities in a large P-T range. Only felsic, upper crustal compositions with water content >0.25 wt%, show a drastic

  14. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    ...), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated...

  15. Shortening Treatment in Adults with Noncavitary Tuberculosis and 2-Month Culture Conversion


    Johnson, John L.; Hadad, David Jamil; Dietze, Reynaldo; Noia Maciel, Ethel Leonor; Sewali, Barrett; Gitta, Phineas; Okwera, Alphonse; Mugerwa, Roy D.; Alcaneses, Mary Rose; Quelapio, Maria Imelda; Tupasi, Thelma E.; Horter, Libby; Debanne, Sara M.; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Boom, W. Henry


    Rationale: Cavitary disease and delayed culture conversion have been associated with relapse. Combining patient characteristics and measures of bacteriologic response might allow treatment shortening with current drugs in some patients.

  16. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maliňáková, K.; Kopčáková, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Hušek, V.; Klůzová Kračmárová, L.; Dubovská, E.; Kalman, M.; Půžová, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; Tavel, P.


    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 697-705 ISSN 0022-4197 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Shortened SWBS * Adolescents * Spirituality * Religiosity * Psychometric evaluation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2016

  17. Homeostasis of telomere length rather than telomere shortening after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Helene; de Pauw, Elmar S. D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Opdam, Sonja M.; Willemze, Roel; Tanke, Hans J.; Fibbe, Willem E.


    Hematopoietic reconstitution after stem cell transplantation requires excessive replicative activity because of the limited number of stem cells that are used for transplantation. Telomere shortening has been detected in hematopoietic cells after bone marrow transplantation. This has been thought to

  18. Complex, multilayered azimuthal anisotropy beneath Tibet: evidence for co-existing channel flow and pure-shear crustal thickening (United States)

    Agius, Matthew R.; Lebedev, Sergei


    Of the two debated, end-member models for the late-Cenozoic thickening of Tibetan crust, one invokes 'channel flow' (rapid viscous flow of the mid-lower crust, driven by topography-induced pressure gradients and transporting crustal rocks eastward) and the other 'pure shear' (faulting and folding in the upper crust, with viscous shortening in the mid-lower crust). Deep-crustal deformation implied by each model is different and would produce different anisotropic rock fabric. Observations of seismic anisotropy can thus offer a discriminant. We use broad-band phase-velocity curves-each a robust average of tens to hundreds of measurements-to determine azimuthal anisotropy in the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range and constrain its amplitude. Inversions of the differential dispersion from path pairs, region-average inversions and phase-velocity tomography yield mutually consistent results, defining two highly anisotropic layers with different fast-propagation directions within each: the middle crust and the asthenosphere. In the asthenosphere beneath central and eastern Tibet, anisotropy is 2-4 per cent and has an NNE-SSW fast-propagation azimuth, indicating flow probably driven by the NNE-ward, shallow-angle subduction of India. The distribution and complexity of published shear wave splitting measurements can be accounted for by the different anisotropy in the mid-lower crust and asthenosphere. The estimated splitting times that would be accumulated in the crust alone are 0.25-0.8 s; in the upper mantle-0.5-1.2 s, depending on location. In the middle crust (20-45 km depth) beneath southern and central Tibet, azimuthal anisotropy is 3-5 and 4-6 per cent, respectively, and its E-W fast-propagation directions are parallel to the current extension at the surface. The rate of the extension is relatively low, however, whereas the large radial anisotropy observed in the middle crust requires strong alignment of mica crystals, implying large finite strain and

  19. Lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening: Insights from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan (United States)

    Duffy, Oliver B.; Fernandez, Naiara; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Dooley, Tim P.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.


    Minibasin provinces are widespread and can be found in all types of salt tectonic settings, many of which are prone to shortening. Previous studies of how minibasin provinces shorten assume that the salt between the minibasins is homogeneous and that the base of salt is flat or of low relief, such that minibasins are free to move laterally. Here we investigate how minibasin provinces respond to shortening when the lateral mobility of the minibasins is restricted by intra-salt sediment bodies, in order to gain a greater understanding of the controls on the structural styles and modes of tectono-stratigraphic evolution exhibited in minibasin provinces. We examine a borehole-constrained, 3D seismic reflection dataset from the SE Precaspian Basin (onshore western Kazakhstan). The study area is characterised by large, supra-salt minibasins and an array of smaller intra-salt sediment packages distributed between these larger minibasins. We first outline the evidence of episodic shortening between the Late Triassic and present, after the onset of supra-salt minibasin subsidence. Next, we document spatial variations in shortening style, showing how these relate to the concentration of intra-salt sediment packages. Finally, we develop synoptic models showing how intra-salt sediment packages influence both the lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening and the resultant structural style, and we compare and contrast our findings with existing models and other natural examples of shortened minibasin provinces. We conclude that minibasin provinces may have different degrees of lateral mobility depending on the presence, or absence, of intrasalt barriers, and that these variations provide a first-order control on basin-shortening style and tectono-stratigraphic evolution.

  20. Effects of fiber type on force depression after active shortening in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Joumaa, V; Power, G A; Hisey, B; Caicedo, A; Stutz, J; Herzog, W


    The aim of this study was to investigate force depression in Type I and Type II muscle fibers. Experiments were performed using skinned fibers from rabbit soleus and psoas muscles. Force depression was quantified after active fiber shortening from an average sarcomere length (SL) of 3.2µ m to an average SL of 2.6 µm at an absolute speed of 0.115f iber length/s and at a relative speed corresponding to 17% of the unloaded shortening velocity (V0) in each type of fibers. Force decay and mechanical work during shortening were also compared between fiber types. After mechanical testing, each fiber was subjected to myosin heavy chain (MHC) analysis in order to confirm its type (Type I expressing MHC I, and Type II expressing MHC IId). Type II fibers showed greater steady-state force depression after active shortening at a speed of 0.115 fiber length/s than Type I fibers (14.5±1.5% versus 7.8±1.7%). Moreover, at this absolute shortening speed, Type I fibers showed a significantly greater rate of force decay during shortening and produced less mechanical work than Type II fibers. When active shortening was performed at the same relative speed (17% V0), the difference in force depression between fiber types was abolished. These results suggest that no intrinsic differences were at the origin of the disparate force depressions observed in Type I and Type II fibers when actively shortened at the same absolute speed, but rather their distinct force-velocity relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Shortening the S-STAI: consequences for research and clinical practice. (United States)

    Kruyen, Peter M; Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas


    Several authors proposed a shortened version of the State scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S-STAI) to obtain a more efficient measurement instrument. Psychometric theory shows that test shortening makes a total score more vulnerable to measurement error, and this may result in inaccurate and biased research results and an increased risk of making incorrect decisions about individuals. This study investigated whether the reliability and the measurement precision of shortened versions of the S-STAI are adequate for psychological research and making decisions about individuals in clinical practice. Secondary data analysis was used to compare reliability and measurement precision between twelve shortened S-STAI versions and the full-length 20-item S-STAI version. Data for the 20-item version came from a longitudinal study performed previously in the Netherlands and included 377 patients and 375 of their family members. This was our master data set. A literature study was conducted to identify shortened S-STAI versions that are used in research and clinical practice. Data for each shortened version were obtained from the master data set by selecting the relevant items from the 20-item version. All analyses were done by means of classical test theory statistics. The effect of test shortening on total-score reliability was small, the effect on measurement precision was large, and the effect on individual diagnosis and assessment of individual change was ambiguous. We conclude that shortened versions of the S-STAI seem to be acceptable for research purposes, but may be problematic in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytoskeleton-related regulation of primary cilia shortening mediated by melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1. (United States)

    Tomoshige, Sakura; Kobayashi, Yuki; Hosoba, Kosuke; Hamamoto, Akie; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Saito, Yumiko


    Primary cilia are specialized microtubule-based organelles. Their importance is highlighted by the gamut of ciliary diseases associated with various syndromes including diabetes and obesity. Primary cilia serve as signaling hubs through selective interactions with ion channels and conventional G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor 1 (MCHR1), a key regulator of feeding, is selectively expressed in neuronal primary cilia in distinct regions of the mouse brain. We previously found that MCH acts on ciliary MCHR1 and induces cilia shortening through a Gi/o-dependent Akt pathway with no cell cycle progression. Many factors can participate in cilia length control. However, the mechanisms for how these molecules are relocated and coordinated to activate cilia shortening are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of cytoskeletal dynamics in regulating MCH-induced cilia shortening using clonal MCHR1-expressing hTERT-RPE1 cells. Pharmacological and biochemical approaches showed that cilia shortening mediated by MCH was associated with increased soluble cytosolic tubulin without changing the total tubulin amount. Enhanced F-actin fiber intensity was also observed in MCH-treated cells. The actions of various pharmacological agents revealed that coordinated actin machinery, especially actin polymerization, was required for MCHR1-mediated cilia shortening. A recent report indicated the existence of actin-regulated machinery for cilia shortening through GPCR agonist-dependent ectosome release. However, our live-cell imaging experiments showed that MCH progressively elicited cilia shortening without exclusion of fluorescence-positive material from the tip. Short cilia phenotypes have been associated with various metabolic disorders. Thus, the present findings may contribute toward better understanding of how the cytoskeleton is involved in the GPCR ligand-triggered cilia shortening with cell mechanical

  3. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John


    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  4. Gold based bulk metallic glass


    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan


    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  5. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan


    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Proteomic and microRNA data clarifying the effects of telomere shortening on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Uziel


    Full Text Available In a previous study, we have shown that shortening of telomeres by telomerase inhibition sensitized cancer cells to cisplatinum, slower their migration, increased DNA damage and impaired DNA repair [1]. In the following study, we present a network model combining microRNA and proteomic profiling attempting to decipher the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of shortened telomeres on the obtained phenotype of cancer cells [2]. The microRNA and proteomic data were used for a network model construction, which provided us with several nodal candidates that may potentially mediate the shortened-telomeres dependent features. These protein expressions were experimentally validated, supporting their potential central role in this system [2]. In this article, we delineate the full proteomic data and a microarray analyses performed on cells with shortened telomeres compared to their cognate parental intact telomere cells. The data is attached as excel files. In principle, clarifying the mechanism behind telomere shortened phenotype may facilitate novel therapeutics development and may also obviate the time consuming process of telomere shortening achieved by telomerase inhibition.

  7. The Crustal Deformation Revealed by GPS and InSAR in the Northwest Corner of the Tarim Basin, Northwestern China (United States)

    Qiao, Xuejun; Yu, Pengfei; Nie, Zhaosheng; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Kuzikov, Sergey I.; Wang, Qi; Yang, Shaomin


    The Northwestern Corner of the Tarim Basin (hereinafter the NOCTB) is surrounded by the Pamir salient, the south Tian Shan Mountains, and the Tarim Basin. The tectonic settings of these three structures dominate the crustal deformation patterns and seismic events in the NOCTB and its adjacent regions. We integrated the GPS and InSAR measurements to derive a large-scale three-dimensional velocity map of the NOCTB. The GPS data obtained during 38 campaigns between 1992 and 2013 were used to derive a horizontal velocity field. 149 Envisat ASAR images observed along four satellite tracks between 2003 and 2011 were processed to get a line of sight rate map based on the small baseline subset time series analysis method and a homogeneous isotropic model. Finally, we modeled the dip angle, slip rate, and locking depth of selected faults. The results indicate that the crustal convergence is not uniformly distributed across the NOCTB: more than 50% of the N-S shortening is absorbed by the Tian Shan Mountains in the southwest, whereas the N-S shortening rates are low and therefore the strain accommodations are smaller in the east of the NOCTB. The vertical displacement rates in the NOCTB range from -2 to 3 mm/year with different magnitudes in different areas. The main uplift areas are located on the junction region between frontal MPT and the southwestern STT including the Kazkeaerte fault, Aikenerte fault, the Southern Artux fault, and part areas in north of the Kalping fault. The main subsident areas are located on central belt of STT including the Totgumbaz-Alpaleh fault, Nothern Artux fault, the southwestern Karatieke fault, and the north of Puchang/Piqiang fault. Compared with the substantial N-S shortening rate of 10 mm/year, the vertical rate across each fault ranges from approximately -1 to 1 mm/year, suggesting that vertical movement in NOCTB area is relatively moderate at present. Both the horizontal and vertical rates show obvious changes across the Kazkeaerte

  8. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A


    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  9. Preparation and luminescence of bulk oxyfluoride glasses doped with Ag nanoclusters. (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V K; Rodríguez, V D; Kuznetsov, A; Kirilenko, D; Van Tendeloo, G; Moshchalkov, V V


    Bulk oxyfluoride glasses doped with Ag nanoclusters have been prepared using the melt quenching technique. When pumped in the absorption band of Ag nanoclusters between 300 to 500 nm, these glasses emit a very broad luminescence band covering all the visible range with a weak tail extending into the near infrared. The maximum of the luminescence band and its color shifts to the blue with a shortening of the excitation wavelength and an increasing ratio of oxide to fluoride components, resulting in white color luminescence at a particular ratio of oxide to fluoride; with a quantum yield above 20%.

  10. Simulations of crustal anatexis: Implications for the growth and differentiation of continental crust (United States)

    Raia, Federica; Spera, Frank J.


    There is overwhelming and incontrovertible petrological and geophysical evidence for the significant role played by mantle-derived mafic magma in the generation and growth of continental crust. Likewise, intrusion of mafic magmas beneath or into continental crust is very likely the major source of enthalpy that drives intracrustal differentiation. A simple dynamical model has been constructed to examine the critical factors that govern the evolution and time-scale of crustal anatexic events when driven by basaltic magma underplating or injection into crust. Critical factors include the intensity of the enthalpy input (i.e., the power dissipated) and the rheological properties, bulk composition and compositional structure of the source rocks undergoing partial fusion. We have performed numerical simulations to evaluate these factors using phase equilibria and thermochemical and transport property data applicable to the binary eutectic system CaAl2Si2O8-CaMgSi2O6 as a rough analog to study anatexis of mafic lower crust. The role of enthalpy power is tested by varying the enthalpy (or temperature) along the base of the crustal block while maintaining a fixed temperature at the top. As ratio Tbot/Ttop increases modestly from 1.05 to 1.15, the average fraction of melt at steady state in the anatexic region increases from 50% to 75%. Time to attain steady state scales inversely with Tbot/Ttop with an increase by a factor of 2 for a 10% decrease in Tbot/Ttop. Typical anatexic timescales are in the range 103 to 105 years for length scales in range 102 to 103 m. The consequences of different rheological models, especially the importance of Darcy percolative flow relative to en masse flow within the partial melt region was also investigated. A value of the solid fraction called the critical value (ƒscrit) is set such that for 00.5) relatively large volumes of nearly homogeneous melt are rapidly generated. In distinction, for ƒscrit small, more enthalpy is stored in the

  11. A Crustal Cross Section over the Central North Iberian Margin: New Insights into the Bay of Biscay Inverted Hyperextended Rift (United States)

    Cadenas Martínez, P.; Fernandez Viejo, G.; Pulgar, J. A.; Minshull, T. A.


    The Bay of Biscay is a V-shape failed arm of the Atlantic rift which was opened during the Mesozoic and partially closed during the Alpine orogeny in the Cenozoic, when the convergence of the Iberian and European Plates drove to the formation of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian realm in the North Iberian peninsula. A complete crustal cross section through the central part of the North Iberian Margin, representing the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay, is presented here from the interpretation of a high quality deep seismic reflection profile together with boreholes and well logs, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes. The studied segment of this margin includes a basement high so called Le Danois Bank, and the Asturian basin, one of the sedimentary basins developed during the Mesozoic extensional processes, which was subsequently inverted during the Alpine orogeny. Most of the compression seems to have taken place through uplift of the continental platform and slope and the formation of an accretionary wedge at the bottom of the slope, so it is still possible to elucidate both extensional and compressional features. The basin appears as an asymmetric bowl bounded by synsedimentary normal faults with a maximum thickness of about 6 s TWT, which has been estimated to be equivalent to about 7 km. Depth migration of the seismic profile has revealed the presence of a deeper trough, with a maximum thickness of 13. 5 km at its main depocenter, which closely resembles the sedimentary thickness proposed for other contemporaneous proximal basins. These results support the high degree of extension and the exhumation processes proposed for this margin, deduced from refraction velocities and from the upper crustal and mantle rocks dredged at the slopes of Le Danois High. They will bring new insights to, and further constraints on, geodynamical models for this margin, where the amount of shortening linked with Cenozoic compression and the role of the rift structure during the

  12. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    The climate of the Earth is changing. A consequence of this is observed at the polar regions such as Greenland, where the ice sheet is melting with an increasing rate. The unloading of ice causes the Earth to respond elastically in terms of uplift and an outward horizontal deformation of the crust....... This motion can be measured by permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Hence, the rates of crustal displacement are an indirect measure of the occurring mass changes. Currently, 55 GPS sites are located around the margin of the Greenland ice sheet, continuously providing information about...... the state of the ice sheet. However, the Earth is also adjusting viscoelastically to variations in the late Pleistocene ice sheets i.e. glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Observed rates of crustal displacement therefor contain signals from both past and present ice mass variations. Hence, to interpret...

  13. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation. (United States)

    Meade, F C; Troll, V R; Ellam, R M; Freda, C; Font, L; Donaldson, C H; Klonowska, I


    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous Centre, Ireland. We show that early microgranites are the result of extensive assimilation of trace element-enriched partial melts of local metasiltstones into mafic parent magmas. Melting experiments reveal the crust is very fusible, but thermodynamic modelling indicates repeated heating events rapidly lower its melt-production capacity. Granite generation ceased once enriched partial melts could no longer form and subsequent magmatism incorporated less fertile restite compositions only, producing mafic intrusions and a pronounced compositional gap. Considering the frequency of bimodal magma suites in the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and the ubiquity of suitable crustal compositions, we propose 'progressively inhibited crustal assimilation' (PICA) as a major cause of bimodality in continental volcanism.

  14. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation (United States)

    Meade, F. C.; Troll, V. R.; Ellam, R. M.; Freda, C.; Font, L.; Donaldson, C. H.; Klonowska, I.


    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous Centre, Ireland. We show that early microgranites are the result of extensive assimilation of trace element-enriched partial melts of local metasiltstones into mafic parent magmas. Melting experiments reveal the crust is very fusible, but thermodynamic modelling indicates repeated heating events rapidly lower its melt-production capacity. Granite generation ceased once enriched partial melts could no longer form and subsequent magmatism incorporated less fertile restite compositions only, producing mafic intrusions and a pronounced compositional gap. Considering the frequency of bimodal magma suites in the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and the ubiquity of suitable crustal compositions, we propose ‘progressively inhibited crustal assimilation’ (PICA) as a major cause of bimodality in continental volcanism.

  15. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.


    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  16. Detailed Northern Anatolian Fault Zone crustal structure from receiver functions (United States)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.


    We present high resolution images derived from receiver functions of the continental crust in Northern Turkey that is dissected by two fault strands of the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The NAFZ is a major continental strike-slip fault system that is comparable in length and slip rate to the San Andreas Fault Zone. Recent large earthquakes occurred towards the western end of the NAFZ in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2). As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we aim to develop a model of NAFZ crustal structure and locate deformation by constraining variations in seismic properties and anisotropy in the upper and lower crust. The crustal model will be an input to test deformation scenarios in order to match geodetic observations from different phases of the earthquake loading cycle. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield. This Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) was deployed from May 2012 until September 2013 and we selected large events (Mw>5.5) from the high quality seismological dataset to analyze further. Receiver functions were calculated for different frequency bands then collected into regional stacks before being inverted for crustal S-wave velocity structure beneath the entire DANA array footprint. In addition, we applied common conversion point (CCP) migration using a regional velocity model to construct a migrated 3D volume of P-to-S converted and multiple energy in order to identify the major crustal features and layer boundaries. We also performed the CCP migration with transverse receiver functions in order to identify regions of anisotropy within the crustal layers. Our preliminary results show a heterogeneous crust above a flat Moho that is typically at a depth of 33 km. We do not observe a prominent step in the Moho beneath the surface

  17. Cretaceous to Eocene evolution of the southeastern Canadian Cordillera: Continuity of Rocky Mountain thrust systems with zones of "in-sequence" mid-crustal flow (United States)

    Simony, Philip S.; Carr, Sharon D.


    culminations may have contributed to their doming. Crustal shortening ended at ca. 52 Ma due to a change in tectonic setting to that of a transtensional tectonic regime, coinciding with the end of thrusting in the External thrust belt and with crustal-scale extension in the Western Internal zone.

  18. Crustal radial anisotropy beneath Cameroon from ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Li, Zhiwei


    To increase the understanding of crustal deformation and crustal flow patterns due to tectonic processes in Cameroon, we study the lateral variability of the crustal isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy estimated using Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT). Rayleigh and Love wave Noise Correlation Functions (NCFs) were retrieved from the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise data recorded in Cameroon, and phase velocities at periods of 8 to 30 s were measured to perform surface wave tomography. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave data for isotropic velocity models could not fit the observed dispersions simultaneously. We attribute the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy to the presence of radial anisotropy in the crust and estimated its magnitude. Our 3-D radial anisotropic model reveals the spatial variation of strong to weak positive (Vsh > Vsv) and negative (Vsv > Vsh) radial anisotropy in the crust. We observe negative radial anisotropy in the upper crust that is associated mainly with the location of a previously reported mantle plume. The anisotropy could be attributed to the vertical alignment of fossil microcracks or metamorphic foliations due to the upwelling of plume material. A strong positive radial anisotropy is centered at the location of an inferred boundary between the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt that might be related to the preferred orientation of crustal anisotropic minerals associated with shearing in this fault zone. The middle crust is characterized by a widespread negative radial anisotropy that is likely caused by the flow-induced alignment of anisotropic minerals that crystallized during magma intrusion. The magnitude of the radial anisotropy varies systematically from predominantly negative in the middle crust to positive in the lower crust. The imaged patterns of the isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy are consistent with previous studies and agree with regional tectonics.

  19. Crustal response to lithosphere evolution:examples from Eurasia


    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Cherepanova, Yulia; Chemia, Zurab


    We present a new model for the structure of the crust in an area which stretches from the North Atlantic region in the west to the Verkhoyansk Ridge in the east and encompasses Greenland, Iceland, most of Europe, West Siberian basin, and the Siberian cratons. The model is based on critically assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. The region includes a nearly continuous age record for crustal evolution over ca....

  20. Stress-wave experiments on selected crustal rocks and minerals (United States)

    Grady, D. E.


    Large amplitude compressive stress wave experiments on selected crustal rocks and minerals was performed. The materials studied included Vermont marble, Blair dolomite, Oakhall limestone, z-cut calcite and oil shale. In each case specific constitutive features were studied. Features include interrelation of plastic yielding and phase transformation, rate dependent plastic flow, dilatency under dynamic loading conditions, and energy dissipation at stress amplitudes below measured Hugoniot elastic limits. A new experimental method using inmaterial mutual inductance magnetic gauges is also described.

  1. History of crustal recycling recorded in transition zone diamonds (United States)

    Pearson, D. G.; Stachel, T.; Palot, M.; Ickert, R. B.


    The Earth's transition zone (TZ) is a key region within the Earth that, from seismology, may be composed of a mixture of relatively primitive material together with the products of crustal recycling throughout the history of plate tectonics. The only samples of the TZ come in the form of inclusions in diamonds, that, for the most-part are retrogressed lower pressure equivalents of their precursor phases that formed at depth. Recent work by our group and others [1] on transition zone diamonds indicate that both peridotite and eclogitic paragenesis diamonds may record the products of crustal recycling. In-situ ion probe nitrogen and carbon isotopic measurements indicate the crystallisation of TZ diamonds from fluids bearing crustal signatures, of both oxidised and reduced forms. At the same time, majoritic garnets record extreme oxygen isotope compositions that track the interaction of oceanic crust with seawater at low temperature [2]. Such an origin is consistent with the few measured Sr-Nd isotope compositions of majorite garnet inclusions which resemble depleted MORB [3]. We have found considerably more enriched Sr isotope compositions (87Sr/86S ranging to > 0.8) in CaSiO3 inclusions that are from deep asthenosphere to TZ depths, supporting an origin that includes incorporation of recycled crustal sediment, in addition to the basaltic oceanic crust required to explain the phase equilibria [4]. Lastly, the discovery of hydrous ringwoodite in a diamond [5] containing more water than is soluble at the lower TZ adiabat indicates the possible role of recycling in transporting water as well as carbon into the TZ via a cool thermally unequilibrated slab. [1] Thomson et al (2014) CMP, 168, 1081. [2] Ickert et al (2015) Geochemical perspectives Letters, 1, 65-74. [3] Harte & Richardson (2011) Gondwana Research, 21, 236-235. [4] Walter et al. (2011) Science, 334, 54-57.[Pearson et al. (2014) Nature, 507, 221-224.

  2. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    Function study based on an average of 36 events per station reveals a clear eastward dipping high-velocity structure underneath the study area. The geophysical character, supported by synthetic modelling, is consistent with a 10 km thick subducted slab of eclogitized oceanic crust. This might be the key...... present selected results from on-going detailed studies of the crustal and upper mantle, including a Receiver Function inversion, seismic P-wave travel time tomography and gravity modelling....

  3. Crustal thickening in Gansu-Qinghai, lithospheric mantle subduction, and oblique, strike-slip controlled growth of the Tibet plateau (United States)

    Meyer, B.; Tapponnier, P.; Bourjot, L.; Métivier, F.; Gaudemer, Y.; Peltzer, G.; Shunmin, Guo; Zhitai, Chen


    Fieldwork complemented by SPOT image analysis throws light on current crustal shortening processes in the ranges of northeastern Tibet (Gansu and Qinghai provinces, China). The ongoing deformation of Late-Pleistocene bajada aprons in the forelands of the ranges involves folding, at various scales, and chiefly north-vergent, seismogenic thrusts. The most active thrusts usually break the ground many kilometres north of the range-fronts, along the northeast limbs of growing, asymmetric ramp-anticlines. Normal faulting at the apex of other growing anticlines, between the range fronts and the thrust breaks, implies slip on blind ramps connecting distinct active décollement levels that deepen southwards. The various patterns of uplift of the bajada surfaces can be used to constrain plausible links between contemporary thrusts downsection. Typically, the foreland thrusts and décollements appear to splay from master thrusts that plunge at least 15-20 km down beneath the high ranges. Plio-Quaternary anticlinal ridges rising to more than 3000 m a.s.l. expose Palaeozoic metamorphic basement in their core. In general, the geology and topography of the ranges and forelands imply that structural reliefs of the order of 5-10 km have accrued at rates of 1-2 mm yr-1 in approximately the last 5 Ma. From hill to range size, the elongated reliefs that result from such Late-Cenozoic, NE-SW shortening appear to follow a simple scaling law, with roughly constant length/width ratio, suggesting that they have grown self-similarly. The greatest mountain ranges, which are over 5.5 km high, tens of kilometres wide and hundreds of kilometres long may thus be interpreted to have formed as NW-trending ramp anticlines, at the scale of the middle-upper crust. The fairly regular, large-scale arrangement of those ranges, with parallel crests separated by piggy-back basins, the coevality of many parallel, south-dipping thrusts, and a change in the scaling ratio (from ~5 to 8) for range widths

  4. Incremental growth of an upper crustal, A-type pluton, Argentina: Evidence of a re-used magma pathway (United States)

    Alasino, Pablo H.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Rocher, Sebastián; Dahlquist, Juan A.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Memeti, Valbone; Paterson, Scott; Galindo, Carmen; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario


    Carboniferous igneous activity in the Sierra de Velasco (NW Argentina) led to the emplacement of several magmas bodies at shallow levels (< 2 kbar). One of these, the San Blas intrusive complex formed over millions of years (≤ 2-3 m.y.) through three periods of magma additions that are characterized by variations in magma sources and emplacement style. The main units, mostly felsic granitoids, have U-Pb zircon crystallization ages within the error range. From older to younger (based on cross-cutting relationships) intrusive units are: (1) the Asha unit (340 ± 7 Ma): a tabular to funnel-shaped intrusion emplaced during a regional strain field dominated by WSW-ENE shortening with contacts discordant to regional host-rock structures; (2) the San Blas unit (344 ± 2 Ma): an approximate cylindrical-shaped intrusion formed by multiple batches of magmas, with a roughly concentric fabric pattern and displacement of the host rock by ductile flow of about 35% of shortening; and (3) the Hualco unit (346 ± 6 Ma): a small body with a possible mushroom geometry and contacts concordant to regional host-rock structures. The magma pulses making up these units define two groups of A-type granitoids. The first group includes the peraluminous granitic rocks of the Asha unit generated mostly by crustal sources (εNdt = - 5.8 and εHft in zircon = - 2.9 to - 4.5). The second group comprises the metaluminous to peraluminous granitic rocks of the youngest units (San Blas and Hualco), which were formed by a heterogeneous mixture between mantle and crustal sources (εNdt = + 0.6 to - 4.8 and εHft in zircon = + 3 to - 6). Our results provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of an intrusive complex formed from multiple non-consanguineous magma intrusions that utilized the same magmatic plumbing system during downward transfer of host materials. As the plutonic system matures, the ascent of magmas is governed by the visco-elastic flow of host rock that for younger batches include

  5. Erosion of the French Alpine foreland controlled by crustal thickening (United States)

    Schwartz, Stéphane; Gautheron, Cécile; Audin, Laurence; Nomade, Jérôme; Dumont, Thierry; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; van der Beek, Peter


    In alpine-type collision belts, deformation of the foreland may occur as a result of forward propagation of thrusting and is generally associated with thin-skinned deformation mobilizing the sedimentary cover in fold-and-thrust belts. Locally, foreland deformation can involve crustal-scale thrusting and produce large-scale exhumation of crystalline basement resulting in significant relief generation. In this study, we investigate the burial and exhumation history of Tertiary flexural basins located in the western Alpine foreland, at the front of the Digne thrust-sheet (SE France), using low-temperature apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology. Based on the occurrence of partially to totally reset apatite grain ages, we document 3.3 to 4.0 km burial of these basins remnants between 12-6 Ma, related to thin-skinned thrust-sheet emplacement without major relief generation. The onset of exhumation is dated at 6 Ma and is linked to erosion associated with subsequent relief development. This evolution does not appear controlled by major climate changes (Messinian crisis) or by European slab breakoff. Rather, we propose that the erosional history of the Digne thrust-sheet corresponds to basement involvement in foreland deformation, leading to crustal thickening and the incipient formation of a new external crystalline massif. Our study highlights the control of deep-crustal tectonic processes on foreland relief development and its erosional response at mountain fronts.

  6. Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese Islands (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.


    We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.

  7. Mechanism of potassium efflux and action potential shortening during ischaemia in isolated mammalian cardiac muscle. (United States)

    Gasser, R N; Vaughan-Jones, R D


    1. Ischaemia was simulated in the isolated sheep cardiac Purkinje fibre and guinea-pig papillary muscle by immersing the preparations in paraffin oil. Ion-selective microelectrodes recorded potassium (Ks+) and pH (pHs) in the thin film of Tyrode solution trapped at the fibre surface while other microelectrodes recorded intracellular pH (pHi), membrane potential and action potentials (AP) (evoked by field stimulation), or membrane current (two-microelectrode voltage clamp in shortened Purkinje fibres). Twitch tension was also monitored. The paraffin oil model reproduced the salient characteristics of myocardial ischaemia, i.e. a decrease of twitch tension; a decrease of pHi and pHs; a rise in Ks+ (by 2-3 mM); a depolarization of diastolic membrane potential; considerable shortening of the AP (up to 30% within 4 min). 2. The sulphonylurea compounds, glibenclamide (200 microM) and tolbutamide (1 mM), known inhibitors of the KATP channel, completely blocked the ischaemic rise of Ks+ and prevented AP shortening. Ischaemic tension decline was notably less pronounced in the presence of sulphonylureas. 3. The ischaemic increase of slope conductance (Purkinje fibre) was prevented by 1 mM-tolbutamide and 200 microM-glibenclamide. 4. Sulphonylureas did not affect resting membrane potential, the AP or the current-voltage relationship under non-ischaemic conditions (this also indicates that ischaemic Ks+ accumulation is not fuelled by the background K+ current [iK1] which was shown, as expected, to be Ba2+ sensitive). 5. In a normally perfused preparation, reducing intracellular ATP by inhibiting glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose (DOG) produced a similar AP shortening plus a membrane hyperpolarization, both of which were inhibited by tolbutamide or glibenclamide. The AP shortening was not related uniquely to the fall of pHi observed under these conditions since experimentally reducing pHi (by reducing pHo in the absence of DOG) lengthened rather than shortened the AP. 6. The

  8. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing. (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason


    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain.

  9. Reversal of shortened platelet survival in rats by the antifibrinolytic agent, epsilon aminocaproic acid. (United States)

    Winocour, P D; Kinlough-Rathbone, R L; Richardson, M; Mustard, J F


    Platelet survival in rabbits and rats is shortened by placing indwelling catheters in the aorta; this shortening appears to be at least partly related to the extent of vessel wall injury and platelet interaction with the repeatedly damaged wall. Treatment of rabbit platelets with plasmin and other proteolytic enzymes in vitro shortens their survival when they are returned to the circulation. Because platelets may be exposed to plasmin and other proteolytic enzymes in rabbits and rats with indwelling aortic catheters, we examined the effect of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) on platelet survival in rats. At a dose of 1 g/kg every 4 h, EACA significantly reduced whole blood fibrinolytic activity and prolonged the shortened platelet survival in rats with indwelling aortic catheters. Mean platelet survival for untreated rats with indwelling aortic catheters was 38.6 +/- 1.9 h, and for rats treated with EACA, 53.8 +/- 3.8 h. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the injured vessel wall of these animals was mainly covered with platelets and fibrin, whereas in control animals that did not receive EACA, the injured surface was mainly covered with platelets and little fibrin was observed. Thus shortened platelet survival during continuous vessel wall injury may result from the local generation of plasmin or the release of proteolytic enzymes at sites where platelets (and possibly leukocytes) interact with the vessel wall. Images PMID:6848557

  10. [Effects of removable partial dentures on the quality of life in people with shortened dental arches]. (United States)

    Armellini, D B; Heydecke, G; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J


    In order to assess the enhanced value of removable partial dentures on the quality of life, patients at 2 university clinics were screened for the presence of complete or shortened dental arches. Those selected were assigned to 1 of 5 subgroups: 1) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, 2) a shortened dental arch with one or more frontal diastemas, 3) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, restored by a removable partial denture, 4) a shortened dental arch and several diastemas, restored by a removable partial denture, 5) a complete dental arch. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical data recorded were: whether any teeth were missing and if so which, whether or not these had been replaced by a removable partial denture, and the number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars. The results revealed that a shortenend dental arch has a certain impact on the quality of life. However, the participants only experienced benefits from a removable partial denture if the denture also replaced frontal teeth.

  11. Interior seeding combined with top seeding for the fabrication of single grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of)


    This study presents three dimensional (3-D) seeding technique which is a modification of interior seeding. 3-D seeding is beneficial for shortening the processing period and enhancing the magnetic properties of REBCO bulk superconductors fabricated by melt growth. Oxygen channels were provided by using divided powder compacts instead of by using a rubber insert. Microstructure observations revealed that the grains grown from the seeds impinged each other and formed low angle grain boundaries of (001)/(001). It has been shown that the 3-D seeding technique reduces the volume fraction of a-c growth sector and thereby maximizes the area of a-b growth sector which attribute to the high magnetic characteristics of single grain REBCO bulk superconductors.

  12. Crustal Signatures in Mantle Peridotites From Yakutian Kimberlites (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Spetsius, Z.; Wiesli, R.; Anand, M.; Valley, J.


    Peridotites and eclogites are considered as the original hosts for diamonds in the mantle. However, it is now generally agreed that these "mantle" eclogites from kimberlites had their origin in the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the major cratons of the world. One of the first indications for such crustal protoliths was from studies of oxygen and carbon isotopes (e.g., Peter Deines and colleagues, Ian McGregor, as well as our group). Indeed, subsequent studies of such rocks have revealed several additional crustal signatures. A possible scenario involves the subduction of an ophiolite sequence, whereby the basaltic and lower mafic components were metamorphosed, devolatilized/partially melted, and otherwise transformed into eclogites. Being within the diamond-stability field, they later experience metasomatic diamond formation. Surprisingly, the closely associated diamondiferous peridotites are considered to be of original mantle origin. We pose the query: What became of the ultramafic portion at the bottom of the crustal sequence? Could this be the origin of at least some of the mantle peridotites? The restricted δ13C values for P-type (peridotitic) diamonds is commonly used as evidence for the mantle origin of peridotites. However, a compilation of δ13C data, published by Peter Deines and our group, for P-type diamonds, mainly from numerous south African pipes, also shows a significant number of values that are well below the mantle field (to -20 \\permil). Fresh, clean garnets were carefully selected from over a hundred peridotites collected from several Yakutian kimberlites. These were subjected to oxygen-isotope analyses by laser-fluorination at the University of Wisconsin. The majority of the δ18O values plot within the accepted mantle value of 5.5+/-0.4 \\permil (Mattey et al., 1994). However, a significant number (~20%) lies outside this window, both above and below. These values are interpreted to represent the effects of both high- and low

  13. Global Correlations of Mantle Structure with Crustal Tectonic Regions (United States)

    Paulson, E.; Jordan, T. H.


    Tomographic models of Earth's mantle depend on a priori estimates of crustal elastic structure, but the model prior is usually independent of other structural information about the crust, such as geochronological age and tectonic history. Therefore, the correlation of mantle models with crustal structure can provide powerful insights about the relationship of mantle heterogeneity to lithospheric dynamics and continental evolution. In a meta-analysis of more than 20 whole-mantle tomographic models published by various research groups, we estimate the correlation between upper-mantle seismic structure and crustal tectonic structure by projecting the tomographic models onto the GTR1 global tectonic regionalization. The 5 x 5 degree GTR1 map comprises three continental regions based on generalized tectonic behavior during the Phanerozoic: S (Precambrian shields and platforms), P (Phanerozoic platforms), Q (Phanerozoic orogenic zones); as well as three oceanic regions based on crustal age: A (0-25 Ma), B (25-100 Ma), and C (>100 Ma). We computed shear-velocity perturbation profiles by averaging a tomographic model over each of the six tectonic regions. For each model, we assessed the statistical significance of the inter-regional variations at a fixed depth by computing the intra-regional variance and correlation length. The regionalized velocity profiles of the upper mantle are similar among all of the tomographic models that we analyzed. Within the oceanic regions, the models display a consistent increase of shear velocity with crustal age that remains statistically significant to a depth of 200 km. The oceanic shear-velocity variations are consistent with high-resolution models derived from anisotropic inversions of multi-phase waveform data in localized regions. The profiles for regions S and P show consistent and statistically significant cratonic signatures extending below 300 km depth. In particular, the shear velocity gradients of both regions are distinctly

  14. "Storms of crustal stress" and AE earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gregori


    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE displays violent paroxysms preceding strong earthquakes, observed within some large area (several hundred kilometres wide around the epicentre. We call them "storms of crustal stress" or, briefly "crustal storms". A few case histories are discussed, all dealing with the Italian peninsula, and with the different behaviour shown by the AE records in the Cephalonia island (Greece, which is characterized by a different tectonic setting.

    AE is an effective tool for diagnosing the state of some wide slab of the Earth's crust, and for monitoring its evolution, by means of AE of different frequencies. The same effect ought to be detected being time-delayed, when referring to progressively lower frequencies. This results to be an effective check for validating the physical interpretation.

    Unlike a seismic event, which involves a much limited focal volume and therefore affects a restricted area on the Earth's surface, a "crustal storm" typically involves some large slab of lithosphere and crust. In general, it cannot be easily reckoned to any specific seismic event. An earthquake responds to strictly local rheological features of the crust, which are eventually activated, and become crucial, on the occasion of a "crustal storm". A "crustal storm" lasts typically few years, eventually involving several destructive earthquakes that hit at different times, at different sites, within that given lithospheric slab.

    Concerning the case histories that are here discussed, the lithospheric slab is identified with the Italian peninsula. During 1996–1997 a "crustal storm" was on, maybe elapsing until 2002 (we lack information for the period 1998–2001. Then, a quiet period occurred from 2002 until 26 May 2008, when a new "crustal storm" started, and by the end of 2009 it is still on. During the 1996–1997 "storm" two strong earthquakes occurred (Potenza and

  15. New geophysical models of Palmer Deep crustal structure (United States)

    Yakymchuk, M. A.; Levashov, S. P.; Korchagin, I. N.; Bachmutov, V. G.; Solovyov, V. D.


    The 2004 (9th) and 2006 (11th) Ukrainian Antarctic expeditions acquired new geoelectrical data (‘short-impulse electromagnetic field formation' - FSPEF, and ‘vertical electric-resonance sounding' - VERS) along profiles across Drake Passage and along Bransfield Strait, Antarctic Peninsula, with the aim of studying the crustal structure of these features down to depths of >30 km. The sounding on this depth in Antarctic region was the first experience of deep modification of the VERS method using. Modelling experience of deep crustal structure by geophysical data with VERS method shows that there is a possibility to investigate the fluid regime, tectonic disturbances and crush zones in basement and local places of submarine volcanic activity too. This technology also gives a possibility to efficiently divide the cross-section on separate stratigraphic subsections in the sounding site and to determine its depth with high accuracy (Levashov et al., 2003; Levashov et al., 2007). Geophysical surveys enabled to yield new data set with information about Drake Passage and Palmer Deep inner crustal structure on broad continental margin of Antarctic Peninsula. Palmer Deep is located on continental (Pacific) shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula near Anvers Island and consists of three deep basins with depths from 1200м to 1500м. These basins were part of glacial outlet during glaciation's period (Rebesco et al., 1998). Geoelectrical models of Palmer Deep crustal structure along three profiles were built on the sounding data in separate points of continental shelf. Heterogeneity of Palmer Deep earth's crust obtained from VERS data modelling testified to processes of tectonic transformations of internal shelf structures. Tectonic factor explains some conformities of the most recent glaciomarine sediments and glacial streams forming during recent shelf-wide glaciations. New information about sediment distribution and inner crustal structure has an important value for searching

  16. Shortening method for optical reconstruction distance in digital holographic display with phase hologram (United States)

    Mori, Yutaka; Nomura, Takanori


    We present a method to solve a distance issue. In digital holography, the reconstruction distance is different from the original one because of the difference of the pixel size between an imaging device and a display device. In general, the distance is larger because the pixel size of the display is larger than that of the imaging device. This makes it hard to recognize perception of the stereoscopic effect when holographic reconstructed images are used for the stereopsis system. Typically, a numerical propagation method and a spherical phase addition are used to shorten the distance. However, each method is not shortened enough. To clear the criterion, the limitation of each method is verified. By combining two methods, the reconstruction distance is shortened from 4440 to 547 mm. In addition, it is successfully shown that the proposed combining method is useful for the stereopsis by visual perception evaluation.

  17. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model. (United States)

    Staber, Janice M; Pollpeter, Molly J


    Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated. To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice. We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death. Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  18. Theory and design of "shortened" multiantenna microwave applicators with controllable SAR patterns. (United States)

    Leybovich, L B; Nussbaum, G H; Straube, W L; Emami, B N


    A "shortened" multiantenna hyperthermia applicator has been designed and tested at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University School of Medicine. By shortening the distance from antenna to aperture, an applicator is obtained that produces an SAR pattern that is essentially the same as produced by a monopole antenna. By placing several properly spaced probe antennas into the same "shortened" applicator, an applicator is obtained that produces a SAR distribution that is essentially a composite of small overlapping SAR patterns produced by weakly interacting incoherently driven antennas. Such a design significantly improves the applicator's lateral heating efficiency and allows the independent control of temperatures in certain tumor areas by changing the input power to the respective antennas.

  19. Early roentgenological grading of femoral shortening is correlated to the late outcome after femoral neck fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernefalk, L. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine]|[Country Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Granstroem, P. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine]|[Country Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Messner, K. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine]|[Country Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology


    Using orthoradiography, the distance between the centre of the femoral head and the intercondylar notch was assessed at regular intervals in 144 patients who were followed for a 2-year period after osteosynthesis of a femoral neck fracture. Late complications, such as segmental collapse and non-union, occurred in 27% of the patients. The degree of femoral shortening was significantly correlated to the incidence of late complications. At 1 month, femoral shortening of more than 5 mm was observed in 85% of patients who developed late complications, and in only 5% of patients without such complications. Thus, the observation of a shortening of more than 5 mm predicted a greater than 6-fold increase of the incidence of late complications. The prognostic accuracy of this observation 1 month after treatment was 92%. (orig.).

  20. One-stage Versus Two-stage Reduction of Malunited Femoral Fracture with Shortening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sulaiman


    Full Text Available Reduction of a malunited femoral diaphyseal fracture can be achieved by osteotomy and immediate internal fixation or gradual skeletal traction followed by delayed internal fixation. We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients with malunited and shortened femur. Nine patients with mean shortening of 4.7 cm (2.5-10.0 underwent acute one-stage reduction and gained 2.5 to 5.0 cm length. Eighteen patients with mean shortening of 5.3 cm (3.5 to 9.0 underwent two- stage reduction and gained 2.0 to 5.0 cm length. There was no paralysis in either group. No infection occurred in the one-stage procedure. Intramedullary fixation demonstrated superior results compares to plate fixation.

  1. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Galata


    Full Text Available Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. Keywords: Achondroplasia, dysplastic coxarthrosis, limb shortening, distal femur osteotomy.

  2. Endoventricular patch plasty for dyskinetic anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm increases systolic circumferential shortening in sheep. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Guccione, Julius M; Nicholas, Susan I; Walker, Joseph C; Crawford, Philip C; Shamal, Amin; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Guttman, Michael A; Ozturk, Cengizhan; McVeigh, Elliot R; Saloner, David A; Wallace, Arthur W; Ratcliffe, Mark B


    Endoventricular patch plasty (Dor procedure) has gained favor as a surgical treatment for heart failure associated with large anteroapical myocardial infarction. We tested the hypotheses that the Dor procedure increases systolic circumferential shortening and longitudinal shortening in noninfarcted left ventricular regions in sheep. In 6 male Dorsett sheep, the left anterior descending coronary artery and its second diagonal branch were ligated 40% of the distance from the apex to the base. Sixteen weeks after myocardial infarction, a Dor procedure was performed with a Dacron patch that was 50% of the infarct neck dimension. Two weeks before and 2 and 6 weeks after the Dor procedure, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging with tissue tagging in multiple short-axis and long-axis slices. Fully three-dimensional strain analyses were performed. All 6 end-systolic strain components were compared in regions 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm below the valves, as well as in the anterior, posterior, and lateral left ventricular walls and the interventricular septum. Circumferential shortening increased from before the Dor procedure to 6 weeks after repair in nearly every left ventricular region (13/16). The greatest regional change in circumferential shortening was found in the equatorial region or 2 cm below the base and in the posterior wall (from 9.0% to 18.4%; P < .0001). Longitudinal shortening increased 2 weeks after the Dor procedure but then returned near baseline by 6 weeks after the Dor procedure. The Dor procedure significantly increases systolic circumferential shortening in nearly all noninfarcted left ventricular regions in sheep.

  3. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

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    Marco Túlio Freitas Ribeiro


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World Health Organization goal for oral health in the age group 65 to 74 years (50% having at least 20 natural teeth; presence of shortened dental arch; number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth. The Chi-square test assessed the association between categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess differences of mean between number of posterior occluding pairs teeth, macro-region and gender. RESULTS: The elderly population had an average of 5.49 teeth (SD: 7.93 with a median of 0. The proportion of completely edentulous respondents was 54.7%. Complete edentulism was 18.2% in the upper arch and 1.9% in the lower arch. The World Health Organization goal was achieved in 10% of all respondents studied. However, only 2.7% had acceptable masticatory function and aesthetics (having at least shortened dental arch and a mean number of posterior occluding pairs of 6.94 (SD=2.97. There were significant differences of the percentage of respondents that met the World Health Organization goal and presence of shortened dental arch between men and women. There were differences in shortened dental arch between macroregions. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian epidemiological oral health survey showed high rate of edentulism and low rate of shortened dental arch in the elderly population studied, thus suggesting significant functional and aesthetic impairment in all Brazilian macroregions especially among women.

  4. The effect of experimental shortening of the clavicle on shoulder kinematics. (United States)

    Hillen, Robert J; Burger, Bart J; Pöll, Rudolf G; van Dijk, C Niek; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J


    Malunion after mid shaft clavicle fractures has recently been recognized as a cause of pain and dysfunction of the shoulder. The mechanism that causes these complaints is however yet unclear. In this study we describe the kinematic changes that occur in the shoulder girdle due to clavicle shortening. An experimental cadaveric study was performed on five shoulders of three fresh frozen specimens. The specimens were fixed in an upright position that allowed free motion of the shoulder girdle. We measured position of the bony structures with an opto-electronic system (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Ontario Canada) in rest and during in a series of motions. Measurements were done with a normal clavicle and after shortening of the clavicle by 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 cm. The shoulders were moved manually by one of the researchers. We examined for changes in resting position and during movement that resulted from the experimental shortening of the clavicle. In the resting position, winging of the scapula increased with resultant changes in the orientation of the glenoid, acromio-clavicular and sterno-clavicular joints and an altered position of the clavicle. On average protraction increased by 20°, lateral rotation changed 12° and posterior tilt decreased by 7°. Clavicle shortening affected sterno-clavicular joint rotations but did not do so in the acromio-clavicular joint. In arm elevation the offset in scapula orientation at resting position stayed relatively constant over the full range of motion but the amount of disposition is progressive in relation to the amount of shortening. Shortening of the clavicle leads to significant changes in the shoulder girdle in resting position and in movement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maximal shortening velocity during plantar flexion: effects of preactivity and initial stretching state. (United States)

    Beaumatin, Nicolas; Hauraix, Hugo; Nordez, Antoine; Hager, Robin; Rabita, Giuseppe; Guilhem, Gaël; Dorel, Sylvain


    We investigated the effects of the initial length of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) and muscle pre-activation on muscle-tendon interactions during plantarflexion performed at maximal velocity. Ultrasound images of gastrocnemius medialis were obtained on 11 participants in three conditions: 1) active plantarflexion performed at maximal velocity from three increasingly stretched positions (10°, 20° and 30° dorsiflexion), 2) passive plantarflexion induced by a quick release of the ankle joint from the same three positions, and 3) pre-activation, which consisted of a maximal isometric con-traction of the plantarflexors at 10° of dorsiflexion followed by a quick release of ankle joint. During the active condition at maximal velocity, initial MTU stretch positively influenced ankle joint velocity (+15.3%) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity (+37.6%) but not the shortening velocity peak value reached by muscle fascicle. The muscle fascicle was shortened during the passive condition, however its shortening velocity never exceeded peak velocity measured in the active condition. Muscle pre-activation resulted in a considerable increase in ankle joint (+114.7%) and tendinous tissues velocities (+239.1%), although we observed a decrease in muscle fascicle shortening velocity. During active plantarflexion at maximal velocity, initial MTU length positively influences ankle joint velocity by increasing the contribution of tendinous tissues. Although greater initial stretch of the plantar-flexors (i.e. 30° dorsiflexion) increased the passive velocity of the fascicle during initial movement, its peak velocity was not affected. As muscle pre-activation prevented reaching the maximal muscle fascicle shortening velocity, this condition should be used to characterize tendinous tissues rather than muscle contractile properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  7. Relating orogen width to shortening, erosion, and exhumation during Alpine collision


    Rosenberg, Claudio L.; Berger, A.; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Bousquet, R.


    International audience; We investigate along-strike width changes of the thickened, accreted lower plate (TALP) in the Central and in the Eastern Alps. We set the width of the TALP in relation to the inferred amount of collisional shortening and exhumation along six orogen-scale cross sections. Taking the present-day, along-strike gradients in the amount of collisional shortening to represent the temporal evolution of the collisional wedge, it may be concluded that the cross-sectional area of...

  8. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence. (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M


    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data.

  9. Translation and rotation of small crustal blocks in the southernmost Atlantic-Weddell Sea region prior to seafloor spreading: in search of a mechanism (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.; Norton, I. O.; Lawver, L. A.; Lavier, L.; Davis, J. K.; Gahagan, L.


    Geological and paleomagnetic data indicate that initial fragmentation of the Gondwanaland supercontinent in the southernmost Atlantic-Weddell Sea region involved translation and rotation of two small crustal blocks. The Falkland/Malvinas block on the South American plate (F/M) and the Ellsworth-Whitmore mountains block in West Antarctica (EWM) both contain segments of the earliest Mesozoic Gondwana fold belt. The blocks originated in the Natal embayment between the Cape Mountains of southernmost Africa and the Pensacola Mountains of the East Antarctic craton margin. Shortly after emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) at ca. 182Ma, the F/M block was rotated clockwise 150 ° and the EWM block counter¬clockwise 90°, while both were translated several hundred kilometers towards the Panthalassic/Pacific Ocean. As indicated by absence of shortening in the sedimentary basins of the F/M Plateau and Weddell embayment, the motions of the crustal blocks relative to the major continents happened during extreme extension accompanied by widespread silicic magmatism that preceded seafloor spreading. We propose a new reconstruction of the Gondwana craton margin, suggesting an original embayment between the Kalahari and East Antarctic cratons, and subsequent mirror-image clockwise (South America-F/M) and counterclockwise (Antarctic Peninsula-EWM) rotations prior to seafloor spreading in the Weddell Sea and South Atlantic.What geodynamic processes were involved in the significant rotations and translations of continental lithosphere prior to ocean basin formation? Our conclusion, based on the geologic and geophysical data and on geodynamic modeling, is that the motions were driven by the distributed crustal thinning of warm continental lithosphere and by mantle flow towards a retreating Panthalassic margin subduction zone associated with the formation of the Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province between the East Antarctic, Kalahari and Rio de la Plata cratons.

  10. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze...... how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity......-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density...

  11. Crustal Structure Beneath the Tibetan Plateau Using Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Dispersion Observations (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Ammon, C. J.; Mejia, J.


    Despite substantial effort, some uncertainty in the bulk crustal geology beneath the Tibetan Plateau remains. Recent experiments have provided a wealth of seismic data for investigating structures within the Tibetan lithosphere. We investigate the subsurface Tibetan geology using receiver functions from the 1991-1992 Passive Source and the 1997-1999 INDEPTH III experiments. We have completed joint inversions of surface-wave dispersion and select receiver functions for the older data and plan to explore and invert receiver functions from select stations from the INDEPTH III experiment. The combination of receiver functions with surface-wave dispersion does much to improve P- and S-velocity structure resolution, but modeling is most appropriate for relatively simple structures. We begin our analyses with the depth-velocity stacking estimation of Zhu and Kanamori [2000] where we attempt to extract thickness, P-velocity, and Vp/Vs ratios compatible with the move-out of the Ps conversion and multiples from velocity contrasts within the lithosphere. Again, the main limitation of the technique is the assumption of a simple structure to insure consistency with a set of straightforward travel-time equations used to compute arrival-time move-out (as a function of incident-wave ray parameter). Poisson's ratio values from the 1991-1992 deployment were difficult to extract because of complex structure. The station with simplest response, WNDO, suggests a ratio of 0.28 beneath the north-central Plateau, which is slightly above average for continental crust. These results are lower than some earlier values which suggested that the lower crust beneath central and northern Tibet may contain substantial partial melt. The joint inversion of the simplest available receiver functions, and global long-period and local short-period surface-wave dispersion observations suggests that the crustal thickness for the northern Plateau ranges from 60-70 km (stations ERDO, BUDO, TUNL). Thickness

  12. Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables

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    Robert Tenzer Pavel Novák


    Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the Earth¡¦s crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The Earth¡¦s gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.

  13. MOLA Topography of the Crustal Dichotomy Boundary Zone, Mars (United States)

    Frey, Herbert V.; E. H., Susan; H., James


    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) profiles frequently cross the crustal dichotomy boundary where the transition zone (TZ) between cratered highland terrain (CT) and lowland smooth plains (SP) is marked by mesas and knobby terrain. The detailed topographic character of the boundary zone is longitudinally variable, as is the geomorphology of the TZ. Some portions of the boundary are associated with an outer ring of the Utopia impact basin; MOLA topography is consistent with this. The regional character of the boundary topography is a 2-4 km step function from nearly flat SP to almost as flat CT. This rise has a regional slope of 1-2 degrees, 50-100 times that of the Cr and SP away from TZ, which suggests a significant change in crustal properties (thickness, composition or both) across the TZ. The overall topography is very similar to that at some passive continent-oceanic crustal margins on the Earth, with the seafloor allowed to adjust upward after removal of the overlying water. A possible temporal constraint on the CT/SP elevation difference comes from two MOLA profiles which pass through two large (150 km diameter) craters located at the boundary in Aeolis. The N and S rims of the more degraded crater are at the same elevation; north of the N rim the topography drops by greater than 2 km to the floor of the TZ. This crater predates the elevation offset between CT and TZ floor. The better preserved crater (Gale) has a N rim 2 km lower than its S rim, and appears to have been emplaced on a pre-existing regional slope of about I degree. Gale probably post- dates the elevation difference between CT and TZ floor. Based on the stratigraphy of the units in which these craters are found, the elevation difference appears to have been in place in the Mid to Late Noachian.

  14. Crustal structure beneath Portugal from teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (United States)

    Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea


    Up until now, Portugal lacked a countrywide shear velocity model sampling short length-scale crustal structure, which limits interpretations of seismicity and tectonics, and predictions of strong ground motion. In turn, such interpretations and predictions are important to help mitigate risk of destruction from future large on- and offshore earthquakes similar to those that Portugal has experienced in the past (e.g. the Mw 8.5-8.7 tsunamigenic event in 1755). In this study, we measured teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (RWE) from 33 permanent and temporary seismic stations in Portugal with wave periods between 15 s and 60 s, and inverted it for 1-D models of shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath each station using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Because RWE is strongly sensitive to the uppermost few kilometres of the crust, both RWE measurements and Vs models are spatially correlated with surface geology in Portugal. For instance, we find that sedimentary basins produced by rifting that had begun in the Mesozoic such as the Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB) are characterised by higher RWE (lower Vs). Interestingly, we observe similar RWE (and Vs) values in the interior of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is a metamorphic belt of Paleozoic age. Together with reduced crustal thickness previously estimated for the same parts of the CIZ, this suggests that the CIZ might have experienced an episode of extension possibly simultaneous to Mesozoic rifting. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ) that has undergone polyphased deformation since the Paleozoic is characterised by the lowest RWE (highest Vs) in Portugal. Ossa Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone exhibit intermediate Vs values when compared to that of basins and the GTMZ. Our crustal Vs model can be used to provide new insights into the tectonics, seismicity and strong ground motion in Portugal.

  15. Two successive crustal melting events resulting from extensional exhumation and then thrusting of the Ronda Peridotites (South Spain) (United States)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Poujol, Marc; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Parat, Fleurice; Monié, Patrick; Pichat, Alexandre; Maziers, Sophie


    The Alboran Domain, situated at the western end of the Mediterranean subduction system, is characterized by the Ronda Peridotites, one of the world largest exposures of sub-continental mantle. Using U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) and Ar-Ar dating, we precisely dated two tectonic events associated with the Tertiary exhumation of the Ronda Peridotites. First, shearing along the Crust-Mantle Extensional Shear Zone caused, at ca. 22.5 Ma, mantle exhumation, local partial melting in the deep crust and coeval cooling in the upper crust. Second, the Ronda Peridotites Thrust triggered the final crustal emplacement of the peridotites onto the continental crust at ca. 21 Ma, as testified by granitic intrusions in the thrust hanging-wall. The tectonic evolution of the western Alboran Domain is therefore characterized by a fast switch from a continental lithosphere extension in a backarc setting, with sub-continental mantle exhumation, to a rift inversion by thrusting driven by shortening of the subduction upper plate.

  16. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky


    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  17. Quantifying precambrian crustal extraction: The root is the answer (United States)

    Abbott, D.; Sparks, D.; Herzberg, C.; Mooney, W.; Nikishin, A.; Zhang, Y.-S.


    We use two different methods to estimate the total amount of continental crust that was extracted by the end of the Archean and the Proterozoic. The first method uses the sum of the seismic thickness of the crust, the eroded thickness of the crust, and the trapped melt within the lithospheric root to estimate the total crustal volume. This summation method yields an average equivalent thickness of Archean crust of 49 ?? 6 km and an average equivalent thickness of Proterozoic crust of 48 ?? 9 km. Between 7 and 9% of this crust never reached the surface, but remained within the continental root as congealed, iron-rich komatiitic melt. The second method uses experimental models of melting, mantle xenolith compositions, and corrected lithospheric thickness to estimate the amount of crust extracted through time. This melt column method reveals that the average equivalent thickness of Archean crust was 65 ?? 6 km. and the average equivalent thickness of Early Proterozoic crust was 60 ?? 7 km. It is likely that some of this crust remained trapped within the lithospheric root. The discrepancy between the two estimates is attributed to uncertainties in estimates of the amount of trapped, congealed melt, overall crustal erosion, and crustal recycling. Overall, we find that between 29 and 45% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Archean, most likely by 2.7 Ga. Between 51 and 79% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Early Proterozoic, most likely by 1.8-2.0 Ga. Our results are most consistent with geochemical models that call upon moderate amounts of recycling of early extracted continental crust coupled with continuing crustal growth (e.g. McLennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R., 1982. Geochemical constraints on the growth of the continental crust. Journal of Geology, 90, 347-361; Veizer, J., Jansen, S.L., 1985. Basement and sedimentary recycling - 2: time dimension to global tectonics. Journal of Geology 93(6), 625-643). Trapped, congealed, iron

  18. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe


    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; RAJABI, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz


    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indi...

  19. Crustal structure variations along the Lesser Antilles Arc (United States)

    Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J. M.; Melekhova, E.; Blundy, J.; Baptie, B.; Latchman, J. L.


    Continental crust is predominantly formed along subduction zones. Therefore, an investigation of the crustal and mantle structure variation of these areas is crucial for understanding the growth of continental crust. This work deals with the seismological characteristics along the Lesser Antilles Arc, an island arc system built by the relatively slow subduction (~2cm/yr) of the North and South American plates beneath the Caribbean plate. The amount of subducted sediments changes significantly from sediment-rich subduction in the South to sediment-poor subduction in the North. The abundance of broadband seismic stations on the Lesser Antilles islands enables a range of seismic methods to be used to study arc processes. Furthermore, the abundance of cumulate samples allows for a detailed petrological analysis, which can be related to the seismological patterns. We use data from three component broadband stations located on the individual islands along the arc. From the island of Grenada in the South to the Virgin Islands in the North significant variations in sediment load, petrology and volcanism are observed along the arc. In this work, we investigate crustal structure using receiver functions to determine Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. The ratio gives an idea about the material of the subsurface as well as its water and its melt contents. The receiver functions are computed using the extended-time multitaper frequency domain cross-correlation receiver-function (ETMTRF) by Helffrich (2006). This method has the advantage of resistance to noise, which is helpful since most of the data around the arc will have been collected by stations close to the ocean, thus containing a large amount of noise. Our results show clear variations in these measurements. There are also regions where the Moho is not very sharp due to a low velocity contrast. The real data results were then compared to synthetic receiver functions from subsurface models. We compute a range of synthetic

  20. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik


    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  1. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F. E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Devereaux, Philip J.; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle; Liew, Susan; Richardson, Martin J.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Simunovic, Helena Viveiros Nicole; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Agel, Julie; Goslings, J. Carel; Haverlag, Robert; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Guicherit, O. R.; Eversdijk, Martin G.; Peters, Rolf; den Hartog, Dennis; van Waes, Oscar J. F.; Oprel, Pim; de Rijcke, Piet A. R.; Koppert, C. L.; Buijk, Steven E.; Groenendijk, Richard P. R.; Dawson, I.; Tetteroo, G. W. M.; Bruijninckx, Milko M. M.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Visser, Gijs A.; Stockmann, Heyn; Silvis, Rob; Snellen, J. P.; Rijbroek, A.; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Vermeulen, Erik G. J.; Siroen, M. P. C.; Vuylsteke, Ronald; Brom, H. L. F.; Ryna, H.; Roukema, Gert R.; Josaputra, H.; Keller, Paul; de Rooij, P. D.; Kuiken, Hans; Boxma, Han; Cleffken, Barry I.; Liem, Ronald; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Bosman, C. H. R.; van Otterloo, Alexander de Mol; Hoogendoorn, Jochem; de Vries, Alexander C.; Meylaerts, Sven A. G.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Simons, Maarten P.; van der Heijden, Frank H. W. M.; Willems, W. J.; de Meulemeester, Frank R. A. J.; van der Hart, Cor P.; Turckan, Kahn; Festen, Sebastiaan; de Nies, F.; Out, Nico J. M.; Bosma, J.; van der Elst, Maarten; van der Pol, Carmen C.; van 't Riet, Martijne; Karsten, T. M.; de Vries, M. R.; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Schmidt, G. B.; Hoffman, W. H.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Zijl, Jacco A. C.; Verhoeven, Bart; Smits, Anke B.; de Vries, J. P. P. M.; Fioole, Bram; van der Hoeven, H.; Theunissen, Evert B. M.; de Vries Reilingh, Tammo S.; Govaert, Lonneke; Wittich, Philippe; de Brauw, Maurits; Wille, Jan; Go, Peter M. N. Y. M.; Ritchie, Ewan D.; Wessel, R. N.; Hammacher, Eric R.; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; Meijer, Joost; van Egmond, Teun; van der Brand, Igor; van der Vis, Harm M.; Campo, Martin; Verhagen, Ronald; Albers, G. H. R.; Zurcher, A.; van Kampen, A.; Biert, Jan; van Vugt, Arie B.; Edwards, Michael J. R.; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Geeraedts, L. M. G.; Gardeniers, J. W. M.; Tan, Edward T. C. H.; Poelhekke, L. M. S. J.; de Waal Malefijt, M. C.; Schreurs, Bart; Simmermacher, Rogier K. J.; van Mulken, Jeroen; van Wessem, Karlijn; van Gaalen, Steven M.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Frihagen, Frede; Nordsletten, Lars; Stoen, Ragnhild Oydna; Brekke, Kine; Tetsworth, Kevin; Weinrauch, Patrick; Pincus, Paul; Donald, Geoff; yang, Steven; Halliday, Brett; Gervais, Trevor; Holt, Michael; Flynn, Annette; Pirpiris, Marinis; Love, David; Bucknill, Andrew; Farrugia, Richard J.; Dowrick, Adam; Donohue, Craig; Bedi, Harvinder; Li, Doug; Edwards, Elton; Csongvay, Steven; Miller, Russell; Wang, Otis; Chia, Andrew; Jain, Arvind; Mammen, Mathan; Murdoch, Zoe; Sage, Claire; Kumar, Anil; Pankaj, Amite; Singh, Ajay Pal; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Martinez, Adriana; Novoa, Catherine; Buckley, Richard E.; Duffy, Paul; Korley, Robert; Johnston, Kelly; Puloski, Shannon; Carcary, Kimberly; Avram, Victoria; Bicknell, Ryan; Yach, Jeff; Bardana, Davide; Lambert, Sue; Sanders, David W.; Howard, Jamie; Macleod, Mark; Bartly, C. T.; Tieszer, Christina; Peterson, Devin; Zalzal, Paul; Maumetz, Victor; Brien, Heather; Weening, Brad; Wai, Eugene K.; Roffey, Darren; McCormack, Robert; Stone, Trevor; Perey, Bertrand; Viskontas, Darius; Boyer, Dory; Perey, Bert; Zomar, Mauri; Moon, Karyn; Oatt, Amber; McKee, Michael; Hall, Jeremy; Ahn, Henry; Vicente, Milena R.; Wild, Lisa M.; Kreder, Hans J.; Stephen, David J. G.; Nousianinen, Markku; Cagaanan, Ria; Kunz, Monica; Syed, Khalid; Azad, Tania; Coles, Chad; Leighton, Ross; Johnstone, David; Glazebrook, Mark; Alexander, David; Trask, Kelly; Dobbin, Gwendolyn; Oliver, Todd M.; Jones, Vicky; Ronan, James; Brown, Desmond T.; Carlilse, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Schwappach, John; Davis, Craig A.; Weingarten, Peter; Weinerman, Stewart; Newman, Heike; Baker, Janell; Browner, Kieran; Hurley, Meghan; Zura, Robert; Manson, Maria J.; Goetz, David; Broderick, Scott J.; Porter, Scott; Pace, Thomas; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Becky; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Haas, Jonathan; Templeman, David; Westberg, Jerald R.; Mullis, Brian; Ertl, J. P.; Shively, Karl; Frizzel, Valda; Marcantonio, Andrew J.; Iorio, Richard; Lobo, Margaret; Kain, Michael; Specht, Lawrence; Garfi, John; Prayson, Michael J.; Davis, Craig; Laughlin, Richard; Rubino, Joe; Lawless, Mathew; DiPaola, Matt; Gaydon, Chris; Dulaney, Liz; Vallier, Heather A.; Wilber, John; Sontich, John; Patterson, Brendan; Dolenc, Andrea; Robinson, Chalitha; Wilber, Roger; DePaolo, Charles J.; Alosky, Rachel; Shell, Leslie E.; Keeve, Jonathan P.; Anderson, Chris; McDonald, Michael; Hoffman, Jodi; Baele, Joseph; Weber, Tim; Edison, Matt; Musapatika, Dana; Jones, Clifford; Ringler, James; Endres, Terrance; Gelbke, Martin; Jabara, Michael; Sietsema, Debra L.; Engerman, Susan M.; Switzer, Julie A.; Li, Mangnai; Marston, Scott; Cole, Peter; Vang, Sandy X.; Foley, Amy; McBeth, Jessica; Comstock, Curt; Ziran, Navid; Shaer, James; Hileman, Barbara; Karges, David; Cannada, Lisa; Kuldjanov, Djoldas; Watson, John Tracy; Mills, Emily; Simon, Tiffany; Abdelgawad, Amr; Shunia, Juan; Jenkins, Mark; Zumwalt, Mimi; Romero, Amanda West; Lowe, Jason; Goldstein, Jessica; Zamorano, David P.; Lawson, Deanna; Archdeacon, Michael; Wyrick, John; Hampton, Shelley; Lewis, Courtland G.; Ademi, Arben; Sullivan, Raymond; Caminiti, Stephanie; Graves, Matthew; Smith, Lori; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Crist, Brett D.; Murtha, Yvonne; Anderson, Linda K.; Kliewer, Toni K.; McPherson, Melinda K.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Sagebien, Carlos; Seuffert, Patricia; Mehta, Samir; Esterhai, John; Ahn, Jaimo; Tjoumakaris, Fotios; Horan, Annamarie D.; Kaminski, Christine; Tarkin, Ivan; Siska, Peter; Luther, Arlene; Irrgang, James; Farrell, Dana; Gorczyca, John T.; Gross, Jonathan M.; Kates, Stephen Lloyd; Colosi, Jen; Hibsch, Nancy; Noble, Krista; Agarwal, Animesh; Wright, Rebecca; Hsu, Joseph R.; Ficke, James R.; Napierala, Matthew A.; Charlton, Michael T.; Fan, Mary K.; Obremskey, William T.; Richards, Justin E.; Robinson, Kenya; Carroll, Eben; Kulp, Brenda


    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and

  2. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale : Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Polackova Solcova, Iva; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Tavel, Peter

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the

  3. Interlayer material transport during layer-normal shortening. Part I. The model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, I. van der


    To analyse mass-transfer during deformation, the case is considered of a multilayer experiencing a layer-normal shortening that is volume constant on the scale of many layers. Strain rate is homogeneously distributed on the layer-scale if diffusion is absent; when transport of matter between the

  4. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings. (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A


    Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, and low-fat food increases. High-amylose corn starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of oleic acid. Amylose formed helical inclusion complexes with the fatty acid. Shortening was added at different levels to jet-cooked starch. The resulting starch-lipid composites (SLC) had 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% fat. The composites were used to substitute shortening in the preparation of cake icings with 1% to 13% fat. SLC icings were formulated by either keeping the total solids constant, or the starch and sugar to water ratio constant as the fat level was reduced. The effect of fat and formulation of shortening and SLC icings on the physical and rheological characteristics were studied. It was found that low-fat SLC icings can be prepared by optimizing the formulation. Practical Application:  This study indicates potential new applications for SLC that benefit the confectionary industry by generating new products offering healthy alternatives to the consumers. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  5. Influence of muscle shortening on the geometry of gastrocnemius medialis muscle of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Huijing, P. A.


    For static and dynamic conditions muscle geometry of the musculus gastrocnemius medialis of the rat was compared at different muscle lengths. The dynamic conditions differed with respect to isokinetic shortening velocity (25, 50 and 75 mm/s) of the muscle-tendon complex and in constancy of force

  6. Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajman, Anete; Bastos, Mayara Lisboa; Belo, Marcia; Calaça, Janaína; Gaspar, Júlia; Dos Santos, Alexandre Martins; Dos Santos, Camila Martins; Brito, Raquel Trindade; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Vassall, Anna; Gomez, Gabriela B.


    Shortened treatment regimens for tuberculosis are under development to improve treatment outcomes and reduce costs. We estimated potential savings from a societal perspective in Brazil following the introduction of a hypothetical four-month regimen for tuberculosis treatment. Data were gathered in

  7. Chordee and Penile Shortening Rather Than Voiding Function Are Associated With Patient Dissatisfaction After Urethroplasty. (United States)

    Maciejewski, Conrad C; Haines, Trevor; Rourke, Keith F


    To identify factors that predict patient satisfaction after urethroplasty by prospectively examining patient-reported quality of life scores using 3 validated instruments. A 3-part prospective survey consisting of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score, and a urethroplasty quality of life survey was completed by patients who underwent urethroplasty preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. The quality of life score included questions on genitourinary pain, urinary tract infection (UTI), postvoid dribbling, chordee, shortening, overall satisfaction, and overall health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis. Patients were enrolled in the study from February 2011 to December 2014, and a total of 94 patients who underwent a total of 102 urethroplasties completed the study. Patients reported statistically significant improvements in IPSS (P 4 cm and the absence of UTI, pain, shortening, and chordee as predictors of patient satisfaction. Multivariate analysis of quality of life domain scores identified absence of shortening and absence of chordee as independent predictors of patient satisfaction following urethroplasty (P < .01). Patient voiding function and quality of life improve significantly following urethroplasty, but improvement in voiding function is not associated with patient satisfaction. Chordee status and perceived penile shortening impact patient satisfaction, and should be included in patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On Tackling Flash Crowds with URL Shorteners and Examining User Behavior after Great East Japan Earthquake (United States)

    Inoue, Takeru; Minato, Shin-Ichi

    Several web sites providing disaster-related information failed repeatedly after the Great East Japan Earthquake, due to flash crowds caused by Twitter users. Twitter, which was intensively used for information sharing in the aftermath of the earthquake, relies on URL shorteners like to offset its strict limit on message length. In order to mitigate the flash crowds, we examine the current Web usage and find that URL shorteners constitute a layer of indirection a significant part of Web traffic is guided by them. This implies that flash crowds can be controlled by URL shorteners. We developed a new URL shortener, named, just after the earthquake; redirects users to a replica created on a CoralCDN, if the original site is likely to become overloaded. This surprisingly simple solution worked very well in the emergency. We also conduct a thorough analysis of the request log and present several views that capture user behavior in the emergency from various aspects. Interestingly, the traffic significantly grew up at previously unpopular (i.e., small) sites during the disaster; this traffic shift could lead to the failure of several sites. Finally, we show that has great potential in mitigating such failures. We believe that our experience will help the research community tackle future disasters.

  9. Cost and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment shortening: a model-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, G. B.; Dowdy, D. W.; Bastos, M. L.; Zwerling, A.; Sweeney, S.; Foster, N.; Trajman, A.; Islam, M. A.; Kapiga, S.; Sinanovic, E.; Knight, G. M.; White, R. G.; Wells, W. A.; Cobelens, F. G.; Vassall, A.


    Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3

  10. Shortening full-length aptamer by crawling base deletion – Assisted by Mfold web server application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C.B. Gopinath


    Full Text Available Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX is the method to select the specific aptamer against a wide range of targets. For this process, the initial library usually has a length of random sequences from ∼25 and it reaches over 100 bases. The lengthy sequences have disadvantages such as difficult to prepare, less stable and expensive. It is wise to prefer shorter version of aptamer for a wide range of applications including drug delivery process. It is a common practice to shorten the full-length aptamer by mapping analyses and it is tedious. Here, we used a crawling method to shorten the aptamer by different sequential deletion of bases from both 5′ and 3′ ends, assisted by Mfold web server application. Two different kinds of aptamer with varied lengths (randomized region of 30 and 74 bases were desired for this study, generated against Influenza A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2 and gD protein of Herpes Simplex Virus-1. It was found that shortening the aptamer length by crawling pattern is possible with the assistance of Mfold web server application. The obtained results resemble the shortened aptamer derived by mapping analyses. The proposed strategy is recommended to predict the shorter aptamer without involving any wet experimental section.

  11. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh


    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  12. Free-running circadian period does not shorten with age in female Syrian hamsters. (United States)

    Duffy, J F; Viswanathan, N; Davis, F C


    It has been reported that the free-running period of circadian rhythms shortens with age in mammals, including humans, and this shortening has been suggested to be the underlying cause of early morning awakening and difficulty maintaining sleep in older people. A recent study found that the free-running period of male hamsters does not change with age. The present study extends those findings to female hamsters. We studied the locomotor activity rhythm of 22 female hamsters kept in constant conditions from early adulthood until their death, and compared their data to those from male hamsters. We found no shortening of free-running period with age in the female hamsters, and no difference in free-running period between females and males. In contrast, mean activity level and amount of time per cycle spent running declined with age in females and males. These findings demonstrate that the free-running period in hamsters does not systematically shorten with age, and suggest that alternative explanations for the observed age-related advance of sleep-wake times in humans should be explored.

  13. Self-regulation by the Dutch medical profession of medical behavior that potentially shortens life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, John; Krabbendam, H.; Ten Napel, H.M.


    One of the most striking features of the way in which the Dutch have gone about regulating euthanasia and other "medical behavior that potentially shortens Life (MBPS) the key role that self-regulation has played in the process of legal development.' The rules and procedures that govern euthanasia

  14. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Magnusson, Stig Peter


    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps...

  15. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods (United States)

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  16. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  17. Swallow-induced esophageal shortening in patients without hiatal hernia is associated with gastroesophageal reflux. (United States)

    Masuda, T; Singhal, S; Akimoto, S; Bremner, R M; Mittal, S K


    Longitudinal esophageal body shortening with swallow-induced peristalsis has been reported in healthy individuals. Esophageal shortening is immediately followed by esophageal re-elongation, and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) returns to the baseline position. High-resolution manometry (HRM) allows for objective assessment of extent of shortening and duration of shortening. In patients without hiatal hernia at rest, swallow-induced esophageal shortening can lead to transient hiatal hernia (tHH) which at times may persist after the completion of swallow. This manometric finding has not been investigated in the literature, but a question arises whether this swallow-induced transient herniation can effect on the likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux. This study aims to assess the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and the subtypes of swallow-induced esophageal shortening, i.e. tHH and non-tHH, in patients without hiatal hernia at rest. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, we queried a prospectively maintained database to identify patients who underwent HRM evaluation and 24-hour pH study between January to December 2015. Patients with type-I esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology (i.e. no hiatal hernia) according to the Chicago classification v3.0 were included. The patterns of the esophageal shortening with swallows were divided into two subtypes, i.e. tHH and non-tHH. tHH was defined as an EGJ double high-pressure zones (≥1 cm) at the second inspiration after the termination of swallow-induced esophageal body contraction. The number of episodes of tHH was counted per 10 swallows and tHH size was measured for each patient. In total, 41 patients with EGJ morphology Type-I met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 47.2 years, 35 patients (85.4%) were women, and the mean body mass index was 33.9 kg/m2. The mean number of tHH episodes was 3 out of 10 swallows; mean maximal tHH size was 1.3 cm. Patients who had tHH in ≥3 out of 10

  18. Late Cretaceous Localized Crustal Thickening as a Primary Control on the 3-D Architecture and Exhumation Histories of Cordilleran Metamorphic Core Complexes (United States)

    Gans, P. B.; Wong, M.


    The juxtaposition of mylonitic mid-crustal rocks and faulted supracrustal rocks in metamorphic core complexes (MMCs) is usually portrayed in 2 dimensions and attributed to a single event of large-scale slip ± isostatic doming along a low-angle "detachment fault"/ shear zone. This paradigm does not explain dramatic along strike (3-D) variations in slip magnitude, footwall architecture, and burial / exhumation histories of most MMCs. A fundamental question posed by MMCs is how did their earlier thickening and exhumation histories influence the geometric evolution and 3-D slip distribution on the subsequent detachment faults? New geologic mapping and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology from the Snake Range-Kern Mts-Deep Creek Mts (SKDC) complex in eastern Nevada offer important insights into this question. Crustal shortening and thickening by large-scale non-cylindrical recumbent folds and associated thrust faults during the late Cretaceous (90-80 Ma) resulted in deep burial (650°C, 20-25 km) of the central part of the footwall, but metamorphic grade decreases dramatically to the N and S in concert with decreasing amplitude on the shortening structures. Subsequent Paleogene extensional exhumation by normal faulting and ESE-directed mylonitic shearing is greatest in areas of maximum earlier thickening and brought highest grade rocks back to depths of~10-12 km. After ≥15 Ma of quiescence, rapid E-directed slip initiated along the brittle Miocene Snake Range detachment at 20 Ma and reactivated the Eocene shear zone. The ≥200°C gradient across the footwall at this time implies that the Miocene slip surface originated as a moderately E-dipping normal fault. This Miocene slip surface can be tracked for more than 100 km along strike, but the greatest amount of Miocene slip also coincides with parts of the footwall that were most deeply buried in the Cretaceous. These relations indicate that not only is the SKDC MMC a composite feature, but that the crustal welt created by

  19. Basin Excavation, Lower Crust, Composition, and Bulk Moon Mass balance in Light of a Thin Crust (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.


    New lunar gravity results from GRAIL have been interpreted to reflect an overall thin and low-density lunar crust. Accordingly, crustal thickness has been modeled as ranging from 0 to 60 km, with thinnest crust at the locations of Crisium and Moscoviense basins and thickest crust in the central farside highlands. The thin crust has cosmochemical significance, namely in terms of implications for the Moon s bulk composition, especially refractory lithophile elements that are strongly concentrated in the crust. Wieczorek et al. concluded that the bulk Moon need not be enriched compared to Earth in refractory lithophile elements such as Al. Less Al in the crust means less Al has been extracted from the mantle, permitting relatively low bulk lunar mantle Al contents and low pre- and post-crust-extraction values for the mantle (or the upper mantle if only the upper mantle underwent LMO melting). Simple mass-balance calculations using the method of [4] suggests that the same conclusion might hold for Th and the entire suite of refractory lithophile elements that are incompatible in olivine and pyroxene, including the KREEP elements, that are likewise concentrated in the crust.

  20. Effect of spent mushroom substrate as a bulking agent on gaseous emissions and compost quality during pig manure composting. (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Danyang; Li, Jijin; Li, Yangyang; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yun


    The aim of this study was to investigate the gaseous emissions (CH 4 , N 2 O, and NH 3 ) and compost quality during the pig manure composting by adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a bulking agent. The control treatment was also studied using corn stalk (CS) as a bulking agent. The experiment was conducted in a pilot scale composting reactor under aerobic condition with the initial C/N ratio of 20. Results showed that bulking agents significantly affected gaseous emissions and compost quality. Using SMS as a bulking agent improved composting efficiency by shortening the time for maturity. SMS increased germination index and humic acid of the final compost (by 13.44 and 41.94%, respectively) compared with CS. Furthermore, composting with SMS as a bulking agent could reduce nitrogen loss, NH 3 , and N 2 O emissions (by 13.57, 35.56, and 46.48%, respectively) compared with the control. SMS slightly increased CH 4 emission about 1.1 times of the CS. However, a 33.95% decrease in the global warming potential of CH 4 and N 2 O was obtained by adding SMS treatment. These results indicate that SMS is a favorable bulking agent for reducing gaseous emissions and increasing compost quality.

  1. Internal Structure and Mineralogy of Differentiated Asteroids Assuming Chondritic Bulk Composition: The Case of Vesta (United States)

    Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Forni, O.; Monnereau, M.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; hide


    Bulk composition (including oxygen content) is a primary control on the internal structure and mineralogy of differentiated asteroids. For example, oxidation state will affect core size, as well as Mg# and pyroxene content of the silicate mantle. The Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite class of meteorites (HED) provide an interesting test-case of this idea, in particular in light of results of the Dawn mission which provide information on the size, density and differentiation state of Vesta, the parent body of the HED's. In this work we explore plausible bulk compositions of Vesta and use mass-balance and geochemical modelling to predict possible internal structures and crust/mantle compositions and mineralogies. Models are constrained to be consistent with known HED samples, but the approach has the potential to extend predictions to thermodynamically plausible rock types that are not necessarily present in the HED collection. Nine chondritic bulk compositions are considered (CI, CV, CO, CM, H, L, LL, EH, EL). For each, relative proportions and densities of the core, mantle, and crust are quantified. Considering that the basaltic crust has the composition of the primitive eucrite Juvinas and assuming that this crust is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the residual mantle, it is possible to calculate how much iron is in metallic form (in the core) and how much in oxidized form (in the mantle and crust) for a given bulk composition. Of the nine bulk compositions tested, solutions corresponding to CI and LL groups predicted a negative metal fraction and were not considered further. Solutions for enstatite chondrites imply significant oxidation relative to the starting materials and these solutions too are considered unlikely. For the remaining bulk compositions, the relative proportion of crust to bulk silicate is typically in the range 15 to 20% corresponding to crustal thicknesses of 15 to 20 km for a porosity-free Vesta-sized body. The mantle is predicted to be largely

  2. A reverse energy cascade for crustal magma transport (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Paterson, Scott R.; Jellinek, A. Mark


    Direct constraints on the ascent, storage and eruption of mantle melts come primarily from exhumed, long-frozen intrusions. These structures, relics of a dynamic magma transport network, encode how Earth's crust grows and differentiates over time. Furthermore, they connect mantle melting to an evolving distribution of surface volcanism. Disentangling magma transport processes from the plutonic record is consequently a seminal but unsolved problem. Here we use field data analyses, scaling theory and numerical simulations to show that the size distribution of intrusions preserved as plutonic complexes in the North American Cordillera suggests a transition in the mechanical response of crustal rocks to protracted episodes of magmatism. Intrusion sizes larger than about 100 m follow a power-law scaling expected if energy delivered from the mantle to open very thin dykes and sills is transferred to intrusions of increasing size. Merging, assimilation and mixing of small intrusions into larger ones occurs until irreversible deformation and solidification dissipate available energy. Mantle magma supply over tens to hundreds of thousands of years will trigger this regime, a type of reverse energy cascade, depending on the influx rate and efficiency of crustal heating by intrusions. Identifying regimes of magma transport provides a framework for inferring subsurface magmatic processes from surface patterns of volcanism, information preservation in the plutonic record, and related effects including climate.

  3. Crustal velocities from geodetic very long baseline interferometry (United States)

    Fallon, F. W.; Dillinger, W. H.


    VLBI observations from the International Radio Interferometric Surveying and Crustal Dynamics Projects programs taken over a span of 5-8 yr (through August 1990) are used to derive relative velocities of 16 sites on the North American, Eurasian, Pacific, and African plates. The data reduction scheme simultaneously estimates earth orientation parameters and nutation for each session, local atmosphere and clock correction terms, source positions, and initial site positions, as well as the site velocities. Instead of an a priori geophysical crustal model, a minimal set of geometric constraints is used to obtain the velocities. Two alternative constraint formulations - setting the secular motion of the pole and mean length of day to fixed values, and fixing the net rotation of the sites - are considered. They are shown to be equivalent in that they yield equivalent velocity sets with allowance for translation and rotation. The resulting velocities have formal standard errors typically less than 0.2 cm/yr, and most velocities are significantly different from zero.

  4. Element-Element Correlations Among Martian Meteorite Bulk Compositions: Peculiarities Explained(?) by Mixing, with Implications for the Composition of Mars (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.


    Most estimates of the chemical corn position of Mars' mantle and core derive from elementelement correlations bulk analyses of Martian meteorites [I-31. To use the correlations in this manner assumes implicitly that they reflect mineraVmelt fractionations (e.g., partial melting, fractional crystallization, accumulation) among a cogenetic suite of igneous rocks. However, similar correlations can zppear from mixing of chemical components, and need not imply that the components were cogenetic nor that they had an igneous origin. Several aspects of the elemental and isotopic chem istries of the Martian meteorites can be explained by mixing of geochemical components (mantle or crustal), e.g. [5,6]. Thus, it is worth asking whether mixing rektions might be seen in bulk chemical data, and (if so) whether the mixing components can be used to infer average planet or mantle compositions.

  5. A view into crustal evolution at mantle depths (United States)

    Kooijman, Ellen; Smit, Matthijs A.; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    Crustal foundering is an important mechanism in the differentiation and recycling of continental crust. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamics of the lower crust, the temporal scale of foundering and its role in the dynamics of active margins and orogens. This particularly applies to active settings where the lower crust is typically still buried and direct access is not possible. Crustal xenoliths derived from mantle depth in the Pamir provide a unique exception to this. The rocks are well-preserved and comprise a diverse set of lithologies, many of which re-equilibrated at high-pressure conditions before being erupted in their ultrapotassic host lavas. In this study, we explore the petrological and chronological record of eclogite and felsic granulite xenoliths. We utilized accessory minerals - zircon, monazite and rutile - for coupled in-situ trace-element analysis and U-(Th-)Pb chronology by laser-ablation (split-stream) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each integrated analysis was done on single mineral zones and was performed in-situ in thin section to maintain textural context and the ability to interpret the data in this framework. Rutile thermo-chronology exclusively reflects eruption (11.17 ± 0.06Ma), which demonstrates the reliability of the U-Pb rutile thermo-chronometer and its ability to date magmatic processes. Conversely, zircon and monazite reveal a series of discrete age clusters between 55-11 Ma, with the youngest being identical to the age of eruption. Matching age populations between samples, despite a lack of overlapping ages for different chronometers within samples, exhibit the effectiveness of our multi-mineral approach. The REE systematics and age data for zircon and monazite, and Ti-in-zircon data together track the history of the rocks at a million-year resolution. The data reveal that the rocks resided at 30-40 km depth along a stable continental geotherm at 720-750 °C until 24-20 Ma, and were subsequently


    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka


    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fi l (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and x-tra base (XB), and conventional control material X-Flow (XF). Composite samples (n=5) were polymerized for 20 s with Bluephase G2 curing unit. Vickers hardness was used to determine microhardness of each material at the surface, and at 2-mm and 4-mm depth. GSO on average recorded significantly higher microhardness values than bulk-fill materials (pcomposite XF revealed similar microhardness values as SDR, but significantly lower than XB (pmaterials was lower than microhardness of the conventional composite material (GSO). Surface microhardness of low-viscosity materials was generally even lower. The microhardness of all tested materials at 4 mm was not different from their surface values. However, additional capping layer was a necessity for low-viscosity bulk-fill materials due to their low microhardness.

  7. Block-like versus distributed crustal deformation around the northeastern Tibetan plateau (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhao; Wang, Min; Shen, Zheng-Kang


    It has been debated for decades whether crustal deformation in and around the Tibetan plateau is distributed or block-like. We model crustal deformation in northeastern Tibet using a deformable-block-motion model, in which kinematic parameters of block motion and internal deformation and the associated boundary slip rates are inverted for using GPS velocity data. The F-test is used to screen out station velocity outliers, justify independence of neighboring blocks, and determine the significance of block internal strains through an iteration process. As a result, fifteen blocks are identified, with their boundary faults slipping at rates of 1-10 mm/a. Blocks located east and north of the plateau have large sizes (>104 km2 in area) in general, with little internal deformation. Six blocks within the plateau, in contrast, are smaller in sizes, with internal strain rates on the order of 1-10 nanostrain/a. Five blocks sitting at the northeast borderland of the plateau have small block sizes but no significant internal deformation. Our results show sinistral slip rates of 4.3 ± 1.6 and 4.6 ± 1.8 mm/a across the western and eastern segments of the Haiyuan fault, and 10.8 ± 2.3, 4.6 ± 2.6, and 3.8 ± 2.1 mm/a across the western, central, and eastern segments of the East Kunlun fault, respectively. The southwestern, central, and northeastern segments of the Longmenshan fault slip right-laterally at rates of 1.7 ± 1.1, 1.1 ± 0.8, and 1.1 ± 0.8 mm/a, with shortening rates of 1.1 ± 1.2, 0.4 ± 0.8, and 0.8 ± 1.1 mm/a, respectively. We also develop a scheme to convert geodetic strain rate into seismic moment accumulation rate within blocks and at block boundaries, and estimate the two rates as ∼8.40 × 1018 and ∼2.06 × 1019 N·m/a, respectively. In comparison, the corresponding seismic moment release rates are estimated as ∼6.06 × 1018 and ∼2.44 × 1019 N·m/a using an contemporary earthquake catalog of 1920-2015. Such results indicate that the seismic moment

  8. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation (United States)

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley


    buttress occurs under the North Cascades region of Washington and under southern Vancouver Island. We find that regional faults zones such as the Devils Mt. and Darrington zones follow the margin of this buttress and the Olympic-Wallowa lineament forms its southern boundary east of the Puget Lowland. Thick, high-velocity, lower-crustal rocks are interpreted to be a mafic/ultramafic wedge occuring just above the subduction thrust. This mafic wedge appears to be jointly deformed with the arch, suggesting strong coupling between the subducting plate and upper plate crust in the Puget Sound region at depths >30 km. Such tectonic coupling is possible if brittle-ductile transition temperatures for mafic/ultramafic rocks on both sides of the thrust are assumed. The deformation models show that dominant north-south compression in the coast ranges of Washington and Oregon is controlled by a highly mafic crust and low heat flow, allowing efficient transmission of margin-parallel shear from Pacific plate interaction with North America. Complex stress patterns which curve around the Puget Sound region require a concentration of northwest-directed shear in the North Cascades of Washington. The preferred model shows that greatest horizontal shortening occurs across the Devils Mt. fault zone and the east end of the Seattle fault.

  9. Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery–Palar basin, eastern continental margin of India based on seismic and potential field modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Twinkle, D.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    Cauvery–Palar basin. The 2D gravity and magnetic crustal models indicate several crustal blocks separated by major structures or faults, and the rift-related volcanic intrusive rocks that characterize the basin. The crustal models further reveal...

  10. Development and assessment of a shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55). (United States)

    Goodwin, Shane W; Lambrinos, Anastasia I; Ferro, Mark A; Sabaz, Mark; Speechley, Kathy N


    To develop and validate a shortened version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). A secondary aim was to compare baseline risk factors predicting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children newly diagnosed with epilepsy, as identified using the original and shortened version. Data came from the Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES, N = 373), a multicenter prospective cohort study. Principal component analysis reduced the number of items from the original QOLCE, and factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the shortened version. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlating the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) with the shortened QOLCE. Multiple regression identified risk factors at diagnosis for HRQoL at 24 months. A four-factor, higher-order, 55-item solution was obtained. A total of 21 items were removed. The final model represents functioning in four dimensions of HRQoL: Cognitive, Emotional, Social, and Physical. The shortened QOLCE demonstrated acceptable fit: Bentler's Comparative Fit Index = 0.944; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.942; root mean square approximation = 0.058 (90% CI: 0.056-0.061); weighted root mean square residuals (WRMR) = 1.582, and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96, subscales α > 0.80). Factor loadings were good (first-order: λ = 0.66-0.93; higher-order λ = 0.66-0.85; p QOLCE scores correlated strongly with similar subscales of the Child Health Questionnaire (ρ = 0.38-0.70) while correlating weakly with dissimilar subscales (ρ = 0.30-0.31). While controlling for HRQoL at diagnosis, predictors for better HRQoL at 24 months were the following: no cognitive problems reported (p = 0.001), better family functioning (p = 0.014), fewer family demands (p = 0.008), with an interaction between baseline HRQoL and cognitive problems (p = 0.011). Results offer initial evidence regarding reliability and validity of the proposed 55-item shortened

  11. Relationship between Spinal Cord Volume and Spinal Cord Injury due to Spinal Shortening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiu

    Full Text Available Vertebral column resection is associated with a risk of spinal cord injury. In the present study, using a goat model, we aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in spinal cord volume and spinal cord injury due to spinal shortening, and to quantify the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height in order to clarify a safe limit for shortening. Vertebral column resection was performed at T10 in 10 goats. The spinal cord was shortened until the somatosensory-evoked potential was decreased by 50% from the baseline amplitude or delayed by 10% relative to the baseline peak latency. A wake-up test was performed, and the goats were observed for two days postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the spinal cord volume, T10 height, disc height, osteotomy segment height, and spinal segment height pre- and postoperatively. Two of the 10 goats were excluded, and hence, only data from eight goats were analyzed. The somatosensory-evoked potential of these eight goats demonstrated meaningful changes. With regard to neurologic function, five and three goats were classified as Tarlov grades 5 and 4 at two days postoperatively. The mean shortening distance was 23.6 ± 1.51 mm, which correlated with the d-value (post-pre of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment (r = 0.95, p < 0.001 and with the height of the T10 body (r = 0.79, p = 0.02. The mean d-value (post-pre of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment was 142.87 ± 0.59 mm3 (range, 142.19-143.67 mm3. The limit for shortening was approximately 106% of the vertebral height. The mean volumes of the osteotomy and spinal segments did not significantly change after surgery (t = 0.310, p = 0.765 and t = 1.241, p = 0.255, respectively. Thus, our results indicate that the safe limit for shortening can be calculated using the change in spinal cord volume per 1-mm height.

  12. Quantifying Crustal Thickness in Continental Collisional Belts: Global Perspective and a Geologic Application. (United States)

    Hu, Fangyang; Ducea, Mihai N; Liu, Shuwen; Chapman, James B


    We present compiled geochemical data of young (mostly Pliocene-present) intermediate magmatic rocks from continental collisional belts and correlations between their whole-rock Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios and modern crustal thickness. These correlations, which are similar to those obtained from subduction-related magmatic arcs, confirm that geochemistry can be used to track changes of crustal thickness changes in ancient collisional belts. Using these results, we investigate temporal variations of crustal thickness in the Qinling Orogenic Belt in mainland China. Our results suggest that crustal thickness remained constant in the North Qinling Belt (~45-55 km) during the Triassic to Jurassic but fluctuates in the South Qinling Belt, corresponding to independently determined tectonic changes. In the South Qinling Belt, crustal thickening began at ~240 Ma and culminated with 60-70-km-thick crust at ~215 Ma. Then crustal thickness decreased to ~45 km at ~200 Ma and remained the same to the present. We propose that coupled use of Sr/Y and La/Yb is a feasible method for reconstructing crustal thickness through time in continental collisional belts. The combination of the empirical relationship in this study with that from subduction-related arcs can provide the crustal thickness evolution of an orogen from oceanic subduction to continental collision.

  13. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    . The current results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure will help to build a model for tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia. We compare our results to the recent detailed models of crustal structure in the area and with seismic models for similar geodynamic...

  14. Satellite gravity anomalies and crustal features of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Grinko, B.N.

    Satellite free-air gravity anomaly contour map at 5 mGal interval, seismic reflection and bathymetric data lead to the identification of deformed crustal structure of the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Twenty-three NE-SW trending deformed crustal...

  15. Mechanisms and Magnitude of Cenozoic Crustal Extension in the Vicinity of Lake Mead, Nevada and the Beaver Dam Mountains, Utah: Geochemical, Geochronological,Thermochronological and Geophysical Constraints (United States)

    Almeida, Rafael V.

    The central Basin and Range Province of Nevada and Utah was one of the first areas in which the existence of widespread low-angle normal faults or detachments was first recognized. The magnitude of associated crustal extension is estimated by some to be large, in places increasing original line lengths by as much as a factor of four. However, rock mechanics experiments and seismological data cast doubt on whether these structures slipped at low inclination in the manner generally assumed. In this dissertation, I review the evidence for the presence of detachment faults in the Lake Mead and Beaver Dam Mountains areas and place constraints on the amount of extension that has occurred there since the Miocene. Chapter 1 deals with the source-provenance relationship between Miocene breccias cropping out close to Las Vegas, Nevada and their interpreted source at Gold Butte, currently located 65 km to the east. Geochemical, geochronological and thermochronological data provide support for that long-accepted correlation, though with unexpected mismatches requiring modification of the original hypothesis. In Chapter 2, the same data are used to propose a refinement of the timing of ~1.45 Ga anorogenic magmatism, and the distribution of Proterozoic crustal boundaries. Chapter 3 uses geophysical methods to address the subsurface geometry of faults along the west flank of the Beaver Dam Mountains of southwestern Utah. The data suggest that the range is bounded by steeply inclined normal faults rather than a regional-scale detachment fault. Footwall folding formerly ascribed to Miocene deformation is reinterpreted as an expression of Cretaceous crustal shortening. Fission track data presented in Chapter 4 are consistent with mid-Miocene exhumation adjacent to high-angle normal faults. They also reveal a protracted history dating back to the Pennsylvanian-Permian time, with implications for the interpretation of other basement-cored uplifts in the region. A key finding of this

  16. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.

  17. Modeling Crustal Thickness Variations Beneath the East Pacific Rise: Mantle Diapirs or Plate Kinematics? (United States)

    George, S. A.; Toomey, D. R.


    Geophysical studies along the East Pacific Rise between the Siqueiros and Clipperton fracture zones reveal along- and cross-axis variations in crustal thickness whose origins are poorly understood. By one view, variations in crustal thickness are the result of three-dimensional upwelling of the mantle associated with a melt-rich diapir centered at 9° 50'N. Alternatively, it has been proposed that the migration of the 9° 03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) alters the thickness of crust by increasing the amount of time that a crustal unit resides near the spreading axis. In this case, crustal thickness variations arise from plate kinematics, and not from three-dimensional variations in mantle upwelling. We report on a modeling study designed to explore how the evolution of OSCs may alter the thickness of newly-formed crust. OSC propagation is modeled using the kinematic algorithm developed by Wilson [1990], modified to track parcels of crust through time. Given an OSC's kinematic history and two-dimensional descriptions of the melt flux out of the mantle (i.e. invariant along the rise), we predict relative variations in crustal thickness. Our modeling assumes that underplating increases the thickness of the crust and/or Moho transition zone as long as a crustal unit resides over the source of mantle-derived melt. Results suggest two general kinematic mechanisms whereby variations in crustal thickness can occur: those due to an offset between the mantle-level magmatic system and the spreading axis, and those due to any relative reduction in the velocity of a crustal unit as it moves off axis. Offset-induced crustal thickness variations are manifest as long-wavelength ( ˜50 km), low-amplitude cross-axis asymmetries. Local slowing of crustal units as they move off axis -- in direct association with the OSC and its overlap basins -- results in relatively short-wavelength ( ˜10 km), high-amplitude variations in crustal thickness. Using a kinematic history

  18. Signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders--Follow-up of subjects with shortened and complete dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of cardinal signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in subjects with shortened dental arches and to clarify the individual course of these signs and symptoms. METHODS: In this 9-year follow-up study, subjects with shortened dental arches (n=74)

  19. End-systolic stress-velocity relation and circumferential fiber velocity shortening for analysing left ventricular function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayssoil, A. [Cardiologie, Hopital europeen Georges Pompidou, 20, rue le blanc, Paris (France)], E-mail:; Renault, G. [CNRS UMR 8104, Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Fougerousse, F. [Genethon, RD, Evry (France)


    Traditionally, analysing left ventricular (LV) performance relies on echocardiography by evaluating shortening fraction (SF) in mice. SF is influenced by load conditions. End-systolic stress-velocity (ESSV) relation and circumferential fiber velocity (VcF) shortening are more relevant parameters for evaluating systolic function regardless load conditions particularly in mice's models of heart failure.

  20. The Impact of Subject Age, Gender, and Arch Length on Attitudes of Syrian Dentists towards Shortened Dental Arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakaria Nassani


    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subject age, gender, and arch length on dentists’ attitudes towards unrestored shortened dental arches. Materials and Methods. 93 Syrian dentists were interviewed and presented with 24 scenarios for male and female subjects of different ages and shortened dental arches of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analogue scale how they would value the health of the mouth if the posterior space was left unrestored. Results. A value of 0.0 represented the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 represented the best. The highest mean value (0.73 was assigned to a shortened dental arch with missing second molar teeth in the mouth of a 70-year-old subject. A 35-year-old female subject with an extremely shortened dental arch (all molar and premolar teeth are missing attracted the lowest mean value (0.26. The statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in the value placed on unrestored shortened dental arches as the number of remaining teeth decreased (p<0.008. While subject gender had almost no impact on dentists’ attitudes towards shortened dental arches, the scenarios for the older shortened dental arch subjects attracted significantly higher values compared to the scenarios for the younger subjects (p<0.017. Conclusion. Subject age and arch length affect dentists’ attitudes towards shortened dental arches, but subject gender does not.

  1. The Alpine nappe stack in western Austria: a crustal-scale cross section (United States)

    Pomella, Hannah; Ortner, Hugo; Zerlauth, Michael; Fügenschuh, Bernhard


    Based on an N-S-oriented crustal-scale cross section running east of the Rhine Valley in Vorarlberg, western Austria, we address the Alpine nappe stack and discuss the boundary between Central and Eastern Alps. For our cross section, we used surface geology, drillings and reinterpreted seismic lines, together with published sections. The general architecture of the examined area can be described as a typical foreland fold-and-thrust belt, comprising the tectonic units of the Subalpine Molasse, (Ultra-)Helvetic, Penninic and Austroalpine nappes. These units overthrusted the autochthonous Molasse along the south-dipping listric Alpine basal thrust. The European Basement, together with its autochthonous cover, dips gently towards the south and is dissected by normal faults and trough structures. The seismic data clearly show an offset not only of the top of the European Basement, but also of the Mesozoic cover and the Lower Marine Molasse. This indicates an activity of the structures as normal faults after the sedimentation of the Lower Marine Molasse. The Subalpine Molasse is multiply stacked, forming a triangle zone at the boundary with the foreland Molasse. The shortening within the Subalpine Molasse amounts to approximately 45 km (~67 %), as deduced from our cross section with the Lower Marine Molasse as a reference. The hinterland-dipping duplex structure of the Helvetic nappes is deduced from surface and borehole data. There are at least two Helvetic nappes needed to fill the available space between the Molasse below and the Northpenninic above. This is in line with the westerly located NRP20-East transect (Schmid et al., Tectonics 15(5):1047-1048, 1996; Schmid et al., The TRANSMED Atlas: the Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle, 2004), where the two Helvetic nappes are separated by the Säntis thrust. Yet in contrast to the Helvetic nappes in the NRP20-East transect, both of our Helvetic nappes comprise Cretaceous and Jurassic strata. This change is

  2. Dynamic evolution of crustal horizontal deformation before the Ms6.4 Menyuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duxin Cui


    Full Text Available An Ms6.4 earthquake occurred in the Menyuan county of Qinghai Province on Jan 21, 2016. In order to recognize the development of horizontal deformation and distinguish precursory deformation anomalies, we obtained coordinates time series, velocity and strain model around the seismic zones from processing of continuous observations from 2010 and 6 times of surveying Global Positioning System (GPS data since 2009. The results show that, before the earthquake, the eastern segmentation of the Qilian tectonic zone where the Lenglongling Fault located is in strong crustal shortening and compressional strain state with dilatational rates of −15 to −25 ppb. The Lenglongling Fault has a strike-slip rate of 3.1 mm/a and a far-field differential orthogonal rate of 7 mm/a, while differential rate is only 1.2 mm/a near the fault, which reflects its locking feature with strain energy accumulation and high seismic risks. Dynamic evolution of deformation model shows that pre-event dilatational rates around the seismic zones increases from −15 ppb/a to −20 ppb/a with its center moving to the source areas. Time series of N components of G337 station, which is 13.7 km away from the Lenglongling Fault, exhibit a 5 mm/a acceleration anomaly. Time series of base-station QHME (in Menyuan displays a reverse acceleration from the end of Sep. to Dec., 2016 when it comes to a largest deviation, and the accumulative displacement is more than 4 mm and the value reverse till the earthquake. In our results, coseismic displacement of N, E, U components in QHME site are 3.0 mm, 3.0 mm, −5.4 mm, respectively. If we profile these values onto the Lenglongling Fault, we can achieve a 1.1 mm of strike slip and 4.1 mm updip slip relative to the hanging wall.

  3. Crustal stress pattern in China and its adjacent areas (United States)

    Hu, Xingping; Zang, Arno; Heidbach, Oliver; Cui, Xiaofeng; Xie, Furen; Chen, Jiawei


    During the update of the World Stress Map (WSM) database, we integrated the China stress database by strictly using the internationally developed quality ranking scheme for each individual stress data record. This effort resulted in a comprehensive and reliable dataset for the crustal stress of China and its adjacent areas with almost double the amount of data records from the WSM database release 2008, i.e., a total of 8228 data records with reliable A-C qualities in the region of 45-155° East and 0-60° North. We use this dataset for an analysis of the stress pattern for the orientation of maximum compressive horizontal stress (SHmax). In contrast to earlier findings that suggested that the mean SHmax orientation would be aligned with the direction of plate motion, we clearly see from our results that the plate boundary forces, as well as topography and faulting, are important control factors for the overall stress pattern. Furthermore, the smoothing results indicate that the SHmax orientation in China rotates clockwise from the west to the east, which results in a fan-shaped crustal stress pattern for the continental scale. The plate boundary forces around China, which are the Indian-Eurasian plate collision in the west and the Pacific plate subduction and the push from the Philippine plate in the east, can still be seen as the key driving processes and the first-order controls for the crustal stress pattern. The South-North seismic zone can be seen as the separation zone for the western and eastern plate boundary forces. Topographic variation and faulting activity, however, provide second-order changes, and lead to local variations and different inhomogeneity scales for the stress pattern. Due to differences in these factors, Northeast China and the central part of the Tibetan plateau have notably homogeneous stress patterns, while the South-North seismic zone, the Hindu Kush-Pamir region, and the Taiwan region have extremely inhomogeneous stress patterns

  4. A global estimate of the Earth's magnetic crustal thickness (United States)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan


    The Earth's lithosphere is considered to be magnetic only down to the Curie isotherm. Therefore the Curie isotherm can, in principle, be estimated by analysis of magnetic data. Here, we propose such an analysis in the spectral domain by means of a newly introduced regional spatial power spectrum. This spectrum is based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism (Thébault et al., 2006). We briefly discuss its properties and its relationship with the Spherical Harmonic spatial power spectrum. This relationship allows us to adapt any theoretical expression of the lithospheric field power spectrum expressed in Spherical Harmonic degrees to the regional formulation. We compared previously published statistical expressions (Jackson, 1994 ; Voorhies et al., 2002) to the recent lithospheric field models derived from the CHAMP and airborne measurements and we finally developed a new statistical form for the power spectrum of the Earth's magnetic lithosphere that we think provides more consistent results. This expression depends on the mean magnetization, the mean crustal thickness and a power law value that describes the amount of spatial correlation of the sources. In this study, we make a combine use of the R-SCHA surface power spectrum and this statistical form. We conduct a series of regional spectral analyses for the entire Earth. For each region, we estimate the R-SCHA surface power spectrum of the NGDC-720 Spherical Harmonic model (Maus, 2010). We then fit each of these observational spectra to the statistical expression of the power spectrum of the Earth's lithosphere. By doing so, we estimate the large wavelengths of the magnetic crustal thickness on a global scale that are not accessible directly from the magnetic measurements due to the masking core field. We then discuss these results and compare them to the results we obtained by conducting a similar spectral analysis, but this time in the cartesian coordinates, by means of a published

  5. Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Crustal Model for Antarctica (United States)

    Baranov, Alexey; Tenzer, Robert; Bagherbandi, Mohammad


    The latest seismic data and improved information about the subglacial bedrock relief are used in this study to estimate the sediment and crustal thickness under the Antarctic continent. Since large parts of Antarctica are not yet covered by seismic surveys, the gravity and crustal structure models are used to interpolate the Moho information where seismic data are missing. The gravity information is also extended offshore to detect the Moho under continental margins and neighboring oceanic crust. The processing strategy involves the solution to the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's inverse problem of isostasy constrained on seismic data. A comparison of our new results with existing studies indicates a substantial improvement in the sediment and crustal models. The seismic data analysis shows significant sediment accumulations in Antarctica, with broad sedimentary basins. According to our result, the maximum sediment thickness in Antarctica is about 15 km under Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The Moho relief closely resembles major geological and tectonic features. A rather thick continental crust of East Antarctic Craton is separated from a complex geological/tectonic structure of West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. The average Moho depth of 34.1 km under the Antarctic continent slightly differs from previous estimates. A maximum Moho deepening of 58.2 km under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica confirmed the presence of deep and compact orogenic roots. Another large Moho depth in East Antarctica is detected under Dronning Maud Land with two orogenic roots under Wohlthat Massif (48-50 km) and the Kottas Mountains (48-50 km) that are separated by a relatively thin crust along Jutulstraumen Rift. The Moho depth under central parts of the Transantarctic Mountains reaches 46 km. The maximum Moho deepening (34-38 km) in West Antarctica is under the Antarctic Peninsula. The Moho depth minima in East Antarctica are found under the Lambert Trench (24

  6. Lower Crustal and Moho Reflections Beneath Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Levander, A.; Kiser, E.; Zelt, C. A.; Creager, K.; Ulberg, C. W.; Schmandt, B.; Hansen, S. M.; Abers, G. A.


    The multi-disciplinary project iMUSH (imaging Magma Under St. Helens) was designed to illuminate the magmatic system beneath Mount St Helens (MSH) from the subducting Juan de Fuca slab to the surface using seismic, magnetotelluric, and petrologic data. The iMUSH active source experiment consisted of 23 large shots and 6000 seismograph locations. Included in the active-source seismic experiment were 2 dense linear profiles striking NW-SE and NE-SW, each with over 1000 receivers ( 150 m spacing) and 8 shots. Using the 1D average velocity model around MSH determined from travel-time analysis (Kiser et al., 2016, Geology), we have common-midpoint stacked STA/LTA envelope functions from all of the data along the NW-SE profile. A number of bright reflection events in the CMP section show remarkably good correspondence with abrupt velocity changes that were imaged in the 2D travel-time analysis in the mid to lower crust and at the Moho: Reflections appear at 20-25 km depth at the tops of two lower crustal high velocity (Vp > 7.5 km/s) bodies. One of these high velocity bodies is directly beneath MSH. The other is 40 km SE of MSH, under the Indian Heaven volcanic field, a basaltic field last active 9 ka. We have interpreted the high velocity bodies as cumulates from Quaternary or Tertiary volcanism. Separating the two high Vp bodies is a lower velocity column (Vp ≤ 6.5 km/s) dipping to the SE from the midcrust to the Moho. In the CMP section, the Moho reflection is bright under the region of low velocity and dims beneath both of the high velocity lower crustal bodies. Seismicity associated with the 1980 eruption extended from the summit to 20 km depth, stopping just above the bright reflection at the top of the MSH high Vp body. Deep long period events under MSH, often associated with motion of magmatic fluids, cluster at 20-30 km depth along the southeastern edge of the same reflection. This leads us to suggest that lower crustal magmas migrate along the southeastern

  7. Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Crustal Model for Antarctica (United States)

    Baranov, Alexey; Tenzer, Robert; Bagherbandi, Mohammad


    The latest seismic data and improved information about the subglacial bedrock relief are used in this study to estimate the sediment and crustal thickness under the Antarctic continent. Since large parts of Antarctica are not yet covered by seismic surveys, the gravity and crustal structure models are used to interpolate the Moho information where seismic data are missing. The gravity information is also extended offshore to detect the Moho under continental margins and neighboring oceanic crust. The processing strategy involves the solution to the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's inverse problem of isostasy constrained on seismic data. A comparison of our new results with existing studies indicates a substantial improvement in the sediment and crustal models. The seismic data analysis shows significant sediment accumulations in Antarctica, with broad sedimentary basins. According to our result, the maximum sediment thickness in Antarctica is about 15 km under Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The Moho relief closely resembles major geological and tectonic features. A rather thick continental crust of East Antarctic Craton is separated from a complex geological/tectonic structure of West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. The average Moho depth of 34.1 km under the Antarctic continent slightly differs from previous estimates. A maximum Moho deepening of 58.2 km under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica confirmed the presence of deep and compact orogenic roots. Another large Moho depth in East Antarctica is detected under Dronning Maud Land with two orogenic roots under Wohlthat Massif (48-50 km) and the Kottas Mountains (48-50 km) that are separated by a relatively thin crust along Jutulstraumen Rift. The Moho depth under central parts of the Transantarctic Mountains reaches 46 km. The maximum Moho deepening (34-38 km) in West Antarctica is under the Antarctic Peninsula. The Moho depth minima in East Antarctica are found under the Lambert Trench (24

  8. A brief overview of bulk metallic glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingwei Chen


      The discovery of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has stimulated widespread research enthusiasm because of their technological promise for practical applications and scientific importance in understanding glass formation and glass phenomena...

  9. A critical examination of the maximum velocity of shortening used in simulation models of human movement. (United States)

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H


    The maximum velocity of shortening of a muscle is an important parameter in musculoskeletal models. The most commonly used values are derived from animal studies; however, these values are well above the values that have been reported for human muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of simulations of maximum vertical jumping performance to the parameters describing the force-velocity properties of muscle. Simulations performed with parameters derived from animal studies were similar to measured jump heights from previous experimental studies. While simulations performed with parameters derived from human muscle were much lower than previously measured jump heights. If current measurements of maximum shortening velocity in human muscle are correct, a compensating error must exist. Of the possible compensating errors that could produce this discrepancy, it was concluded that reduced muscle fibre excursion is the most likely candidate.

  10. Radial shortening osteotomy for treatment of Lichtman Stage IIIA Kienböck disease. (United States)

    Luegmair, M; Goehtz, F; Kalb, K; Cip, J; van Schoonhoven, J


    We carried out a retrospective study to analyse the long-term outcome of 36 patients after radial shortening osteotomy for treatment of Lichtman Stage IIIA Kienböck disease at a mean follow-up of 12.1 years (range 5.4-17.5). At review, seven wrists had progressed to Stage IIIB, eight wrists to Stage IV and 21 remained in Stage IIIA. Motion and grip strength were significantly improved. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score at review was 12 points (range 0-52), and patient satisfaction was high. Apart from plate removals in 14 patients and one wrist denervation, no subsequent surgical procedures were done. Radial shortening yields good long-term clinical results, but does not prevent radiographic progression of disease in some patients. Therapeutic IV.

  11. TERRA Promotes Telomere Shortening through Exonuclease 1–Mediated Resection of Chromosome Ends (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Lingner, Joachim


    The long noncoding telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA) is expressed at chromosome ends. TERRA upregulation upon experimental manipulation or in ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) patients correlates with short telomeres. To study the mechanism of telomere length control by TERRA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped the transcriptional start site of TERRA at telomere 1L and inserted a doxycycline regulatable promoter upstream. Induction of TERRA transcription led to telomere shortening of 1L but not of other chromosome ends. TERRA interacts with the Exo1-inhibiting Ku70/80 complex, and deletion of EXO1 but not MRE11 fully suppressed the TERRA–mediated short telomere phenotype in presence and absence of telomerase. Thus TERRA transcription facilitates the 5′-3′ nuclease activity of Exo1 at chromosome ends, providing a means to regulate the telomere shortening rate. Thereby, telomere transcription can regulate cellular lifespan through modulation of chromosome end processing activities. PMID:22719262

  12. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres. (United States)

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal


    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. TERRA promotes telomere shortening through exonuclease 1-mediated resection of chromosome ends. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Lingner, Joachim


    The long noncoding telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA) is expressed at chromosome ends. TERRA upregulation upon experimental manipulation or in ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) patients correlates with short telomeres. To study the mechanism of telomere length control by TERRA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped the transcriptional start site of TERRA at telomere 1L and inserted a doxycycline regulatable promoter upstream. Induction of TERRA transcription led to telomere shortening of 1L but not of other chromosome ends. TERRA interacts with the Exo1-inhibiting Ku70/80 complex, and deletion of EXO1 but not MRE11 fully suppressed the TERRA-mediated short telomere phenotype in presence and absence of telomerase. Thus TERRA transcription facilitates the 5'-3' nuclease activity of Exo1 at chromosome ends, providing a means to regulate the telomere shortening rate. Thereby, telomere transcription can regulate cellular lifespan through modulation of chromosome end processing activities.

  14. Influence of sex on performance fatigability of the plantar flexors following repeated maximal dynamic shortening contractions. (United States)

    Lanning, Amelia C; Power, Geoffrey A; Christie, Anita D; Dalton, Brian H


    The purpose was to determine sex differences in fatigability during maximal, unconstrained velocity, shortening plantar flexions. The role of time-dependent measures (i.e., rate of torque development, rate of velocity development, and rate of neuromuscular activation) in such sex-related differences was also examined. By task termination, females exhibited smaller reductions in power and similar changes in rate of neuromuscular activation than males, indicating females were less fatigable than males.

  15. Developmental changes in shortening of pro-saccade reaction time while maintaining neck flexion position. (United States)

    Kunita, Kenji; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe; Yaguchi, Chie; Kiyota, Takeo


    We investigated developmental changes in shortening of pro-saccade reaction time while maintaining neck flexion. Subjects comprised 135 children (3-14 years) and 29 young adults (19-23 years). Children were divided into six groups in 2-year age strata. Pro-saccade reaction tasks for 30 s were performed in neck rest and flexion positions. Reaction times under each position were averaged in every 10-s period. Under neck rest position, reaction time in the 0-10 s period was significantly longer in the 3- to 4-year-old group than in the 5- to 6-year-old group and above. No significant age effect was found for reaction time in the 0-10 s period in the 5- to 6-year-old group and above. Although a significant effect of neck flexion was not observed until the 9- to 10-year-old group, significant shortening of reaction time with neck flexion was found in the 11- to 12-year-old group and above. Furthermore, this shortening was maintained until the first 20-s period in the 11- to 12-year-old group and during the entire 30 s in the 13- to 14-year-old and above. These results suggest that brain activation with the maintenance of neck flexion, related to shortening of the pro-saccade reaction time, was found from a later age of approximately 11 years and above, compared with the age at which information-processing function in the pro-saccade was enhanced. In addition, brain activation with the maintenance of neck flexion was sustained longer with age.

  16. Operative shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment after TVT failure (United States)

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Michajłowski, Jerzy; Krajka, Kazimierz


    Introduction Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is defined as an involuntary loss of urine during physical exertion, sneezing, coughing, laughing, or other activities that put pressure on the bladder. In some cases, recurrent or persistent SUI after sling operations may be caused by too loose placement of the sling. In the current study, we describe our method of shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) failure. Materials and methods Four women, aged 46-61, after initial TVT operation were treated for persistent SUI. The severity of SUI was estimated by: physical examinations, cough tests, 24-h pad tests, and King's Health Questionnaire. The shortening procedure, based on excising the fragment of tape and suturing it back, was performed in all patients. Results All cases achieved a good result, which was defined as restoration of full continence. No complications occurred. The 12-month follow-up showed no side-effects. The postoperative control tests: the cough and 24-h pad tests were negative in all women. The general health perceptions increased after the shortening procedure by a mean value 44.25%. The incontinence impact decreased by a mean value 44.6%. In all patients, role and physical limitations significantly decreased (by 88.5% and 80.5%, respectively). The negative emotions connected with SUI significantly decreased after the second procedure. Conclusions The operative shortening of the implanted sling is a simple, cheap, and effective method of second-line treatment in cases of TVT failure and may be offered to the majority of patients with insufficient urethral support after the first procedure. PMID:24578885

  17. Habitual shortened sleep and insulin resistance: an independent relationship in obese individuals. (United States)

    Liu, Alice; Kushida, Clete A; Reaven, Gerald M


    Short sleep duration has been reported to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and pre-diabetes. Since excess weight, glucose abnormalities, and insulin resistance tend to cluster, the individual role insulin resistance may have in habitual shortened sleep is unclear. The study purpose was to assess whether habitual sleep curtailment is independently related to insulin resistance in obese individuals. Non-diabetic, overweight/obese individuals from the community were stratified as insulin-resistant (n=35) or insulin-sensitive (n=21) based on steady-state plasma glucose concentrations (SSPG) during the insulin suppression test. Seventy-five gram oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Participants were asked, "On average, how many hours of sleep do you get per night?" Shortened sleep duration was defined as less than 7h of sleep per night. SSPG concentrations differed 2.5-fold (P40%); however, body mass index, waist circumference, mean fasting or 2-h post-glucola glucose concentrations were not significantly different. Insulin-resistant individuals reported (mean±SD) fewer hours of sleep than did insulin-sensitive individuals (6.53±1.1 vs. 7.24±0.9 h, Psleep duration was more prevalent among insulin-resistant as compared with insulin-sensitive individuals (60% vs. 24%, Psleep and were more likely to report shortened sleep duration as compared with similarly obese insulin-sensitive individuals. There appears to be an independent association between habitual shortened sleep and insulin resistance among obese, dysglycemic adults without diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immediate liposuction could shorten the time for endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer patients


    Shi, Fujun; Huang, Zonghai; Yu, Jinlong; Zhang, Pusheng; Deng, Jianwen; Zou, Linhan; Zhang, Cheng; Luo, Yunfeng


    Background Endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy (EALND) was introduced to clinical work to reduce side effects of conventional axillary lymphadenectomy, while the lipolysis and liposuction of EALND made the process consume more time. The aim of the study was to determine whether immediate liposuction after tumescent solution injection to the axilla could shorten the total time of EALND. Methods Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 30 of them received EALND with traditional liposucti...

  19. Construction of Rate-Compatible LDPC Codes Utilizing Information Shortening and Parity Puncturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher R


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for constructing rate-compatible low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The construction considers the problem of optimizing a family of rate-compatible degree distributions as well as the placement of bipartite graph edges. A hybrid approach that combines information shortening and parity puncturing is proposed. Local graph conditioning techniques for the suppression of error floors are also included in the construction methodology.

  20. FPGA-based Implementation of a Streaming Decoder for Shortened Reed-Solomon Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fedorov


    Full Text Available The traditional approaches to decoding shortened block codes are the padding of received codeword with zeros or correction of the syndrome polynomial values. Such approaches make stream-oriented decoding of continuous input data stream impossible. The paper offers a new technique for decoding the shortened Reed-Solomon codes. Its hardware implementation allows us to provide stream processing, reduce latency in clock cycles, and decrease a required quantity of hardware resources as compared to decoder implementation with padding of received packet with zeros. A distinctive feature of the proposed technique is that the decoder processes a stream of code words of different lengths without changing their structure and insertion of additional delays and that it is possible to use the modules of existing Reed-Solomon decoders for full codeword length. To enable this, a notion of error locator corrector for shortened code is introduced and a technique of their calculation is offered. Error locator correctors are calculated during the reception of a codeword in parallel to syndrome polynomial calculation. Their values allow us to modify the polynomial values of locators and errors at the output of the key equation solver. The paper considers a shortened code decoder that is implemented on the full code decoder modules based on Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, describes architecture of additional modules and required modifications of the algorithm. It shows the way to save hardware resources by using the multipliers in Berlekemp-Massey key equation solver to correct values. The Altera FPGA-based decoder has been tested in and compared to the Reed-Solomon II decoder IP from Altera.

  1. Mastication in subjects with extremely shortened dental arches rehabilitated with removable partial dentures. (United States)

    Arce-Tumbay, Jackelyn; Sanchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; Senna, Plinio Mendes; Campanha, Nara Hellen


    Mastication was evaluated in subjects presenting extremely shortened dental arches (ESDAs) rehabilitated with mandibular free-end removable partial dentures (RPDs). Subjects were divided into four groups (n = 10): those with a complete dentition, those with ESDAs, and those with ESDAs who were rehabilitated with an RPD, who were evaluated both with and without their prostheses. Mastication was measured through masticatory performance, time, and ability. RPD wearers showed higher masticatory performance (P mastication in ESDA subjects but without achieving normal mastication levels.

  2. Onshore-offshore seismic reflection profiling across the southern margin of the Sea of Japan: back-arc opening, shortening and active strike-slip deformation (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Toda, Shigeru; Kawasaki, Shinji; Fujiwara, Akira; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Abe, Susumu


    M7-class crustal earthquakes of overlying plate in subduction system have tendency to increase before megathrust earthquake events. Due to stress buildup by the upcoming Nankai Trough megathrust earthquake, SW Japan has being seismically active for last 20 years. In terms of the mitigation of earthquake and tsunami hazards, to construct seismogenic source fault models is first step for evaluating the strong ground motions and height of tsunamis. Since 2013, we performed intense seismic profiling in and around the southern part of the Sea of Japan. In 2016, a 180-km-long onshore -offshore seismic survey was carried out across the volcanic arc and back-arc basins (from Kurayoshi to the Yamato basin). Onshore section, CMP seismic reflection data were collected using four vibroseis trucks and fixed 1150 channel recorders. Offshore part we acquired the seismic reflection data using 1950 cu inch air-guns towing a 4-km-long streamer cable. We performed CMP reflection and refraction tomography analysis. Obtained seismic section portrays compressively deformed rifted continental crust and undeformed oceanic back-arc basin, reflecting the rheological features. These basic structures were formed during the opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene. The sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments unconformably cover the folded Miocene sediments. The opening and clock-wise rotation of SW Japan has been terminated at 15 Ma and contacted to the young Shikoku basin along the Nankai trough. Northward motion of Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the high thermal regime in the Shikoku basin produced the strong resistance along the Nankai trough. The main shortening deformation observed in the seismic section has been formed this tectonic event. After the initiation of the subduction along the Nankai trough, the rate of shortening deformation was decreased and the folded strata were covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. The thrusting trending parallel to the arc has been continued from

  3. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham W.; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Basuyau, Clémence


    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ˜35 km; (2) this thins to ˜22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high-velocity lower crust is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ˜1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ˜130-km-wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which on the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high-velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point towards a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  4. Incidence of and Factors Influencing Femoral Neck Shortening in Elderly Patients After Fracture Fixation with Multiple Cancellous Screws. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jianzheng; Wang, Xiinling; Ren, Jixin; Liu, Zhi


    BACKGROUND To study the incidence of and factors influencing "neck shortening" in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fractures using multiple cancellous screws. MATERIAL AND METHODS Of the 197 femoral neck fracture cases treated via closed reduction and cancellous screws fixation from January 2006 to February 2010, 110 were followed up. Patient age, gender, operative time, implantation method, reduction quality, fracture type, bone mineral density, loading time, length of hospital stay, and Harris hip score 12 months after operation were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups (shortening and non-shortening) based on their X-ray performance during follow-up. The healing rates and Harris hip scores of the two groups were compared, and the influencing factors of femoral neck shortening were analyzed. RESULTS Of the 110 cases followed up, 94.5% (104/110) were healed and neck shortening occurred in 41.8% (46/110) within 12.5 months (mean) after treatment. The Harris hip score of the shortening group was lower than that of the non-shortening group (78±17 vs. 86±23, p=0.048). The fracture healing rates of the two groups were not significantly different (p=0.068). The factors influencing neck shortening were significantly correlated with bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of neck shortening in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fracture using cancellous screws was high. Bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture were the influencing factors of neck shortening.

  5. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders (United States)

    Kong, Liang; Wen, Xiao-Gang; Zheng, Hao


    In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n + 1D topological order, which are often called n + 1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n + 1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the "bulk" for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n + 1D "bulk" phase is given by the "center" of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the "bulk" corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the "center". We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous) topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the "bulk" satisfies the same universal property as that of the "center" of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. "bulk" = center". The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous) topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  6. Psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S). (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Axpe, Inge; Goñi, Alfredo


    The four-dimensional model of physical self-concept which differentiates the physical self-perceptions of ability, condition, attractiveness and strength is widely accepted. In the last two decades much research has been done on the physical self-concept and its relations with the psychological well-being/distress, anxiety disorders or Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD). To validate a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S) and verify its ability to discriminate between people with different levels of EBD. Responses of 1478 subjects between 13 and 21 years old to the shortened version of the PSQ were analyzed in order to check indexes of reliability and validity. Furthermore, the scores of 96 women aged 14 to 23 years old diagnosed of EBD were compared to 96 others without clinical diagnosis. The results indicate a reliability of 0.93 and confirm the tetrafactorial structure of the physical selfconcept. The highest physical self-concept is that of those without a clinical diagnosis of EBD. The Shortened-PSQ is a simple, reliable and suitable screening tool both for educational and clinical settings. It also provides a sufficient measure of physical self-concept for research purposes.

  7. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction. (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon


    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  8. Accelerated telomere shortening: Tracking the lasting impact of early institutional care at the cellular level. (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S


    Studies examining the association between early adversity and longitudinal changes in telomere length within the same individual are rare, yet are likely to provide novel insight into the subsequent lasting effects of negative early experiences. We sought to examine the association between institutional care history and telomere shortening longitudinally across middle childhood and into adolescence. Buccal DNA was collected 2-4 times, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, in 79 children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal study exploring the impact of early institutional rearing on child health and development. Children with a history of early institutional care (n=50) demonstrated significantly greater telomere shortening across middle childhood and adolescence compared to never institutionalized children (n=29). Among children with a history of institutional care, randomization to high quality foster care was not associated with differential telomere attrition across development. Cross-sectional analysis of children randomized to the care as usual group indicated shorter telomere length was associated with greater percent of the child's life spent in institutional care up to age 8. These results suggest that early adverse care from severe psychosocial deprivation may be embedded at the molecular genetic level through accelerated telomere shortening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal vibration stimulation to the neck extensor muscles using hydraulic vibrators to shorten saccadic reaction time. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kunita, Kenji; Furune, Naoe; Maeda, Kaoru; Asai, Hitoshi; Tomita, Hidehito


    Optimal vibration stimulation to the neck extensor muscles using hydraulic vibrators to shorten the saccadic reaction time was examined. Subjects were 14 healthy young adults. Visual targets (LEDs) were located 10 degrees left and right of a central point. The targets were alternately lit for random durations of 2-4 seconds in a resting neck condition and various vibration conditions, and saccadic reaction times were measured. Vibration amplitude was 0.5 mm in every condition. The upper trapezius muscles were vibrated at 40, 60, 80, and 100 Hz in a sub-maximum stretch condition in which the muscles were stretched at 70% of maximum stretch. In addition, the muscles were vibrated at 60 Hz with the muscles maximally stretched, with 70% vertical pressure without stretching, and with vibration applied to the skin in the same area as the muscle vibration. At 60, 80, and 100 Hz at 70% maximum stretch, saccadic reaction time shortened significantly compared with the resting neck condition. However, no significant difference in the reaction time was observed among the frequencies. The saccadic reaction times in the maximum stretch condition, muscle pressure condition, and skin contact condition did not differ significantly from that in the resting neck condition. Vibration stimulation to the trapezius with 60-100 Hz frequencies at 0.5 mm amplitude in the sub-maximum stretch condition was effective for shortening saccadic reaction time. The main mechanism appears to be Ia information originating from the muscle spindle.

  10. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.


    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  11. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Staber

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated.To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice.We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83 and homozygous affected females (n = 55 for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death.Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p < 0.0001. In addition, the hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  12. Effective suppression of pulse shortening in a relativistic backward wave oscillator (United States)

    Cao, Yibing; Song, Zhimin; Wu, Ping; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuchuan; Teng, Yan; Sun, Jun


    This paper discusses pulse shortening present in a C-band relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO). Effects of the collector plasma are believed to be the main cause. This viewpoint is first verified in numerical simulation. The simulation results show that light charged particles such as hydrogen ions in the collector plasma would axially enter into the beam-microwave interaction region and suppress high-power microwave (HPM) generation. Simultaneously, heavy charged particles such as oxygen or ferric ions in the collector plasma would radially expand out and change the end reflection of the RBWO. All these effects can result in pulse shortening. Simulations also demonstrate that a coaxial collector can effectively suppress plasma effects by retarding their axial and radial expansions. Furthermore, a HPM experiment has confirmed the validity of the coaxial collector. Using this structure, the output power of the RBWO has been increased from 2.5 GW to 3 GW. No pulse shortening has been observed in the HPM experiment.

  13. Telomeres shorten and then lengthen before fledging in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee


    For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) chicks every 15 days during the species' growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age. Magellanic penguins continue to grow after fledging so we also sampled a set of 1-year-old juvenile penguins, and adults aged 5 years. Telomeres were significantly shorter on day 15 than on hatch day but returned to their initial length by 30 days old and remained at that length through 60 days of age. The length of telomeres of newly hatched chicks, chicks aged 30, 45 and 60 days, juveniles, and adults aged 5 years were similar. Chicks that fledged and those that died had similar telomere lengths. We show that while telomeres shorten during growth, Magellanic penguins elongate telomeres to their length at hatch, which may increase adult life span and reproductive opportunities.

  14. Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment Associated with Inferior Posterior Staphyloma Treated with Scleral Shortening and Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Kasai


    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of bilateral serous retinal detachment (SRD associated with inferior posterior staphyloma (IPS treated successfully with scleral shortening. Patient and Methods: A 63-year-old woman presented with bilateral visual loss due to an SRD with IPS. The best-corrected visual acuity levels were 0.6 (20/30 and 0.5 (20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively. The patient underwent vitrectomy and scleral shortening in the right eye. The lamellar scleral crescent was resected 4 mm in width from the 5- to 8-o'clock positions. Seven interrupted 5-0 polyester sutures were placed at the edge of the lamellar scleral crescent. After 25-gauge three-port vitrectomy, the sutures were tightened. Optical coherence tomography showed decreased curvature at the staphyloma border. The choroidal thickness decreased in the superior flat portion of the fundus and increased slightly in the staphyloma. The SRD resolved 3 months postoperatively. The best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye improved to 0.8 (20/25 6 months postoperatively. Angiography 6 months postoperatively showed decreased diffuse dye leakage at the fovea in the right eye; indocyanine green angiography did not show marked changes. Discussion: Scleral shortening with vitrectomy changes the eye wall shape, may improve the retinal pigment epithelial integrity, and may be a treatment option for SRD with IPS.

  15. Dislocation model for aseismic crustal deformation at Hollister, California (United States)

    Matsuura, Mitsuhiro; Jackson, David D.; Cheng, Abe


    A model of crustal deformation during the interseismic phase is developed and applied (using the improved Bayesian inversion algorithm described by Jackson and Matsu'ura, 1985) to trilateration data for the USGS Hollister (CA) network. In the model, rigid blocks in motion relative to each other experience friction only in a brittle upper zone, while their ductile lower zones slide freely; the Hollister model comprises five blocks and nine rectangular fault patches. The data and results are presented in tables, graphs, and maps and characterized in detail. The model predicts steady block motion on time scales between 10 yr and 1 Myr, with net motion across the San Andreas/Calaveras fault system 38 + or - 3 mm/yr and brittle/ductile transition depths ranging from 0.4 to 11 km. Two San Andreas segments with higher probabilities of moderate-to-large earthquakes are identified.

  16. Moho depth and crustal composition in Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    heterogeneous crustal structure with short wavelength variations in thickness (H), Vp/Vs-ratio (composition), and Moho sharpness, which defines ~20 blocks that do not everywhere coincide with surface tectonic features. In the Zimbabwe Craton, the Tokwe block has H = 35–38 km and Vp/Vs = 1.74–1.79 whereas......-existing lower crust, which is further supported by a very sharp Moho transition. The exposed cross-section in the Vredefort impact crater is non-representative of cratonic crust due to shallowMoho (34 km) and high Vp/Vs ~ 1.80 attributed to shock metamorphism. High Vp/Vs = 1.76 is typical of the Witwatersrand...

  17. Kinematics of the Sierra Nevada and Oregon Crustal Blocks (United States)

    Vollick, J. J.; McCaffrey, R.; Sella, G.


    Northern California contains the intersection of the NW moving Sierra Nevada block and the clockwise rotating Oregon block. Adding to the tectonic complexity of the region are the interactions of the Pacific plate, Basin and Range, California Coast Ranges, Mendocino fracture zone, San Andreas fault and the Juan de Fuca plate. Our research focuses on how the interactions of these features influence the motions of the Oregon and Sierra Nevada blocks. We processed Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected during the 1998 and 1999 National Geodetic Survey High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) surveys and by us in 2003. Our preliminary analysis of the velocity field indicates that the Oregon crustal block is rotating clockwise relative to the Sierra Nevada block around a pole approximately west of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Our future work involves finding a more exact location of the relative pole rotation between the blocks, the degree of rotation, and how this motion is being taken up.

  18. Variations and controls on crustal thermal regimes in Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Mather, Ben; McLaren, Sandra; Taylor, David; Roy, Sukanta; Moresi, Louis


    The surface heat flow field in Australia has for many years been poorly constrained compared to continental regions elsewhere. 182 recent heat flow determinations and 66 new heat production measurements for Southeastern Australia significantly increase our understanding of local and regional lithospheric thermal regimes and allow for detailed thermal modelling. The new data give a mean surface heat flow for Victoria of 71 ± 15 mW m- 2 which fits within the 61-77 mW m- 2 range reported for Phanerozoic-aged crust globally. These data reveal three new thermally and compositionally distinct heat flow sub-provinces within the previously defined Eastern Heat Flow Province: the Delamerian heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 60 ± 9 mW m- 2); the Lachlan heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 74 ± 13 mW m- 2); and the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 72 ± 16 mW m- 2) which includes extreme values that locally exceed 100 mW m- 2. Inversions of reduced heat flow and crustal differentiation find that the Delamerian sub-province has experienced significant crustal reworking compared to the Lachlan and Newer Volcanics sub-provinces. The latter has experienced volcanism within the last 8 Ma and the degree of variability observed in surface heat flow points (up to 8 mW m- 2 per kilometre laterally) cannot be replicated with steady-state thermal models through this sub-province. In the absence of a strong palaeoclimate signal, aquifer disturbances, or highly enriched granites, we suggest that this high variability arises from localised transient perturbations to the upper crust associated with recent intraplate volcanism. This is supported by a strong spatial correlation of high surface heat flow and known eruption points within the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province.

  19. Current knowledge on the crustal properties of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morelli


    Full Text Available The recent advances in experimental petrography together with the information derived from the super-deep drilling projects have provided additional constraints for the interpretation of refraction and reflection seismic data. These constraints can also be used in the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data to resolve nonuniqueness. In this study, we re-interpret the magnetic and gravity data of the Italian peninsula and neighbouring areas. In view of the constraints mentioned above, it is now possible to find an agreement between the seismic and gravity models of the Central Alps. By taking into account the overall crustal thickness, we have recognized the existence of three types of Moho: 1 European which extends to the north and west of the peninsula and in the Corsican-Sardinian block. Its margin was the foreland in the Alpine Orogeny and it was the ramp on which European and Adriatic mantle and crustal slices were overthrusted. This additional load caused bending and deepening and the Moho which now lies beneath the Adriatic plate reaching a maximum depth of approximately 75 km. 2 Adriatic (or African which lies beneath the Po plain, the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea. The average depth of the Moho is about 30-35 km below the Po plain and the Adriatic Sea and it increases toward the Alps and the Tyrrhenian Sea (acting as foreland along this margin. The maximum depth (50 km is reached in Calabria. 3 Pery-Tyrrhenian. This is an oceanic or thinned continental crust type of Moho. It borders the oceanic Moho of the Tyrrhenian Sea and it acquires a transitional character in the Ligurian and Provençal basins (<15 km thickness while further thickening occurs toward the East where the Adriatic plate is overthrusted. In addition, the interpretation of the heat flow data appears to confirm the origin of this Moho and its geodynamic allocation.

  20. Crustal block movements from Holocene shorelines: Rhodes Island (Greece) (United States)

    Pirazzoli, P. A.; Montaggioni, L. F.; Saliège, J. F.; Segonzac, G.; Thommeret, Y.; Vergnaud-Grazzini, C.


    Signs of up to eight stepped Holocene shorelines, which have been reported in a previous study on the east coast of Rhodes Island, have been reinvestigated in detail on the basis of a new geomorphological survey, identification and petrological analysis of many new samples of exposed marine organic crusts and over 30 radiocarbon datings. Confirmation was obtained of the view that the island can be charactered by considering small crustal blocks up to a dozen kilometres long with each block being affected by a specific tectonic history, and a general trend towards an uplift increasing from south to north. Two successive phases of submergence-emergence have been revealed by petrogenetic sequences in many samples, which give evidence of the occurrence of positive and negative vertical movements. This implies possible rejuvenation effects of the later submergence phase on the apparent age of pre-existing algal crusts, and those have been taken into account and estimated. The most likely sequence of vertical crustal movements to have occurred has been specified for each block and a time range has been ascribed to each former shoreline. Independent up and down movements, increasing in amplitude from south to north, appear in most blocks. There is a recurrent periodicity varying from a few hundred to one or at most two thousand years. The largest vertical displacement observed during the late Holocene—a sudden uplift movement of about 3.8 m in the northernmost part of the island—is likely to be linked with the earthquake which destroyed the Colossus in 222 B.C.

  1. Effect of Varying Crustal Thickness on CHAMP Geopotential Data (United States)

    Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Korhonen, J. V.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, H. R.; Potts, L. V.


    To determine the effect of crustal thickness variation on satellite-altitude geopotential anomalies we compared two regions of Europe with vastly different values, Central/Southern Finland and the Pannonian Basin. Crustal thickness exceeds 62 km in Finland and is less than 26 km in the Pannonian Basin. Heat-flow maps indicate that the thinner and more active crust of the Pannonian Basin has a value nearly three times that of the Finnish Svecofennian Province. Ground based gravity mapping in Hungary shows that the free-air gravity anomalies across the Pannonian Basin are near 0 to +20 mGal with shorter wavelength anomalies from +40 to less than +60 mGal and some 0 to greater than -20 mGal. Larger anomalies are detected in the mountainous areas. The minor value anomalies can indicate the isostatic equilibrium for Hungary (the central part of the Pannonian Basin). Gravity data over Finland are complicated by de-glaciation. CHAMP gravity data (400 km) indicates a west-east positive gradient of greater than 4 mGal across Central/Southern Finland and an ovoid positive anomaly (approximately 4 mGal) quasi-coincidental with the magnetic anomaly traversing the Pannonian Basin. CHAMP magnetic data (425 km) reveal elongated semicircular negative anomalies for both regions with South-Central Finland having larger amplitude (less than -6 nT) than that over the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (less than -5 nT). In both regions subducted oceanic lithosphere has been proposed as the anomalous body.

  2. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  3. Telomere shortening sensitizes cancer cells to selected cytotoxic agents: in vitro and in vivo studies and putative mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Uziel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomere/telomerase system has been recently recognized as an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Telomerase inhibition results in tumor regression and increased sensitivity to various cytotoxic drugs. However, it has not been fully established yet whether the mediator of these effects is telomerase inhibition per se or telomere shortening resulting from inhibition of telomerase activity. In addition, the characteristics and mechanisms of sensitization to cytotoxic drugs caused by telomerase inhibition has not been elucidated in a systematic manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we characterized the relative importance of telomerase inhibition versus telomere shortening in cancer cells. Sensitization of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs was achieved by telomere shortening in a length dependent manner and not by telomerase inhibition per se. In our system this sensitization was related to the mechanism of action of the cytotoxic drug. In addition, telomere shortening affected also other cancer cell functions such as migration. Telomere shortening induced DNA damage whose repair was impaired after administration of cisplatinum while doxorubicin or vincristine did not affect the DNA repair. These findings were verified also in in vivo mouse model. The putative explanation underlying the phenotype induced by telomere shortening may be related to changes in expression of various microRNAs triggered by telomere shortening. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our best knowledge this is the first study characterizing the relative impact of telomerase inhibition and telomere shortening on several aspects of cancer cell phenotype, especially related to sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and its putative mechanisms. The microRNA changes in cancer cells upon telomere shortening are novel information. These findings may facilitate the development of telomere based approaches in treatment of cancer.

  4. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  5. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)


    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  6. Zircon geochronology reveals polyphase magmatism and crustal anatexis in the Buchan Block, NE Scotland: Implications for the Grampian Orogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Johnson


    Full Text Available The type locality for high-temperature, low-pressure regional metamorphism, the Buchan Block in NE Scotland, exhibits profound differences to the rest of the Grampian Terrane. These differences have led some to regard the Buchan Block as an exotic crustal fragment comprising Precambrian basement gneisses and cover rocks thrust into their current position during Grampian orogenesis. Although rocks of the Buchan Block are now generally correlated with Dalradian strata elsewhere, the origin of the gneisses and the cause of the high heat flow and associated magmatism is debated. We report SIMS U–Pb and LA-ICPMS Hf isotopic data in zircon from high-grade rocks from the northeast (Inzie Head Gneiss and northwest (Portsoy corners of the Buchan Block. Around Inzie Head, upper amphibolite to granulite facies metasedimentary gneisses coexist with diorite sheets that were emplaced contemporaneously with partial melting of their host rocks, at least locally. U–Pb geochronology indicates a crystallisation age for the diorite of 486 ± 9 Ma. Highly-deformed diorites within the Portsoy Gabbro have a crystallisation age of 493 ± 8 Ma. Ages of ca. 490 Ma for magmatism and high-grade metamorphism, which are broadly contemporaneous with ophiolite obduction and the onset of orogenesis, are significantly older than the established peak of Grampian metamorphism (ca. 470 Ma. We propose a new model for the Grampian Orogeny involving punctuated tectonothermal activity due to tectonic switching during accretionary orogenesis. Rollback of a NW-dipping subduction zone at ca. 490 Ma produced a back-arc environment (the Buchan Block with associated arc magmatism and high dT/dP metamorphism. Arrival of an outboard arc resulted in shortening (the initial phase of the Grampian Orogeny at ca. 488 Ma. Rollback of a NW-dipping subduction zone to the SE of the ca. 488 Ma suture began at 473 Ma and led to lithospheric-scale extension, decompression melting and

  7. Sensing the earth crustal deformation with nano-strain resolution fiber-optic sensors. (United States)

    Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan; Tokunaga, Tomochika


    Crustal deformation measurement with a high resolution on the order of nano-strains in static to low frequency region is required for geophysical research. Optical fiber sensors are very attractive in this research field due to their unique advantages including high resolution, small size and easy deployment. In this paper, a fiber optic strain sensor with nano-strain-resolution and large measurement range for sensing the earth crustal deformation is reported. With this sensor the tide induced crustal deformation and the seismic wave were successfully recorded in field experiments.

  8. Holographic bulk reconstruction with α' corrections (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti


    We outline a holographic recipe to reconstruct α' corrections to anti-de Sitter (AdS) (quantum) gravity from an underlying CFT in the strictly planar limit (N →∞ ). Assuming that the boundary CFT can be solved in principle to all orders of the 't Hooft coupling λ , for scalar primary operators, the λ-1 expansion of the conformal dimensions can be mapped to higher curvature corrections of the dual bulk scalar field action. Furthermore, for the metric perturbations in the bulk, the AdS /CFT operator-field isomorphism forces these corrections to be of the Lovelock type. We demonstrate this by reconstructing the coefficient of the leading Lovelock correction, also known as the Gauss-Bonnet term in a bulk AdS gravity action using the expression of stress-tensor two-point function up to subleading order in λ-1.

  9. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini


    and a low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state...... are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface......The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio...

  10. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS


    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  11. Mid-term clinical outcome of radial shortening for kienbock disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes of radius shortening as a treatment for Kienbock′s disease. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort, 16 skeletally mature patients (9 men and 7 women with Kienbock disease, who were treated with radial shortening osteotomy between 2002 and 2012, were reviewed in our study. The mean age of our patients was 30 (range 18-43 years old. According to Litchman staging, there were 7 wrists at stage II and 9 wrists at stage III (6 at stage IIIA and 3 at stage IIIB. The data of grip strength, pain (visual analog scale (VAS score, wrist range of motion (ROM, ulnar variance (according to Palmer method, and the Lichtman stage were gathered before and after surgery. We evaluated overall wrist function using the Mayo Wrist score and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH score before surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: The average of follow-up was 7 years (range from 5 to 9 years. Preoperative ulnar variance was -1.3 mm (range from 2.5 to 1 preoperatively. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was 1 mm positive (range from 0.5 to 1.5. The VAS pain score, the mean arc of wrist flexion and extension, and grip strength improved significantly preoperatively compared to after recovery from surgery. The Lichtman stage was unchanged in nine patients, one grade worse in six patients, and one grade better in one patient. The mean DASH and Mayo scores improved significantly postoperatively compare with preoperation. Comparing preoperative positive, neuter, and negative ulnar variance, there was no significant difference in terms of VAS, DASH, and Mayo scores as well as ROM and grip strength. Conclusion: Our study shows that radius shortening surgery improves pain and disability regardless of ulnar variance.

  12. Treatment efficacy of lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery in degenerative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shao


    Full Text Available AIM: To observe and compare efficacy of the lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery and orbicularis muscle resection surgery to treat degenerative entropion. METHODS: Patients with degenerative entropion in our hospital were selected. The test group was 40 cases(70 eyes, of which double eyes with attack(30 cases, and lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery was applied to the test group. Control group was 20 cases(26 eyes, of which double eyes with attack(6 cases, and the control group was used by orbicularis muscle resection surgery. The correction rate, double eyelid symmetry and overcorrection rate were observed in two groups at postoperative 1wk. The long- term recurrence rate, double eyelid symmetry and overcorrection rate with follow-up 6mo were observed. RESULTS: After 1wk, the correction rate of experimental group 98.6%,undercorrection rate of that was 1.4%, all the eyelid was symmetry, only one eye with a slight overcorrection. Correction rate of control group was 92.3%; all the eyelid was symmetry, and the poor rate of this group was 7.7%. After 6mo, correction rate of experimental group was 95.2%; undercorrection rate of experimental group was 3.2%, and overcorrection rate was 1.6%. Correction rate of control group was 87%, and 2 eyes of recurrence, 1 eye with a poor overcorrection. Double eyelid was symmetry, overcorrection rate difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05, and the correction rate were significantly different(PCONCLUSION: Compared toorbicularis muscle resection surgery, postoperative recurrence rate of lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery is significantly lowered.

  13. An iterative evaluation of two shortened systematic review formats for clinicians: a focus group study. (United States)

    Perrier, Laure; Kealey, M Ryan; Straus, Sharon E


    To conduct a series of focus groups with primary care physicians to determine the optimal format of a shortened, focused systematic review. Prototypes for two formats of a shortened systematic review were developed and presented to participants during focus group sessions. Focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians who were in full- or part-time practice. An iterative process was used so that the information learned from the first set of focus groups (Round 1) influenced the material presented to the second set of focus groups (Round 2). The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed. Each of the two rounds of testing included three focus groups. A total of 32 physicians participated (Round 1:16 participants; Round 2:16 participants). Analysis of the transcripts from Round 1 identified three themes including ease of use, clarity, and implementation. Changes were made to the prototypes based on the results so that the revised prototypes could be presented and discussed in the second round of focus groups. After analysis of transcripts from Round 2, four themes were identified, including ease of use, clarity, brevity, and implementation. Revisions were made to the prototypes based on the results. Primary care physicians provided input on the refinement of two prototypes of a shortened systematic review for clinicians. Their feedback guided changes to the format, presentation, and layout of these prototypes in order to increase usability and uptake for end-users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

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    Hester M Den Ruijter


    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  15. Long-axis fractional shortening and mitral annulus motion in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Gonçalves Sousa


    Full Text Available Ventricular systolic dynamics involves the contraction of transverse and longitudinal myocardial fibers. Unfortunately, only the activity of the transverse myocardial fibers is foreseen by the standard systolic echocardiographic parameters. Although strain and strain rate have been used to assess the radial, circumferential and longitudinal planes of cardiac contraction, such analysis requires advanced equipment which is not always available in veterinary medicine. On the contrary, some unusual parameters may be recorded via standard methodology, allowing for the specific evaluation of left ventricular longitudinal contractility. In this study, the longitudinal contractile activity was evaluated using the long-axis fractional shortening and the mitral annulus motion, which were compared with several standard echocardiographic parameters in 14 beagles, including seven with asymptomatic mitral valve disease. The long-axis fractional shortening was positively correlated with both the mitral annulus motion and the end-diastolic left-ventricular diameter. Also, a significant correlation was found to exist between the mitral annulus motion and the left-ventricular end-diastolic diameter, which is likely supportive of its preload dependency. Even though no difference was documented in either mitral annulus motion or long-axis fractional shortening between healthy dogs and dogs with mitral valve disease, the latter only included animals with minimal cardiac remodeling, with no overt compromise of systolic function. Since it is possible to obtain these two parameters with any echocardiographic equipment, their inclusion in the routine exam would probably add information regarding the activity of the longitudinal myocardial fibers, whose functional deterioration supposedly occurs prior to the impairment of transverse fibers.

  16. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids. (United States)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M; Verkerk, Arie O; Coronel, Ruben


    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  17. Action Potential Shortening and Impairment of Cardiac Function by Ablation ofSlc26a6. (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Ledford, Hannah A; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Ren, Lu; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong Han; Dai, Gu; Moshref, Maryam; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Chen, Wei Chun; Timofeyeva, Maria Valeryevna; Jian, Zhong; Shimkunas, Rafael; Izu, Leighton T; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Zhang, Xiao-Dong


    Intracellular pH (pH i ) is critical to cardiac excitation and contraction; uncompensated changes in pH i impair cardiac function and trigger arrhythmia. Several ion transporters participate in cardiac pH i regulation. Our previous studies identified several isoforms of a solute carrier Slc26a6 to be highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. We show that Slc26a6 mediates electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities in cardiomyocytes, suggesting the potential role of Slc26a6 in regulation of not only pH i , but also cardiac excitability. To test the mechanistic role of Slc26a6 in the heart, we took advantage of Slc26a6 knockout ( Slc26a6 -/ - ) mice using both in vivo and in vitro analyses. Consistent with our prediction of its electrogenic activities, ablation of Slc26a6 results in action potential shortening. There are reduced Ca 2+ transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ load, together with decreased sarcomere shortening in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes. These abnormalities translate into reduced fractional shortening and cardiac contractility at the in vivo level. Additionally, pH i is elevated in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes with slower recovery kinetics from intracellular alkalization, consistent with the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities of Slc26a6. Moreover, Slc26a6 -/ - mice show evidence of sinus bradycardia and fragmented QRS complex, supporting the critical role of Slc26a6 in cardiac conduction system. Our study provides mechanistic insights into Slc26a6, a unique cardiac electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - transporter in ventricular myocytes, linking the critical roles of Slc26a6 in regulation of pH i , excitability, and contractility. pH i is a critical regulator of other membrane and contractile proteins. Future studies are needed to investigate possible changes in these proteins in Slc26a6 -/ - mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Cost and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment shortening: a model-based analysis. (United States)

    Gomez, G B; Dowdy, D W; Bastos, M L; Zwerling, A; Sweeney, S; Foster, N; Trajman, A; Islam, M A; Kapiga, S; Sinanovic, E; Knight, G M; White, R G; Wells, W A; Cobelens, F G; Vassall, A


    Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration. The model was populated using extensive, empirically-collected data to estimate the economic impact on both health systems and patients of regimen shortening for first-line TB treatment in South Africa, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. We explicitly considered 'real world' constraints such as sub-optimal guideline adherence. From a societal perspective, a shortened regimen, priced at USD1 per day, could be a cost-saving option in South Africa, Brazil, and Tanzania, but would not be cost-effective in Bangladesh when compared to one gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Incorporating 'real world' constraints reduces cost-effectiveness. Patient-incurred costs could be reduced in all settings. From a health service perspective, increased drug costs need to be balanced against decreased delivery costs. The new regimen would remain a cost-effective option, when compared to each countries' GDP per capita, even if new drugs cost up to USD7.5 and USD53.8 per day in South Africa and Brazil; this threshold was above USD1 in Tanzania and under USD1 in Bangladesh. Reducing the duration of first-line TB treatment has the potential for substantial economic gains from a patient perspective. The potential economic gains for health services may also be important, but will be context-specific and dependent on the appropriate pricing of any new regimen.

  19. Telomere longitudinal shortening as a biomarker for dementia status of adults with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Ye, Lingling; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Silverman, Wayne P


    Previous studies have suggested that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes an accelerated shortening of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes consisting of highly conserved TTAGGG repeats that, because of unidirectional 5'-3' DNA synthesis, lose end point material with each cell division. Our own previous work suggested that telomere length of T-lymphocytes might be a remarkably accurate biomarker for "mild cognitive impairment" in adults with Down syndrome (MCI-DS), a population at dramatically high risk for AD. To verify that the progression of cognitive and functional losses due to AD produced this observed telomere shortening, we have now examined sequential changes in telomere length in five individuals with Down syndrome (3F, 2M) as they transitioned from preclinical AD to MCI-DS (N = 4) or dementia (N = 1). As in our previous studies, we used PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes for telomeres and the chromosome 2 centromere (as an "internal standard" expected to be unaffected by aging or dementia status), with samples from the same individuals now collected prior to and following development of MCI-DS or dementia. Consistent shortening of telomere length was observed over time. Further comparisons with our previous cross-sectional findings indicated that telomere lengths prior to clinical decline were similar to those of other adults with Down syndrome (DS) who have not experienced clinical decline while telomere lengths following transition to MCI-DS or dementia in the current study were comparable to those of other adults with DS who have developed MCI-DS or dementia. Taken together, findings indicate that telomere length has significant promise as a biomarker of clinical progression of AD for adults with DS, and further longitudinal studies of a larger sample of individuals with DS are clearly warranted to validate these findings and determine if and how factors affecting AD risk also influence these measures of telomere length. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. New insight into the shortening of the collagen fibril D-period in human cornea. (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Tarnawska, Dorota; Wrzalik, Roman; Chrobak, Artur; Grelowski, Michal; Wylegala, Edward; Zygadlo, Dorota; Ratuszna, Alicja


    Collagen fibrils type I display a typical banding pattern, so-called D-periodicity, of about 67 nm, when visualized by atomic force or electron microscopy imaging. Herein we report on a significant shortening of the D-period for human corneal collagen fibrils type I (21 ± 4 nm) upon air-drying, whereas no changes in the D-period were observed for human scleral collagen fibrils type I (64 ± 4 nm) measured under the same experimental conditions as the cornea. It was also found that for the corneal stroma fixed with glutaraldehyde and air-dried, the collagen fibrils show the commonly accepted D-period of 61 ± 8 nm. We used the atomic force microscopy method to image collagen fibrils type I present in the middle layers of human cornea and sclera. The water content in the cornea and sclera samples was varying in the range of .066-.085. Calculations of the D-period using the theoretical model of the fibril and the FFT approach allowed to reveal the possible molecular mechanism of the D-period shortening in the corneal collagen fibrils upon drying. It was found that both the decrease in the shift and the simultaneous reduction in the distance between tropocollagen molecules can be responsible for the experimentally observed effect. We also hypothesize that collagen type V, which co-assembles with collagen type I into heterotypic fibrils in cornea, could be involved in the observed shortening of the corneal D-period.

  1. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)


    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  2. A mechanistic analysis of bulk powder caking (United States)

    Calvert, G.; Curcic, N.; Ghadiri, M.


    Bulk powder transformations, such as caking, can lead to numerous problems within industry when storing or processing materials. In this paper a new Environmental Caking Rig (ECR) is introduced and has been used to evaluate the caking propensity of a hygroscopic powder as a function of temperature, Relative Humidity (RH), mechanical stress and also when RH is cycled. A linear relationship exists between cake strength and the extent of bulk deformation, here defined by the engineering strain. An empirical model has been used to predict the caking behaviour based on consolidation stress and environmental conditions.

  3. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado


    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  4. Outcome of plating, bone grafting and shortening of non-union humeral diaphyseal fracture. (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Shoaib; Sahibzada, Ahmed Sohail; Khan, Mohammad Ayaz; Sultan, Shahid; Younas, Mohammed; Khan, Alam Zeb


    Humeral diaphyseal fracture usually heals with closed methods but when non union develops then it needs surgical intervention in the form of plating and bone grafting, intramedulary nailing (open or closed simple or interlocking nails) and external fixators (circular or one plane fixator). In our unit we treated non union humeral diaphyseal fracture with plating and bone grafting and shortening of fracture ends up to 4 to 5 cm when needed. This study was conducted at Orthopaedic Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from January 2002 till December 2003. We included 15 cases with atrophic non-union in 9 (60%) and hypertrophic non-union in 6 (40%) patients. All atrophic non-union were treated with plating, bone shortening by transverse osteotomy and bone grafting, while hypertrophic non-union were treated with decortications of non-union ends and fixation with compression plates, with bone grafting in old age. Follow up measures were based on clinical (range of joints motion) and radiological (healing) findings. Follow up was done for up to 6 months. Out of 15 patients the age range was 20-80 years, 12 (80%) were male and 03 (20%) female. Right humerus involved in 5 (33.33%) while left humerus in 10 (66.66%) patients. In 9 (60%) patients with atrophic non union bone shortening by transverse cut osteotomy was done while in remaining patients with hypertrophic non-union plating was done in 2 (13.33%) cases and plating with bone grafting in 4 (26.66%) patients. Union was achieved in all patients after 16 to 20 weeks of surgery. In one patient (6.66%) of 75 years age with hypertrophic non-union implant was loosened after 03 months of surgery. At that time healing (Union) was evident on X-rays and humeral brace was applied for further 03 months. Two patients (13.33%) got neuropraxia of radial nerve which resolved with in 3 months time. 02 patients (13.33%) developed shoulder stiffness which resolved after exercise. In Non Union of Humerus shortening by

  5. Lactose tolerance test shortened to 30 minutes: an exploratory study of its feasibility and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Domínguez-Jiménez


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactose malabsorption (LM is a very common condition with a high prevalence in our setting. Lactose tolerance test (LTT is a basic, affordable test for diagnosis that requires no complex technology. It has been recently shown that this test can be shortened to 3 measurements (baseline, 30 min, 60 min with no impact on final results. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility and benefits of LTT simplification and shortening to 30 min, as well as the financial impact entailed. Material and methods: A multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing LTT for LM suspicion. Patients received 50 g of lactose following a fasting period of 12 h, and had blood collected from a vein at all 3 time points for the measurement of blood glucose (mg/dl. Differences between the shortened and complete test forms were analyzed using McNemar's test. A comparison of blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal results was performed using Student's T-test for independent mean values. Consistency was assessed using the kappa index. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 270 patients (69.6% females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 16 years. LTT was abnormal for 151 patients (55.9%. We observed no statistically significant differences in baseline blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal LTT results (p = 0.13; however, as was to be expected, such differences were obvious for the remaining time points (p < 0.01. Deleting blood glucose measurements at 60 minutes only led to overdiagnose LM (false positive results in 6 patients (2.22 %, with a kappa index of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99 (p < 0.001 versus the complete test. Suppressing measurements at 60 min would have saved at least € 7,726. Conclusion: The shortening of LTT to only 2 measurements (baseline and 30-min hardly leads to any differences in final results, and would entail savings in

  6. Automated Clean Chemistry for Bulk Analysis of Environmental Swipe Samples - FY17 Year End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McBay, Eddy H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment to shorten lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures. This development addresses a serious need in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (IAEA NWAL) to increase efficiency in the Bulk Analysis of Environmental Samples for Safeguards program with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on COTS equipment. It was modified for uranium/plutonium separations using renewable columns packed with Eichrom TEVA and UTEVA resins, with a chemical separation method based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) NWAL chemical procedure. The newly designed prepFAST-SR has had several upgrades compared with the original prepFAST-MC2. Both systems are currently installed in the Ultra-Trace Forensics Science Center at ORNL.

  7. Crustal and deep seismicity in Italy (30 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvaggi


    Full Text Available The first modern studies of seismicity in Italy date back to the late 60's and early 70's. Although with a sparse seismic network available and only a few telemetered short-period stations, significant studies were carried out that outlined the main features of Italian seismicity (see, e.g., Boschi et al., 1969. Among these studies, one of the most important achievements was the reconnaissance of a Wadati-Benioff zone in Southern Tyrrhenian, described for the first time in detail in the papers of Caputo et al.(1970, 1973. Today, after three decades of more and more detailed seismological monitoring of the Italian region and tens of thousands earthquakes located since then, the knowledge of the earthquake generation processes in our country is much improved, although some of the conclusions reached in these early papers still hold. These improvements were made possible by the efforts of many institutions and seismologists who have been working hard to bring seismological research in Italy to standards of absolute quality, under the pivoting role of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING. From the relocation of about 30000 crustal earthquakes and detailed studies on intermediate and deep shocks carried out in the last few years, we show that seismic release in peninsular Italy is only weakly related to the Africa-Eurasia convergence, but rather is best explained by the existence of two separate subduction/collision arcs (Northern Apennines and Southern Apennines-Calabria-Sicily. The width of the deforming belt running along peninsular Italy is 30 to 60 km, it is broader in the north than in the south, and the two arcs are separated by a region of more distributed deformation and stress rotations in the Central Apennines. Along the belt, the reconnaissance of regions of continuous and weak release of seismic energy, adjacent to fault areas which are currently «locked» (and therefore are the best candidates for future earthquakes is another

  8. The crystal's view of upper-crustal magma reservoirs (United States)

    Cooper, K. M.; Kent, A. J.; Huber, C.; Stelten, M. E.; Rubin, A. E.; Schrecengost, K.


    Upper-crustal magma reservoirs are important sites of magma mixing, crustal refining, and magma storage. Crystals residing in these reservoirs have been shown to represent valuable archives of the chemical and physical evolution of reservoirs, and the time scales of this evolution. This presentation addresses the question of "What do crystals "see" and record about processes within the upper crust? And how is that view similar or different between plutonic and volcanic records?" Three general observations emerge from study of the ages of crystals, combined with crystal-scale geochemical data: 1) Patterns of isotopic and trace-element data over time in zircon crystals from a given magmatic system (e.g., Yellowstone, WY, and Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand) can show systematic changes in the degree of heterogeneity, consistent with extraction of melts from a long-lived (up to 100s of kyr), heterogeneous crystal mush and in some cases continued crystallization and homogenization of the magma during a short period (eruption. 2) Thermal histories of magma storage derived from crystal records also show that the vast majority of time recorded by major phases was spent in storage as a crystal mush, perhaps at near-solidus conditions. 3) Comparison of ages of accessory phases in both plutonic blocks and host magmas that brought them to the surface do not show a consistent relationship between the two. In some cases, zircons from plutonic blocks have age spectra much older than zircon in the host magma. In other cases, host and plutonic block zircons have similar age spectra and chemical characteristics, suggesting a closer genetic connection between the two. These observations suggest that crystals in plutonic bodies, if examined at similar spatial and temporal scales to those in volcanic rocks, would show records that are highly heterogeneous in chemistry and age on the scale of a pluton or a lobe of a pluton, but that local regions of limited chemical and age variability

  9. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.


    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  10. Crustal Velocity Model of the Altai-Sayan Region (United States)

    Behrend, M. J.; Mackey, K. G.


    We have developed a crustal velocity model for the the region encompassed by the Altai-Sayan Seismic Network of South-Central Russia (45o-55o N. X 79o-98o E.). Geographically, the study area includes the Altai and Sayan Mountain Ranges, Western Mongolia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and Northwest China. To develop our model we used phase arrival data from approximately 175 larger earthquakes recorded by the Altai-Sayan Seismic Network between 1977 and 1981 and reported in the bulletin Materialy po Seismichnosti Sibiri. To develop our model, we divided the region into 1o N-S x 2o E-W cells. Events within each cell, plus a small surrounding area, were relocated multiple times using a grid-search routine, in effort to determine the best fitting Pg and Sg velocities. Pg and Sg phase arrivals are generally from the 100-1000 km range and represent secondary arriving phases. These arrivals are dominant in this region and we consider the time picks and phase identifications to be reliable. Velocities tested range from 5.650 to 6.350 km/s for Pg and from 3.310 to 3.710 km/s for Sg. The best fitting velocities for each cell were then assigned to the geographic coordinates of the cell's center point. The standard Jeffreys-Bullen model was used for Pn velocities. The best fitting Pg and Sg velocities are those that minimize the average event residuals in a cell. High residual arrivals were omitted from the location process. In our model, Pg velocities range from 5.975-6.325 km/s, while Sg velocities range from 3.510-3.630 km/s, though the higher velocity extremes are constrained by one event and are not statistically significant. The average Pg velocity of the study area was, 6.147 km/s, and average Sg, 3.576 km/s. Geologically, these velocities are associated with the Central Asiatic Foldbelt and are consistent with regional crustal velocities along the southern edge of the Siberian Craton to the East as determined by previous studies.

  11. Proliferation capacity of the renal proximal tubule involves the bulk of differentiated epithelial cells. (United States)

    Vogetseder, Alexander; Picard, Nicolas; Gaspert, Ariana; Walch, Michael; Kaissling, Brigitte; Le Hir, Michel


    We investigated the proliferative capacity of renal proximal tubular cells in healthy rats. Previously, we observed that tubular cells originate from differentiated cells. We now found 1) by application of bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 14 days and costaining for BrdU, and the G(1)-phase marker cyclin D1 that the bulk of cells in the S3 segment of juvenile rats were involved in proliferation; 2) that although the proliferation rate was about 10-fold higher in juvenile rats compared with adult rats, roughly 40% of S3 cells were in G(1) in both groups; 3) that after a strong mitotic stimulus (lead acetate), proliferation was similar in juveniles and adults; 4) that there was a high incidence of cyclin D1-positive cells also in the healthy human kidney; and 5) by labeling dividing cells with BrdU for 2 days before the application of lead acetate and subsequent costaining for BrdU and cell cycle markers, that, although a strong mitotic stimulus does not abolish the period of quiescence following division, it shortens it markedly. Thus the capacity of the proximal tubule to rapidly recruit cells into division relies on a large reserve pool of cells in G(1) and on the shortening of the obligatory period of quiescence that follows division.

  12. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio


    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  13. Two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasty using a shortened post-operative course of antibiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Paul B


    We present a series of 30 consecutive patients with 31 infected total hip arthroplasties treated by a single surgeon over a 4-year period in whom a shortened post-operative course of antimicrobial chemotherapy was used.

  14. The effect of strength training, recreational soccer and running exercise on stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance during countermovement jumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrasting training modalities on mechanical muscle performance and neuromuscular activity during maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycle) countermovement jumps (CMJ). Bilateral countermovement jumping, surface electromyography (EMG...

  15. A domain decomposition approach to implementing fault slip in finite-element models of quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Knepley, M.G.; Williams, C.A.


    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  16. Building the Pamir-Tibetan Plateau—Crustal stacking, extensional collapse, and lateral extrusion in the Central Pamir: 2. Timing and rates (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Khan, Jahanzeb; Stübner, Konstanze; Hacker, Bradley R.; Stearns, Michael A.; Enkelmann, Eva; Jonckheere, Raymond; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Sperner, Blanka; Tichomirowa, Marion


    Geothermochronologic data outline the temperature-deformation-time evolution of the Muskol and Shatput gneiss domes and their hanging walls in the Central Pamir. Prograde metamorphism started before 35 Ma and peaked at 23-20 Ma, reflecting top-to- N thrust-sheet and fold-nappe emplacement that tripled the thickness of the upper 7-10 km of the Asian crust. Multimethod thermochronology traces cooling through 700-100°C between 22 and 12 Ma due to exhumation along dome-bounding normal-sense shear zones. Synkinematic minerals date normal sense shear-zone deformation at 22-17 Ma. Age-versus-elevation relationships and paleoisotherm spacing imply exhumation at ≥3 km/Myr. South of the domes, Mesozoic granitoids record slow cooling and/or constant temperature throughout the Paleogene and enhanced cooling (7-31°C/Myr) starting between 23 and 12 Ma and continuing today. Integrating the Central Pamir data with those of the East (Chinese) Pamir Kongur Shan and Muztaghata domes, and with the South Pamir Shakhdara dome, implies (i) regionally distributed, Paleogene crustal thickening; (ii) Pamir-wide gravitational collapse of thickened crust starting at 23-21 Ma during ongoing India-Asia convergence; and (iii) termination of doming and resumption of shortening following northward propagating underthrusting of the Indian cratonic lithosphere at ≥12 Ma. Westward lateral extrusion of Pamir Plateau crust into the Hindu Kush and the Tajik depression accompanied all stages. Deep-seated processes, e.g., slab breakoff, crustal foundering, and underthrusting of buoyant lithosphere, governed transitional phases in the Pamir, and likely the Tibet crust.

  17. Characteristics of Middle and Deep Crustal Expression of an Arc - Forearc Boundary Strike-Slip Fault System (United States)

    Roeske, S.; Mulcahy, S. R.; McClelland, W.; Cain, J.


    Strike-slip faults below the seismogenic zone are commonly assumed to widen with depth into broad region of distributed strain or flatten into subhorizontal shear zones within the middle crust. While this may occur in some continental strike-slip systems, we propose that strike-slip faults at a major rheologic boundary, such as an arc-forearc transition, remain relatively narrow at depth, with localized high strain zones separating discrete packages of less-deformed metamorphic rock. Strain localization allows for greater displacements and explains the juxtaposition of significantly different crustal levels exposed in such strike-slip systems. We present metamorphic and geochronologic evidence for the initiation of one such strike slip system in western Argentina. The Valle Fertil, Desaguadero-Bermejo lineament is a prominent high angle lineament which currently accommodates significant shortening in the western Sierra Pampeanas of Argentina. The lineament is characterized geophysically as a high-angle to steeply east-dipping boundary with denser and more magnetic rocks on the east. The fault zone is bounded by the Cambrian-Ordovician Famatina arc, an intermediate composition batholith, to the east and an arc-forearc package of predominantly metasedimentary rocks intruded by Ordovician mafic to intermediate composition plutonic rocks to the west. The two packages currently expose markedly different crustal levels; those to the east expose rocks metamorphosed at 2-8 kbar, while those to the west expose rocks metamorphosed 11-14 kbar. Both units experienced high-grade metamorphism and granulite facies migmatization between ~470-450 Ma. Separate isolated packages within the fault/ shear zone record separate histories from those exposed to the east and west of the lineament. Low grade-limestone as well as 1.1 Ga and 845 Ma granitoids are overprinted by low-grade shear zones and show no significant thermal effect of the Ordovician magmatism and metamorphism. Regional

  18. Constraints on the Venusian crustal thickness variations in the isostatic stagnant lid approximation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orth, C. P; Solomatov, V. S


    .... Here we assume that the remaining discrepancy between the observed and model geoid is due to crustal thickness variations and that the crust, the lithosphere and the mantle are in a state of double...

  19. The influence of crustal radioactivity on mantle convection and lithospheric thickness on Mars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiefer, Walter S


    ... . In an important new paper, Plesa et al. (2016, doi: 10.1002/2016JE005126 ) have assessed how these variations in crustal thickness and heat flow affect the spatial pattern of convection in the Martian mantle...

  20. Displaced terranes and crustal evolution of the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Ginzburg, Avihu


    Geophysical data from the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean suggest that this area can be divided into distinct crustal units of different origins. For example, a marked difference in crustal structure and structural style exists in the Levant between Samaria and Judea, south of the Carmel structure, and the Galilee and Lebanon, north of it. On the other hand, several microcontinental fragments such as Cyprus, and the Eratosthenes and Anaximander Seamounts are embedded within the oceanic crust of the eastern Mediterranean. The present location of these units has resulted from complex tectonic processes which were active during the mid Paleozoic-Mesozoic evolution of this area. During this period several crustal units were accreted to the northern margin of Africa while others were detached away from it. The crustal evolution of the eastern Mediterranean and the Levant is intimately linked with the closure of the Paleo-Tethys, the formation of the Neo-Tethys, and its subsequent closure.

  1. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Plasma Interaction with Lunar Crustal Magnetic Anomalies (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.


    We present results from a kinetic plasma simulation on the interaction of ambient plasma with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. We discuss implications of this work for physical phenomena at the Moon, such as lunar swirls and proton implantation.

  2. Measurement of clavicular length and shortening after a midshaft clavicular fracture: Spatial digitization versus planar roentgen photogrammetry. (United States)

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B


    Clavicular shortening after fracture is deemed prognostic for clinical outcome and is therefore generally assessed on radiographs. It is used for clinical decision making regarding operative or non-operative treatment in the first 2weeks after trauma, although the reliability and accuracy of the measurements are unclear. This study aimed to assess the reliability of roentgen photogrammetry (2D) of clavicular length and shortening, and to compare these with 3D-spatial digitization measurements, obtained with an electromagnetic recording system (Flock of Birds). Thirty-two participants with a consolidated non-operatively treated two or multi-fragmented dislocated midshaft clavicular fracture were analysed. Two observers measured clavicular lengths and absolute and proportional clavicular shortening on radiographs taken before and after fracture consolidation. The clavicular lengths were also measured with spatial digitization. Inter-observer agreement on the radiographic measurements was assessed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Agreement between the radiographic and spatial digitization measurements was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot. The inter-observer agreement on clavicular length, and absolute and proportional shortening on trauma radiographs was almost perfect (ICC>0.90), but moderate for absolute shortening after consolidation (ICC=0.45). The Bland-Altman plot compared measurements of length on AP panorama radiographs with spatial digitization and showed that planar roentgen photogrammetry resulted in up to 37mm longer and 34mm shorter measurements than spatial digitization. Measurements of clavicular length on radiographs are highly reliable between observers, but may not reflect the actual length and shortening of the clavicle when compared to length measurements with spatial digitization. We recommend to use proportional shortening when measuring clavicular length or shortening on radiographs for clinical decision making. Copyright

  3. Review Outcome of Combined Open Reduction and Femoral Shortening Osteotomy for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ngoc Hung


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reports of the efficacy of Open reduction combined femoral shortening osteotomy on children for developmental dislocation of the hip. Surgical outcomes were evaluated clinically and roentgenographically. METHODS: We performed a retrospective match-controlled study in which 58 patients, they were surgical femoral shortening osteotomy following Open reduction, Zigzag Osteotomy, Fibular Allograft (ZOFA and femoral shortening osteotomy. Deformity of femoral head or neck or acetabulum according to the Severin, Avascular Necrosis (AVN according to Kalamchi, Clinical evaluation according to Barrett modified McKay criteria. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, Femoral shortening Osteotomy For 58 Hips (all patients operated unilateral side. There were 42 (72.4% were girls and 16 (27.6% were boys. None had preoperative skin or skeletal traction, nor derotational varus or valgus osteotomies. The Femoral Neck Anteversion angle: Average 27.726º (SD = 12.153, The Shaft - Neck angle: Average 149.649º (SD = 5.815, The Femoral Neck - Shaft angle: Average 162° (SD = 8.642. Average age at femoral shortening osteotomy was 29.9 months (range, 14-36 months. Average distance shortening osteotomy was 1.52 cm. Duration of the Follow-up was 28. 6 months (range, 24-62 months; Average age at latest Follow- up 66.3 months (range, 38-85 months.There were 1 (1.7% Trendelenberg gait. AVN in 9 (15.5%. Subluxation in 2 (3.4%. At lastest result: Excellent in 44 (75.9%, Good in 8 (13.8%, Fair 4 (6.9%, and Poor 2 (3.4%; Satisfy Results (Excellent and Good of Open reduction and Femoral Shortening in 52 (97.5%. The femoral head or neck or acetabulum were normal in 44 (75.9% hips. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of this study, the femoral shortening Osteotomy reduce incidence AVN, Re-Dislocation, and improved Postoperative result.

  4. A New System for Understanding Mid-crustal Sheeted Complexes in a Tilted Crustal Section, Joshua Tree National Park, California (United States)

    Ianno, A. J.; Paterson, S. R.


    The western portion of Joshua Tree National Park exposes a tilted crustal section through continental arc crust from 0-30 km. A significant portion of the middle crust is represented by Mesozoic, tabular, intrusive, igneous bodies ranging from 0.1 to 100 m in thickness. While these igneous bodies range in composition (gabbro to peraluminous granites), texture (equigranular to porphyritic), and grain size (very fine to coarse), patterns emerge between different regions of "sheeted complexes" that may be related to their emplacement and geochemical history. No consistent method of describing and comparing sheeted complexes exists in the literature, so we have developed a method of classifying sheeted complexes at Joshua Tree NP, which may be broadly applicable to all sheeted bodies. We classify these sheeted complexes using the terms homogeneous/heterogeneous and focused/defocused. A homogeneous sheeted complex generally contains magmas within a 10 wt% SiO2 range, although we are still testing the validity of this number. A focused sheeted complex has adjacent sheets or close spacing between sheets and Jurassic to Cretaceous sheeted complexes in western Joshua Tree NP. At Keys View, we observe a heterogeneous, spatially focused sheeted complex with 0.1-2 m thick sheets recording pressures indicating 15-22 km depth from top to bottom. Compositions range from gabbro to peraluminous granite, although tonalites-granodiorites and two-mica garnet granites are volumetrically dominant. A zone of elongate plutons (in map view) lying structurally above this could potentially be considered as a very thickly sheeted, homogeneous, focused sheeted complex and is composed of granodiorites, granites, and two-mica garnet granites. A more thickly sheeted (2-10 m), homogeneous, focused, sheeted granite complex with pressures indicating a depth of approximately 12 km is found along the northern edge of the park. The number of sheets decreases and the average thickness increases as this

  5. Global Mapping of Oceanic and Continental Shelf Crustal Thickness and Ocean-Continent Transition Structure (United States)

    Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy; Roberts, Alan


    The 3D mapping of crustal thickness for continental shelves and oceanic crust, and the determination of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure and continent-ocean boundary (COB) location, represents a substantial challenge. Geophysical inversion of satellite derived free-air gravity anomaly data incorporating a lithosphere thermal anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir, 2008) now provides a useful and reliable methodology for mapping crustal thickness in the marine domain. Using this we have produced the first comprehensive maps of global crustal thickness for oceanic and continental shelf regions. Maps of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor from gravity inversion may be used to determine the distribution of oceanic lithosphere, micro-continents and oceanic plateaux including for the inaccessible polar regions (e.g. Arctic Ocean, Alvey et al.,2008). The gravity inversion method provides a prediction of continent-ocean boundary location which is independent of ocean magnetic anomaly and isochron interpretation. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we can improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy and sea-floor spreading trajectory during ocean basin formation. By restoring crustal thickness & continental lithosphere thinning to their initial post-breakup configuration we show the geometry and segmentation of the rifted continental margins at their time of breakup, together with the location of highly-stretched failed breakup basins and rifted micro-continents. For detailed analysis to constrain OCT structure, margin type (i.e. magma poor, "normal" or magma rich) and COB location, a suite of quantitative analytical methods may be used which include: (i) Crustal cross-sections showing Moho depth and crustal basement thickness from gravity inversion. (ii) Residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis which is used to investigate OCT

  6. Decrease in oceanic crustal thickness since the breakup of Pangaea (United States)

    van Avendonk, Harm J. A.; Davis, Joshua K.; Harding, Jennifer L.; Lawver, Lawrence A.


    Earth's mantle has cooled by 6-11 °C every 100 million years since the Archaean, 2.5 billion years ago. In more recent times, the surface heat loss that led to this temperature drop may have been enhanced by plate-tectonic processes, such as continental breakup, the continuous creation of oceanic lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges and subduction at deep-sea trenches. Here we use a compilation of marine seismic refraction data from ocean basins globally to analyse changes in the thickness of oceanic crust over time. We find that oceanic crust formed in the mid-Jurassic, about 170 million years ago, is 1.7 km thicker on average than crust produced along the present-day mid-ocean ridge system. If a higher mantle temperature is the cause of thicker Jurassic ocean crust, the upper mantle may have cooled by 15-20 °C per 100 million years over this time period. The difference between this and the long-term mantle cooling rate indeed suggests that modern plate tectonics coincide with greater mantle heat loss. We also find that the increase of ocean crustal thickness with plate age is stronger in the Indian and Atlantic oceans compared with the Pacific Ocean. This observation supports the idea that upper mantle temperature in the Jurassic was higher in the wake of the fragmented supercontinent Pangaea due to the effect of continental insulation.

  7. Anomalous crustal movements before great Wenchuan earthquake observed by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Guohua


    Full Text Available Studies of GPS data carried out before and after the great Wenchuan earthquake of Ms8.0 on May 12, 2008 show that anomalous crustal movements occurred before the earthquake. Data from 4 pre-earthquake observation sessions at a dense network of stations show that there were prominent broad-ranged long- and mid-term anomalies in horizontal displacements and strain and in vertical displacements. Data from the fewer-numbered reference stations of continuous GPS observations since 1999 in West and South China showed short-term preseismic anomalies in horizontal displacements. The detection of co-seismic horizontal displacements at these stations supports the existence of the pre-earthquake anomalies. Results of single-epoch solutions of data from continuous-observation stations near the epicenter also show large imminent anomalies in vertical displacements. Although the Wenchuan earthquake was not predicted, these results give a strong indication that GPS should be the main observation technique for long-term, mid-term, short-term and imminent earthquake predictions.

  8. Maps of North American crustal stability and geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbridge, R.W.


    A three-year program of analysis of crustal movements in North America was planned with the objective of preparing a series of 1 = 5 million scale maps depicting relative stability/instability. The part of the proposal completed during the first year is described; much of this first year's work was preparatory. Three time scales were considered for the data analysis: 1 - 10/sup 2/ yr., 10/sup 4/ yr., and 10/sup 8/ yr. Significant differences in sign and rate were suspected between short and long-term motions and these are now confirmed. The first part of the program is now complete. It consisted of two principal activities: (a) data collection for the short and mid-term scales on a U.S.-wide basis, excluding Alaska and Hawaii (all of this material has been reduced to compatible computer language and is stored on tape ready for further study, analysis and final cartography); (b) map and data analysis of the long-term scale with a completed draft map, applied specifically to the Mid-West and eastern U.S.

  9. Present three-dimensional crustal deformation in Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yaxuan


    Full Text Available Hainan Island, located at the southeast edge of the Eurasian Plate, is affected by the motion of multiple plates, with its northeast edge mainly dilatating and its western margin presently compressing. By analyzing the GPS rates during 1999 – 2007 in Hainan and its adjacent region, we determined horizontal movement rates of 3. 0–21. 1 mm/a at the west of 104°E, evidently affected by the Indian Plate extrusion. Their directions are SE-SN-SW from east to west and are separated by the main fault. The principal strains have the same characteristics. The stations east of 104°E move mainly in the SEE direction. The eastward rates are 2. 1–8. 5 mm/a and northward rates are 0. 4–2. 7 mm/a. The GPS rates during 2009–2013 show that stations at the edge of the island move SEE relative to the Eurasian Plate, with rates relative to the mean benchmark, indicating that there are small relative movements between stations, whereas QION station, located in the middle, moves in the NW direction at a greater rate. Vertical differential movement is apparent in the northeast zone of the island. Upwelling of mantle plume material possibly influences the local stress. Three-dimensional GPS rates indicate that, at present, inherited crustal movement is dominant in Hainan.

  10. Cellulosic ethanol byproducts as a bulking agent (United States)

    J.M. Considine; D. Coffin; J.Y. Zhu; D.H. Mann; X. Tang


    Financial enhancement of biomass value prior to pulping requires subsequent use of remaining materials; e.g., high value use of remaining stock material after cellulosic ethanol production would improve the economics for cellulosic ethanol. In this work, use of enzymatic hydrolysis residual solids (EHRS), a cellulosic ethanol byproduct, were investigated as a bulking...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  12. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    157–161. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K YU. ∗. , Y H WANG, G Z XING, Q QIAO, B LIU, Z J CHU, C L LI and F YOU. State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University,.

  13. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 1. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K Yu Y H Wang G Z Xing Q Qiao B Liu Z J Chu C L Li F You. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 157-161 ...

  14. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin


    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane shear...

  15. Thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, A.C.; de Groot, K.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.


    The thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate was carried out in the solid phase, the mesomorphic phase, and the liquid phase to study the effect of monomer ordering on polymerization rate and polymer properties. The rate increased with decreasing ordering (or enhanced mobility) of the

  16. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.R.


    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials

  17. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro


    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  18. Polonium bulk and surface vibrational dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigrine, Rachid; Bourahla, Boualem [Laboratoire de Physique PEC UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Khater, Antoine


    Calculations are presented for the bulk phonons and for surface Rayleigh phonons and resonances for Polonium, the only element known to form in the simple cubic lattice. The static stability of this lattice has been confirmed recently by ab initio simulations which yield two bulk elastic constants, c{sub 11} and c{sub 12}. Constitutive equations are derived for the isotropic cubic lattice based upon the Fuchs's method. This permits effectively a numerical evaluation of central potential force constants for Polonium from the ab initio results. Numerical calculations are then made for the material vibration dynamics in the force constant model with the use of the matching method. The numerical applications yield for Polonium the bulk phonon branches along[100],[110], and [111], and the Rayleigh phonons and surface resonances along the[010] direction in an unreconstructed (001) surface. The local vibration densities of states are calculated for bulk and surface sites for this element. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Modelling ventilated bulk storage of agromaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, N.L.M.; Keesman, K.J.


    Storage of season-dependent agro-materials is a key process in providing food, feed and biomass throughout the whole year. We review the state of the art in physical modelling, simulation and control of ventilated bulk storage facilities, and in particular the storage of potatoes, from a

  20. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina


    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  1. Transformation kinetics for surface and bulk nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Elena, E-mail: [University of Milan, Department of Mathematics, via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rios, Paulo R., E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, 27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)] [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)


    A rigorous mathematical approach based on the causal cone and stochastic geometry concepts is used to derive new exact expressions for transformation kinetics theory. General expressions for the mean volume density and the volume fraction are derived for both surface and bulk nucleation in a general Borel subset of R{sup 3}. In practice, probably any specimen shape of engineering interest is going to be a Borel set. An expression is also derived for the important case of polyhedral shape, in which surface nucleation may take place on the faces, edges and vertices of the polyhedron as well as within the bulk. Moreover, explicit expressions are given for surface and bulk nucleation for three specific shapes of engineering relevance: two parallel planes, an infinitely long cylinder and a sphere. Superposition is explained in detail and it permits the treatment of situations in which surface and bulk nucleation take place simultaneously. The new exact expressions presented here result in a significant increase in the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.

  2. Scientific computing on bulk synchronous parallel architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.H.; McColl, W.F.


    Bulk synchronous parallel architectures oer the prospect of achieving both scalable parallel performance and architecture independent parallel software. They provide a robust model on which to base the future development of general purpose parallel computing systems. In this paper, we theoretically

  3. Lifetime and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism


    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef


    Magmatic processes on Earth govern the mass, energy and chemical transfer between the mantle, crust and atmosphere. To understand magma storage conditions in the crust that ultimately control volcanic activity and growth of continents, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column during magmatic episodes is essential. Here we use a numerical model to constrain the physical conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that over long d...

  4. Estimating gravity changes caused by crustal strain: application to the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Yin, Zhi; Xu, Caijun


    Temporal gravimetry is an efficient tool for monitoring mass transfers, but distinguishing the contribution of each process to the measured signals is challenging. Few effective methods have been developed to estimate the changes in gravity caused by crustal strain for large-scale geophysical problems. To fill this research gap, we proposed a formula that describes a negative linear correlation between changes in gravity and crustal dilatational strain. Surface observations of gravity changes and dilatational strains were simulated using PSGRN/PSCMP, which is a numerical code used to calculate the surface response to fault dislocations, and the accuracy of the formula was quantitatively verified. Four parameters are required for this formula: the crustal dilatational strain, the crustal density, the Moho depth, and a coefficient that characterizes the degree of crust-mantle coupling. To illustrate the application of this new method to a natural case study, including specifying the values of the necessary parameters, the crustal strain-caused gravity changes (CSGCs) were calculated at 1° × 1° grid nodes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The CSGC model shows that most of the crust of the TP is undergoing extension, which generates negative gravity signals. The magnitude of the Tibetan CSGC model is approximately 0.2 μGal yr-1, which is similar to the results obtained from numerical modelling of the crustal tectonics of the Taiwanese Orogen. To evaluate the reliability of the Tibetan CSGC model, the uncertainties in the crustal dilatational strain, crustal density, Moho depth, and crust-mantle coupling factor were evaluated and then used to estimate the CSGC uncertainty by applying the error propagation law. The CSGC model was used to analyse the mass transfers of the TP. The results suggest that a significant mass accumulation process may be occurring beneath the crust of the northern TP.

  5. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent (United States)

    Carmichael, R. S.


    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.

  6. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials | Yildirim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x‑tra Base Bulk Fill). Materials and Methods: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and ...

  7. The mechanism underlying dibutyl phthalate induced shortened anogenital distance and hypospadias in rats. (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Xuyong; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wen; Yuan, Jiyan; Feng, Jiexiong


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) induced hypospadias and shortened anogenital distance (AGD). AGD, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism incidence was observed in male offspring of DBP treated pregnant Wistar rats. Testicular development and testosterone levels of normal and DBP-treated rat embryos were compared. Male offspring of 300mg and 900mg DBP-treated pregnant Wistar rats exhibited shortened average AGD compared with the control group. A 22.7% hypospadias incidence was observed in the 300mg group, but no offspring with cryptorchidism were identified. In the 900mg group, hypospadias and cryptorchidism incidence reached 43.5% and 17.4%, respectively. Between E15.5 and E17.5, the 300mg group exhibited delayed testicular development and testosterone secretion. However, testicular development and testosterone secretion subsequently recovered. The 300mg treated and control groups had similar measures after E19.5. Contrastingly, testicular development and testosterone secretion were significantly diminished throughout development in the 900mg group. Exogenous testosterone partially counteracted DBP-induced changes in the reproductive organs of male offspring of DBP-treated rats. High-dose DBP exposure may induce testicular dysgenesis in rat embryos. Additionally, low-dose DBP may delay testicular development and testosterone secretion during urethral development. This disruption may result in hypospadias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge, perceptions and clinical application of the shortened dental arch concept among Malaysian government dentists. (United States)

    Kasim, Siti Kamilah Mohd; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd


    To assess the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian government dentists regarding the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept and its application in clinical practice. The SDA concept refers to a specific type of dentition with intact anterior teeth and a reduction in posterior occlusal pairs. Dentists' knowledge and perceptions of the SDA concept can influence its application in clinical practice. A self-administered questionnaire on the SDA concept was distributed to 326 government dentists in the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were analysed using SPSS version 22 software. The response rate was 84.0%. The majority of respondents had good knowledge on five of six knowledge items and good attitudes towards 10 of 17 perception items. However, only one-fifth (20.4%) reported having applied the SDA concept in the clinic. A larger number of participants who graduated locally than who graduated abroad perceived that patients age, without molar support, can attain acceptable chewing function and that SDA treatment does not lead to loss of occlusal vertical dimension (P 5 years of work experience perceived that the SDA concept enables simpler treatment planning (P concept, it is not widely applied in the clinic. Concerted efforts in SDA training of dentists are needed to help to shorten denture waiting lists and reduce costs. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing the Feasibility of Shortened Fasts in Intubated ICU Patients Undergoing Tracheotomy. (United States)

    Gonik, Nathan; Tassler, Andrew; Ow, Thomas J; Smith, Richard V; Shuaib, Stefan; Cohen, Hillel W; Sarta, Catherine; Schiff, Bradley A


    American Society of Anesthesiology guidelines recommend preoperative fasts of 6 hours after light snacks and 8 hours after large meals. These guidelines were designed for healthy patients undergoing elective procedures but are often applied to intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ICU patients undergoing routine procedures may be subjected to unnecessary prolonged fasts. This study tests whether shorter fasts allow for better nutrition delivery and patient outcomes without increasing the risk. Randomized blinded controlled trial. Tertiary academic medical center. ICU patients undergoing bedside tracheotomy. Intubated ICU patients who were receiving enteral feeding and for whom bedside tracheotomy was indicated were enrolled prospectively and randomly allocated to 2 parallel preoperative fasting regimens: a 6-hour fast (control) and a 45-minute fast (intervention). Patients were assessed for aspiration, caloric delivery, metabolic markers, and infectious and noninfectious complications. Twenty-four patients were enrolled and randomized. There were no complications related to the procedure. There were no cases of intraoperative aspiration identified. There was a single postoperative pneumonia in the control group. Median (interquartile range) length of fast and caloric delivery were significantly different between the control group and the shortened fast group: 22 hours (18, 34) vs 14 hours (5, 25; P < .001) and 429 kcal (57, 1125) vs 1050 kcal (825, 1410; P = .01), respectively. Shortening preoperative fasts in intubated ICU patients allowed for better caloric delivery in the preoperative period. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Shortened telomere length in bipolar disorder: a comparison of the early and late stages of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia M. Barbé-Tuana

    Full Text Available Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD has been associated with increased rates of age-related diseases, such as type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disorders. Several biological findings have been associated with age-related disorders, including increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and telomere shortening. The objective of this study was to compare telomere length among participants with BD at early and late stages and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-six euthymic subjects with BD and 34 healthy controls were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and mean telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Telomere length was significantly shorter in both the early and late subgroups of BD subjects when compared to the respective controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively. The sample size prevented additional subgroup analyses, including potential effects of medication, smoking status, and lifestyle. Conclusion: This study is concordant with previous evidence of telomere shortening in BD, in both early and late stages of the disorder, and supports the notion of accelerated aging in BD.

  11. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i


    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  12. CO{sub 2} laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O' Sullivan, G.; O' Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)


    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to {approx}2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO{sub 2} pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is {approx}10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  13. Subendocardial segment length shortening at lateral margins of ischemic myocardium in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, K.P.; Gerren, R.A.; Choy, M.; Stirling, M.C.; Dysko, R.C. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))


    The lateral borders of an infarcted area are sharply delineated in terms of perfusion, but functional impairment extends a limited distance into adjacent nonischemic myocardium. To determine the distribution of functional impairment the authors arrayed three ultrasonic dimension gauges to measure two subendocardial segment lengths in series. The center crystal, placed at the perfusion boundary (PB) between left anterior descending and circumflex arteries, radiated ultrasound to receiver crystals 7-17 mm to either side of the PB. The locations of the functional measurements relative to the PB were determined with myocardial blood flow (tracer-labeled microsphere) maps constructed from multiple small tissue samples obtained circumferentially. On the ischemic side of the PB, dL decreased from 2.24 {plus minus} 0.54 to 0.42 {plus minus} 0.39 mm. By adding the data from the two segments in series, a combined measurement of dL across heterogeneously perfused myocardium was derived that decreased by 38% from control. The level of shortening represented an integral of normal and abnormal motion that was proportional to the mean reduction in blood flow ({minus}44%) in all of the muscle spanned by the crystals. They conclude that subendocardial segment lengths average shortening in the muscle they subtend when arrayed across the perfusion boundary.

  14. [Standardised operation technique for ulna-shortening with a new sliding-hole plate]. (United States)

    Löw, S; Rau, M; Van Schoonhoven, J; Kitzinger, H; Krimmer, H


    Ulna-shortening is a widely accepted procedure for the treatment of ulna-impaction syndrome. High rates of non-unions however necessitate improving the operation technique. The new device introduced in this study is a 7-hole plate in which two proximal holes are sliding-holes. By correct placement of two distal screws and two screws in the sliding-holes, rotational stability is guaranteed. The osteotomy is performed while the plate is loosely fixed to the ulna. After fixation of the two distal screws, the sliding-holes facilitate reposition with a good closure of the osteotomy gap. Excentric placement of two more screws and placement of a lag screw across the oblique osteotomy leads to further compression at the osteotomy site. Ulna-variance can be adjusted exactly. So far the plate has been implanted in 15 patients. Ulna-variance was reduced from + 2 to - 2.2 mm. The clinical results are comparable to those of ulna-shortenings in the literature. The sliding-hole plate allows an exact connection with good closure of the osteotomy without malrotation. With this simplified technique, the risk of non-union can be reduced.

  15. Is there any room for shortening hands-off time further when using an AED? (United States)

    Rhee, Joong Eui; Kim, Taeyun; Kim, Kyuseok; Choi, Saewon


    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) play a very important role in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The mandatory hands-off time imposed by current AEDs is not short enough to bring about the full benefits of rapid defibrillation with an AED into light. The aim of this study is to examine whether a change in the process of charging the capacity and removing explanations from the prompts of the AEDs shortens hands-off time. The operating steps and the voice prompts of the current AEDs were reviewed and the time intervals between the steps and the voice prompts were measured. We modified an AED to fully precharge the capacitor and to contain more concise voice prompts. We had 42 expert rescuers and 50 lay-person rescuers perform 2-rescuer CPR with the modified AED and the old AED, respectively. Using the modified AED significantly reduced hands-off times by 9.95 s (95% CI: 9.67-10.23) in 2-rescuer CPR and by 10.68 s (95% CI: 9.75-11.61) in 1-rescuer CPR (pAEDs can shorten the hands-off time in both 1 and 2-rescuer CPR.

  16. Effect of a huge crustal conductivity anomaly on the H-component of geomagnetic variations recorded in central South America (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio L.; Alves, Livia R.; Silva, Graziela B. D.; Espinosa, Karen V.


    We describe here an analysis of the H-component of the geomagnetic field recorded in several temporary stations operating simultaneously in the central-eastern region of Brazil during nighttime pulsation events in 1994 and the sudden commencement of the St. Patrick's Day magnetic storm in 2015. A significant amplification in the amplitude of the geomagnetic variations is consistently observed in one of these stations. Magnetovariational analysis indicates that the amplification factor is period dependent with maximum amplitude around 100 s. Integrated magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth soundings (GDS) have shown that this station is positioned just over a huge 1200-km-long crustal conductor (estimated bulk conductivity greater than 1 S/m). We propose that the anomalous signature of the geomagnetic field at this station is due to the high reflection coefficient of the incident electromagnetic wave at the interface with the very good conductor and by skin effects damping the electromagnetic wave in the conducting layers overlying the conductor. There are some indication from the GDS data that the conductor extends southward beneath the sediments of the Pantanal Basin. In this region is being planned the installation of a new geomagnetic observatory, but its preliminary data suggest anomalous geomagnetic variations. We understand that a detailed MT survey must be carried out around the chosen observatory site to evaluate the possible influence of induced currents on the local geomagnetic field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe


    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  18. Seismic evidence for widespread western-US deep-crustal deformation caused by extension (United States)

    Moschetti, M.P.; Ritzwoller, M.H.; Lin, F.; Yang, Y.


    Laboratory experiments have established that many of the materials comprising the Earth are strongly anisotropic in terms of seismic-wave speeds. Observations of azimuthal and radial anisotropy in the upper mantle are attributed to the lattice-preferred orientation of olivine caused by the shear strains associated with deformation, and provide some of the most direct evidence for deformation and flow within the Earths interior. Although observations of crustal radial anisotropy would improve our understanding of crustal deformation and flow patterns resulting from tectonic processes, large-scale observations have been limited to regions of particularly thick crust. Here we show that observations from ambient noise tomography in the western United States reveal strong deep (middle to lower)-crustal radial anisotropy that is confined mainly to the geological provinces that have undergone significant extension during the Cenozoic Era (since 65 Myr ago). The coincidence of crustal radial anisotropy with the extensional provinces of the western United States suggests that the radial anisotropy results from the lattice-preferred orientation of anisotropic crustal minerals caused by extensional deformation. These observations also provide support for the hypothesis that the deep crust within these regions has undergone widespread and relatively uniform strain in response to crustal thinning and extension. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.


    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  20. [Shortening osteotomy for alloarthoplastic joint replacement for hip dislocation in adults]. (United States)

    Tohtz, S W; Perka, C


    Total hip arthroplasty to create an articulating hip joint. Acetabular cup implantation in the original rotational center of the pelvis. Simultaneous femoral shortening osteotomy to prevent neurovascular damage and equalize leg length in patients with unilateral occurrence. Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in adults; type 3 and 4 dislocation according to Crowe. Cerebrospinal dysfunction with permanent restriction of coordination ability, muscular dystrophies, and multiple malformations of the musculoskeletal system. Apparent disturbance of the bone metabolism. The Watson-Jones interval approach to the hip joint is used to avoid functional disorders of the hip abductors. After preparation of the proximal femur and femoral neck resection, adjustment of the non-regularly developed acetabular cavity with reduced anterior coverage takes place. The cup component is implanted and the interval between the vastus intermedius and the vastus lateralis below the lesser trochanter examined. Loss of periosteum of the femoral cortex due to blunt spreading is to be avoided. Following the femoral shortening osteotomy initially the preparation of the distal bone segment takes place to adjust the endofemoral canal for shaft implantation in the following preparation of the metaphyseal segment. Afterwards osteotomy-bridging implantation of a cementless, distal anchoring stem design is performed. Partial weight bearing of the leg with 20 kp is necessary for 6 weeks combined with therapy of existing contractures and active pelvic rotation training. Within 10 postoperative weeks full weight bearing is usually reached. After this period mobilization without crutches is possible. Inpatient rehabilitation is possible after bony recovery of the femoral osteotomy. From 1993 to 1999, the first 15 total hip arthroplasties were performed in adult patients with DDH; they were treated with simultaneous femoral shortening osteotomy and without additive osteosynthesis. During the midterm

  1. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.


    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  2. Crustal strain-dependent serpentinisation in the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland (United States)

    Prada, Manel; Watremez, Louise; Chen, Chen; O'Reilly, Brian M.; Minshull, Timothy A.; Reston, Tim J.; Shannon, Patrick M.; Klaeschen, Dirk; Wagner, Gerlind; Gaw, Viola


    Mantle hydration (serpentinisation) at magma-poor rifted margins is thought to play a key role in controlling the kinematics of low-angle faults and thus, hyperextension and crustal breakup. However, because geophysical data principally provide observations of the final structure of a margin, little is known about the evolution of serpentinisation and how this governs tectonics during hyperextension. Here we present new observational evidence on how crustal strain-dependent serpentinisation influences hyperextension from rifting to possible crustal breakup along the axis of the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland. We present three new P-wave seismic velocity models that show the seismic structure of the uppermost lithosphere and the geometry of the Moho across and along the basin axis. We use neighbouring seismic reflection lines to our tomographic models to estimate crustal stretching (βc) of ∼2.5 in the north at 52.5° N and >10 in the south at 51.7° N. These values suggest that no crustal embrittlement occurred in the northernmost region, and that rifting may have progressed to crustal breakup in the southern part of the study area. We observed a decrease in mantle velocities across the basin axis from east to west. These variations occur in a region where βc is within the range at which crustal embrittlement and serpentinisation are possible (βc 3-4). Across the basin axis, the lowest seismic velocity in the mantle spatially coincides with the maximum amount of crustal faulting, indicating fault-controlled mantle hydration. Mantle velocities also suggest that the degree of serpentinisation, together with the amount of crustal faulting, increases southwards along the basin axis. Seismic reflection lines show a major detachment fault surface that grows southwards along the basin axis and is only visible where the inferred degree of serpentinisation is >15%. This observation is consistent with laboratory measurements that show that at this degree of

  3. Perbandingan tingkat kebocoran mikro resin komposit bulk-filldengan teknik penumpatan oblique incremental dan bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Puja Permana


    Full Text Available Micoleakage comparison of bulk-fillcomposite beetwen oblique incremental and bulk placement techniques. Resin composite bulk-fill was a new type of resin composite that speed up application process of composite. The concept of bulk-fill composite allows composite to fill at a depth of 4 mm and minimizes polymerization shrinkage. This study aims to determine the comparison of placement techniques (oblique incremental/bulk of bulk-fill composite on microleakage in class I preparations. Thirty two human maxillary premolar were stored in distilled water, then Class I preparations were made with the depth of the cavity which was 4 mm (3 x 3 x 4. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups, group 1 uses oblique incremental placement technique and group 2 with bulk placement technique. Samples were stored in an incubator at a temperature of 37 °C for 24 hours, then it was thermocycled manually, 100 cycles at temperature between 5 °C and 55 °C. Microleakage was measured using a digital microscope with a 100 X magnification in millimeters using a microscope micrometer calibration ruler with 0,1 mm level of accuracy after immersion in 0,3% methylene blue and sectioned using separating disc. The result of this study revealed that in group 1 microleakage range was 1.0 mm - 2.7 mm with an average 1.625 mm, and in group 2 microleakage range was 3.6 mm - 4.0 mm with an average of 3.763 mm. The data were analyzed using T-test. The analysis showed a significant difference between two groups (p <0.05. The conclusion of this study was bulk-fill composite in class I cavities with oblique incremental placement technique produces less microleakage than bulk placement technique.   ABSTRAK Resin komposit bulk-fill adalah resin komposit yang dirancang untuk mempercepat proses aplikasi resin komposit. Konsep bulk-fill memungkinkan resin komposit ditumpat sekaligus 4 mm dan mengalami pengerutan polimerisasi minimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek teknik

  4. The crustal structure beneath the Netherlands from ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Paulssen, Hanneke; Yudistira, Tedi; Trampert, Jeannot


    A 3-D shear velocity model of the crust beneath the Netherlands is determined from fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love wave group measurements derived from ambient seismic noise recordings. The data are obtained from a temporary array of broad-band seismometers in and around the Netherlands (the NARS-Netherlands project, 2008-2012) complemented with data from existing networks in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity maps were constructed for the period range of 10 to 30 s. Lateral variations in the group velocity maps primarily reflect variations in sedimentary thickness across the Netherlands. The 2-psi Rayleigh wave and 4-psi Love wave fast directions of the group velocity maps are in agreement with the NW-SE direction of maximum compressive stress as well as with the NW-SE dominant direction of faulting in the Netherlands. The frequency dependence suggests that the azimuthal anisotropy is caused by lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of lower crustal minerals. A 3-D shear-velocity model is obtained by inversion of the group velocity maps using the Neighbourhood Algorithm. The results show a top layer that varies in thickness from 2 to 4 km with with a pattern that is similar to the base of the Rotliegend. A midcrustal discontinuity is found at a depth of about 13 km. The Moho appears to be relatively flat with an average depth of 33 km. Radial anisotropy is mainly positive (Vsh - Vsv > 0) for the lower crust. This can be an expression of LPO but also of horizontal layering or lamination. The top layer shows the largest variations in radial anisotropy with distinct areas of negative radial anisotropy that can be attributed to high-density near-vertical faulting in those regions.

  5. Crustal structure on the northeastern flank of the Kenya rift (United States)

    Prodehl, C.; Jacob, A. W. B.; Thybo, H.; Dindi, E.; Stangl, R.


    The KRISP flank line E converges with the Kenya rift at an angle of about 45° and is approximately parallel to the older Anza graben to the north. The depth to the basement is almost zero along the entire onshore part of the profile with higher velocities at the southeastern end indicative of extensive Precambrian gabbroic intrusions in the upper crust. The Moho shallows steadily from about 35 km at the southeastern end of the profile to about 24 km under Lake Turkana. Even though the Moho rises fairly steadily, there is significant heterogeneity in the crust above it. This shows that the extension is unevenly distributed between the upper and the lower crust. The Moho is laminated and variably reflective. Compared to the KRISP cross-line D further south, the crust is unexpectedly thin and shows extension increasing in a northerly direction. This extension is probably not associated with the Anza and Kenya rifting but with the profile's position on the slope of the Kenya dome. The indications are that there is a relatively abrupt change to a 20-km Moho depth near the Lake Turkana Central shotpoint. This change to a mid-rift crustal thickness occurs not at the postulated margin at the southeastern shore of Lake Turkana but at least 50 km further to the northwest. We suggest that the position of this margin may need to be redefined. The P n velocity is quite high at 8.1 km/s. This may indicate either a cold upper mantle or anisotropy. An upper-mantle reflector has been identified between 15 and 20 km below the Moho. It dips gently away from the rift.

  6. Mechanism of crustal extension in the Laxmi Basin, Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Pandey


    Full Text Available Continental rifting and magmatism has been extensively studied worldwide as it is believed that continental rifting, break up of continents and associated magmatism lead to genesis of new oceanic crust. However, various regions of the world show that these processes may lead to genesis of other types of crust than the oceanic crust. Laxmi Basin in the western continental margin of the India is one such region with an enigmatic crust. Due to its extreme strategic significance for the palaeogeographic reconstruction of continents during Cretaceous continental breakup of India, this basin has attracted various workers for more than two decades. However, still the issue of nature of crust in the basin remains controversial. In this contribution, in order to identify nature of crust, mechanism of continental extension in the Laxmi Basin has been studied for the first time through newly acquired seismic data from the basin. Here, we propose a plausible mechanism of crustal extension in the Laxmi Basin which eventually constrains the nature of crust of the Laxmi Basin. We have demonstrated that the crust in the Laxmi Basin can be categorised in two zones of stretched and transitional crust. In the stretched zone several fault bounded horst and graben structures are identified which preserve syn- and post-rift sediments along with different periods of hiatus in sedimentations as unconformities. These faults are identified as listric faults in the upper crust which sole out in the detachment faults. Detachment faults decouples the upper brittle and lower ductile crust. The transitional crust is identified as heavily intruded by sills and basaltic volcanic which were emplaced due to melting of subcontinental mantle (SCM after hyper-stretching of crust and serpentinisation of the SCM. Panikkar Ridge is proposed to be one such basaltic volcanic body derived from melting of lower part of the SCM.

  7. Moho, LAB and crustal velocities underneath central-eastern Greenland (United States)

    Kraft, H. A.; Thybo, H.


    Major parts of Greenland are covered with up to 3.4 km of ice. Due to logistical challenges connected to the ice only very sparse geophysical information is available. We present here results of the TopoGreenland project, which forms the first regional seismic experiment conducted on the Greenlandic ice shield. Our objective is to gain detailed information about the lithospheric structure and to connect it with topographic features, the recent substantial uplift and the earlier history of rifting and break-up in the region. We focus on a 200 km x 600 km large area in central-eastern Greenland, where 22 broadband seismometers were installed between June 2009 and May 2012. 10 of those were operating on the ice cap, 12 on bedrock. 16 of the stations were installed along a 600 km long profile at 70°N, from Scorsbysund to the centre of the ice cap. The remaining 6 stations covered a 200 km wide area north of this profile. In addition data from 6 permanent and long-term stations from the GLISN network were integrated. Here we present models from P- and S- receiver function (PRF, SRF) calculations and Rayleigh wave tomography. The RF calculations were used to map Moho and LAB depths and to have well constrained input parameters for the tomography. From the Rayleigh wave tomography we then obtain models for crustal shear-velocities. The PRF for the stations on the ice cap show multiples with very high amplitudes from within the ice, why we decided to derive Moho and LAB depths for those stations from SRF. The results will be compared with a seismic refraction profile acquired in the same region and then linked to topographic features like the uplift of the mountain chain in East Greenland.

  8. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe (United States)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz


    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, drilling induced tensile fractures, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions and stress inversions from these, engineering methods (overcoring, borehole slotter) and geological data (e.g. volcanic alignment, inversion of fault slip data). To guarantee the comparability of the different stress indicator the resulting data are quality-ranked using the WSM quality ranking scheme. The new data set has a better coverage and enables us to identifying the regional and local variability of the stress pattern. For the Mediterranean and Central Europe we analysed the wave-length of the stress pattern by determining the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid using an updated version of the hybrid approach of Heidbach et al. [2010]. The preliminary results show that the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is a key control of the overall stress pattern. However, given the complex tectonic setting in particular due to the indentation/collision of the Adriatic micro block, the Alpine topography as well as forces that control the movement of the Anatolian and Aegean block, the stress pattern shows in these regions significant changes in the mean SHmax orientation as well as in the tectonic regime.

  9. Shallow Crustal Thermal Structures of Central Taiwan Foothills Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Wu


    Full Text Available Crustal thermal structures are closely related to metamorphism, rock rheology, exhumation processes, hydrocarbon maturation levels, frictional faulting and other processes. Drilling is the most direct way to access the temperature fields in the shallow crust. However, a regional drilling program for geological investigation is usually very expensive. Recently, a large-scale in-situ investigation program in the Western Foothills of Central Taiwan was carried out, providing a rare opportunity to conduct heat flow measurements in this region where there are debates as to whether previous measured heat flows are representative of the thermal state in this region. We successfully collected 28 geothermal gradients from these wells and converted them into heat flows. The new heat flow dataset is consistent with previous heat flows, which shows that the thermal structures of Central Taiwan are different from that of other subduction accretionary prisms. We then combine all the available heat flow information to analyze the frictional parameters of the Chelungpu fault zone that ruptured during the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The heat flow dataset gave consistent results compared with the frictional parameters derived from another independent study that used cores recovered from the Chelungpu fault zone at depth. This study also shows that it is suitable for using heat-flow data obtained from shallow subsurface to constrain thrusting faulting parameters, similar to what had been done for the strike-slip San Andreas Fault in California. Additional fieldworks are planned to study heat flows in other mountainous regions of Taiwan for more advanced geodynamic modeling efforts.

  10. Crustal anisotropy contribution under-evaluated under Tibet ? (United States)

    Herquel, G.; Edme, P.


    Moho P-to-S converted phases may be used to determine the complete crustal component of anisotropy. Phases with a good signal-to-noise ratio and with sufficient azimuthal coverage are required to avoid misleading results. Previous results may be low estimates of this contribution in Tibet (0.15-0.3s) since some very large mantellic delays have been observed in other areas of the plateau. New measurements use data from stations with the largest mantellic delays δt observed in Tibet: at least 2 seconds (stations ST17, ST18 and ST19 from Indepth III and BUDO). As the data for station BUDO was good enough , we compare results obtained by original signals and by single receiver functions obtained in the frequency domain or by iterative deconvolution. The data were processed using waveform rotation-correlation, tangential energy minimization and particle motion analysis methods. The results are remarkably coherent concerning the fast polarization direction and the mean delay value using these different techniques. Using receiver function stacked data in different bins of backazimuth we obtained delay values in good agreement with the other techniques and hence the processing can be accelerated using this approach. At all 4 stations a mean value of delay of 0.15s is retrieved with an uncertainty of 0.05s: no single value exceed 0.3s. These new results are similar to the first estimations in Tibet and confirm the results obtained in other aeras (Ural Montains, New Zealand and Basin and Range). Finally, we observe also a good correlation with the fast polarization direction obtained by teleseismic shear wave analysis.

  11. On the rheology of crustal rocks containing low melt fractions (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Handy, M. R.


    A review and reinterpretation of older experimental data on the deformation of partially-melted granite reveals a non-linear strength decrease with increasing melt fractions. This decrease is characterised by two sharp discontinuities, each reflecting a dramatic change of strength within a limited range of melt fractions. A first discontinuity is shown by all experiments at melt fractions between 0.0 and 0.1. The change of strength within this range of melt fractions is the largest over the entire melting range. The second discontinuity occurs at higher melt fractions (0.4 to 0.6) and corresponds to the well known rheologically critical melt percentage (RCMP). In contrast to recent interpretations, we infer that the experimental data do indicate the occurrence of the RCMP, for crystallising as well as for melting rocks. However, the magnitude of the stress drop at the RCMP is negligible compared to the stress drop at melt fractions RCMP, at melt fractions >= 0.4, as proposed by several experimentalists. We suggest that the attainment of a melt fraction of 0.03 to 0.08 will control the large-scale localisation of deformation into partially-melted crustal layers, irrespective of the attainment of the RCMP. If the RCMP is achieved, however, the large-scale deformational response of the crust may not be different than that of a crust containing a melt fraction of 0.1. Instead, the RCMP controls localisation of flow within magmatic bodies, where it effects the internal dynamics of magma chambers.

  12. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction. (United States)

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  13. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)


    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Enhanced bulk polysilicon production using silicon tubes (United States)

    Jafri, Ijaz; Chandra, Mohan; Zhang, Hui; Prasad, Vish; Reddy, Chandra; Amato-Wierda, Carmela; Landry, Marc; Ciszek, Ted


    A novel technique using silicon tubes for the production of bulk polysilicon via chemical vapor deposition is presented. Our experimental studies with a model reactor indicate that the polysilicon growth inside the silicon tube (15.3 g) exceeds that of the calculated polysilicon growth on silicon slim rods (4.3 g) over 55 h of deposition time. A computational model is also being developed to simulate the growth rates of the model reactor. Preliminary computational results from this model show a slightly asymmetric temperature distribution at the reactor center line with a 1000 sccm argon flow at 850°C reactor temperature. Both these experimental and computational modeling studies have identified key criteria for the prototype reactor being designed for bulk polysilicon growth.

  15. Internal shear cracking in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf


    This paper presents an uncoupled ductile damage criterion for modelling the opening and propagation of internal shear cracks in bulk metal forming. The criterion is built upon the original work on the motion of a hole subjected to shear with superimposed tensile stress triaxiality and its overall...... performance is evaluated by means of side-pressing formability tests in Aluminium AA2007-T6 subjected to different levels of pre-strain. Results show that the new proposed criterionis able to combine simplicity with efficiency for predicting the onset of fracture and the crack propagation path for the entire...... cracking to internal cracks formed undert hree-dimensional states of stress that are typical of bulk metal forming....

  16. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol


    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  17. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei


    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  18. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal


    Wu, M.R.


    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials that will be the major international trade flows in the future, the characteristics of these potential biomass materials, the interaction between the material properties and terminal equipment, the pe...

  19. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)


    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  20. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.


    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja


    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...... is conducted by depositing a minute mass by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a mass resolution of 0.4 fg in air....

  2. Scaling Bulk Data Analysis with Mapreduce (United States)


    Writing Bulk_Extractor MapReduce 101 List of References 105 viii Initial Distribution List 113 ix THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK x List of Figures...dedicated Experts -Formal definition presented -Large technology growth
 -Everyone has email, cell phones, networks Adolescence
 -Growth in Academics ...period is where we see those requirements come to fruition with an explosive growth into the academic community. This period marks a point where research

  3. An Extended Hardness Limit in Bulk Nanoceramics (United States)


    to fabricate bulk, fully dense and high-purity nanocrystalline ceramics with unprecedentedly small nanometer- sized grains. Using magnesium aluminate ...nanocrystalline ceramic sintered at 2 GPa and 795 C. The diffraction peaks correspond to stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [42] and a nickel ring that found to be 3.6005 ± 0.0079 g cm3, which is equal to that of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [43] and reveals that the produced ceramics are

  4. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng


    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcomes of a Percutaneous Technique for Shortening of Totally Implanted Indwelling Central Venous Chest Port Catheters. (United States)

    Duncan, Christopher; Trerotola, Scott O


    Central venous port catheters that are too long are typically removed or revised. The subcutaneous position of port reservoirs precludes standard over-the-wire exchange techniques, and a method of percutaneous revision using an intravascular loop snare technique has been previously described. A retrospective review was conducted of 38 procedures that were performed at a single academic institution between 2005 and 2015. Technical success was 100%, without immediate or delayed complications with follow-up until port removal or death in 94% of patients. Percutaneous revision is an effective method for shortening too-long port catheters, allowing uninterrupted use of the port. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents. (United States)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Solcova, Iva Polackova; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P; Tavel, Peter


    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the SWBS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α) and Mean Inter-Item Correlation (MIIC) values. The factor structure was evaluated using principal component analyses. After adjustment, our new seven-item version of the scale supports a two-factorial model of the SWBS with satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.814, MIIC = 0.379). This version of the SWBS is suitable for measuring spiritual well-being in a secularising environment.

  7. Semi-automated detection of fractional shortening in zebrafish embryo heart videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrat Sara


    Full Text Available Quantifying cardiac functions in model organisms like embryonic zebrafish is of high importance in small molecule screens for new therapeutic compounds. One relevant cardiac parameter is the fractional shortening (FS. A method for semi-automatic quantification of FS in video recordings of zebrafish embryo hearts is presented. The software provides automated visual information about the end-systolic and end-diastolic stages of the heart by displaying corresponding colored lines into a Motion-mode display. After manually marking the ventricle diameters in frames of end-systolic and end-diastolic stages, the FS is calculated. The software was evaluated by comparing the results of the determination of FS with results obtained from another established method. Correlations of 0.96 < r < 0.99 between the two methods were found indicating that the new software provides comparable results for the determination of the FS.

  8. Irradiation shortens the survival time of red cells deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenasee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, M.P. (Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL); Wald, N.; Diloy-Puray, M.


    X radiation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient red cells causes distinct shortening of their survival time. This is accompanied by significant lowering of reduced glutathione content and is not observed in similarly prepared and treated normal cells. The damage is most likely related to irradiation-induced formation of activated oxygen products and to their subsequent effects on the cells. Neither methemoglobin increases nor Heinz body formation were observed, suggesting that hemolysis occurred prior to these changes. The study provides a model for examining the effects of irradiation and activated oxygen on red cells and suggests that patients with G6PD deficiency who receive irradiation could develop severe hemolysis in certain clinical settings.

  9. [Carotid endarterectomy. Experiences with shortening of interval between symptom and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, L.K.; Baekgaard, N.; Jensen, Leif Pandora


    INTRODUCTION: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) prevents transient ischemic attack and stroke in patients with symptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. In 2004 Rothwell et al showed that maximal benefit is gained if CEA is performed less than three weeks after the onset of the symptom. With the aim...... and in the neurological departments. The stroke and death rate was unchanged, 4% and 3% before and after fast track respectively. CONCLUSION: The time between symptom and CEA can be shortened by means of a fast track after thorough information and reorganization of the work involving these patients. In order to bring...... September 2006. RESULTS: A total of 147 CEAs were performed on 145 patients, 51 before and 96 after the introduction of fast track. The period between the first symptom and CEA was reduced after the introduction of fast track to 31 days. It was easiest to reduce the time up to CEA in our own department...

  10. Distinct Chlorine Isotopic Reservoirs on Mars: Implications for Character, Extent and Relative Timing of Crustal Interaction with Mantle-Derived Magmas, Evolution of the Martian Atmosphere, and the Building Blocks of an Early Mars (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Messenger, S.; Sharp, Z. D.; Burger, P. V.; Nguyen, N.; McCubbin, F. M.


    The style, magnitude, timing, and mixing components involved in the interaction between mantle derived Martian magmas and Martian crust have long been a point of debate. Understanding this process is fundamental to deciphering the composition of the Martian crust and its interaction with the atmosphere, the compositional diversity and oxygen fugacity variations in the Martian mantle, the bulk composition of Mars and the materials from which it accreted, and the noble gas composition of Mars and the Sun. Recent studies of the chlorine isotopic composition of Martian meteorites imply that although the variation in delta (sup 37) Cl is limited (total range of approximately14 per mille), there appears to be distinct signatures for the Martian crust and mantle. However, there are potential issues with this interpretation. New Cl isotope data from the SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) instrument on the Mars Science Lab indicate a very wide range of Cl isotopic compositions on the Martian surface. Recent measurements by [10] duplicated the results of [7,8], but placed them within the context of SAM surface data. In addition, Martian meteorite Chassigny contains trapped noble gases with isotopic ratios similar to solar abundance, and has long been considered a pristine, mantle derived sample. However, previous studies of apatite in Chassigny indicate that crustal fluids have interacted with regions interstitial to the cumulus olivine. The initial Cl isotope measurements of apatite in Chassigny suggest an addition of crustal component to this lithology, apparently contradicting the rare gas data. Here, we examine the Cl isotopic composition of multiple generations and textures of apatite in Chassigny to extricate the crustal and mantle components in this meteorite and to reveal the style and timing of the addition of crustal components to mantle-derived magmas. These data reveal distinct Martian Cl sources whose signatures have their origins linked to both the early Solar

  11. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  12. The Oblique Metaphyseal Shortening Osteotomy of the Distal Ulna: Surgical Technique and Results of Ten Patients. (United States)

    Benis, Szabolcs; Goubau, Jean F; Mermuys, Koen; Van Hoonacker, Petrus; Berghs, Bart; Kerckhove, Diederick; Vanmierlo, Bert


    Background  Ulnocarpal abutment is a common condition following distal radius fractures. There are different surgical methods of treatment for this pathology: open and arthroscopic wafer procedure or an ulnar shortening osteotomy. We describe an oblique metaphyseal shortening osteotomy of the distal ulna using two cannulated headless compression screws. We report the results of 10 patients treated with this method. Materials and Methods  Out of 17 patients, 10 could be reviewed retrospectively for this study. Patient-rated outcomes were measured using the VAS (visual analogue scale) for pain, PRWHE (patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation) survey, and Quick-DASH (disability of arm, shoulder and hand) survey for functional outcomes. At the review we measured the range of motion (ROM) of the wrist (extension and flexion, ulnar and radial deviation, pronation and supination). Grip strength, pronation, and supination strength of the forearm was measured using a calibrated hydraulic dynamometer. ROM and strength of the affected wrist was compared with ROM and strength of the unaffected wrist. Surgical Procedure  Oblique long metaphyseal osteotomy of the distal ulna (from proximal-ulnar to distal-radial), fixed with two cannulated headless compression screws. Results  The average postoperative VAS score for pain was 23.71 (standard deviation [SD] of 30.41). The average postoperative PRWHE score was 32.55 (SD of 26.28). The average postoperative Quick-DASH score was 28.65 (SD of 27.21). The majority of patients had a comparable ROM and strength between the operated side and the non-operated side. Conclusion  This surgical technique has the advantage of reducing the amount of hardware and to decrease the potential hinder caused by it on medium term. Moreover, the incision remains smaller, and the anatomic metaphyseal localization of the osteotomy potentially allows a better and rapid healing.

  13. Anesthetic Sevoflurane Causes Rho-Dependent Filopodial Shortening in Mouse Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Zimering

    Full Text Available Early postnatal anesthesia causes long-lasting learning and memory impairment in rodents, however, evidence for a specific neurotoxic effect on early synaptogenesis has not been demonstrated. Drebrin A is an actin binding protein whose localization in dendritic protrusions serves an important role in dendritic spine morphogenesis, and is a marker for early synaptogenesis. We therefore set out to investigate whether clinically-relevant concentrations of anesthetic sevoflurane, widely- used in infants and children, alters dendritic morphology in cultured fetal day 16 mouse hippocampal neurons. After 7 days in vitro, mouse hippocampal neurons were exposed to four hours of 3% sevoflurane in 95% air/5% CO2 or control condition (95% air/5% CO2. Neurons were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and stained with Alexa Fluor555-Phalloidin, and/or rabbit anti-mouse drebrin A/E antibodies which permitted subcellular localization of filamentous (F-actin and/or drebrin immunoreactivity, respectively. Sevoflurane caused acute significant length-shortening in filopodia and thin dendritic spines in days-in-vitro 7 neurons, an effect which was completely rescued by co-incubating neurons with ten micromolar concentrations of the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Filopodia and thin spine recovered in length two days after sevoflurane exposure. Yet cluster-type filopodia (a precursor to synaptic filopodia were persistently significantly decreased in number on day-in-vitro 9, in part owing to preferential localization of drebrin immunoreactivity to dendritic shafts versus filopodial stalks. These data suggest that sevoflurane induces F-actin depolymerization leading to acute, reversible length-shortening in dendritic protrusions through a mechanism involving (in part activation of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and impairs localization of drebrin A to filopodia required for early excitatory synapse formation.

  14. Abnormal telomere shortening of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes in patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia (United States)

    Pavlaki, Konstantia I.; Kastrinaki, Maria-Christina; Klontzas, Michail; Velegraki, Maria; Mavroudi, Irene; Papadaki, Helen A.


    Background Chronic idiopathic neutropenia is characterized by immune-mediated suppression of neutrophil production. Because patients with immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes display age-inappropriate telomere shortening in leukocytes, we investigated telomere lengths in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes of patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia. Design and Methods We studied 37 patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Relative telomere length and telomerase reverse transcriptase expression were assessed by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Telomerase activity was determined by a polymerase chain reaction-based immunoassay. Results The mean relative telomere values of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes were significantly lower in patients compared to controls, and significantly lower than expected on the basis of the age-adjusted healthy control distribution. The difference in the relative telomere lengths between patients and controls in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes was prominent in those under the age of 50 years. Contrary to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in which an inverse correlation was observed between relative telomere values and age, no significant correlation was noted between granulocyte telomere values and patient age. A significant correlation was observed between individual relative telomere values and absolute neutrophil counts. There was no difference in expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells between patients and controls but telomerase activity was identified at a significantly higher frequency in controls than in patients. No correlation was found between telomerase activity or telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and relative telomere lengths of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions Patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia

  15. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function? (United States)

    Stolwijk, N M; Koenraadt, K L M; Louwerens, J W K; Grim, D; Duysens, J; Keijsers, N L W


    Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. The foot length and MLA angle of 34 healthy subjects (18 males, 16 females) at 3 velocities (preferred, low (preferred -0.4 m/s) and fast (preferred +0.4 m/s) speed were investigated with a 3D motion analysis system (VICON(®)). The MLA angle was calculated as the angle between the second metatarsal head, the navicular tuberculum and the heel in the local sagittal plane. Foot length was calculated as the distance between the marker at the heel and the 2nd metatarsal head. A General Linear Model for repeated measures was used to indicate significant differences in MLA angle and foot length between different walking speeds. The foot lengthened during the weight acceptance phase of gait and shortened during propulsion. With increased walking speed, the foot elongated less after heel strike and shortened more during push off. The MLA angle and foot length curve were similar, except between 50% and 80% of the stance phase in which the MLA increases whereas the foot length showed a slight decrease. Foot length seems to represent the Hicks mechanism in the foot and the ability of the foot to bear weight. At higher speeds, the foot becomes relatively stiffer, presumably to act as a lever arm to provide extra propulsion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal telomere shortening and early Alzheimer's disease progression in adults with down syndrome. (United States)

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Marchi, Elaine J; Velinov, Milen T; Ye, Lingling; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Silverman, Wayne P


    Telomere shortening was shown to parallel Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated dementia. By using a dual PNA Probe system we have developed a practical method for comparing telomere length in T-lymphocyte interphases from individuals with Down syndrome (DS) with and without "mild cognitive impairment" (MCI-DS) and demonstrated that telomere length can serve as a valid biomarker for the onset of MCI-DS in this high-risk population. To verify progressive cognitive decline we have now examined sequential changes in telomere length in 10 adults with DS (N = 4 Female, N = 6 Male) developing MCI-DS. Cases were selected blind to telomere length from a sample of adults with DS previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study at 18-month intervals with clinical and telomere assessments: (1) MCI-DS group data were collected approximately three years prior to development of MCI-DS; (2) 18 months later; (3) when MCI-DS was first observed. These telomere measures were compared to those from another 10 adults with DS matched by sex and approximate age but without indications of MCI-DS (Controls). PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes for telomeres together with a chromosome two centromere probe were used. Findings indicated telomere shortening over time for both Cases and Controls. Group differences emerged by 18-months prior to recognition of MCI-DS onset and completely non-overlapping distributions of telomere measures were observed by the time of MCI-DS onset. This study adds to accumulating evidence of the value of telomere length, as an early biomarker of AD progression in adults with Down syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Drusano

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem, particularly with the advent of multi-drug resistance. Shortening therapy duration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major goal, requiring generation of optimal kill rate and resistance-suppression. Combination therapy is required to attain the goal of shorter therapy.Our objective was to identify a method for identifying optimal combination chemotherapy. We developed a mathematical model for attaining this end. This is accomplished by identifying drug effect interaction (synergy, additivity, antagonism for susceptible organisms and subpopulations resistant to each drug in the combination.We studied the combination of linezolid plus rifampin in our hollow fiber infection model. We generated a fully parametric drug effect interaction mathematical model. The results were subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to extend the findings to a population of patients by accounting for between-patient variability in drug pharmacokinetics.All monotherapy allowed emergence of resistance over the first two weeks of the experiment. In combination, the interaction was additive for each population (susceptible and resistant. For a 600 mg/600 mg daily regimen of linezolid plus rifampin, we demonstrated that >50% of simulated subjects had eradicated the susceptible population by day 27 with the remaining organisms resistant to one or the other drug. Only 4% of patients had complete organism eradication by experiment end.These data strongly suggest that in order to achieve the goal of shortening therapy, the original regimen may need to be changed at one month to a regimen of two completely new agents with resistance mechanisms independent of the initial regimen. This hypothesis which arose from the analysis is immediately testable in a clinical trial.

  18. Crustal-scale magmatism and its control on the longevity of magmatic systems (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef


    Constraining the duration and evolution of crustal magma reservoirs is crucial to our understanding of the eruptive potential of magmatic systems, as well as the volcanic:plutonic ratios in the crust, but estimates of such parameters vary widely in the current literature. Although no consensus has been reached on the lifetime of magma reservoirs, recent studies have revealed about the presence, location, and melt fraction of multi-level (polybaric) storage zones in the crust. If magma accumulates at different crustal levels, it must redistribute significant enthalpy within the crustal column and therefore must influence the lifetime of magma plumbing systems. However, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column is lacking. Here, we use a two-dimensional thermal model to determine the thermal conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that large lower crustal mush zones supply heat to the upper crust and reduce the amount of thermal energy necessary to form subvolcanic reservoirs. This indicates that the crust is thermally viable to sustain partially molten magma reservoirs over long timescales (>10^5-106 yr) for a range of magma fluxes (10^-4 to 10^-2 km^3/yr). Our results reconcile physical models of crustal magma evolution and field-based estimates of intrusion rates in numerous magmatic provinces (which include both volcanic and plutonic lithologies). We also show that young magmatic provinces ( 106 yr) can accumulate magma and build reservoirs capable of triggering supereruptions, even with intrusion rates as low as ≤10^-2 km^3/yr. Hence, the total duration of magmatism is critical in determining the size of the magma reservoirs, and should be combined with the magma intrusions rates to assess the capability of volcanic systems to form the largest eruptions on Earth.

  19. Impact of phosphatidylethanolamine on the antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol and trolox in bulk oil. (United States)

    Cui, Leqi; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A


    The amphiphilic phospholipids dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), can form reverse micelles in bulk oils, which affects lipid oxidation chemistry. Previous studies showed that reverse micelles formed by DOPC and DOPE shorten the oxidation lag phase of stripped soybean oil. This study examined how these reverse micelles influence the activity of primary antioxidants such as the nonpolar α-tocopherol and the polar trolox in stripped and commercial soybean oils. The results showed that DOPC reverse micelles decreased the activity of 100 μM α-tocopherol or trolox. On the other hand, DOPE increased the antioxidant activity of both α-tocopherol and trolox. The polar trolox exhibited better antioxidant activity than the nonpolar α-tocopherol in the presence of both DOPC and DOPE reverse micelles because trolox partitioned more at the interfaces, which was confirmed by a fluorescence steady state study. Different ratios of DOPE to DOPC were added to oil containing 100 μM α-tocopherol, and antioxidant activity increased with increasing DOPE/DOPC ratio. Addition of DOPE to commercial oil inhibited lipid oxidation, whetrsd DOPC was ineffective. HPLC showed that DOPE regenerated α-tocopherol. This study indicates that the antioxidant activity of tocopherols could be improved by utilizing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to engineer the properties of reverse micelles in bulk oil.

  20. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee


    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  1. A Hybrid ARQ Scheme Based on Rate-Compatible Low-Density Parity-Check Codes by Shortening and Extending (United States)

    Okamura, Toshihiko

    Incremental Redundancy Hybrid ARQ (IR-HARQ) based on rate-compatible punctured low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes can achieve high throughput over a wide range of SNRs. One drawback of such IR-HARQ schemes is high computational complexity of decoding for early transmission at high rates. In order to overcome this problem, a HARQ scheme based on rate-compatible LDPC codes by shortening and extending is presented in this paper. In the HARQ scheme, a high-rate mother code is transmitted at first, and parity-bits of a shortened code are transmitted for early retransmission requests. With a low-complexity decoder of the high-rate mother code, this shortened-code approach would result in low computational complexity of decoding, but it causes smaller length and larger number of shortened codes to be decoded as retransmission repeats. To prevent the resultant degradation of performance and complexity, extending is efficiently applied to the shortened codes after predetermined retransmission-times. A multi-edge type code-design is employed to construct irregular LDPC codes that meet the requirement of the HARQ scheme. Simulation results show that the HARQ scheme can achieve lower computational complexity of decoding than a conventional IR-HARQ scheme with good throughput over a wide range of SNRs.

  2. Comparison of EMG during passive stretching and shortening phases of each muscle for the investigation of parkinsonian rigidity. (United States)

    Kwon, Yuri; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Ji-Sun; Koh, Seong-Beom; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Lim, Tae-Hong


    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis in the literature that torque resistance of parkinsonian rigidity is the difference between the independent contributions of stretched and shortened muscles. The hypothesis was tested using muscle-specific stretch-shortening (MSSS) EMG ratio in this study. Nineteen patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18 healthy subjects (the mean age comparable to that of patients) participated in this study. The EMG activity was measured in the four muscles involved in wrist joint movement, i.e. flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis and extensor carpi ulnaris. The passive flexion-extension movement with a range of ±30∘ was applied at wrist joint. Root mean squared (RMS) mean was calculated from the envelope of the EMG for each of stretching and shortening phases. MSSS EMG ratio was defined as the ratio of RMS EMG of stretching phase and RMS EMG of shortening phase of a single muscle, and it was calculated for each muscle. MSSS EMG ratios were smaller than one in all muscles. These results indicate that all wrist muscles generate greater mean EMG during shortening than during stretching. Therefore, the torque resistance of parkinsonian rigidity cannot be explained as the simple summation of independent antagonistic torque pair.

  3. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  4. A unified analysis of crustal motion in Southern California, 1970-2004: The SCEC crustal motion map (United States)

    Shen, Z.-K.; King, R. W.; Agnew, D. C.; Wang, M.; Herring, T. A.; Dong, D.; Fang, P.


    To determine crustal motions in and around southern California, we have processed and combined trilateration data collected from 1970 to 1992, VLBI data from 1979 to 1992, and GPS data from 1986 to 2004: a long temporal coverage required in part by the occurrence of several large earthquakes in this region. From a series of solutions for station positions, we have estimated interseismic velocities, coseismic displacements, and postseismic motions. Within the region from 31°N to 38°N. and east to 114°W, the final product includes estimated horizontal velocities for 1009 GPS, 190 trilateration, and 16 VLBI points, with ties between some of these used to stabilize the solution. All motions are relative to the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF) as realized through the velocities of 20 GPS stations. This provides a relatively dense set of horizontal velocity estimates, with well-tested errors, for the past quarter century over the plate boundary from 31°N to 36.5°N. These velocities agree well with those from the Plate Boundary Observatory, which apply to a later time period. We also estimated vertical velocities, 533 of which have errors below 2 mm/yr. Most of these velocities are less than 1 mm/yr, but they show 2-4 mm/yr subsidence in the Ventura and Los Angeles basins and in the Salton Trough. Our analysis also included estimates of coseismic and postseismic motions related to the 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, and 2003 San Simeon earthquakes. Postseismic motions increase logarithmically over time with a time constant of about 10 days, and generally mimic the direction and relative amplitude of the coseismic offsets.

  5. Density heterogeneity of the upper mantle beneath Siberia from satellite gravity and a new regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    We present a new regional model for the density structure of the upper mantle below Siberia. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE gravity gradients and geopotential models, with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a new...... on regional and global crustal models. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. The new regional density model for the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin complements...

  6. New insights on the crustal thickness and its lateral variations beneath the Rif Cordillera (United States)

    Gil de la Iglesia, A.; Diaz Cusi, J.; Gallart, J.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Levander, A.


    The Rif cordillera forms, together with the Betic ranges, one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth. This continental boundary zone is dominated now by the slow convergence between Nubia and Eurasia, but with clear evidences of extensional tectonics. One of the missing elements to constrain the complex geodynamics of the Gibraltar Arc System is the knowledge on crustal structure beneath northern Morocco. In the last decade a major effort has been done in this sense, from active and passive seismics. We compile here the recent results available from the Rif domains. Two 330 km long wide angle DSS profiles were recorded end of 2011 across the Rif in NS and EW transects within the Rifsis project, complemented by onshore recordings of the Gassis-WestMed marine profiles. At the same period, BB seismic arrays were deployed in the area within Topo-Iberia and Picasso projects, allowing receiver function analyses of crustal depths. The ray-tracing modeling of the Rifsis profiles reveal a large Moho step and an area of crustal thickening both in EW and NS directions, grossly coincident with the Bouguer gravity anomalies. The deployment logistics allowed that all the stations recorded all the shots, thus providing useful offline data. We will use here all available in-line and offline data to provide a map of the crustal thickness in northern Morocco. We combined two approaches: i) a hyperbolic time reduction applied to the seismic data, resulting in low-fold stacks in which the reflections from the Moho should appear as subhorizontal lines; ii) the arrival times of the observed PmP phases allow, assuming a mean crustal velocity, to assign a midpoint crustal thickness to each lecture. Although some uncertainties may be inherent to those approaches, a large crustal root, reaching more than 50 km, is well documented in the central part of the Rif Cordillera, close to the zone where the Alboran slab may still be attached to the lithosphere. We also compared these results with

  7. Crustal structure of the western Indian shield: Model based on regional gravity and magnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kilaru


    This study probes the geometry of the different crustal units in terms of density and susceptibility variations in order to decipher the imprints of the major tectonic processes the region has undergone. In order to decipher the crustal geometry of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile, two NW–SE gravity and magnetic profile vertical sections (A–A′ in the south and B–B′ in the north are modelled on the basis of the constraints provided from previous seismic models. The crustal model of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile is composed of alluvium, Tertiary sediments, MIS, Marwar Supergroup, low-density layers (LDLs and the middle–lower crustal layers, with a distinct change in configuration from the southwest to northeast. The Moho dips from SW to NE, the MIS in the SW gives way to the thick pile of the Marwar Supergroup to the NE. The evolution of MIS has been suggested to have occurred as a consequence of delamination of the upper mantle. LDLs are incorporated in Gadra–Fatehpur model. In the SW, LDL (2550 kg/m3 lies below the MIS in the NE, another LDL (2604 kg/m3 is depicted below the mid-crustal layer.

  8. Crustal moment of inertia of glitching pulsars with the KDE0v1 Skyrme interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuri, K.; Routray, T.R.; Pattnaik, S.P. [Sambalpur University, School of Physics, Jyotivihar (India); Basu, D.N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)


    The mass, radius and crustal fraction of moment of inertia in neutron stars are calculated using β-equilibrated nuclear matter obtained from the Skyrme effective interaction. The transition density, pressure and proton fraction at the inner edge separating the liquid core from the solid crust of the neutron stars are determined from the thermodynamic stability conditions using the KDE0v1 set. The neutron star masses obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations using neutron star matter obtained from this set are able to describe highly massive compact stars ∝ 2M {sub CircleDot}. The crustal fraction of the moment of inertia can be extracted from studying pulsar glitches. This fraction is highly dependent on the core-crust transition pressure and corresponding density. These results for pressure and density at core-crust transition together with the observed minimum crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia provide a limit for the radius of the Vela pulsar, R ≥ 3.69 + 3.44M/M {sub CircleDot}. Present calculations suggest that the crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia can be ∝ 6.3% due to crustal entrainment caused by the Bragg reflection of unbound neutrons by lattice ions. (orig.)

  9. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau crustal thickness derived from EGM2008 and CRSUT2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao


    Full Text Available Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most complex region for crustal thickness inversion, while high-resolution earth gravity model (EGM makes it possible to obtain high precision gravity anomaly, which is a key parameter to depict the Earth’s inner structure in geodesy domain. On the basis of this principle, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with EGM2008 and SRTM6. 0 by efficient high-degree spherical harmonic synthesis algorithm. In order to obtain the gravity anomaly caused by Moho density mutant, the noises caused by the topography was removed by wavelet details. Then, the crustal thickness was corrected on the basis of CRUST 2. 0 with the deep-large-scale single density interface formula. The inversion result indicates that the crustal thickness in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is between 50 km and 75 km, which is in correspondence with the recent science research result. Compared with the 2 degree CRUST 2. 0 model, the spatial resolution of crustal thickness in our research can reach 40 arc minutes. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the inversed crustal thickness and topography, which can prove the effectiveness of Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model in gravity reduction.

  10. Lifetime and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef


    Magmatic processes on Earth govern the mass, energy and chemical transfer between the mantle, crust and atmosphere. To understand magma storage conditions in the crust that ultimately control volcanic activity and growth of continents, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column during magmatic episodes is essential. Here we use a numerical model to constrain the physical conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that over long durations of intrusions (greater than 105 to 106 yr), extensive lower crustal mush zones develop, which modify the thermal budget of the upper crust and reduce the flux of magma required to sustain upper crustal magma reservoirs. Our results reconcile physical models of magma reservoir construction and field-based estimates of intrusion rates in numerous volcanic and plutonic localities. Young igneous provinces (less than a few hundred thousand years old) are unlikely to support large upper crustal reservoirs, whereas longer-lived systems (active for longer than 1 million years) can accumulate magma and build reservoirs capable of producing super-eruptions, even with intrusion rates smaller than 10-3 to 10-2 km3 yr-1. Hence, total duration of magmatism should be combined with the magma intrusion rates to assess the capability of volcanic systems to form the largest explosive eruptions on Earth.

  11. Crustal Structure around Ordos Terrain Derived from Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Liu, J.; Ning, J.; Tang, Y.; Chen, Y. J.


    We performed Rayleigh wave tomography around Ordos terrain by applying the ambient noise method to broadband seismic data. The data was recorded at 85 temporary stations of PKU array operated along Yinchuan-Jinan and 410 permanent stations of CEA network operated between Eastern margin of Tibetan plateau and Huabei basin. Receiver function technique was also applied to study Moho discontinuity in Southern Ordos by PKU array. We developed a new stacking technique to obtain high-quality dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves from cross correlation of seismic ambient noise. This technique is based on phase-matched filter and was implemented in a four-step iterative process: signal compression, stacking, signal extraction and signal decompression. We stack all the compressed Estimated Green Functions that have almost the same path to improve signal to noise ratio. Results show that this new stacking method is stable and can improve the quality of ambient noise inversion. The inversion results present in this study are consistent with tectonic nature in this region. S velocity at depths of 0-10 km beneath Huabei plain, Sichuan basin and Ordos terrain are obviously lower than those beneath Eastern margin of Tibetan plateau. That is probably due to the thick sediments in Huabei plain, Sichuan basin and Ordos block. S velocity beneath Lvliang-Taihang region keeps high in whole crust and this may relate to Cenozoic intrusion of mantle material here. Our results revealed that the crust is thick in the southern part of the Ordos terrain while it is a little thin in the northern part. This confirmed the result given by Chen et al. (2010) and explained the contradiction between the work of Chen's and former results. The contrasting crustal thickness of the Ordos terrain is also in accord with our Receiver Function results. Receiver functions revealed two interfaces at about 40 km and 60 km in southern part of the Ordos terrain, comparing with only one located at about 40 km depth

  12. A hemispherical dynamo model: Implications for the Martian crustal magnetization (United States)

    Dietrich, W.; Wicht, J.; Christensen, U. R.


    In 1999 the Mars Global Surveyor detected a strong but very heterogeneous crustal magnetization mainly localized in the southern hemisphere. Their magnetization dichotomy may have either an external or an internal origin. In the first scenario, the Martian crust was fully magnetized by a dipolar dynamo induced in the Martian liquid core. After the core dynamo cessation, the crust was demagnetized by volcanoes, impacts or any other resurfacing event distributed not homogeneously over the surface. The internal origin, which is investigated here, relies on a per se hemispherical internal magnetric field. For this, we rely on that Mars never developed an inner core. The planets ancient dynamo was thus exclusively driven by secular cooling and radiogenic heating. Due to the small planetary size, the core mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux may be not as homogeneous, as in e.g. Earth. Mantle convection in smaller planets is thought to develope larger scales, maybe even a huge single-plume structure. Giant impacts might have played a crucial role in the thermal history of Mars, hence they are heating mainly one hemisphere. Giant plumes and major impact events would both cause a hemispherical CMB heat flux pattern. Therefore, we model the ancient Martian dynamo as rotating, convecting and conducting fluid heated by an internal heat source and contained in a spherical shell, where the CMB heat flux is perturbed by a sinusoidal anomaly. Compared to the classical columnar convection, we find a drastically different flow pattern. There meridional circulation seeking to equilibrate the heat difference between both hemispheres is diverted into two counterdirected cells of axisymmetric zonal flows (thermal winds) by the strong Coriolis force. Convective plumes are confined to the region of high heat flux in the vicinity of the southern pole. Core convection is thus dominated by equatorially antisymmetric and axisymmetric (EAA) modes. In the columnar regime, poloidal and toroidal

  13. Unraveling 470 m.y. of shortening in the Central Andes and documentation of Type 0 superposed folding (United States)

    Dávila, Federico M.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Schmidt, Christopher J.


    In the Famatina Ranges, Central Andes of western Argentina, 470 m.y. of protracted shortening is recorded through episodic coaxial-coplanar fold amplification. Ordovician anticlines within the east-vergent thrust belt were refolded and tightened during later Paleozoic and Cenozoic shortening. Folding episodes are recorded in four major unconformities that can be measured on both flanks of one of these map-scale anticlines. Superposed folding (Type 0), interpreted from mapping and bedding plots, shows similar axial orientation in older and younger rocks throughout the different stratigraphic layers. Of the shortening, 30% is pre-Cenozoic and allows the recording of episodic deformation during continuous plate convergence at the Gondwana South American margin.

  14. From Conservative to Dissipative Systems Through Quadratic Change of Time, with Application to the Curve-Shortening Flow (United States)

    Brenier, Yann; Duan, Xianglong


    We provide several examples of dissipative systems that can be obtained from conservative ones through a simple, quadratic, change of time. A typical example is the curve-shortening flow in {R^d}, which is a particular case of mean-curvature flow with a co-dimension higher than one (except in the case d = 2). Through such a change of time, this flow can be formally derived from the conservative model of vibrating strings obtained from the Nambu-Goto action. Using the concept of "relative entropy" (or "modulated energy"), borrowed from the theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, we introduce a notion of generalized solutions, that we call dissipative solutions, for the curve-shortening flow. For given initial conditions, the set of generalized solutions is convex and compact, if not empty. Smooth solutions to the curve-shortening flow are always unique in this setting.

  15. Clinical efficacy comparison of flabby skin excision combined orbicularis oculi muscle shortening surgery in patients with senile entropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Liang Xu


    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening and orbicularis muscle shortening in the treatment of elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion, and provide the reference for the clinical treatment.METHODS: Eighty-two(126 eyesclinical diagnosis's elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion were collected from our department, then randomly divided into excised relaxing skin and orbicularis oculi muscle shortening treatment group and the orbicularis muscle shortening treatment group.The general data of the two groups, long term curative effect and short-term curative effect were compared. RESULTS: The age, sex, proportion of patients with the first time operation, course of disease were no statistical significance between the observation group and the control group(P>0.05. The short-term effective rate of the observation group was 95.2%, while the short-term effective rate of the control group was 77.8%, the short-term efficiency differences between the two groups was statistical significance(χ2=4.100, P=0.043. The long-term cure rate of the observation group was 82.5%(34 cases, 52 eyes, recurrence rate was 17.5%(7 cases, 11 eyes, while the cure rate of the control group was 60.3%(25 cases, 38 eyes, recurrence rate was 39.7%(16 cases, 25 eyes, the difference of long term cure rate was statistical significance between the two groups(PCONCLUSION: The clinical curative effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening in the treatment of senile inferior entropion is better than orbicularis muscle shortening operation, recommending application in the clinical.

  16. Surgical Treatment of Congenital Scoliosis Associated With Tethered Cord by Thoracic Spine-shortening Osteotomy Without Cord Detethering. (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Hui; Yang, Wei-Zhou; Shen, Chao; Chang, Michael S; Li, Huan; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Tao, Hui-Ren


    Retrospective case series. To investigate the safety and efficacy of spine-shortening osteotomy for congenital scoliosis with tethered cord. Conventional surgery for congenital scoliosis associated with tethered cord risks the complications of detethering. Spine-shortening osteotomy holds the potential to correct scoliosis and decrease spinal cord tension simultaneously without an extra detethering procedure, but no data on this issue is available. 21 patients (14 females and 7 males, average age 15.4 yr) underwent spine-shortening osteotomy without detethering. All of the patients had tethered cord. Patients with main curve more than 90° underwent vertebral column resection (VCR), whereas the others had pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) performed. The average postoperative follow-up period was 45.2 months. The mean operation time was 544.5 min with average blood loss of 2769.1 ml. The deformity correction was 61.3% in the coronal plane and 43.9° in the sagittal plane. 10 patients had neurological deficits preoperatively. At the final follow-up, the deficits in 8 (80%) patients were significantly improved, whereas 2 (20%) remained unchanged. At final follow-up, 71.4% (5/7) patients reported improvement in motor function, 100% (3/3) had improved pain scores, and 75% (3/4) reported better sensory function after the spine-shortening osteotomy. Urinary dysfunction and bowel incontinence present preoperatively in 3 patients all recovered by final follow-up. 5 (23.8%) patients incurred complications including temporary neurological deterioration in 1 patient, urinary tract infection in 2 patients, cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 1 patient, and blood loss more than 5000 ml in 1 patient. Spine-shortening osteotomy is a safe and effective procedure for congenital scoliosis associated with tethered cord. Spine-shortening osteotomy at the thoracic apical vertebrae level not only corrects the spine deformity but also simultaneously releases the tension of the tethered cord

  17. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kei


    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block

  18. Materials for Bulk Acoustic Resonators and Filters (United States)

    Loebl, Hans-Peter


    Highly selective solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (BAW) band pass filters are suited for mobile and wireless systems in the GHz frequency range between 0.8 and 10 GHz. Electro-acoustic thin film BAW resonators are the building blocks these BAW filters. Piezoelectric materials used in these resonators include mainly AlN or ZnO which can be deposited by dedicated thin film sputter deposition techniques. Using these piezo-electric materials and using suited materials for the acoustic Bragg reflector, BAW resonators with high quality factors can be fabricated. The achievable filter bandwidth is approximately 4Alternatively, also ferroelectric thin films might be used to achieve higher coupling coefficient and thus filter bandwidth. BAW resonators and filters have been designed and fabricated on 6" Silicon and glass wafers. Results are presented for resonators and filters operating between 1.95 and 8 GHz. The talk will give an overview of the material aspects which are important for BAW devices. It will be shown that modeling of the resonator and filter response using 1D electro-acoustic simulation (1,2) which includes losses is essential to extract acoustic and electrical material parameters. (1) Solidly Mounted Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters for the Ghz Frequency Range, H.P. Loebl, C. Metzmacher , D.N.Peligrad , R. Mauczok , M. Klee , W. Brand , R.F. Milsom , P.Lok , F.van Straten , A. Tuinhout , J.W.Lobeek, IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002. (2) Combined Acoustic-Electromagnetic Simulation Of Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, R.F. Milsom, H-P. Löbl, D.N. Peligrad, J-W. Lobeek, A. Tuinhout, R. H. ten Dolle IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002.

  19. Simultaneous Radial Lengthening and Ulnar Shortening for a Delayed Presentation of Radius Distal Physeal Arrest: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Uzun


    Full Text Available Distal radius fractures are common injuries in both children and in the elderly (25%; 18%. Distal radius physeal fractures have a high incidence, but physeal growth arrest occurs at a low rate. As a main deformity, radial shortening occurs with relative ulnar overgrowth leading to significant complaints of pain and functional limitations after distal radial growth arrest. In this paper we aim to report on the restoration of the wrist mechanics attained by performing a surgical technique of simultaneous radial lengthening and ulnar shortening procedures in an adolescent with a significant ulnar overgrowth deformity due to a posttraumatic growth arrest of distal radius.

  20. Extraordinary plasticity of ductile bulk metallic glasses. (United States)

    Chen, Mingwei; Inoue, Akihisa; Zhang, Wei; Sakurai, Toshio


    Shear bands generally initiate strain softening and result in low ductility of metallic glasses. In this Letter, we report high-resolution electron microscope observations of shear bands in a ductile metallic glass. Strain softening caused by localized shearing was found to be effectively prevented by nanocrystallization that is in situ produced by plastic flow within the shear bands, leading to large plasticity and strain hardening. These atomic-scale observations not only well explain the extraordinary plasticity that was recently observed in some bulk metallic glasses, but also reveal a novel deformation mechanism that can effectively improve the ductility of monolithic metallic glasses.

  1. "Work-Hardenable" ductile bulk metallic glass. (United States)

    Das, Jayanta; Tang, Mei Bo; Kim, Ki Buem; Theissmann, Ralf; Baier, Falko; Wang, Wei Hua; Eckert, Jürgen


    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive "work hardening" and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The "work-hardening" capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  2. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole


    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang


    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  4. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo


    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  5. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.


    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  6. Cosmological Brane World Solutions with Bulk Scalar Fields


    Davis, Stephen C.


    Cosmological brane world solutions are found for five-dimensional bulk spacetimes with a scalar field. A supergravity inspired method for obtaining static solutions is combined with a method for finding brane cosmologies with constant bulk energies. This provides a way to generate full (bulk and brane) cosmological solutions to brane worlds with bulk scalar fields. Examples of these solutions, and their cosmological evolution, are discussed.

  7. Isotopic Studies of the Guerrero Composite Terrane, West-Central Mexico: Implications for Provenance of Crustal Rocks and Ore Metals (United States)

    Potra, A.; Macfarlane, A. W.; Salters, V. J.; Sachi-Kocher, A.


    New Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope analyses of various crustal units and ores from the Guerrero terrane are presented in order to gain insight into their provenance. Mesozoic basement rocks from the Arteaga Complex and Tejupilco metamorphic suite contain radiogenic Pb relative to bulk earth models (206Pb/204Pb between 18.701 and 19.256, 207Pb/204Pb between 15.623 and 15.693, and 208Pb/204Pb between 38.694 and 39.216), plotting to the right of the average Pb crust evolution curve of Stacey and Kramers (1975). The isotopic compositions of Pb in these rocks are substantially more radiogenic than published data on high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Grenvillian-age Oaxaca terrane, but are similar to Paleozoic basement rocks of the Mixteca terrane. Sr and Nd isotope data suggest that the basement rocks of the Guerrero terrane partly originated from ocean-floor rocks which were overlain by sediments derived from a cratonic terrane, possibly represented by the metamorphic complexes of the Oaxaca or Mixteca terranes. Lead isotope ratios of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Zihuatanejo and Huetamo Sequences define two different clusters, with the Zihuatanejo Sequence units shifted to more radiogenic values (206Pb/204 between 18.763 and 19.437, 207Pb/204Pb between 15.580 and 15.643, and 208Pb/204Pb between 38.510 and 38.892). Samples from the Huetamo Sequence are less radiogenic than the metamorphic basement, with Pb isotope ratios between 18.630 and 18.998 for 206Pb/204, 15.563 and 15.641 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 38.369 and 38.610 for 208Pb/204Pb. They plot close to the radiogenic end of the MORB field, suggesting a possible mixing line between the basement rocks and the MORB component. Lead isotope ratios of Tertiary intrusive rocks from La Verde, El Malacate, and La Esmeralda resemble the orogene reservoir in the plumbotectonics model of Zartman and Doe (1981). Plutonic rocks from La Verde show the most radiogenic Pb compositions, suggesting a significant influence of old

  8. Isolated ulnar shortening osteotomy for the treatment of extra-articular distal radius malunion. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ramesh C; Jain, Deeptee; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Mithani, Suhail K; Ruch, David S


    To report the clinical outcomes and complications for a cohort of patients who had extra-articular distal radius malunions treated with isolated ulnar-shortening osteotomy (USO). A second purpose was to define the dorsal angulation limit that would still result in clinical and functional improvement after isolated USO for distal radius malunion. We postulated that patients with up to 20° dorsal or volar tilt could be successfully treated with isolated USO. We conducted a retrospective chart review for all patients who had an isolated USO for the treatment of ulnar impaction syndrome after distal radius malunion between January 1990 and December 2011. A total of 18 patients underwent isolated USO after distal radius malunion. The mean age of the patients was 53 years and the mean duration of follow-up was 34 months. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare preoperative and postoperative range of motion; pain; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores; and radiographic measurements. Average intraoperative ulna shortening was 5.6 mm. Average flexion-extension arc improved from 79° preoperatively to 105° postoperatively. Average pronation-supination arc improved from 121° preoperatively to 162° postoperatively. Average visual analog scale pain score improved from 4.1 to 1.9. Average Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score improved from 43 to 11. This case series demonstrated a significant improvement in pain score and range of motion after isolated USO for distal radius malunion. Patients with up to 20° dorsal tilt and radial inclination as low as 2° demonstrated improved clinical and functional outcomes after isolated USO. Given the comparable functional outcomes with shorter operative times and lower complication rate requiring fewer secondary surgeries, isolated USO is an attractive alternative to distal radius osteotomy for the management of distal radius malunion in patients with up to 20° dorsal tilt. Therapeutic IV

  9. Injury characteristics in the German professional male soccer leagues after a shortened winter break. (United States)

    aus der Fünten, Karen; Faude, Oliver; Lensch, Jochen; Meyer, Tim


    The winter break in the top 2 German professional soccer leagues was shortened from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks in the 2009-2010 season. To investigate whether this change affected injury characteristics by comparing the second half of the 2008-2009 (long winter break) with the equivalent period in the 2009-2010 season (short winter break). Prospective cohort study. German male professional soccer leagues. Seven professional German male soccer teams (184 players in the 2008-2009 season, 188 players in the 2009-2010 season). Injury incidences and injury characteristics (cause of injury, location, severity, type, diagnosis), including their monthly distribution, were recorded. A total of 300 time-loss injuries (2008-2009 n = 151, 2009-2010 n = 149) occurred. The overall injury incidence per 1000 soccer hours was 5.90 (95% confidence interval = 5.03, 6.82) in 2008-2009 and 6.55 (5.58, 7.69) in 2009-2010. Match injuries per 1000 hours were 31.5 (25.0, 38.0) in the first season and 26.5 (20.2, 32.7) in the second season; the corresponding training values were 2.67 (2.08-3.44) and 3.98 (3.19-4.95), respectively. The training injury incidence (incidence rate ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.08], P = .02) and the risk of sustaining a knee injury (incidence rate ratio = 1.66 [1.00, 2.76], P = .049) were higher in 2009-2010 after the short winter break; the incidence of moderate and severe injuries (time loss >7 days) trended higher (incidence rate ratio = 1.34 [0.96, 1.86], P = .09). Shortening the winter break from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks did not change the overall injury incidence; however, a higher number of training, knee, and possibly more severe injuries (time loss >7 days) occurred.

  10. HIV Infection Is Associated with Shortened Telomere Length in Ugandans with Suspected Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Auld

    Full Text Available HIV infection is a risk factor for opportunistic pneumonias such as tuberculosis (TB and for age-associated health complications. Short telomeres, markers of biological aging, are also associated with an increased risk of age-associated diseases and mortality. Our goals were to use a single cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals hospitalized with pneumonia to assess whether shortened telomere length was associated with HIV infection, TB diagnosis, and 2-month mortality.This was a sub-study of the IHOP Study, a prospective observational study. Participants consisted of 184 adults admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda who underwent evaluation for suspected TB and were followed for 2 months. Standardized questionnaires were administered to collect demographic and clinical data. PBMCs were isolated and analyzed using quantitative PCR to determine telomere length. The association between HIV infection, demographic and clinical characteristics, and telomere length was assessed, as were the associations between telomere length, TB diagnosis and 2-month mortality. Variables with a P≤0.2 in bivariate analysis were included in multivariate models.No significant demographic or clinical differences were observed between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Older age (P<0.0001, male gender (P = 0.04, total pack-years smoked (P<0.001, alcohol consumption in the past year (P = 0.12, and asthma (P = 0.08 were all associated (P≤0.2 with shorter telomere length in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis adjusting for these five variables, HIV-positive participants had significantly shorter telomeres than HIV-negative participants (β = -0.0621, 95% CI -0.113 to -0.011, P = 0.02. Shortened telomeres were not associated with TB or short-term mortality.The association between HIV infection and shorter telomeres suggests that HIV may play a role in cellular senescence and biological aging and that shorter telomeres may be

  11. 3D T2-weighted imaging to shorten multiparametric prostate MRI protocols. (United States)

    Polanec, Stephan H; Lazar, Mathias; Wengert, Georg J; Bickel, Hubert; Spick, Claudio; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh; Clauser, Paola; Baltzer, Pascal A T


    To determine whether 3D acquisitions provide equivalent image quality, lesion delineation quality and PI-RADS v2 performance compared to 2D acquisitions in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 T. This IRB-approved, prospective study included 150 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7 years, 35-84 years; mean PSA 7.2 ng/ml, 0.4-31.1 ng/ml). Two uroradiologists (R1, R2) independently rated image quality and lesion delineation quality using a five-point ordinal scale and assigned a PI-RADS score for 2D and 3D T2-weighted image data sets. Data were compared using visual grading characteristics (VGC) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC)/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Image quality was similarly good to excellent for 2D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.81; R2, 4.7 ± 0.83) and 3D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.82; R2, 4.7 ± 0.69), p = 0.269. Lesion delineation was rated good to excellent for 2D (mean score R1, 4.16 ± 0.81; R2, 4.19 ± 0.92) and 3D T2w (R1, 4.19 ± 0.94; R2, 4.27 ± 0.94) without significant differences (p = 0.785). ROC analysis showed an equivalent performance for 2D (AUC 0.580-0.623) and 3D (AUC 0.576-0.629) T2w (p > 0.05, respectively). Three-dimensional acquisitions demonstrated equivalent image and lesion delineation quality, and PI-RADS v2 performance, compared to 2D in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate. Three-dimensional T2-weighted imaging could be used to considerably shorten prostate MRI protocols in clinical practice. • 3D shows equivalent image quality and lesion delineation compared to 2D T2w. • 3D T2w and 2D T2w image acquisition demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance. • Using a single 3D T2w acquisition may shorten the protocol by 40%. • Combined with short DCE, multiparametric protocols of 10 min are feasible.

  12. A Reinvestigation of Crustal Thickness in the Tibetan Plateau Using Absolute Gravity, GPS and GRACE Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Sun


    Full Text Available The geodetic evidence of the uplift and crustal thickness of the Tibetan Plateau has been presented for the first time (Sun et al. 2009 using gravity and GPS observations. In this paper, we reinvestigate this tectonic deformation in more detail using GRACE data and taking the GIA effect into account. We first summarize the previous gravity and GPS observations and a local gravity network in the Dali County. The comparison between the surface absolute gravity and space GRACE gravity measurements shows that they are harmonic, agree well. Finally, we assume that the residual gravity change reflects material transport accompanying vertical movements on the crustal bottom; the crustal thickening rate is inferred as 1.9 ¡_ 1.4 cm yr-1. As the crust thickens, the mass of a column of rock beneath the station decreases because mantle is displaced by crust, causing a reduction in gravity.

  13. Structural and Geologic Mapping of Southern Tellus Regio, Venus: Implications for Crustal Plateau Formation (United States)

    Graupner, Melanie


    Crustal plateau formation on Venus is subject to animated debate, centered on plateau support and resulting surface deformation. Detailed mapping provides critical clues for plateau evolution. Southern Tellus Regio records broadly synchronous formation of contractional and extensional structures, accompanied by deposition of flood material. Short-wavelength folds occur across the entire plateau, the extent of which has previously been undocumented. Generally the early-formed structures record a high structural fluidity, marked by variable orientation of structures or juxtaposition of neighboring structural suites. This interpretation of the geologic history of the region indicates the necessity of an extremely high geothermal gradient and provides a means to evaluate the different crustal plateau hypotheses. The mantle downwelling, mantle upwelling, and pulsating continents hypotheses fail to accommodate the surface features recorded in this study. However, the lava pond hypothesis provides a suitable hypothesis of crustal plateau formation that accommodates structural elements recorded in this study.

  14. Fast crustal deformation computing method for multiple computations accelerated by a graphics processing unit cluster (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takuma; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Yagi, Yuji; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo


    As high-resolution observational data become more common, the demand for numerical simulations of crustal deformation using 3-D high-fidelity modelling is increasing. To increase the efficiency of performing numerical simulations with high computation costs, we developed a fast solver using heterogeneous computing, with graphics processing units (GPUs) and central processing units, and then used the solver in crustal deformation computations. The solver was based on an iterative solver and was devised so that a large proportion of the computation was calculated more quickly using GPUs. To confirm the utility of the proposed solver, we demonstrated a numerical simulation of the coseismic slip distribution estimation, which requires 360 000 crust