Sample records for bulk crustal shortening

  1. Structural and metamorphic evidence of local extension along the Vivero fault coeval with bulk crustal shortening in the Variscan chain (NW Spain) (United States)

    Martínez, F. J.; Carreras, J.; Arboleya, M. L.; Dietsch, C.


    The Vivero fault is a W-dipping, N-S-striking ductile shear zone separating the Ollo de Sapo antiform in its western hangingwall and the Lugo dome in its eastern footwall. Two stages of deformation ( F1 and F2) produced nearly coaxial folds with sub-horizontal axes. A crenulation cleavage S2 transposes an older S1. Three sets of shear bands in the hangingwall define a pervasive fabric consistent with an E-W bulk shortening perpendicular to a composite S1-2 foliation and NNE-stretching parallel to L2. The Vivero fault zone is marked by a mylonitic foliation with a steeply NW-plunging stretching lineation and extensional crenulation cleavage (ECC) indicating normal slip. In the vicinity of the fault, sub-horizontal NNE-trending F3 folds, with a crenulation cleavage S3, deform earlier-formed fabrics, including a mylonitic foliation. Pressure-temperature conditions obtained from mineral assemblages on both sides of the Vivero fault yield a minimum throw of 5.5 km. Andalusite-bearing pelite in the hangingwall was infolded by an F2 synform into the kyanite field at 450-500°C. The eastern edge of these rocks was later accreted to the footwall and heated to andalusite-staurolite conditions at ˜600°C. Slip on the Vivero and Valdoviño faults is kinematically related. East-west shortening during F2 involved folding and sinistral strike-slip on the Valdoviño fault which induced local extension along the newly generated Vivero fault. Synkinematic emplacement of granitoids along the Vivero fault is favoured by extension. Coeval slip on both faults took place during the later stages of F2 folding. Geometrical constraints caused northwards escape of the crustal block bounded by the Valdoviño and Vivero faults, recorded by NNE-stretching defined by L2.

  2. Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening contributions to Andean orogenesis: Preliminary results from structural mapping in the southern Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Perez, N.; Horton, B. K.


    Estimates of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening from the southern Peruvian Andes are necessary to address ongoing debates regarding growth of the Andes and Altiplano plateau. However, limited regional studies in southern Peru prevent accurate assessments of the structural contributions to high topography. This study provides new structural mapping along a >200 km transect spanning the northernmost Altiplano to Subandes at 13-15.5°S and fills the gap between existing central Peruvian and northern Bolivian studies. New stratigraphic data, fault relationships and fold orientations are used to create an updated geologic map and provide insights into the style, timing and magnitude of crustal deformation. Preliminary cross sections accompanying these map transects illustrate deformation style and provide first-order estimates of shortening. Further cross section analyses will be balanced and provide estimates of total crustal shortening and associated thickening in southern Peru. The study transect is subdivided into belts according to the age of exposed rocks and style of deformation. From west to east these belts include: Cretaceous strata dominated by tight folds, closely spaced faults and multiple detachments; Permo-Triassic strata dominated by thicker thrust sheets and fault-fold orientations departing from typical Andean trends; and Paleozoic rocks characterized by thick thrust sheets and deformation focused near major faults. The Cretaceous belt is composed of marine limestones and upward coarsening, siltstone to coarse sandstone progradational sequences. Disharmonic and detachment folds in the Cretaceous section demonstrate the importance of interbedded gypsum and mudstone layers. Fault relationships suggest local shortening during the Early Cretaceous. The Permo-Triassic belt is composed of thick Permian carbonates (Copacabana Formation) and interbedded sandstones, conglomerates and volcanics of the Mitu Formation. This study defines the orientation of

  3. Ductile shear zones related to crustal shortening and domain boundary evolution in the central Fennoscandian Shield (United States)

    HöGdahl, Karin; SjöStröM, HâKan; Bergman, Stefan


    The Paleoproterozoic part of the Fennoscandian Shield is composed of crustal components formed in different tectonic settings and generally separated by well-defined shear zone systems. An anomalous transitional boundary has been investigated by integrating structural analysis and geochronology with published geophysical data. The nature of this boundary is interpreted to be a consequence of an apparent stacking in the lower and middle crust initiating 1.87-1.86 Ga dextral shear along the Gävle-Rättvik Zone (GRZ) and adjacent shear zones, resulting in an arcuate northern boundary of the Bergslagen province. This boundary coincides with geophysical anomalies and temporal and metamorphic breaks. Owing to continuous convergence the pure-shear overprint component increased on the GRZ and caused a shift of dextral shear to the Hagsta Gneiss Zone with recorded shear at 1809 ± 2 Ma. Most likely, both these structures are related to coeval shear zones farther to the east as a part of an ˜1500 km long crustal, or possibly terrane, boundary.

  4. Evidence of miocene crustal shortening in the North Qilian Shan from cenozoic stratigraphy of the Western Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovet, P.M.; Ritts, B.D.; Gehrels, G.; Abbink, A.O.; Darby, B.; Hourigan, J.


    New sedimentologic, stratigraphie, and compositional data from the Paleogene-Neogene stratigraphie succession exposed in the northwest Hexi Corridor and within the North Qilian Shan, provide evidence to suggest that crustal shortening in the North Qilian Shan fold-thrust belt initiated during die Mi

  5. Eocene to late Oligocene history of crustal shortening within the Hoh Xil Basin and implications for the uplift history of the northern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia M.; Niemi, Nathan A.; Clark, Marin K.; Chang, Hong


    The timing and magnitude of deformation across the northern Tibetan Plateau are poorly constrained but feature prominently in geodynamic models of the plateau's evolution. The Fenghuoshan fold and thrust belt, located in the Hoh Xil Basin, provides a valuable record of the Cenozoic deformation history of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Here we integrate fault gouge geochronology, low-temperature thermochronology, geologic mapping, and a balanced cross section to resolve the deformation history of Hoh Xil Basin. Chronologic data suggest that deformation initiated in the mid-Eocene continued until at least 34 Ma and ceased by 27 Ma. The balanced cross section resolves 34 ± 12 km upper crustal shortening (24 ± 9%). We explore whether the observed Cenozoic shortening can account for the modern elevation and lithospheric thickness in the northern Tibetan Plateau. For a range of reasonable preshortening conditions, we conclude that the observed shortening alone cannot achieve modern crustal and mantle lithospheric thicknesses or modern elevation without either the removal of lithospheric mantle, the influx of lower crustal material, or some combination of these processes. Our results, along with previous studies, suggest that crustal shortening propagated into the northern Tibetan Plateau shortly after the onset of the Indo-Asian collision. The small magnitude of shortening and the late Oligocene cessation of deformation in the northern Tibetan Plateau raise questions of how and where the remaining Indo-Asian convergence was accommodated between Eocene to mid-Miocene time, prior to the approximately late Miocene establishment of the deformation patterns observed in the present day.

  6. Estimation of the Crustal Bulk Properties Beneath Mainland Portugal from P-Wave Teleseismic Receiver Functions (United States)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Dias, Nuno A.; Silveira, Graça; Kind, Rainer; Vinnik, Lev; Matias, Luís; Bianchi, Marcelo


    In this work, we present results from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) obtained in Portugal, Western Iberia. A dense seismic station deployment conducted between 2010 and 2012, in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire country, allowed the most spatially extensive probing on the bulk crustal seismic properties of Portugal up to date. The application of the H- κ stacking algorithm to the PRFs enabled us to estimate the crustal thickness ( H) and the average crustal ratio of the P- and S-waves velocities V p/ V s ( κ) for the region. Observations of Moho conversions indicate that this interface is relatively smooth with the crustal thickness ranging between 24 and 34 km, with an average of 30 km. The highest V p/ V s values are found on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic crust beneath the western and southern coastal domain of Portugal, whereas the lowest values correspond to Palaeozoic crust underlying the remaining part of the subject area. An average V p/ V s is found to be 1.72, ranging 1.63-1.86 across the study area, indicating a predominantly felsic composition. Overall, we systematically observe a decrease of V p/ V s with increasing crustal thickness. Taken as a whole, our results indicate a clear distinction between the geological zones of the Variscan Iberian Massif in Portugal, the overall shape of the anomalies conditioned by the shape of the Ibero-Armorican Arc, and associated Late Paleozoic suture zones, and the Meso-Cenozoic basin associated with Atlantic rifting stages. Thickened crust (30-34 km) across the studied region may be inherited from continental collision during the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. An anomalous crustal thinning to around 28 km is observed beneath the central part of the Central Iberian Zone and the eastern part of South Portuguese Zone.

  7. Mid-cretaceous crustal shortening: evidence from a regional-scale ductile shear zone in the Coastal Range of central Chile (32° S) (United States)

    Arancibia, Gloria


    In the Coastal Range of central Chile, widespread Early Cretaceous volcanism associated with extensional volcanosedimetary intra- or back-arc basins and subsequent basin closures, uplift, and increased erosion/exhumation rates during the mid-Cretaceous suggests a major change from a mainly extensional tectonic regime to a relatively contractional regime and resultant crustal shortening. The author documents the contractional Silla del Gobernador shear zone (SGSZ), which developed at the western boundary of the Coastal Range in central Chile (32° S). This structure corresponds to a high-strain ductile and cataclastic shear zone that developed under low-grade (greenschist facies) metamorphic and fluid-present conditions, which indicates EW-NWW crustal shortening in a compressional (transpressional) regime. UVLAMP 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of neoformed white mica during mylonitic deformation suggests a maximum age for the reverse ductile shearing of 109±11 Ma. An inverse isochron age of 97.8±1.5 Ma from biotite samples of a mylonitized granodiorite suggests the minimum age of deformation. These ages constrain the ductile deformation age to approximately 100 Ma (mid-Cretaceous), coeval with high exhumation/erosion rates that appear to represent uplift of the Coastal Range. The uplift and crustal shortening of the Coastal Range of central Chile has been associated with high spreading rates from the SE Pacific and southern Atlantic convergence during a change from an extensional regime developed during the Early Cretaceous to a more compressional regime that started during the mid-Cretaceous. In this sense, the SGSZ records this tectonic regime change.

  8. Crustal shortening in the Palmyride Fold Belt, Syria, and implications for movement along the Dead Sea Fault System (United States)

    Chaimov, Thomas A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali


    The Palmyride fold belt is a northeast-trending, 400 by 100 km transpressive belt in central Syria embedded in the northern Arabian platform, bounded to the north by the Aleppo plateau and to the south by the Rutbah uplift. Palinspastically restored cross sections from three transects across the Palmyride fold belt demonstrate a minimum NW-SE shortening of about 20% or 20 km across the southwestern segment of the belt, diminishing to 1-2 km in the northeast, close to the Euphrates graben system. The cross sections are based on the 1∶200,000 scale geologic map of Syria and previously unavailable seismic reflection and well data, all provided by the Syrian Petroleum Company. These results differ significantly from those predicted by kinematic models of Middle East plate motions. In western Syria and eastern Lebanon the Palmyrides obliquely intersect (at about 45°) the roughly north-trending Dead Sea transform fault system. The Dead Sea fault system shows well-documented evidence of 105 km of left-lateral displacement since mid-Tertiary time south of its intersection with the Palmyrides, yet only about 25 km of motion has been documented north of that juncture in Lebanon and western Syria. Thus, kinematic models of Middle East plate motions predict 80 km of shortening in Syria, most of which should be accommodated in the Palmyride fold belt. Several possibilities exist to explain the discrepancy between the 80 km of predicted shortening and the only 20 km of shortening measured from restored cross sections. Restored cross sections offer only minimum shortening estimates, so the calculated 20 km may underestimate shortening. Second, evidence of strike-slip displacement recognized in minimum shortening estimates, so the calculated 20 km may underestimate shortening. Second, evidence of strike-slip displacement recognized in the field and reported in the literature, and indicated by new focal mechanism solutions of two recent earthquakes in the Palmyrides, indicates

  9. Tectonic styles and crustal shortening of the Central Andes "Pampean" flat-slab segment in northern Chile (27-29°S) (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Arriagada, César; Peña, Matías; Deckart, Katja; Charrier, Reynaldo


    The Andean orogenic belt, located in the Central Andes "Pampean flat-slab" segment in northern Chile (27-29°S), is composed of two major tectonic regions: the Coastal Cordillera and the Frontal Cordillera. To understand their internal tectonic styles, history of growth and the shortening absorbed by the upper crustal structure of this segment, we combined regional geological mapping data, new ages obtained from radiometric U-Pb dating, and a semibalanced and restored cross-section 225.18 km in length. The results as shown in the previous Mesozoic extensional fault systems, established in northern Chile by the Gondwana breakup, have played a fundamental role in the orogenic buildup. The central structure is characterized by an asymmetric basin (Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene) confined by a doubly vergent fault system composed of inverted faults related to the edges of the Mesozoic Chañarcillo and Lautaro Basins. The U-Pb geochronological data obtained from synorogenic volcano-sedimentary deposits and the angular unconformities recorded between the Cenozoic geological units have revealed that the compressive deformation in this segment started at around ~ 80 Ma by tectonic inversion in the eastern Coastal Cordillera and western Frontal Cordillera, however, the presence of Paleocene and Miocene synorogenic successions at the footwall of the basement reverse faults of the Frontal Cordillera suggests a migration of Andean deformation from the west to the east during the Paleocene-Miocene by propagation of ramps involving inherited basement highs. The pre-compression restoration makes it possible to estimate 40.94 km of minimum shortening, concentrated by inversion anticlines and fault-controlled basement highs across the Frontal Cordillera.

  10. The Transition Between N-S and NE-SW Directed Crustal Shortening in the Central and Northern Puget Lowland: New Thoughts on the Southern Whidbey Island Fault (United States)

    Brocher, T. M.; Blakely, R. J.; Wells, R. E.; Sherrod, B. L.; Ramachandran, K.


    We hypothesize that the southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is a NW-SE oriented fold and thrust belt accommodating NE-directed crustal shortening. The SWIF has been considered a dextral strike-slip fault based largely on two interpretations: (1) its northwest orientation in a region believed to be undergoing dominantly N-S compression, and (2) interpretation of industry seismic-reflection data across the SWIF as a flower structure, suggestive of transpressional faulting. Both interpretations require reconsideration based on evidence outlined below. Recent GPS studies (e.g., Miller et al., 2001) have shown that the Puget Lowland is a zone of transition between N-directed compression to the south and NE-SW directed compression (parallel to the plate-convergence vector) to the north. While N-S compression provides an adequate explanation for the E-trending Seattle and Tacoma thrust faults to the south, recent paleoseismic and geophysical studies suggest that NE-SW compression producing NE-directed tectonic wedging (passive roof duplexing) dominates at the SWIF. Evidence for a SW-dipping floor thrust forming the base of the tectonic wedge is provided by gravity and seismic tomography models demonstrating higher structural relief of basement rocks to the south of the SWIF than to its north. Aeromagnetic anomalies, lidar studies, and paleoseismic evidence indicate a broader (about 25 km wide) zone of abundant NE-side-up shallow reverse faults parallel to the SWIF than previously recognized. We interpret these faults as evidence for a zone of NW-oriented, NE-dipping splay faults soling into a shallow (3 to 4 km deep), NE-dipping detachment surface forming the top of the tectonic wedge. We re-examined oil industry seismic-reflection profiles across the SWIF, previously seen as evidence for transpressional faults, and find them more compatible with shallow thrust folds associated with shallow (upper 3 to 4 km) splay faults. In sum, these observations are consistent with a

  11. Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet (United States)

    Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, Jielun; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.


    The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Plate convergence, crustal delamination, extrusion tectonics and minimization of shortening work as main controlling factors of the recent Mediterranean deformation pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Babbucci


    Full Text Available It is argued that the time-space distribution of major post middle Miocene deformation events in the Central-Eastern Mediterranean region, deduced from the relevant literature, can be coherently explained as a consequence of the convergence between the Africa/Arabia and Eurasia blocks. This plate convergence has mainly been accommodated by the consumption of the thinnest parts of the Northern African (Ionian and Levantine basins and peri-Adriatic margins. During each evolutionary phase the space distribution of trench zones is controlled by the basic physical requirement of minimizing the work of horizontal forces, induced by plate convergence, against the resisting forces, i.e., the cohesion of the upper brittle crustal layer and the buoyancy forces at the consuming boundaries. The significant changes of tectonic styles which determined the transition from one phase to the next, like those which occurred around the Messinian and the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, were determined by the suture of consuming boundaries. When such an event occurs, the system must activate alternative consuming processes to accommodate the convergence of the major confining blocks. The observed deformations in the study area suggest that this tectonic reorganization mostly developed by the lateral extrusion of crustal wedges away from the sutured borders. This mechanism allowed the translation of maximum horizontal stresses from the locked collisional fronts to the zones where consumable lithosphere was still present, in order to activate the next consuming processes. The extensional episodes which led to the formation of basins and troughs in the Tyrrhenian and Aegean zones are interpreted as secondary effects of the outward escape of crustal wedges, like those which occurred in response to longitudinal compressional regimes in the Apennines and Aegean regions.

  13. On ultrahigh temperature crustal metamorphism:Phase equilibria, trace element thermometry, bulk composition, heat sources, timescales and tectonic settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David E. Kelsey; Martin Hand


    Ultrahigh temperature (UHT) metamorphism is the most thermally extreme form of regional crustal metamorphism, with temperatures exceeding 900 ?C. UHT crustal metamorphism is recognised in more than 50 localities globally in the metamorphic rock record and is accepted as‘normal’ in the spectrum of regional crustal processes. UHT metamorphism is typically identified on the basis of diagnostic mineral assemblages such as sapphirine þ quartz, orthopyroxene þ sillimanite ? quartz and osumilite in MgeAl-rich rock compositions, now usually coupled with pseudosection-based thermobarometry using internally-consistent thermodynamic data sets and/or Al-in-Orthopyroxene and ternary feldspar ther-mobarometry. Significant progress in the understanding of regional UHT metamorphism in recent years includes: (1) development of a ferric iron activityecomposition thermodynamic model for sapphirine, allowing phase diagram calculations for oxidised rock compositions;(2) quantification of UHT conditions via trace element thermometry, with Zr-in-rutile more commonly recording higher temperatures than Ti-in-zircon. Rutile is likely to be stable at peak UHT conditions whereas zircon may only grow as UHT rocks are cooling. In addition, the extent to which Zr diffuses out of rutile is controlled by chemical communication with zircon; (3) more fully recognising and utilising temperature-dependent thermal properties of the crust, and the possible range of heat sources causing metamorphism in geodynamic modelling studies; (4) recognising that crust partially melted either in a previous event or earlier in a long-duration event has greater capacity than fertile, unmelted crust to achieve UHT conditions due to the heat energy consumed by partial melting reactions;(5) more strongly linking UePb geochronological data from zircon and monazite to PeT points or path segments through using Y þ REE partitioning between accessory and major phases, as well as phase diagrams incorporating Zr and REE

  14. Pristine rocks (8th Foray) - 'Plagiophile' element ratios, crustal genesis, and the bulk composition of the moon (United States)

    Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.


    Eu/Al, Sr/Al, Eu/Sr, and similar ratios among pristine lunar nonmare lithologies with implications for nonmare petrogenesis and for the bulk composition of the moon are examined. On a plot of Eu/Al versus mg, ferroan anorthosites are separated from all other pristine nonmare rocks by a considerable gap. A nonrandom process must be invoked to account for the gap in the spectrum of ratios. A single magma probably cannot account for even the Mg-rich pristine rocks subset, based on diversity of plagiophile ratios among samples with similar mg ratios. Plagiophile ratios also constrain the bulk composition of the moon. Plagiophile ratios among ferroan anorthosites exactly match those expected under a model in which ferroan anorthosites formed by flotation of plagioclase cumulates over a primordial 'magmasphere'. Ratios among nonvolatile elements confirm that the moon formed out of materials akin to chondritic meteorites.

  15. Displacement transfer from borders to interior of a plate: A crustal transect of Iberia (United States)

    Quintana, L.; Pulgar, J. A.; Alonso, J. L.


    A N-S crustal transect of the whole Iberian Plate is presented. The displacement transfer during the Alpine deformation from the border ranges (Cantabrian and Betic chains) toward the interior ones was analyzed by means of balanced crustal sections. Inconsistencies in shortening values between upper and middle-lower crust in the Cantabrian Mountains (Basque-Cantabrian Zone) imply a mid-crustal detachment transferring orogenic shortening southward toward the Spanish Central System. Depending on the shortening value attributed to the Central System, this mid-crustal detachment could involve the entire Iberian Plate, connecting the Cantabrian Mountains and the Betic Chain. The very small crustal root in the Central System can be explained as a result of the tectonic load caused by the upper crustal shortening that was transferred from the border ranges. We conclude that a simple shear model, rather than a pure shear with lithospheric folding, better explains the whole Iberia deformation. Finally, the total Alpine shortening of the Iberian Plate is estimated between 267 and 292 km.

  16. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.


    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  17. Relating orogen width to shortening, erosion, and exhumation during Alpine collision (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Berger, A.; Bellahsen, N.; Bousquet, R.


    We investigate along-strike width changes of the thickened, accreted lower plate (TALP) in the Central and in the Eastern Alps. We set the width of the TALP in relation to the inferred amount of collisional shortening and exhumation along six orogen-scale cross sections. Taking the present-day, along-strike gradients in the amount of collisional shortening to represent the temporal evolution of the collisional wedge, it may be concluded that the cross-sectional area of the TALP diminishes during ongoing shortening, indicating that the erosional flux outpaced the accretionary flux. Higher amounts of collisional shortening systematically coincide with smaller widths of the TALP and dramatic increases of the reconstructed eroded rock column. Higher amounts of shortening also coincide with larger amplitudes of orogen-scale, upright folds, with higher exhumation and with higher exhumation rates. Hence, erosion did play a major role in reducing by >30 km the vertical crustal thickness in order to accommodate and allow shortening by folding. Long-term climate differences cannot explain alternating changes of width by a factor of almost 2 along straight segments of the orogen on length scales less than 200 km, as observed from the western Central Alps to the easternmost Eastern Alps. Sedimentary or paleontological evidences supporting such paleo-climatic differences are lacking, suggesting that erosional processes did not directly control the width of the orogen.

  18. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation


    LIU, YUE; AI, Zi Sheng; Shao, Jin; Yang, Tieyi


    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures. Methods: Eighty-six patients with femoral neck fractures were treated using three parallel cannulated screws between May 2004 and January 2011. The shortening of the femoral neck in the horizontal (X), vertical (Y), and along the resultant along the (Z) vector (XÆ, YÆ, ZÆ) was measured on anteroposterior radiographs corrected by screw diameter and ...

  19. Studies on flagellar shortening in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagellar shortening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was promoted by sodium chloride, pyrophosphate (sodium, potassium and ammonium salts), EDTA and EGTA, succinate, citrate and oxalate (sodium salts), caffeine and aminophylline. Removal of calcium from the medium potentiated the effects of these agents in inducing shortening. Investigations of the release of phosphorylated compounds to the medium during pyrophosphate-induced flagellar shortening of cells pre-labelled with 32P, revealed an as yet unidentified 32P-labelled compound with distinct chromatographic properties. Chromatography and electrophoresis indicates that it is a small, highly polar molecule with a high charge to mass ratio, containing thermo- and acid-labile phosphate linkages. Investigations showed of the release of 35S-labelled protein to the medium from cells pre-labelled with 35S-sulfate showed that flagellated cells released two prominent polypeptides which comigrated with α- and β-flagellar tubulin on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, while deflagellated cells did not

  20. Crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles (United States)

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.


    More than 36,000 km of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles have been collected in China since 1958. However, the results of these profiles are not well known in the West due to the language barrier. In this paper, we summarize the crustal structure of China with a new contour map of crustal thickness, nine representative crustal columns, and maps showing profile locations, average crustal velocity, and Pn velocity. The most remarkable aspect of the crustal structure of China is the well known 70+ km thickness of the crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The thick (45-70 km) crust of western China is separated from the thinner (30-45 km) crust of eastern China by the north-south trending seismic belt (105??E). The average crustal velocity of China ranges from 6.15 to 6.45 km/s, indicating a felsic-to-intermediate bulk crustal composition. Upper mantle (Pn) velocities are 8.0 ?? 0.2 km/s, equal to the global continental average. We interpret these results in terms of the most recent thermo-tectonic events that have modified the crust. In much of eastern China, Cenoxoic crustal extension has produced a thin crust with a low average crustal velocity, similar to western Europe and the Basin and Range Province, western USA. In western China, Mesozoic and Cenoxoic arc-continent and continent-continent collisions have led to crustal growth and thickening. Inferences on the process of crustal thickening are provided by the deep crustal velocity structure as determined by DSS profiles and other seismological studies. A high velocity (7.0-7.4 km/s) lower-crustal layer has been reported in western China only beneath the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. We identity this high-velocity layer as the cold lower crust of the subducting Indian plate. As the Indian crust is injected northward into the Tibetan lower crust, it heats and assimilates by partial melting, a process that results in a reduction in the seismic velocity of the lower crust in the central and northern Tibetan Plateau

  1. Crustal deformation and earthquakes (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.


    The manner in which the Earth's surface deforms during the cycle of stress accumulation and release along major faults is investigated. In an investigation of the crustal deformation associated with a thin channel asthenosphere displacements are reduced from those computed for a half space asthenosphere. A previous finding by other workers that displacements are enhanced when flow is confined to a thin channel is based on several invalid approximations. The major predictions of the finite element model are that the near field postseismic displacements and strain rates are less than those for a half space asthenosphere and that the postseismic strain rates at intermediate distances are greater (in magnitude). The finite width of the asthenosphere ceases to have a significant impact on the crustal deformation pattern when its magnitude exceeds about three lithosphere thicknesses.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Pulse Shortening in RBWOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-bin; ZHANG Zhang; WANG Wen-xiang; MENG Fan-bao; FAN Zhi-kai; HUANG Min-zhi


    Pulse shortening hinders improvement of microwave output energy for high power microwave tubes. So far, it is also an unresolved problem in the field of high power microwave devices. In this paper, relativistic backward wave tube (RBWO) is treated as an example to study the pulse shortening phenomena. The influences of gas existing in the tube and explosive emission in inner surface of RBWO are all investigated by means of the particle-in-cell method. Through the simulation results, it can be predicted that the background gas in the tube is one but not the most important factor resulting in pulse shortening, in order to broaden the pulse width of gas-filled RBWO, the pressure of the filled gas must be controlled in a proper value. The explosive emission in the surface of slow wave structure due to intense electric field is one of the most important factors causing pulse shortening in high power microwave tube.Some methods to overcome this find of explosive emission are also given.

  3. 18 CFR 286.105 - Shortened procedure. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 286.105 Section 286.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... facts and applicable law that support the position or positions taken regarding the matters at...

  4. Three billion years of crustal evolution in eastern Canada: Constraints from receiver functions (United States)

    Petrescu, L.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bodin, T.; Menke, W.; Levin, V.


    The geological record of SE Canada spans more than 2.5 Ga, making it a natural laboratory for the study of crustal formation and evolution over time. We estimate the crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio, a proxy for bulk crustal composition, and shear velocity (Vs) structure from receiver functions at a network of seismograph stations recently deployed across the Archean Superior Craton, the Proterozoic Grenville, and the Phanerozoic Appalachian provinces. The bulk seismic crustal properties and shear velocity structure reveal a correlation with tectonic provinces of different ages: the post-Archean crust becomes thicker, faster, more heterogeneous, and more compositionally evolved. This secular variation pattern is consistent with a growing consensus that crustal growth efficiency increased at the end of the Archean. A lack of correlation among elevation, Moho topography, and gravity anomalies within the Proterozoic belt is better explained by buoyant mantle support rather than by compositional variations driven by lower crustal metamorphic reactions. A ubiquitous ˜20 km thick high-Vs lower crustal layer is imaged beneath the Proterozoic belt. The strong discontinuity at 20 km may represent the signature of extensional collapse of an orogenic plateau, accommodated by lateral crustal flow. Wide anorthosite massifs inferred to fractionate from a mafic mantle source are abundant in Proterozoic geology and are underlain by high-Vs lower crust and a gradational Moho. Mafic underplating may have provided a source for these intrusions and could have been an important post-Archean process stimulating mafic crustal growth in a vertical sense.

  5. Mechanism of Shortened Bones in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII


    Jason A. Metcalf; Zhang, Yanming(Institute of Theoretical Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007, China); Matthew J. Hilton; Long, Fanxin; Ponder, Katherine P.


    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease in which deficiency in β-glucuronidase results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation in and around cells, causing shortened long bones through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. We demonstrate here that MPS VII mice accumulate massive amounts of the GAG chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) in their growth plates, the cartilaginous region near the ends of long bones responsible for growth. MPS VII mice also have only 60% of the n...

  6. Mast sipping and MULTIINSPECTION shorten refueling outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative inspection systems from Siemens can significantly contribute towards shortening the time needed for refuelling outages. Mast sipping is a technique which provides fast information on the condition of fuel assemblies scheduled for further use in the reactor core. The system MULTIINSPECTION allows standard inspections of fuel assemblies and other core components to be performed without having to use the refuelling machine all of the time. In addition to these benefits, the new procedures considerably reduce the radiation exposure of operating personnel. These new procedures and the associated equipment can be adapted to power plant operations and equipment to more effectively perform required service activities. (UK)

  7. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf


    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  8. Bulk undercooling (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.


    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  9. Receiver functions and crustal structure of the northwestern Andean region, Colombia (United States)

    Poveda, Esteban; Monsalve, Gaspar; Vargas, Carlos Alberto


    We used the receiver function technique to deduce crustal thickness beneath the northwestern Andean system, using data from the permanent seismic network of Colombia, combined with some of the IRIS and CTBTO stations in Colombia and Ecuador. The estimation of crustal thickness was made using the primary P to s conversion and crustal reverberations. The bulk crustal VP/VS ratio was constrained using a crustal thickness versus VP/VS stacking method, in addition to estimations using a time to depth conversion technique based on results of a modified Wadati diagram analysis. We observed a wide range of crustal thicknesses, including values around 17 km beneath the Malpelo Island on the Pacific Ocean, 20 to 30 km at the coastal Pacific and Caribbean plains of Colombia, 25 to 40 km beneath the eastern plains and foothills, 35 km beneath the Western Cordillera, 45 km at the Magdalena River intermountain valley, 52 to 58 km under the northern Central Cordillera, and reaching almost 60 km beneath some of the volcanoes of the Southern Cordilleran system of Colombia; crustal thickness can be slightly greater than 60 km beneath the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera. The values of VP/VS are particularly high for some of the stations on the volcanic centers, reaching values above 1.79, probably related to the addition of mafic materials to the lower crust, and in the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota, where we speculate about the possibility of crustal seismic anisotropy associated with shear zones.

  10. Shortening of construction period of nuclear power plant. Activities of construction industry on construction period shortening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total construction period could be shorten by prefabricating structures efficiently in another yard and reducing working hours on site, which would reduce work at height or congestion work and also upgrade safety at work. Construction period shortening would surely reduce expenses during work and advance operation start of electric utilities. Construction of reactor building, turbine building, water intake and drainage canal was performed on a relatively large scale and a big share of whole schedule. This article summarized basic technologies to shorten construction period for reactor building/turbine building and water intake and drainage canal. Advanced methods of reactor building/turbine building; (1) modularization of equipment and skeleton, (2) utilization of concrete mold, reinforcing bar and steel frame, (3) precedent steel frame method and (4) steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) method, were outlined and their application examples were shown to reduce work on site and improve work efficiency. As for water intake and drainage canal construction, (1) precast concrete method, (2) SC method and (3) steel plate shell method were described with application examples. Construction procedures and problems using mega block method for water intake and drainage canal were also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Ethanol Induced Shortening of DNA in Nanochannels (United States)

    Gemmen, Greg; Reisner, Walter; Tegenfeldt, Jonas; Linke, Heiner


    The confinement of DNA in nanochannels has greatly facilitated the study of DNA polymer physics and holds promise as a powerful tool for genomic sequencing. Ethanol precipitation of DNA is a common tool in molecular biology, typically in >70% [EtOH]. Even at lower ethanol concentrations, however, DNA transforms from B-form to A-form, a shorter yet slightly less twisted conformation. Accordingly, we isolated individual YOYO-1 labeled λ-DNA molecules in 100nmx100nm channels in 0, 20, 40 and 60% [EtOH]. We observed a dramatic shortening in the mean measured lengths with increasing [EtOH] and a broadening of the distribution of measured lengths at the intermediate concentrations. These observed lengths are less than those expected from fully A-form λ-DNA, suggesting that poor solvency effects are involved. Also, substantial spatial variations in intensity in a small number of molecules at the higher [EtOH] suggest the presence of higher order DNA conformations, in accord with the observation that the effective persistence length of DNA has been greatly reduced.

  12. Surface and crustal expression of ocean subduction retreat vs delamination (sub-crustal retreat): Implications for the Apennines tectonics (United States)

    Göğüş, Oğuz H.; Chiarabba, Claudio; Pysklywec, Russell; Faccenna, Claudio; Husson, Laurent


    Many geological and geophysical observations in the Mediterranean (Apennines-Tyrrhenian, Betic/Rif -Alboran, and the Hellenic-Aegean) orogenic belts postulate that syn-convergent extension may be a common geological processs in response to deep slab-mantle interactions. Two primary geodynamic processes have been suggested for the onset of lithospheric scale extension that occurs contemporaneous with shortening: (1) retreating ocean subduction with significant overriding plate extension/thinning (e.g back-arc basin formations); and (2) inferred post-collisional lithospheric delamination (sub-crustal retreat) following subduction retreat. In a series of computational geodynamic experiments, we quantitatively investigate the surface and crustal response to these two deep lithospheric thinning/removal mechanisms, identified by transient surface tectonics. Surface topography associated with retreating ocean subduction indicates a broad region of surface subsidence leading to the formation back-arc basin. Models of lithospheric delamination predict initially elevated surface topography due to hot mantle upwelling (after removal) then more localized surface depression with crustal weakening and gravitational collapse. In both retreat and delamination models, maximum surface subsidence occurs in response to the subduction/delamination slab mobilization but the delamination process may develop more rapidly depending on the weakness of the lower crust. The delamination hinge/subduction trench is associated with crustal shortening and extension/thinning in the "back-arc zone" due to the retro-ward motion of the hinge, although calculated stretching factors (β) are higher in delamination experiments. The thermal expression of extending back-arc zone in delamination experiments is dominated by significant thermal perturbation of the crust caused by the underlying sub-lithospheric mantle flow. With subduction retreat experiments, the amount of crustal heating is dependent on

  13. Modelling of current crustal tectonic deformation in the Chinese Tianshan orogenic belt constrained by GPS observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to discover the deformation characteristics of the Tianshan mountain range for a better understanding of the geodynamics of the Tianshan orogenic belt. Constrained by the GPS-derived velocity vectors of crustal movement, the current velocity field, stress field and strain rate in the Tianshan mountains have been retrieved from a three-dimensional numerical model presented in this paper by using the finite-element code ANSYS, on the basis of geological structures, tectonic regimes, active fault belts and seismic velocity structures of the crust and upper mantle. The results suggest that: (1) the general direction of crustal movement is NNE, and yet gradually turns to NE from west to east; (2) the regional stress field is characterized by near N–S tectonic compression, resulting in crustal shortening in the near N–S direction as well; and (3) the shortening strain rate is ∼10−8 a−1 and decreases gradually from west to east. Our results support the opinion that the crustal deformation of the Tianshan mountain range is controlled by the clockwise rotation of the Tarim basin

  14. Tectonic shortening and coeval volcanism during the Quaternary, Northeast Japan arc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Umeda; Masao Ban; Shintaro Hayashi; Tomohiro Kusano


    The Northeast Japan arc, a mature volcanic arc with a back-arc marginal basin (Japan Sea), is located on a convergent plate boundary along the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding North American plate. From a compilation and analysis of stratigraphy, radiometric age and data on erupted magma volumes, 176 eruptive episodes identified from 69 volcanoes so far, indicate that notable changes in eruption style, magma discharge rates and distribution of eruptive centres occurred around 1.0 Ma. Before ca.1.0 Ma, large-volume felsic eruptions were dominant, forming large calderas in the frontal arc, a region of low crustal strain rate. After ca. 1.0 Ma to the present, the calc-alkaline andesite magma eruptions in the frontal and rear arcs, synchronous with crustal shortening characterized by reverse faulting, resulted in stratovolcano development along narrow uplifted zones. Although, it is widely assumed that magma cannot rise easily in a compressional setting, some of the magma stored within basal sills could be extruded where N–S-trending uplifted mountains bounded by reverse faults formed since about ca.1.0 Ma.

  15. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  16. Does a detection team shorten duration of untreated psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone;


    Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is shown to be associated with poor outcome in many domains. It has been shown that it is possible to shorten DUP when combining a detection team and an information campaign. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DUP was shortened during the first 3 y...

  17. Crustal response to lithosphere evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Cherepanova, Yulia;


    assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. The region includes a nearly continuous age record for crustal evolution over ca. 3.6-3.8 billion years. We present an analysis of the crustal structure heterogeneity in relation......We present a new model for the structure of the crust in an area which stretches from the North Atlantic region in the west to the Verkhoyansk Ridge in the east and encompasses Greenland, Iceland, most of Europe, West Siberian basin, and the Siberian cratons. The model is based on critically...... to geological and tectono-thermal ages of the crust, and the tectonic setting. The results indicate that the Precambrian crust is as heterogeneous as Phanerozoic, and we do not observe any evidence for thickening from the Archean to Proterozoic crust. If anything, our analysis rather suggests the opposite trend...

  18. Decompression effect of radius and capitate shortening on lunate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a biomechanical analysis of stress changes in lunate following radius and capitate shortening, a popular surgery for Kienbock disease (lunatomalacia), using the finite element model. CT images of slice thickness 1.2 mm of right wrist joint with Ulnar Variance (UV) 0 mm were obtained from a 26 years old healthy male without history of injury, with a SIEMENS machine and were reconstructed to 3D bone model with the software Forge (Studio PON Co., Ltd). The model was further completed into the finite element model by adding virtual cartilage and triangular fibrocartilage with the software ANSYS STRUCTURAL (ANSYS Inc.). Then generated were models for post-surgery of radius or capitate shortening with 0.5-3.0 mm UV, which were used for linear and elastic model analysis with the software above to assess the stress distribution and its changes on and in the lunate. In the model of radius shortening, stress in the lunate was found decreased depending on the shortened length but decompression effect was poor at >2 mm shortening and overall stress was not changed. In capitate shortening, the inner stress was increased at capitate/hamate fixation and without the fixation, overall stress was decreased, suggesting the morphology of lunate participated in the stress transfer. (R.T.)

  19. Rates and kinematics of active shortening along the eastern Qilian Shan, China, inferred from deformed fluvial terraces (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofei; Pan, Baotian; Kirby, Eric; Gao, Hongshan; Hu, Zhenbo; Cao, Bo; Geng, Haopeng; Li, Qingyang; Zhang, Guoliang


    In the eastern Qilian Shan, a flight of fluvial terraces developed along the Jinta River valley are deformed across the Nanying anticline. Four individual fluvial terraces are preserved at different elevations above the river, and higher terrace treads are draped by systematically thicker aeolian loess. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of deposits at the base of the loess provides constraints on the timing of surface abandonment; terraces were abandoned at 69 ± 4 ka B.P. (T4), 57 ± 4 ka B.P. (T3), and between 34 ± 3 ka B.P. (T2), respectively. Differential GPS measurement of the terrace profile across the anticline allows reconstruction of subsurface fault geometry; we model terrace deformation above a listric thrust fault with a tip line at 2.2 ± 0.1 km depth and whose dip shallows systematically to 23 ± 3° at depth of 5.8 ± 1.1 km. Combining terrace ages with this model of fault geometry, we estimate a shortening rate of 0.8 ± 0.2 mm/a across the Nanying fold and a shortening rate of ~0.1 mm/a across the mountain front fault since ~70 ka B.P. This rate suggests that the frontal fault system along the eastern Qilian Shan accomplishes crustal shortening at rates of approximately 0.9 ± 0.3 mm/a during late Pleistocene time.

  20. Collision zone magmatism aids continental crustal growth (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Ralf, Halama; Gevorg, Navasardian; Chuck, Connor; Massimo, D'Antonio; Samuele, Agostini; Osamu, Ishizuka; Sergei, Karapetian; Arkadi, Karakhanian


    The continental crust has a broadly andesitic bulk composition and is predominantly generated at convergent margins. However, estimates of the bulk composition of oceanic arcs indicate a bulk composition closer to basalt than to andesite. Hence, reworking processes that transform basaltic island arc crust into andesitic continental crust are essential[1] and explaining growth of andesitic continental crust via accretion of arc crustal fragments remains problematic. Recent studies of magmatism in the Great Tibetan Plateau[2], as site of multiple and still active continent-continent collisions, have proposed that andesitic CC is generated via amalgamation of large volumes of collision-related felsic magmas generated by melting of hydrated oceanic crust with mantle geochemical signatures. We aim to test this hypothesis by evaluating geochemical data from the volcanically and tectonically active Lesser Caucasus region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and E. Turkey), as the only other region where active continent-continent collision takes place. We will benefit from the newly compiled volcano-tectonic database of collision-related volcanic and plutonic rocks of Armenia that is comparable in quality and detail to the one available on Tibet. Our dataset combines several detailed studies from the large Aragats shield volcano[3] and associated monogenetic volcanic fields (near the capital city of Yerevan), as well as > 500 Quaternary to Holocene volcanoes from Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic highlands (toward Armenia-Nagorno-Karabakh-Azerbaijan-Iran border). The Armenian collision-related magmatism is diverse in volume, composition, eruption style and volatile contents. Interestingly, the majority of exposed volcanics are andesitic in composition. Nearly all collision-related volcanic rocks, even the highly differentiated dacite and rhyolite ignimbrites, have elevated Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying only little (average ~ 0.7043 and ~ 0

  1. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.;


    by the presence of an up to 4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering the largest part of the land mass. Hence previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where little information about the continental part of the crust could be gained. To get...... insight into crustal thickness and composition below the Greenland ice sheet, the TopoGreenland project collects the first ever seismic data onshore Greenland. Wide-angle data was acquired along an EW-trending profile, extending 350 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby...

  2. Late Pleistocene shortening rate on the northern margin of the Yanqi Basin, southeastern Tian Shan, NW China (United States)

    Huang, Wei-liang; Yang, Xiao-ping; Li, An; Pierce, Ian K. D.; Thompson, Jessica A.; Angster, Stephen J.; Zhang, Ling


    How strain is distributed and partitioned on individual faults and folds on the margins of intermontane basins remains poorly understood. The Haermodun (Ha) anticline, located along the northern margin of the intermontane Yanqi Basin on the southeastern flank of the Tian Shan, preserves flights of passively deformed alluvial terraces. These terraces cross the active anticline and can be used to constrain local crustal shortening and uplift rates. Geologic and geomorphic mapping, in conjunction with high-resolution dGPS topographic surveys, reveal that the terrace surfaces are perpendicular to the fold's strike, and display increased rotation with age, implying that the anticline has grown by progressive limb rotation. Combined with the open sinusoidal curve model and excess area method, we calculated uplift and shortening values for each terrace since abandonment. Using the published exposure ages of each terrace, we found the vertical uplift rate gradually decreased from ∼0.43 to ∼0.11 mm/a, whereas the shortening rate remained constant at ∼0.3 mm/a since the anticline began to grow. A fresh fault scarp, 0.4 ± 0.1 m high, is visible along the southern portion of the Ha anticline, and is interpreted to be the most recent evidence of seismic activity. Using an estimated rupture area and the length of the fresh offset created by this earthquake, we estimate that the main thrust underlying the Ha anticline has generated moderate (M < 7) earthquakes in the past. The shortening rates of the Ha anticline from geomorphology agree with current GPS measurements cover-over the fold, and highlight the importance of determining slip rates for individual faults in order to resolve patterns of strain distribution across intermontane belts.

  3. The zoo of solitons for curve shortening in Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a detailed description and classification of solutions to the curve shortening equation in Rn that are invariant under one-parameter symmetry groups of the equation. We pay particular attention to geometric properties of the curves and asymptotic properties of their ends. We find generalized helices, and a connection with curve shortening on the unit sphere Sn-1. Expanding–rotating solitons turn out to be asymptotic to generalized logarithmic spirals and the rotating–shrinking solitons are most complicated in terms of asymptotic properties of their ends. We find that almost all of the rotating–shrinking solitons are asymptotic to circles. Many of the curve shortening solitons we classify are either space curves, or evolving space curves. In addition to the figures in this paper, we have prepared a number of animations of the solitons, which can be viewed in the online supplementary data ( (paper)

  4. 3'UTR shortening and EGF signaling: implications for breast cancer. (United States)

    Akman, Hesna Begum; Oyken, Merve; Tuncer, Taner; Can, Tolga; Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif


    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays a role in gene expression regulation generally by shortening of 3'UTRs (untranslated regions) upon proliferative signals and relieving microRNA-mediated repression. Owing to high proliferative indices of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), we hypothesized APA to cause 3'UTR length changes in this aggressive subgroup of breast cancers. Our probe-based meta-analysis approach identified 3'UTR length alterations where the significant majority was shortening events (∼70%, 113 of 165) of mostly proliferation-related transcripts in 520 TNBC patients compared with controls. Representative shortening events were further investigated for their microRNA binding potentials by computational predictions and dual-luciferase assay. In silico-predicted 3'UTR shortening events were experimentally confirmed in patient and cell line samples. To begin addressing the underlying mechanisms, we found CSTF2 (cleavage stimulation factor 2), a major regulator of 3'UTR shortening to be up-regulated in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF treatment also resulted with further shortening of the 3'UTRs. To investigate the contribution of CSTF2 and 3'UTR length alterations to the proliferative phenotype, we showed pharmacological inhibition of the EGF pathway to lead to a reduction in CSTF2 levels. Accordingly, RNAi-induced silencing of CSTF2 decreased the proliferative rate of cancer cells. Therefore, our computational and experimental approach revealed a pattern of 3'UTR length changes in TNBC patients and a potential link between APA and EGF signaling. Overall, detection of 3'UTR length alterations of various genes may help the discovery of new cancer-related genes, which may have been overlooked in conventional microarray gene expression analyses. PMID:26395459

  5. Smog May Shorten Lives of Lung Cancer Patients (United States)

    ... fullstory_160280.html Smog May Shorten Lives of Lung Cancer Patients Large review in California finds lower survival rates among those with most exposure to dirty air To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will not ...

  6. Residual force enhancement following shortening is speed-dependent. (United States)

    Fortuna, Rafael; Power, Geoffrey A; Mende, Esther; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Herzog, Walter


    The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory and are rarely studied in concert. Previous studies have shown RFE to be speed-independent. In the present study, we investigated if RFE preceded by active shortening is time-dependent by electrically evoking RFE in the human adductor pollicis muscle. The results shown that a slow stretch following FD fully re-established RFE compared to higher speeds of stretch. The mechanism(s) responsible for the recovery of RFE following a preceding shortening contraction (FD) might be associated with the recovery of cross-bridge based force and/or the re-engagement of a passive structural element (titin). Voluntary interaction with one's environment involves highly coordinated shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Therefore comprehending these history-dependent muscle properties in the context of movement control is paramount in understanding the behavior of in vivo motor control. PMID:26869508

  7. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin


    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identified...

  8. Swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Witter, D.J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Slagter, A.P.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    OBJECTIVES: To quantify swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with a moderate shortened dental arch dentition (SDA: missing molar teeth, but premolar teeth in occluding position and uninterrupted anterior regions) compared to subjects with a complete dental arch dentition (CDA). METHODS: Fourt

  9. Telomere shortening may be associated with human keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Robert R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Keloids are benign skin tumors that are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients. They are inherited with an autosomal dominant mode with incomplete clinical penetrance and variable expression. Keloids are characterized by formation of excess scar tissue beyond the boundaries of the wound. The exact etiology is still unknown and there is currently no appropriate treatment for keloid disease. Methods We analyzed sample tissues were obtained from 20 patients with keloid skin lesions and normal skin was obtained from 20 healthy donors. The telomeres were measured by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of hTERT gene expression was performed and intracellular ROS generation was measured. Results In this study, we determined whether telomeric shortening and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT occurs in keloid patients. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay, we detected a significant telomere shortening of 30% in keloid specimens compared to normal skin. Using quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR, telomerase activity was found absent in the keloid tissues. Moreover, an increase in ROS generation was detected in fibroblasts cell cultures from keloid specimens as more time elapsed compared to fibroblasts from normal skin. Conclusion Telomere shortening has been reported in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We found that telomere shortening can also be associated with human keloids. Chronic oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of several chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we found increased ROS generation in fibroblasts from keloid fibroblasts cell cultures when compared to normal skin fibroblasts. Hence we conclude that oxidative stress might be an important modulator of telomere loss in keloid because of the absence of active

  10. Axial shortening of fission tracks to response thermally driven volume diffusion of lattice vacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission track analysis is a well established analytical methodology used by geologists to determine the range of temperatures a rock has experienced in the past. The technique has been calibrated against an extensive suite of empirical data on the kinetics of fission track annealing. However, despite the techniques widespread use within the earth sciences, there is still no quantitative physical description of the phenomenon of thermally driven track shortening. We have developed a preliminary physical model of fission track annealing based on thermally driven bulk diffusion of vacancies within the crystal lattice. The model is based on current understanding of ion track formation in solids. The initial distribution of lattice defects along the ion trajectory is predicted using current ion-lattice interaction models

  11. Slab detachment during continental collision: Influence of crustal rheology and interaction with lithospheric delamination (United States)

    Duretz, T.; Gerya, T. V.


    Collision between continents can lead to the subduction of continental material. If the crust remains coupled to the downgoing slab, a large buoyancy force is generated. This force slows down convergence and promotes slab detachment. If the crust resists to subduction, it may decouple from the downgoing slab and be subjected to buoyant extrusion. We employ two-dimensional thermo-mechanical modelling to study the importance of crustal rheology on the evolution of subduction-collision systems. We propose simple quantifications of the mechanical decoupling between lithospheric levels (σ*) and the potential for buoyant extrusion of the crust (ξ*). The modelling results indicate that a variable crustal rheological structure results in slab detachment, delamination, or the combination of both mechanisms. A strong crust provides coupling at the Moho (low σ*) and remains coherent during subduction (low ξ). It promotes deep subduction of the crust (180 km) and slab detachment. Exhumation occurs in coherent manners via eduction and thrusting. Slab detachment triggers the development of topography (> 4.5 km) close to the suture. A contrasting style of collision occurs using a weak crustal rheology. Mechanical decoupling at the Moho (high σ*) promotes the extrusion of the crust (high ξ), disabling slab detachment. Ongoing shortening leads to buckling of the crust and development of topography on the lower plate. Collisions involving rheologically layered crust allow decoupling at mid-crustal depths. This structure favours both the extrusion of upper crust and the subduction of the lower crust. Such collisions are successively affected by delamination and slab detachment. Topography develops together with the buoyant extrusion of crust onto the foreland and is further amplified by slab detachment. Our results suggest that the occurrence of both delamination (Apennines) and slab detachment (Himalayas) in orogens may indicate differences in the initial crustal structure of

  12. Investigation of plateau basin crustal structures and thickening mechanisms in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau (United States)

    Jia, Shixu; Xu, Zhaofan; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshi; Liu, Baofeng; Lin, Jiyan; Guo, Wenbin


    This paper uses deep seismic sounding (DSS) data to contrast and analyze the crustal structures of three plateau basins (Songpan-Garze, Qaidam, Longzhong) in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) plateau, as well as two stable cratonic basins (Ordos, Sichuan) in its peripheral areas. Plateau basin crustal structures, lithological variations and crustal thickening mechanisms were investigated. The results show that, compared to the peripheral stable cratonic basins, the crystalline crusts of plateau basins in the northeastern margin are up to 10-15 km thicker, and the relative medium velocity difference is about 5% less. The medium velocity change in crustal layers of plateau basin indicates that the upper crust undergoes brittle deformation, whereas the lower crust deforms plastically with low velocity. The middle crust shows a brittle-to-plastic transition zone in this region. Thickening in the lower crust (about 5-10 km), and rheological characteristics that show low-medium velocity (relatively reduced by 7%), suggest that crustal thickening mainly takes place in lower crust in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The crust along the northeastern margin shows evidence of wholesale block movement, and crustal shortening and thickening seem to be the main deformation features of this region. The GPS data show that the block motion modes and crustal thickening in the Tibetan plateau is closely related to the peripheral tectonic stress field and motion direction of the Indian plate. The Mani-Yushu-Xianshuihe fold belt along the boundary between the Qiangtang block and the Bayan Har block divides the different plateau thickening tectonic environments into the middle-western plateau, the northeastern margin and the southeastern plateau.

  13. Cost and Quality Consequences of Shortening the Project Life Cycle


    Rasta, Mohammadreza


    Shortening duration of project is a challenging task. If time is reduced with no attention is paid to additional risk, not only no time reduction is achieved but also it can exert counter effect by increasing the time, imposing more expenses, and causing quality loss due to lack of meeting the customer expectations. Two methods were approved by PMI and they have been extensively discussed in literature, they are Fast Tracking and Critical Chain methods. Fast tracking performs two sequential a...

  14. Shortening of Subjective Visual Intervals Followed by Repetitive Stimulation


    Ono, Fuminori; Kitazawa, Shigeru


    Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flick...

  15. Progressive telomere shortening and telomerase reactivation during hepatocellular carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Miura, N; Horikawa, I; Nishimoto, A; Ohmura, H; Ito, H; Hirohashi, S; Shay, J W; Oshimura, M


    Telomeres shorten progressively with age in normal somatic cells in culture and in vivo. The maintenance of telomere length is assumed to be an obligatory step in the progression and immortalization of most human tumor cells. To understand the role of telomere dynamics in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we examined the length of terminal restriction fragment (TRF), as an indicator for telomere length, in HCC and surrounding tissues with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) or liver cirrhosis (LC). The study was performed in 12 hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-positive, 12 hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen-positive tissues, and 4 tissue samples from virus-negative patients with HCC. The peak TRFs in all 3 types of HCC were significantly shorter than those of the surrounding tissues (i.e., LC or CAH). TRFs examined in one patient with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) also was shortened. Thus, progressive TRF shortening occurs from normal to CAH to LC to HCC(AAH). Telomerase, an enzyme that adds repeated telomere sequences onto the chromosome ends and stabilizes telomere length in immortal cells, also was examined in tissues and detected in high levels almost exclusively in HCCs. Interestingly, the intensity of telomerase activity in the AAH case was similar to that of HCC. In addition, the telomerase activity of biopsy samples with a fine 21-gauge needle also was examined in 10 HCCs, 2 adenomatous hyperplasias (AHs), 2 LCs, and 2 CAHs. We found strong telomerase activity in all the HCCs and surprisingly in the 2 cases that were pathologically diagnosed as AH. Thus, the findings strongly suggest that persistent cell proliferation or rapid cell turnover through damage of hepatic cells result in a process of multistep hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Thus, progressive shortening of telomeres and the activation of telomerase may be a useful marker for the early detection of malignant progression in liver disease. PMID:9062581

  16. The Randomized Shortened Dental Arch Study: Tooth Loss


    Walter, M H; Weber, A; Marré, B; Gitt, I.; Gerß, J.; Hannak, W.; Hartmann, S.; Heydecke, G; Huppertz, J.; Jahn, F; Ludwig, A.; Mundt, T.; Kern, M; Klein, V; Pospiech, P.


    The evidence concerning the management of shortened dental arch (SDA) cases is sparse. This multi-center study was aimed at generating data on outcomes and survival rates for two common treatments, removable dental prostheses (RDP) for molar replacement or no replacement (SDA). The hypothesis was that the treatments lead to different incidences of tooth loss. We included 215 patients with complete molar loss in one jaw. Molars were either replaced by RDP or not replaced, according to the SDA ...

  17. Crustal deformation: Earth vs Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is timely to consider the possible tectonic regimes on Venus both in terms of what is known about Venus and in terms of deformation mechanisms operative on the earth. Plate tectonic phenomena dominate tectonics on the earth. Horizontal displacements are associated with the creation of new crust at ridges and destruction of crust at trenches. The presence of plate tectonics on Venus is debated, but there is certainly no evidence for the trenches associated with subduction on the earth. An essential question is what kind of tectonics can be expected if there is no plate tectonics on Venus. Mars and the Moon are reference examples. Volcanic constructs appear to play a dominant role on Mars but their role on Venus is not clear. On single plate planets and satellites, tectonic structures are often associated with thermal stresses. Cooling of a planet leads to thermal contraction and surface compressive features. Delamination has been propsed for Venus by several authors. Delamination is associated with the subduction of the mantle lithosphere and possibly the lower crust but not the upper crust. The surface manifestations of delamination are unclear. There is some evidence that delamination is occurring beneath the Transverse Ranges in California. Delamination will certainly lead to lithospheric thinning and is likely to lead to uplift and crustal thinning

  18. Derivation of Crustal Magnetic Anomalies from MAGSAT


    YANAGISAWA, Masahisa


    This paper describes various characteristics of the magnetospheric field, induction field, and ionospheric field observed by MAGSAT (Magnetic Field Satellite) and the derivation of crustal magnetic anomalies free from disturbance fields. After eliminating the effect of the disturbance field, anomaly maps were derived for the Japanese area and for the Shatsky Rise area. The magnetic field observed by satellites consists of a core field, induction field, crustal field, ionospheric field, and ma...

  19. Ps Reciever Function Analysis of the Crustal Structure Beneath the United States Great Plains (United States)

    Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.


    ; Hammer et al., 2010) , and have been attributed to significant crustal shortening that occurred during Proterozoic terrane accretion.

  20. On crustal movement in Mt. Qomolangma area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Junyong; (陈俊勇); WANG; Zemin; (王泽民); PANG; Shangyi; (庞尚益); ZHANG; Ji; (张; 骥); ZHANG; Quande; (张全德)


    Mt. Qomolangma lies in the collision zone between the fringe of Eurasia plate and Indian plate. The crustal movement there is still very active so far. In the past three decades China carried out five geodetic campaigns in Mt. Qomolangma and its north vicinal area, independently or cooperatively with other countries, including triangulation, leveling, GPS positioning, atmospheric, astronomical and gravity measurements. On the basis of the observation results achieved in the campaigns the crustal movements in the area were studied and explored. A non-stationary phenomenon both in time and space of the crustal vertical movement in the area is found. There seems to be some relevance between the phenomenon of non-stationary in time and seismic episode in China. The phenomenon of non-stationary in space is possibly relevant to the no-homo- geneity of crustal medium and non-uniform absorption of terrestrial stress. The horizontal crustal movement in the area is in the direction of NEE at a speed of 6—7 cm per year, and the trend of strike slip movement is manifested evidently in the collision fringe of Indian plate and Qinghai-Xizang block.

  1. Magmatic underplating and crustal growth in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China, revealed by a passive seismic experiment (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Xu, Yigang; Xu, Tao; Si, Shaokun; Liang, Xiaofeng; Tian, Xiaobo; Deng, Yangfan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Peng; Xu, Yihe; Lan, Haiqiang; Xiao, Fuhui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xi; Yuan, Xiaohui; Badal, José; Teng, Jiwen


    In an attempt to characterize the subsurface structure that is related to fossil mantle plume activity, a comprehensive geophysical investigation was conducted in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP). The nature and geometry of the crust were examined within the scheme of the domal structure of ELIP, which comprises the Inner, Intermediate and Outer zones, which are defined on the basis of the biostratigraphy of pre-volcanic sediments. The bulk crustal properties within the Inner Zone are characterized by high density, high P-wave velocity, high Vp/Vs ratios and large crustal thickness. A visible continuous seismic converter is present in the upper part of the crust in the whole Intermediate Zone and the eastern part of the Inner Zone, but it is absent in the Inner Zone, where another seismic converter is observed in the lower part of the crust. The geometric configuration of these converters is attributable to the addition of mantle-derived melts to the pre-existing crust and subsequent interaction between them. The crustal geometry, which is delineated by the migrated image of receiver functions from the passive seismic experiment, and the crustal properties collectively suggest that a mafic layer of 15-20 km thickness and 150-180 km width exists at the base of the crust in the Inner Zone. Such a mafic layer reflects a vertical crustal growth through magmatic underplating at the base of the crust and intraplating within the upper crust. The salient spatial correlation between the deep crustal structure and the dome strongly supports a genetic link between crustal thickening and plume activity, if the pre-volcanic domal uplift is generated by the Permian Emeishan mantle plume. This arrangement is further supported by the consistency of the extent of crustal uplift estimated by isostatic equilibrium modeling and sedimentary data. This study therefore characterizes and provides evidence for a plume-modified crust in a large igneous province.

  2. Crustal structure of the eastern Qinling orogenic belt and implication for reactivation since the Cretaceous (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Chen, Y. John


    A high resolution crustal model of the eastern Qinling belt and central North China Craton (central NCC) is obtained along a N-S trending profile (corridor) by joint inversion of surface wave and receiver function. The NCC is one of the oldest cratons on Earth and the Qinling belt is the suture zone between the NCC and South China block (SCB). The Qinling belt is characterized by low crustal velocity (observed just above the Moho, consistent with the regional high bulk Vp/Vs ratio (> 1.8). The forward gravity modeling supports the presence of a high-density layer (3.05 g/cm3) at the base of the crust beneath the central NCC. We propose that the high velocity in the lowermost crust beneath the central NCC is most likely due to the repeated mafic underplating, which also results in high crustal Vp/Vs ratio and is responsible for the rapid crustal uplift during the late Mesozoic.

  3. An attempt to evaluate horizontal crustal movement by geodetic and geological approach in the Horonobe area, Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we present the preliminary results for the estimation of a horizontal crustal movement by using geodetic and geological approach in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan. The estimations have been carried out by using a GPS data and a geological cross section obtained by applying balanced-section method. As results of this study, both of the shortening rates estimated by GPS data and balanced-section method indicate several millimeters per year. Namely, there is no contradiction between geodetic and geological data, and it is considered that Horonobe area is still situated similar tendency and magnitude of a crustal movement. It is seemingly considered that geodetic data is unhelpful for estimating the long-term crustal movement, because period of geodetic observations is a very short. However, the result of this study indicates that geodetic data provide valuable information for estimating the long-term crustal movement in the area, and it is considered that geodetic approach play an important role in improvement of the credibility of evaluation for prediction of long-term stability. (author)

  4. Crustal Structure at a Young Continental Rift: A Receiver Function Study from Lake Tanganyika (United States)

    Hodgson, I. D. S.; Illsley-Kemp, F.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.


    Lake Tanganyika, in western Tanzania, spans a large section of the Western rift yet there are very few constraints on bulk crustal and upper mantle structure. The Western rift system has no surface expression of magmatism, which is in stark contrast to the Eastern branch. This observation is difficult to reconcile with the approximately coeval initiation of rifting of the two branches. The variation in the nature of rifting provides a perfect setting to test current hypotheses for the initiation of continental breakup and early-stage development of continental rifts. The deployment of a seismic network of 13 broadband instruments on the south eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, for 16 months, between 2014 and 2015 provides a unique opportunity to investigate extensional processes in thick continental lithosphere. We present here results from a P to S receiver function study that provides information on bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio along the rift; a property that is sensitive to the presence of magmatic intrusions in the lower crust. Additionally this method allows us to map variations in crustal thickness both parallel and perpendicular to the rift axis. These results thus provide unprecedented insight into the large-scale mechanics of early-stage continental rifting along the non-volcanic Western rift.

  5. Revised Thickness of the Lunar Crust from GRAIL Data: Implications for Lunar Bulk Composition (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nimmo, Francis; Kiefer, Walter S.; Melosh, H. Jay; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Asmar, Sami W.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Watkins, Michael W.; Williams, James G.; Zuber, Maria T.


    High-resolution gravity data from GRAIL have yielded new estimates of the bulk density and thickness of the lunar crust. The bulk density of the highlands crust is 2550 kg m-3. From a comparison with crustal composition measured remotely, this density implies a mean porosity of 12%. With this bulk density and constraints from the Apollo seismic experiment, the average global crustal thickness is found to lie between 34 and 43 km, a value 10 to 20 km less than several previous estimates. Crustal thickness is a central parameter in estimating bulk lunar composition. Estimates of the concentrations of refractory elements in the Moon from heat flow, remote sensing and sample data, and geophysical data fall into two categories: those with refractory element abundances enriched by 50% or more relative to Earth, and those with abundances the same as Earth. Settling this issue has implications for processes operating during lunar formation. The crustal thickness resulting from analysis of GRAIL data is less than several previous estimates. We show here that a refractory-enriched Moon is not required


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation systems, the well-known technique to overcome the Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI)/Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) caused by the inadequate Cyclic Prefix (CP) length is to use a Time-Domain Equalizer (TDE) at the receiver front-end. An algorithm used to calculate the coefficients of the optimal shortening Time Domain Equalizer (TDE) was given by Melsa. However, this al gorithm requires that the length of the TDE must be smaller than or equal to the memory length of the target impulse response. This paper modifies this algorithm and makes it not only fit for calculating the coefficients of the TDE with arbitrary length, but also have a much less computational time.

  7. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten;


    similar investigations in 1992 and 1995. A gradual decline of TFA in Danish margarines was observed. From 1992 to 1995, a reduction of TFA from 10.4 to 3.6% took place in margarines with 20-40% linoleic acid. In 1999, TFA was practically absent in all the margarines, but it remained unchanged in...... shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years in the...

  8. Olanzapine Administration Shortened the Laying Interval in Pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Guo Liu


    Full Text Available About 120 pairs of American king pigeon were used to investigate the effect of olanzapine on laying interval. Olanzapine was added to the basal diet of 720 days old pigeon breeders at the level of 0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.25 mg kg-1, respectively. During 60 days of treatment, laying interval of 0.75 and 1.25% group decreased significantly by 37.46 and 29.83% (p<0.05, respectively. This change was accompanied by significantly elevated plasma FSH and progesterone levels whereas declined PRL levels and diminished Prolactin Receptor (PRLR mRNA expression in liver of olanzapine-treated pigeons. The results provided evidence that olanzapine shorten the laying intervals accompanying with changes in the secretion of hormones and expression of PRLR gene.

  9. The randomized shortened dental arch study: tooth loss. (United States)

    Walter, M H; Weber, A; Marré, B; Gitt, I; Gerss, J; Hannak, W; Hartmann, S; Heydecke, G; Huppertz, J; Jahn, F; Ludwig, A; Mundt, T; Kern, M; Klein, V; Pospiech, P; Stumbaum, M; Wolfart, S; Wöstmann, B; Busche, E; Böning, K; Luthardt, R G


    The evidence concerning the management of shortened dental arch (SDA) cases is sparse. This multi-center study was aimed at generating data on outcomes and survival rates for two common treatments, removable dental prostheses (RDP) for molar replacement or no replacement (SDA). The hypothesis was that the treatments lead to different incidences of tooth loss. We included 215 patients with complete molar loss in one jaw. Molars were either replaced by RDP or not replaced, according to the SDA concept. First tooth loss after treatment was the primary outcome measure. This event occurred in 13 patients in the RDP group and nine patients in the SDA group. The respective Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 38 months were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.91) in the RDP group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78-0.95) in the SDA group, the difference being non-significant. PMID:20400723

  10. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  11. Crustal Genesis and Dynamics in the Jurassic Talkeetna Arc (United States)

    Kelemen, P.; Amato, J.; Behn, M.; Blusztajn, J.; Christensen, N.; Clift, P.; Debari, S.; Draut, A.; Greene, A.; Hacker, B.; Hanghoj, K.; Hart, S.; Hirth, G.; Mattinson, J.; Mehl, L.; Pavlis, T.; Rioux, M.; Trop, J.


    We summarize studies of the accreted Talkeetna arc section in Alaska, focusing on the role of arc crust in continental genesis and arc geodynamics. The 200 to 175 Ma section extends from residual mantle peridotite to volcanics, including - in order of decreasing depth - a few 100 m of pyroxenite, rare garnet granulites, cumulate gabbronorites, and felsic plutonic rocks. Lack of inheritance in zircon and relatively constant, high Nd and low Sr isotope ratios indicate that to first order the crustal rocks differentiated from a common parental melt composition and that magmas did not incorporate older crustal material. Amphibolite formed from arc lava. Metasediment had pelagic protoliths, except on the Alaska Peninsula. The arc probably formed new crust during extension, rather than intruding older rocks. South to north younging of zircon and hornblende ages indicates that the arc migrated northward, so the entire section is not a single, tilted vertical column though the Chugach region alone could be. Total crustal thickness was 25 to 35 km, with 6 to 8 km of volcanics. Mid to lower crust is mainly cumulate gabbronorite formed at NNO+2. The thickness of lavas/cumulates is consistent with crystal fractionation to form average lavas from the most primitive observed melt compositions. The bulk composition of the crust and the most primitive melts has ~ 49 wt% SiO2, 19 wt% Al2O3, 8 wt% MgO, and Mg# ~ 60. Derivation of these melts from magmas in equilibrium with residual mantle (melt Mg# > 70) requires more than 25% crystal fractionation of cumulates with cpx Mg# between 85 and 93, found only in primitive pyroxenite along the Moho, ~ 1% of the crustal thickness. This discrepancy is likely due to foundering of dense pyroxenites (and garnet granulites) into underlying mantle. Flat REE patterns, low K, low Th/La, and low Mg# at a given SiO2 distinguish Talkeetna most samples from continental crust, which is Th-enriched, LREE enriched, HREE depleted, K-rich, high Mg# andesite

  12. Internal Dynamics and Crustal Evolution of Mars (United States)

    Zuber, Maria


    The objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structure, crustal evolution, and thermal history of Mars by combining geophysical data analysis of topography, gravity and magnetics with results from analytical and computational modeling. Accomplishments thus far in this investigation include: (1) development of a new crustal thickness model that incorporates constraints from Mars meteorites, corrections for polar cap masses and other surface loads, Pratt isostasy, and core flattening; (2) determination of a refined estimate of crustal thickness of Mars from geoid/topography ratios (GTRs); (3) derivation of a preliminary estimate of the k(sub 2) gravitational Love number and a preliminary estimate of possible dissipation within Mars consistent with this value; and (4) an integrative analysis of the sequence of evolution of early Mars. During the remainder of this investigation we will: (1) extend models of degree-1 mantle convection from 2-D to 3-D; (2) investigate potential causal relationships and effects of major impacts on mantle plume formation, with primary application to Mars; (3) develop exploratory models to assess the convective stability of various Martian core states as relevant to the history of dynamo action; and (4) develop models of long-wavelength relaxation of crustal thickness anomalies to potentially explain the degree-1 structure of the Martian crust.

  13. Two-layer Crustal Structure of the Contiguous United States from Joint Inversion of USArray Receiver Functions and Gravity (United States)

    Ma, X.; Lowry, A. R.


    The composition and thickness of crustal layering is fundamental to understanding the evolution and dynamics of continental lithosphere. Lowry and Pérez-Gussinyé (2011) found that the western Cordillera of the United States, characterized by active deformation and high heat flow, is strongly correlated with low bulk crustal seismic velocity ratio. They interpreted this observation as evidence that quartz controls continental tectonism and deformation. We will present new imaging of two-layer crustal composition and structure from cross-correlation of observed receiver functions and model synthetics. The cross-correlation coefficient of the two-layer model increases significantly relative to an assumed one-layer model, and the lower crustal thickness map from raw two-layer modeling (prior to Bayesian filtering with gravity models and Optimal Interpolation) clearly shows Colorado plateau and Appalachian boundaries, which are not apparent in upper crustal models, and also the high vP/vS fill the most of middle continental region while low vP/vS are on the west and east continental edge. In the presentation, we will show results of a new algorithm for joint Bayesian inversion of thickness and vP/vS of two-layer continental crustal structure. Recent thermodynamical modeling of geophysical models based on lab experiment data (Guerri et al., 2015) found that a large impedance contrast can be expected in the midcrust due to a phase transition that decreases plagioclase and increases clinopyroxene, without invoking any change in crustal chemistry. The depth of the transition depends on pressure, temperature and hydration, and in this presentation we will compare predictions of layer thicknesses and vP/vS predicted by mineral thermodynamics to those we observe in the USArray footprint.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J


    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  15. Contraction-specific differences in maximal muscle power during stretch-shortening cycle movements in elderly males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Simonsen, Erik Bruun;


    Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions......Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions...

  16. P-to-S Receiver Function Constraints on Crustal Structure and Rift Magmatism in the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Parker, H., Jr.; Hawman, R. B.; Fischer, K. M.; Wagner, L. S.


    The superposition of Mesozoic continental extension on convergent structure of the Appalachian mountain belt in the southeastern United States provides an opportunity to study the possible influence of reactivation tectonics on the break-up of Pangea. Major offset rift basins are located inboard of the continental margin beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain (South Georgia, Riddleville), and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) mafic dike swarms intrude rift strata and accreted terranes of the southern Appalachians. New P-to-S receiver function H-k stacking results from the 85-station SESAME array and EarthScope Transportable array provide additional constraints on Moho topography and average crustal Vp/Vs across the region. Previous crustal thickness estimates show that Moho depth gradually increases across strike of the Appalachians from ~37 km beneath the Carolina terrane to a maximum of ~55 km across the Blue Ridge Mountains. New crustal thickness estimates of 46-49 km in the southwest portion of the Inner Piedmont in Georgia also indicate significant along-strike complexity of Moho topography. Low Vp/Vs ratios (1.69-1.74) across a large region (~15,000 km2) spanning the Inner Piedmont and Carolina terrane indicate the crust has a relatively felsic composition, implying that bulk crustal modification by CAMP magmatism was volumetrically minor. Higher Vp/Vs ratios (1.75-1.80) across the Inner Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley & Ridge correlate with regional crustal thickening (40-55 km), likely reflecting an increase in crustal root density unrelated to rift magmatism. Across the array, intra-crustal P-to-S conversions at 0.8-1.5 seconds (6-13 km) corresponding with the depth of the Appalachian décollement provide supporting evidence for the southeastward continuation of the detachment beneath the Carolina terrane and new constraints on the origin of reflectivity along the fault zone. This low-angle discontinuity between the Appalachian orogenic wedge and

  17. A new crustal Moho depth model for Iran based on the seismic data (United States)

    Beheshti, Sayyed Amir Hossein; Kiamehr, Ramin


    The Alborz and Zagrous Mountains build the northern and western part of the Iran and belongs to Alpine-Himalayan orogen in western Asia. These regions are the most active tectonic areas in the world as it undergoes extensive crustal deformation and shortening. Recently, the new gravimetric Moho depth model for Iran determined by Kiamehr and Gomez by using the inversion of the Bougure anomaly based on Parker-Oldenburg approach. In this research, we used data from 55 stations of the Iranian Telemetry Seismic Network to estimate the Moho depth thickness by P and S receiver function methods. The main idea of research is evaluation of the gravimetric Moho model based on the independent and precise seismic approach. The minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation of difference between the seismic and gravimetric models estimated about -8.2, 4.3, -0.8 and 1.2 km, respectively.

  18. Options for shortening nuclear power plant refueling outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of the European electricity market on 01.01.1999 forced a large number of electric utilities- especially nuclear power plant operators - to find ways of drastically cutting down their costs in order to be able to compete successfully within the new market environment. Nuclear power plants currently in operation mainly have three potential ways of reducing their power generating costs: by increasing plant availability, reducing fuel costs and cutting down operating costs. The optimization of plant refueling outages offers considerable potential for enhancing plant availability, but also helps bring down operating costs by reducing expenditure on maintenance. In order to optimize an outage in terms of its duration and costs, a variety of approaches are possible - all of which, however, involve certain key factors such as good organization, planning, logistics and control, improvement of equipment and tools, as well as motivation of personnel. Another aspect is the introduction of innovative technologies. In the last few years, such technologies have frequently enabled maintenance effort to be reduced, thus saving considerable time, and have also resulted in a need for fewer personnel to carry out the work, thus reducing radiation exposure. In many instances they have also improved the quality of work and outage performance as a whole. The paper uses recent examples to show how innovative technologies can contribute to-wards reducing nuclear plant maintenance costs and shorten the duration of refueling out-ages. (author)

  19. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi


    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  20. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng


    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  1. Crustal thickness and velocity structure across the Moroccan Atlas from long offset wide-angle reflection seismic data: The SIMA experiment (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Carbonell, R.; Teixell, A.; Palomeras, I.; Martí, D.; Kchikach, A.; Harnafi, M.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M. L.; Alcalde, J.; Fernández, M.; Charroud, M.; Amrhar, M.


    crustal structure and topography of the Moho boundary beneath the Atlas Mountains of Morocco has been constrained by a controlled source, wide-angle seismic reflection transect: the SIMA experiment. This paper presents the first results of this project, consisting of an almost 700 km long, high-resolution seismic profile acquired from the Sahara craton across the High and the Middle Atlas and the Rif Mountains. The interpretation of this seismic data set is based on forward modeling by raytracing, and has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness, with the Moho located at a minimum depth of 35 km to the S and at around 31 km to the N, in the Middle Atlas. Upper crustal shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust underthrusts the northern Moroccan crust. This feature defines a lower crust imbrication that, locally, places the Moho boundary at ˜40-41 km depth in the northern part of the High Atlas. The P-wave velocity model is characterized by relatively low velocities, mostly in the lower crust and upper mantle, when compared to other active orogens and continental regions. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as conductivity estimates derived from MT measurements, moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly, high heat flow, and surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanism lead to a model where partial melts are currently emplaced at deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The resulting model supports the existence of a mantle upwelling as mechanism that would contribute significantly to sustain the High Atlas topography. However, the detailed Moho geometry deduced in this work should lead to a revision of the exact geometry and position of this mantle feature and will require new modeling efforts.

  2. Magmatic and crustal differentiation history of granitic rocks from Hf-O isotopes in zircon. (United States)

    Kemp, A I S; Hawkesworth, C J; Foster, G L; Paterson, B A; Woodhead, J D; Hergt, J M; Gray, C M; Whitehouse, M J


    Granitic plutonism is the principal agent of crustal differentiation, but linking granite emplacement to crust formation requires knowledge of the magmatic evolution, which is notoriously difficult to reconstruct from bulk rock compositions. We unlocked the plutonic archive through hafnium (Hf) and oxygen (O) isotope analysis of zoned zircon crystals from the classic hornblende-bearing (I-type) granites of eastern Australia. This granite type forms by the reworking of sedimentary materials by mantle-like magmas instead of by remelting ancient metamorphosed igneous rocks as widely believed. I-type magmatism thus drives the coupled growth and differentiation of continental crust. PMID:17303751

  3. The shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity on Y^{p,q}

    CERN Document Server

    Ardehali, Arash Arabi; Szepietowski, Phillip


    We present the shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity compactified on Y^{p,q}. The (untwisted) shortened spectrum on S^5/Z_{2p} and T^{1,1}/Z_p are obtained as special cases when p=q and q=0, respectively. Knowledge of the shortened spectrum allows us to compute the superconformal index of these theories and to find agreement with earlier calculations from the dual field theories. We also employ the shortened spectrum to perform a 1/N^2 test of AdS/CFT by holographically reproducing the difference of the central charges, c-a=p/8, of the dual CFTs.

  4. Circular smooth muscle contributes to esophageal shortening during peristalsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil K Vegesna; Keng-Yu Chuang; Ramashesai Besetty; Steven J Phillips; Alan S Braverman; Mary F Barbe; Michael R Ruggieri


    AIM:To study the angle between the circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) fibers in the distal esophagus.METHODS:In order to identify possible mechanisms for greater shortening in the distal compared to proximal esophagus during peristalsis,the angles between the LSM and CSM layers were measured in 9 cadavers.The outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis propria was exposed after stripping the outer serosa.The inner circular layer of the muscularis propria was then revealed after dissection of the esophageal mucosa and the underlying muscularis mucosa.Photographs of each specimen were taken with half of the open esophagus folded back showing both the outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers.Angles were measured every one cm for 10 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) by two independent investigators.Two human esophagi were obtained from organ transplant donors and the angles between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers were measured using micro-computed tomography (micro CT) and Image J software.RESULTS:All data are presented as mean ± SE.The CSM to LSM angle at the SCJ and 1 cm proximal to SCJ on the autopsy specimens was 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 74.9 ± 3.09 degrees,P =0.32.The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ were statistically significantly lower than at 2,3,4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ,69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 82.58 ± 1.34 degrees,84.04 ± 1.64 degrees,84.87 ± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1.42 degrees,P =0.013,P =0.008,P =0.004,P =0.009 respectively.The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ was also statistically significantly lower than the angles at 6,7 and 8 cm proximal to the SCJ,69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 80.18 ± 2.09 degrees,81.81 ± 1.75 degrees and 80.96 ± 2.04 degrees,P =0.05,P =0.02,P =0.03 respectively.The CSM to LSM angle at 1 cm proximal to SCJ was statistically significantly lower than at 3,4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ,74.94 ± 3.09 degrees vs 84.04 ± 1.64 degrees,84.87± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangQingliang; WangWenping; CuiDuxin; ZhuGuizhi; LiangWeifeng


    GPS observations of CMONOC and other network reveal that, relative to Dingxin fiducial station in Alashan block, the crustal movements of north-eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau and its adjacent regions have the following characteristics: (i)The western part of Qilian block is shortening and moving mainly northeastward, the 8 mm/a motion of southern margin of Qaidam basin is almost completely absorbed by compressed subsidence of Qaidam basin and uplift of Qilian mountain; (ii) Eastern part of Qilian block manifests itself mainly as block-like rotation or extrusion along Haiyuan left-lateral fault,with an angular velocity of 0.135 /Ma; (iii) Due to the clockwise rotation of the eastern Qilian sub-block in the NW Liupanshan range, Ordos block shows a slight anticlockwise rotation; (iv) Haiyuan left-lateral fault and northern edge thrust fault of Qilian mountain jointly constitute the major northeastern boundary of Qinghai-Tibet plateau judging from the present-day crustal movement.

  6. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  7. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  8. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  9. Thickness of the lithosphere beneath Precambrian cratons and mechanisms of their neotectonic crustal uplift (United States)

    Artyushkov, E. V.; Chekhovich, P. A.


    Up to 70% of the area of continents is occupied by the Precambrian crust. Shortening of this crust finished 0.5 Ga ago or earlier, while Pliocene-Quaternary rises made up of 100-200 to 1000-1500 m. In order to support these uplifts in the absence of shortening, the density in the lithosphere layer had to be considerably decreased. This lower density can be attributed to the replacement of the lower part of the mantle lithosphere with asthenospheric material or to the expansion of the inner parts of the crust resulting from repeated metamorphism. As is shown by our calculations, a decrease in density at depths of 150-250 km beneath the Precambrian cratons can lead to uplifts only up to 100 m in amplitude. Hence, the neotectonic uplifts were caused by expansion at higher crustal levels. This situation required the supply of a large amount of mantle fluid into the crust, and the volume of this fluid should be comparable to that of the new-formed relief

  10. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  11. Limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, Maciej [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Poznan (Poland); Ignys-O' Byrne, Anna [J. Strus City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland); Ignys, Iwona [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan (Poland); Wroblewska, Katarzyna [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland)


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the frequency of limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment. The correlation between the mode of treatment as well as the occurrence of pathological fracture, cyst location, volume, and locularity were examined. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 135 patients where 80 underwent curettage and bone grafting and 55 were administered methylprednisolone injection with a mean time to follow-up of 12 years. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation, limb shortening was found in ten patients when the data before and after treatment was compared. Limb shortening ranging from 1 to 5 cm during the course of the treatment was observed: six in humerus, two in femur, two in tibia. Those with epiphyseal changes, magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the degree of growth plate damage was performed. Patients with and without limb shortening did not differ statistically regarding the applied method of treatment. The cyst volume was significantly larger in the group of patients with limb shortening when compared to the group of patients with no limb shortening. In patients treated with curettage and bone grafting, the mode of treatment does not increase the frequency of occurrence of iatrogenic limb shortening. In patients with limb shortening, a statistically significant larger volume of the cyst was observed. (orig.)

  12. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  13. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  14. Limitations of H-κ stacking: ambiguous results caused by crustal layering (United States)

    Wölbern, I.; Rümpker, G.


    Over the past decade, the H-κ stacking technique of Zhu and Kanamori (J Geophys Res 105:2969-2980, 2000) has become a standard tool to determine the crustal thickness H and the bulk crustal vP/vS ratio κ from teleseismic receiver functions. It is obvious that unfavorable noise conditions as well as a complex 3D velocity structure can severely hamper the interpretation of receiver-function data. However, we observe that ambiguities can even arise from a simple 1D layered velocity structure which raises a high potential for misinterpretations. To analyze the feasibility and basic limitations of the H-κ stacking method, we conduct a series of tests based on synthetic data. The impact of different given elementary parameters, related either to the velocity structure or to the data processing, is evaluated in a series of eight individual tests. We deliberately exclude complications such as 3D structural variations and/or noise to show that even a simple 1D velocity structure, involving, e.g., an additional inter-crustal discontinuity, can have significant consequences for the interpretation of the results. However, our modeling suggests that more complex crustal structures may lead to even less reliable results. Additionally, our tests illustrate that time shifts of the maxima in the H-κ domain due to the superposition and merging of individual phases can lead to significantly overestimated vP/vS ratios. In general, the depth to the Moho (or other discontinuities of interest) is less significantly affected. Our tests indicate the necessity to accurately check delay times derived from the maxima of the H-κ stacks against corresponding phases in the receiver functions. Repeating the stacking with varied weighting factors and filter ranges can help to reduce the ambiguities and to avoid possible misinterpretation.

  15. Concept for a research project in early crustal genesis (United States)

    Phillips, R. J. (Compiler); Ashwal, L. (Compiler)


    Planetary volatiles, physical and chemical planetary evolution, surface processes, planetary formation, metallogenesis, crustal features and their development, tectonics, and paleobiology are discussed.

  16. Crustal Growth: In Defense of the Dogma (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Guitreau, M.


    Plate tectonics was not even in its teens when Armstrong suggested that mantle and crust have interacted at steady-state over Earth's history. With the help of new geochemical tools and large-scale compilations, the concept of steady-state crust (as opposed to continuous crustal growth) is being revived with the implications that the equivalent of several volumes of present-day crust (PDCV) may have been subducted through geological times. Here we argue --or recall-- that four different lines of evidence invalidate this model. (i) The subduction filter must be particularly efficient for argon, even more so than for LILE and most other volatile elements. Atmosphere collects 40Ar degassed from both the extant crust and the crust dragged down at subduction zones over geological time. Regardless of the residence time of the crust at the surface, the amount of atmospheric 40Ar limits subduction of continental crust into the mantle to < 30% of the PDCV [1]. (ii) EM II, the only component that undoubtedly represents subducted continental crust in oceanic basalts, is extremely uncommon. (iii) Crustal age histograms are irrepressibly episodic. It has been argued that erosion selectively removes the crust with the elusive ages [2]. Ages of detrital zircons, which in the selective erosion conjecture should fill the voids, do not support this view [3]. Episodicity is difficult to reconcile with a continental protolith isolated by the common geological processes working either at mid-ocean ridges or subduction zones. A role may be recognized for Wilson cycles, if they can be shown to have prevailed for the entire history of the Earth. Geochemistry demonstrates that superplume material makes up the crustal protolith of all the major juvenile provinces. (iv) The residence time in the mantle of the elements distinctive of the crust is similar to the age of the Earth or even longer [4]. Continental crust finds its source in the instabilities of the lower mantle and the irreversible

  17. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion. (United States)

    Lissenberg, C Johan; Rioux, Matthew; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A; Mével, Catherine


    Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two distinct modes of crustal accretion occur along slow-spreading ridges. Individual samples record a zircon date range of 90,000 to 235,000 years, which is interpreted to reflect the time scale of zircon crystallization in oceanic plutonic rocks. PMID:19179492

  18. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert


    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  19. A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow (United States)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel


    Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude

  20. Rapid vertical crustal movements in Arctic Eurasia in the Pliocene and Pleistocene and their possible mechanisms (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter


    According to a large volume of data, geomorphological, geological, seismological, paleontological, fission track and pedological ones, strong acceleration of vertical crustal movements occurred on the continents in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Over about 90% of the continental areas the crustal uplift took place. This occurred over most of Africa, Eurasia, North and South America, Greenland, Australia and East Antarctica. The Neotectonic uplift ranges from 100-200 m on the East European platform to 4-5 km on the Tibetan plateau and in the Pamir and Andes. Pronounced subsidence took concomitantly place in some intracontinental regions, e.g. in the South Caspian and Tarim basins. In most areas these movements evolved long after the termination of shortening and stretching of the crust. This is especially typical of the Precambrian cratons which cover about 70% of the surface of the continents. As follows from the Neotectonic Map of Northern Eurasia, 1997, edited by A. Grachev, the crustal uplift and subsidence also occurred over most of Arctic Eurasia. Subsidence of several hundreds of meters was typical for most of the present shelf areas. Within them the Franz Josef Land, the Novosibirsk islands and Wrangel island have risen by 100-200 m, the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago by 400 m and the Novaya Zemlya by 1000 m. At the same time vertical movements took place in the land part of Arctic Eurasia. In the northern Verkhoyansk-Chukchi structural province the Neotectonic uplift reached 1-2 km in some places. In the Taymyr and Pai-Khoi it ranges from several hundreds of meters to 400-800 m. Slight subsidence of ~100 m occurred in the Pechora basin and in the northern West Siberia. Intense subsidence took place on the Laptev shelf and in the Moma rift on the continuation of the Gakkel spreading center into the Asian continent. In the absence of intense shortening or stretching of the crust, rapid vertical crustal movements in intraplate areas can be produced by convective

  1. Crustal structure of an intraplate thrust belt: The Iberian Chain revealed by wide-angle seismic, magnetotelluric soundings and gravity data (United States)

    Seillé, Hoël; Salas, Ramon; Pous, Jaume; Guimerà, Joan; Gallart, Josep; Torne, Montserrat; Romero-Ruiz, Ivan; Diaz, Jordi; Ruiz, Mario; Carbonell, Ramon; Mas, Ramón


    The Iberian Chain is a Cenozoic intraplate thrust belt located within the Iberian plate. Unlike other belts in the Iberia Peninsula, the scarcity of geophysical studies in this area results in a number of unknowns about its crustal structure. The Iberian Chain crust was investigated by means of a NE-SW refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic transect and two magnetotelluric profiles across the chain, oriented along the same direction. The seismic profile was designed to sample the crust by means of three shots designed to obtain a reversed profile. The resulting velocity-depth model shows a moderate thickening of the crust toward the central part of the profile, where crustal thickness reaches values above 40 km, thinning toward de SW Tajo and NE Ebro foreland basins. The crustal thickening is concentrated in the upper crust. The seismic results are in overall agreement with regional trends of Bouguer gravity anomaly and the main features of the seismic model were reproduced by gravity modeling. The magnetotelluric data consist of 39 sites grouped into two profiles, with periods ranging from 0.01 s to 1000 s. Dimensionality analyses show significant 3D effects in the resistivity structure and therefore we carried out a joint 3D inversion of the full impedance tensor and magnetic transfer functions. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins along the Chain are well characterized by shallow high conductive zones and low velocities. Elongated conductors reaching mid-crustal depths evidence the presence of major faults dominating the crustal structure. The results from the interpretation of these complementary geophysical data sets provided the first images of the crustal structure of the Iberian Chain. They are consistent with a Cenozoic shortening responsible of the upper crust thickening as well as of the uplift of the Iberian Chain and the generation of its present day topography.

  2. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis (United States)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi


    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.

  3. Martian sub-crustal stress from gravity and topographic models (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Eshagh, Mehdi; Jin, Shuanggen


    The latest Martian gravity and topographic models derived from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter and the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft tracking data are used to compute the sub-crustal stress field on Mars. For this purpose, we apply the method for a simultaneous determination of the horizontal sub-crustal stress component and the crustal thickness based on solving the Navier-Stokes problem and incorporating the Vening Meinesz-Moritz inverse problem of isostasy. Results reveal that most of the Martian sub-crustal stress is concentrated in the Tharsis region, with the most prominent signatures attributed to a formation of Tharsis major volcanoes followed by crustal loading. The stress distribution across the Valles Marineris rift valleys indicates extensional tectonism. This finding agrees with more recent theories of a tectonic origin of Valles Marineris caused, for instance, by a crustal loading of the Tharsis bulge that resulted in a regional trusting and folding. Aside from these features, the Martian stress field is relatively smooth with only a slightly enhanced pattern of major impact basins. The signatures of active global tectonics and polar ice load are absent. Whereas the signature of the hemispheric dichotomy is also missing, the long-wavelength spectrum of the stress field comprises the signature of additional dichotomy attributed to the isostatically uncompensated crustal load of Tharsis volcanic accumulations. These results suggest a different origin of the Earth's and Martian sub-crustal stress. Whereas the former is mainly related to active global tectonics, the latter is generated by a crustal loading and regional tectonism associated with a volcanic evolution on Mars. The additional sub-crustal stress around major impact basins is likely explained by a crustal extrusion after impact followed by a Moho uplift.

  4. Plio-Quaternary Shortening on the Algerian Margin: Evidence From Multibeam Bathymetry and Seismic Reflection Survey off Boumerdes (United States)

    Strzerzynski, P.; Cattaneo, A.; Deverchere, J.; Yelles, K.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.; Domzig, A.; Bracene, R.


    The northern limit of Algeria is one of the most seismically active regions of the western Mediterranean, with potential magnitudes estimated at up to 7,5. Instrumental seismicity is detected mainly onshore and expresses a NW-SE dominant shortening. However, since the May 2003 Boumerdès earthquake, offshore deformation attracts scientists' attention. The aim of this note is to describe a system of Plio-Quaternary folds and blind thrusts at the foot of the continental slope offshore Boumerdès based on data acquired in 2003 and 2005 (Maradja 1 and Maradja 2/ Samra cruises). On a S-N oriented transect offshore Boumerdès, three uplifted basins are observed from the mid-continental slope down to 30-40 km within the Balearic abyssal plain. These basins are limited by scarps corresponding to the north-western flanks of Plio-Quaternary anticlines. The geometry of the sedimentary units allows to distinguish Messinian salt features (developed early) from other tectonic (s.s.) compressional structures that formed later as a series of diachronous folds. The folding of the Miocene layers is clearly tectonically (s.s.) controlled. It initiated during the Plio-Quaternary and progressively migrated from the slope toward the abyssal plain. The pattern of perched basins and the folding distribution strongly suggest the occurrence of a system of flat and blind thrust ramps. As no thrusts are observed in the Miocene layers, flats and thrust ramps have to be deeper, probably rooted in the basement, as evidenced during the 2003 Boumerdes Mw 6.9 event. The position of basement highs below the Miocene deposits compared to the active fronts indicates that the shape of the Plio-Quaternary fold and thrust belt is controlled by these previous basement highs. Uplifted basins are less developed in size and depth on the slope than in the abyssal plain, suggesting that the flat length increases from the slope to the abyssal plain. We interpret this increase as being directly related to crustal

  5. Multiple causes of fatigue during shortening contractions in rat slow twitch skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Halvorsen Hortemo

    Full Text Available Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was induced in rat soleus muscles with maintained blood supply by in situ shortening contractions at 37°C. Muscles were stimulated repeatedly (1 s on/off at 30 Hz for 15 min against a constant load, allowing the muscle to shorten and perform work. Fatigue and subsequent recovery was examined at 20 s, 100 s and 15 min exercise. The effects of prior exercise were investigated in a second exercise bout. Fatigue developed in three distinct phases. During the first 20 s the regulatory protein Myosin Light Chain-2 (slow isoform, MLC-2s was rapidly dephosphorylated in parallel with reduced rate of force development and reduced shortening. In the second phase there was degradation of high-energy phosphates and accumulation of lactate, and these changes were related to slowing of muscle relengthening and relaxation, culminating at 100 s exercise. Slowing of relaxation was also associated with increased leak of calcium from the SR. During the third phase of exercise there was restoration of high-energy phosphates and elimination of lactate, and the slowing of relaxation disappeared, whereas dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening prevailed. Prior exercise improved relaxation parameters in a subsequent exercise bout, and we propose that this effect is a result of less accumulation of lactate due to more rapid onset of oxidative metabolism. The correlation between dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening was confirmed in various experimental settings, and we suggest MLC-2s as an

  6. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology


    Jamil, Mubasher


    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  7. Crustal deformation evidences for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere at the Nubia-Iberia plate boundary (Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José


    A spatially dense crustal velocity field, based on up to 15 years of GNSS observations at more than 380 sites and extensively covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa, allow us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. We detected a slow large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to a local pole located closely to the northwestern sector of the Pyrenean mountain range (Palano et al., 2015). Although this crustal deformation pattern could suggest a rigid rotating lithosphere block, this model would predict significant shortening along the Western (off-shore Lisbon) and North Iberian margin which cannot totally ruled out but currently is not clearly observed. Conversely, we favour the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. Furthermore, the western Mediterranean basin appears fragmented into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures and trapped within the Nubia-Eurasia collision, are currently accommodating most of the plate convergence rate. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. Most of the observed crustal ground deformation can be attributed to processes driven by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary. Nevertheless, the observed deformation field infers a very low convergence rates as observed also at the eastern side of the western Mediterranean, along the Calabro Peloritan Arc, by space geodesy (e.g. Palano, 2015). References Palano M. (2015). On the present

  8. Crustal structure and composition of the Oslo Graben, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans


    Although more than 250 my old, the Oslo Graben has retained a distinctive distribution of P-wave velocities associated with rifting, intrusion and underplating of the thinned crustal section. We calculate Poisson's ratio values from crustal P and S-wave velocities along an ~400 km long profile ac...

  9. The crustal composition of the Falkland Plateau (United States)

    Klemt, Claudia; Jokat, Wilfried


    The Falkland Islands are situated in the South Atlantic Ocean 500 km east of Patagonia, South America. The islands are part of the Falkland Plateau, which stretches eastward for more than 1500 km. A bathymetric high, the Maurice Ewing Bank, terminates the plateau in the east. Until Late Jurassic the Falkland Islands were part of Gondwana and were located adjacent to the east coast of South Africa. While the Falkland Islands and Maurice Ewing Bank are proved to be of continental composition, the nature and structure of the Falkland Plateau's basement in between is debatable. The first crustal model derived from sonobuoy data contradicts an only recently published 3D-gravity model. To enhance the understanding of Gondwana break-up considering timing, geometry and amount of volcanism, further knowledge about the structure and thickness of the crust is inevitable. During the ANT-XXIX/5 Polarstern cruise seismic refraction measurements were conducted using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and Reftek land stations onshore of East Falkland. The OBS were deployed at 78 locations along an approximately 1500 km east-west stretching profile. For the western transect a P-wave velocity model is calculated using 2D-raytracing techniques. The results are presented in combination with potential field data showing the extension of the Falkland Islands basement, the continent-ocean transition zone and the crustal structure of the plateau. On the Falkland Plateau Basin sediment thickness is about 6 km with velocities ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 km/s in the upper part and about 4.7 km/s above basement. The crust is of oceanic composition with an igneous section that is considerably thicker than average oceanic crust (up to 17 km). The velocity structure in the upper crustal part is typical for layer 2 with a velocity gradient ranging from 5.4 km/s to 6.5 km/s and thicknesses between 1.5 km and 4 km. Layer 3 is about 14 km thick with a velocity gradient from 6.6 km/s to 7.6 km/s, which is

  10. Visualization and dissemination of global crustal models on virtual globes (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Pan, Xin; Sun, Jian-zhong


    Global crustal models, such as CRUST 5.1 and its descendants, are very useful in a broad range of geoscience applications. The current method for representing the existing global crustal models relies heavily on dedicated computer programs to read and work with those models. Therefore, it is not suited to visualize and disseminate global crustal information to non-geological users. This shortcoming is becoming obvious as more and more people from both academic and non-academic institutions are interested in understanding the structure and composition of the crust. There is a pressing need to provide a modern, universal and user-friendly method to represent and visualize the existing global crustal models. In this paper, we present a systematic framework to easily visualize and disseminate the global crustal structure on virtual globes. Based on crustal information exported from the existing global crustal models, we first create a variety of KML-formatted crustal models with different levels of detail (LODs). And then the KML-formatted models can be loaded into a virtual globe for 3D visualization and model dissemination. A Keyhole Markup Language (KML) generator (Crust2KML) is developed to automatically convert crustal information obtained from the CRUST 1.0 model into KML-formatted global crustal models, and a web application (VisualCrust) is designed to disseminate and visualize those models over the Internet. The presented framework and associated implementations can be conveniently exported to other applications to support visualizing and analyzing the Earth's internal structure on both regional and global scales in a 3D virtual-globe environment.

  11. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin


    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  12. Explosive bulk charge (United States)

    Miller, Jacob Lee


    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  13. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro


    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  14. Bulk muscles, loose cables. (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata


    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  15. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  16. Current crustal movement in Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The quantification of tectonic deformation in the Eastern and Central Asia is of great significance for the study on global plate motion and lithospheric dynamics. In the past four years, the velocity field of horizontal crustal movement for the Chinese mainland has been established for the first time thanks to the intensified GPS measurements and its improved accuracy. The velocity field derived from GPS measurements delineates the patterns of tectonic deformation in the Chinese mainland in the unprecedented detail, and thus reveals the new features of the ongoing tectonic process resulted from the collision of Indian plate to Eurasian plate. Meanwhile, the surface offset induced by two strong earthquakes occurred in Chinese mainland was sampled precisely using InSAR technique.

  17. The shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity on Yp,q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity compactified on Yp,q and conjecture that the spectrum we have obtained is complete. The (untwisted) shortened spectrum on S5/ℤ2p and on T1,1/ℤp are obtained as special cases when p=q and q=0, respectively. Knowledge of the shortened spectrum allows us to compute the superconformal index of these theories and to find agreement with earlier calculations from the dual field theories. We also employ the shortened spectrum to perform a 1/N2 test of AdS/CFT by holographically reproducing the difference of the central charges, c−a=p/8, of the dual CFTs

  18. The shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity on Y{sup p,q}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardehali, Arash Arabi; Liu, James T. [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Szepietowski, Phillip [Department of Physics, University of Virginia,Box 400714, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)


    We examine the shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity compactified on Y{sup p,q} and conjecture that the spectrum we have obtained is complete. The (untwisted) shortened spectrum on S{sup 5}/ℤ{sub 2p} and on T{sup 1,1}/ℤ{sub p} are obtained as special cases when p=q and q=0, respectively. Knowledge of the shortened spectrum allows us to compute the superconformal index of these theories and to find agreement with earlier calculations from the dual field theories. We also employ the shortened spectrum to perform a 1/N{sup 2} test of AdS/CFT by holographically reproducing the difference of the central charges, c−a=p/8, of the dual CFTs.

  19. Granite emplacement during contemporary shortening and normal faulting: structural and magnetic study of the Veiga Massif (NW Spain) (United States)

    Roman-Berdiel, T.; Pueyo-Morer, E. L.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.


    The Veiga Massif belongs to the calc-alkaline series of Hercynian granitic rocks of the Ibero-Armorican arc The Veiga granodiorite intruded during the Upper Carboniferous into the core of the WNW-ESE N-verging 'Ollo de Sapo' antiform, formed by Precambrian and Palaeozoic metasediments. Internal fabrics show that magma intrusion was contemporary with shortening. Measurements of feldspars orientations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) throughout the granite are consistent and indicate a foliation striking WNW-ESE (parallel-to-folding), with a constant dip of 75-85 °N. The zonation of bulk low-field susceptibility is related to mineral content and indicates a more basic composition at the southern and western borders. The difference in elevation between outcrops (more than 600 m) allows us to infer the three-dimensional attitude of granite fabrics throughout the Massif. Syn-magmatic fabric folds are preserved in the inner part of the igneous body. The highest degree of magnetic anisotropy is observed in areas located near the bottom and top of the intrusion. At the scale of the Massif, foliation is convergent toward the bottom of the intrusion, along a line located at its northern border, where the magma source is interpreted to be located. In the western border of the Massif, the presence of C and S structures indicates that magma cooling was coeval with movement of the Chandoiro fault, a N-S striking normal fault with a N290E hanging wall displacement direction. These results indicate that emplacement of the Veiga granite is coeval with NNE-SSW shortening and with an WNW-ESE extension direction, parallel to the trend of the late folds.

  20. Crustal Structure Improvement for the Caucasus Region (United States)

    Tumanova, N.; Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Dreger, D. S.


    The Caucasus is a tectonically active and structurally complex region. The crustal and upper mantle velocities show great heterogeneity and the regional phases display significant variability in both amplitude and travel time. Existing regional velocity and attenuation models fail to capture the complexity of the region, and the extent of the variability is not well quantified. In the last eight years, a large number of digital stations, both broad-band and short-period have been installed in this region. The southern Caucasus countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia) have a strongcollaboration to share the data from their national networks through onlinedata exchange. Each country has access to all the available waveform data for use it in scientific research. Utilizing the newly available digital data we have developed an improved seismic velocity model and crustal of the Caucasus. The data from national seismic networks of Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia were analyzed and the velocity model was developed using joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. We then calculated a forward waveform model of the seismic sources of the Caucasus, calibrating the existing velocity models, and improving the understanding of regional phase propagation in this complex region. Love and Rayleigh wave surface waves group and phase dispersion curves were derived from regional and teleseismic events. The stacked receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves were jointly inverted to yield the absolute shear wave velocity to a depth of 100-120 km at each station. The depth of major discontinuities (sediment/basement, crust/mantle, and lithosphere/aesthenosphere) were inferred from the velocity/depth profiles at each station. In addition, we performed a local tomography study, based on data from several strong events recorded on temporal networks deployed throughout the southern Caucasus during the last few years ( Racha 2009. Javakheti 2010

  1. Crustal recycling by subduction erosion in the central Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Straub, Susanne M.; Gómez-Tuena, Arturo; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Bolge, Louise L.; Brandl, Philipp A.; Espinasa-Perena, Ramón; Solari, Luigi; Stuart, Finlay M.; Vannucchi, Paola; Zellmer, Georg F.


    Recycling of upper plate crust in subduction zones, or 'subduction erosion', is a major mechanism of crustal destruction at convergent margins. However, assessing the impact of eroded crust on arc magmas is difficult owing to the compositional similarity between the eroded crust, trench sediment and arc crustal basement that may all contribute to arc magma formation. Here we compare Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf and trace element data of crustal input material to Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-He-O isotope chemistry of a well-characterized series of olivine-phyric, high-Mg# basalts to dacites in the central Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). Basaltic to andesitic magmas crystallize high-Ni olivines that have high mantle-like 3He/4He = 7-8 Ra and high crustal δ18Omelt = +6.3-8.5‰ implying their host magmas to be near-primary melts from a mantle infiltrated by slab-derived crustal components. Remarkably, their Hf-Nd isotope and Nd/Hf trace element systematics rule out the trench sediment as the recycled crust end member, and imply that the coastal and offshore granodiorites are the dominant recycled crust component. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope modeling shows that the granodiorites control the highly to moderately incompatible elements in the calc-alkaline arc magmas, together with lesser additions of Pb- and Sr-rich fluids from subducted mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type altered oceanic crust (AOC). Nd-Hf mass balance suggests that the granodiorite exceeds the flux of the trench sediment by at least 9-10 times, corresponding to a flux of ⩾79-88 km3/km/Myr into the subduction zone. At an estimated thickness of 1500-1700 m, the granodiorite may buoyantly rise as bulk 'slab diapirs' into the mantle melt region and impose its trace element signature (e.g., Th/La, Nb/Ta) on the prevalent calc-alkaline arc magmas. Deep slab melting and local recycling of other slab components such as oceanic seamounts further diversify the MVB magmas by producing rare, strongly fractionated high-La magmas and a minor population of

  2. Revisiting the crustal evolution of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains: inferences from new concepts and data (United States)

    Teixell, Antonio; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves


    crust, currently imaged to depths that do not match the total amount of upper crustal shortening, but are in agreement with the hyperextension. How the orogenic shortening is transferred from the upper crust to lower crust is still the subject of contrasting views, although recent geophysical investigations support crustal wedging. The eastern Cantabrian Mountains have a crustal structure not very different from the Pyrenees. Only one of two Cretaceous basins (Parentis and Basque-Cantabrian) was strongly inverted. In spite of facing the oceanic crust of the Bay of Biscay, the western Cantabrian Mountains are still underlain by N-directed continental subduction. Subduction of the Bay of Biscay oceanic crust under the margin remains elusive, only imaged (possibly) by subcrustal inclined reflections to a maximum depth of 40 km in a strike-parallel profile. In spite of growing databases, major discrepancies remain between the amount of convergence derived from plate reconstructions and that admissible in the light of geological and geophysical observations. Differences in the presumed width of the exhumed mantle domain depicted in different models are of one order of magnitude. The subduction of several tens to hundreds of km of mantle peridotite proposed in some models are hard to reconcile with the lack of signature in the overlying sedimentary basin fill. Satisfactory solutions need to be investigated.

  3. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy (United States)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.


    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  4. Changing Quality Controls: The Effects of Increasing Product Variety and Shortening Product Life Cycles


    Iwaarden, Jos


    textabstractIn many industries (e.g. cars, electronics, clothing) manufacturing complexity and unpredictability have increased in recent years because of increasing product variety and shortening product life cycles. At the same time, manufacturers in these industries appear to have more problems with maintaining high quality levels. This research is a study of how the two trends of increasing product variety and shortening product life cycles affect quality management systems. The empirical ...

  5. Evolution of crustal thickening in the central Andes, Bolivia (United States)

    Eichelberger, Nathan; McQuarrie, Nadine; Ryan, Jamie; Karimi, Bobak; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George


    Paleoelevation histories from the central Andes in Bolivia have suggested that the geodynamic evolution of the region has been punctuated by periods of large-scale lithospheric removal that drive rapid increases in elevation at the surface. Here, we evaluate viable times and locations of material loss using a map-view reconstruction of the Bolivian orocline displacement field to forward-model predicted crustal thicknesses. Two volumetric models are presented that test assumed pre-deformation crustal thicknesses of 35 km and 40 km. Both models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved first in the northern Eastern Cordillera (EC) by 30-20 Ma but remained below modern in the southern EC until ≤10 Ma. The Altiplano is predicted to have achieved modern crustal thickness after 10 Ma but only with a pre-deformation thickness of 50 km, including 10 km of sediment. At the final stage, the models predict 8-25% regional excess crustal volume compared to modern thickness, largely concentrated in the northern EC. The excess predicted volume from 20 to 0 Ma can be accounted for by: 1) crustal flow to the WC and/or Peru, 2) localized removal of the lower crust, or 3) a combination of the two. Only models with initial crustal thicknesses >35 km predict excess volumes sufficient to account for potential crustal thickness deficits in Peru and allow for lower crustal loss. However, both initial thickness models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved over the same time periods that paleoelevation histories indicate the development of modern elevations. Localized removal of lower crust is only necessary in the northern EC where crustal thickness exceeds modern by 20 Ma, prior to paleoelevation estimates of modern elevations by 15 Ma. In the Altiplano, crustal thicknesses match modern values at 10 Ma and can only exceed modern values by 5 Ma, post-dating when modern elevations were thought to have been established. Collectively, these models predict that

  6. Nonlinear multichannel shortening line using ferrite coils with nonrectangular hysteresis loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control intensive electron beams a design of a new low-impedance nonlinear multichannel shortening line with ferrite coils with a nonrectangular hysteresis loop is described. Results of tests and investigations of the line are presented. An outer conductor is made in the form of cylindrical cavities evenly placed in circumference where nonlinear shortening channels are located. The cylindrical cavities are formed with casings of ten one-and-a-half meter sections of brass tubes placed around a central body. Inner conductors of shortening lines in each channel are made up of a central axis in the form of pin with thread all over the length of 1700 mm and 165 ferrite rings of 12x5x5.5 mm strung on this axis. Characteristics of the investigated set of shortening lines are given: dependences of durations of front and front delay of shock wave on current amplitude, length of shortening line and demagnetization current. It is shown that parallel connection of nonlinear shortening channels in the aggregate coaxial outer conductor permits to reach limiting duration of stationary shock wave front of 0.5 ns

  7. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan


    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. Pervasive Crustal Melting on a Regional Scale: Sr-Nd Isotopic Evidence from Eocene Intrusions in NE Washington (United States)

    Loewen, M. W.; Tepper, J. H.; Asmerom, Y.


    During the Eocene the Pacific Northwest was the site of a short-lived but voluminous and geochemically diverse magmatic episode, commonly termed the Challis event. To investigate the origins of this event we have measured whole rock Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of 12 plutonic and hypabyssal samples, ranging from basalt to two-mica granite, collected along a 250 km transect across NE Washington. This transect crosses the 0.706 line (Armstrong 1977), the boundary between dominantly Mesozoic crust to the west and older crust to the east. The results reveal a wide spread in isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Srm = 0.7041 - 0.7262; ɛNdm = +3.8 to -18.5) with no systematic relationship between isotopic composition and bulk composition (e.g., MgO). This decoupling of isotopic composition and bulk chemistry suggests mixing between mantle and crustal melts was of minimal importance, and that these rocks are dominantly of crustal origin. The range in ɛNdm also indicates melting of crustal sources that varied considerably in age. Samples with ɛNdm > +2 range from basalt (13 wt.% MgO) to two-mica granite (0.3 wt.% MgO). Such juvenile ɛNdm in a two-mica granite precludes significant involvement of ancient metasedimentary material and implies rapid intracrustal differentiation of a mantle-derived source, which may have been deep arc crust of Mesozoic age. At the other end of the spectrum, samples with ɛNdm Monzonite and attributed to melting of late Archean to Early Proterozoic crust (Whitehouse et al. 1992). Other samples analyzed in this study are broadly similar in isotopic composition (ɛNdm = +1 to -8; 87Sr/86Srm = 0.706-0.709) to rocks of the Colville Igneous Province and probably formed by melting of Proterozoic arc crust (Morris 2000). Geographic variability in Sr-Nd data indicates that isotopically distinct crustal domains are juxtaposed laterally and/or vertically, in some cases on a small scale. The sample with the highest 87Sr/86Srm (0.7262; ɛNdm = -13.3) is a

  9. Inflation from bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu


    We explore the perfect fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model with the bulk-viscosity term. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit equation of state (EoS) of the viscous fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Furthermore, we show that the singular inflation can occur in the viscous fluid ...

  10. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;


    restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and...... three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low...

  11. Crustal types of the Circumpolar Arctic (United States)

    Kashubin, Sergey; Pavlenkova, Ninel; Petrov, Oleg; Milshtein, Evgenia; Shokalsky, Sergey; Erinchek, Yuri


    Deep seismic studies revealed unusual crustal structure in the Arctic Ocean. The thin (about 10 km) oceanic crust with seismic velocities Vp= 6.8-7.2 km/s is observed only in the narrow mid-oceanic ridge zone (the Gakkel ridge). The thick (25-35 km) continental crust covers the whole continental margins and the central part of the ocean. The continental type of the magnetic field with large local anomalies of different signs and irregular shapes is also observed in this area. However, the crust of the central Arctic (the Lomonosov, Mendeleev and Alpha ridges) differ from the crust of the Eurasia by the lower thickness of the upper granite-gneiss layer (velocities Vp=6.0-6.6 km/s): it is only 5-7 km in comparison with 15-20 km in the continent. The origin of such crust may be explained in two ways. Most frequently it is accounted for by the destruction and transformation of the continental crust by the basification that implies the enrichment of the crust by the rocks of basic composition from the mantle and the metamorphization of the continental rocks at the higher temperature and pressure. But in the central part of the Arctic Ocean the crust looks as an original one. The regular form of the large ridges and the continental type magnetic field were not destroyed by the basification processes which are usually irregular and most intensive in some local zones. The basification origin may be proposed for the Canadian and the South-Barents deep sedimentary basins with "suboceanic" crust (10-15 km of sediments and 10-15 km of the lower crust with Vp= 6.8-7.2 km/s). The other basins which stretch along fault zones outlined the central deep water part of the Arctic Ocean have the ''subcontinental' crust: the thickness of the granite-gneiss layer decreases in these basins and sometimes the high velocity intrusions are observed in the lower parts. The different crustal types are observed in the North Atlantic where the oceanic crust with linear magnetic anomalies is

  12. From the Atlas to the Rif a Crustal seismic image across Morocco: The SIMA & RIFSEIS control source wide-angle seismic reflection data (United States)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Gallart, Josep; Diaz, Jordi; Harnafi, Mimoun; Levander, Alan; Teixell, Antonio


    The velocity structure of the crust and the geometry of the Moho across Morocco has been the main target of two recently acquired wide-angle seismic reflection transects. One is the SIMA experiment which provided seismic constraints beneath the Atlas Mountains and the second has been the RIFSEIS experiment which sampled the RIF orogen. Jointly these controlled source wide-angle seismic reflection data results in an almost 700 km, seismic profile going from the the Sahara craton across the High and Middle Atlas and Rif Mountain till the Gibraltar-Arc (Alboran). Current work on the interpretation of the seismic data-set is based on forward modeling, ray-tracing, as well as low fold wide-angle stacking. The data has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains and a 700 km transect revealing the irregular topography of the Moho beneath these two mountain orogens. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness and that shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust under-thrusts below the Moroccan crust, defining a lower crust imbrication which locally places the Moho boundary at, approximately, 40 km depth. The P-wave velocity model is characterized, in averaged, by relatively low velocities. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as: conductivity estimates derived from Mt measurements; moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly; surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanics; lead the interpretation to propose that partial melts are currently emplaced in the deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The Moho discontinuity defines a crust which is in average relatively thin beneath the Atlas which is almost a 4000 m high orogenic belt. The resulting model supports existence of mantle upwelling as a possible mechanism that contributes, significantly, to maintain the High Atlas topography.

  13. Geodynamic Drivers of Vertical Crustal Motion: Integrating Paleoaltimetry with Basin Development in the Central Andean Plateau of Southern Peru (United States)

    Sundell, K. E., II; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.; Villarreal, D. P.; Styron, R. H.; Horton, B. K.; Cardenas, J.


    Determining the spatial and temporal relationships between surface uplift, tectonic subsidence, and exhumation during periods of oblique crustal shortening is essential to discriminating geodynamic processes controlling formation of high topography in the central Andes. Although subsidence analysis is now a standard tool, paleoelevation estimation remains a challenging task, as estimates based on proxy data can be complicated by uncertainties in the relative controls of tectonics and climate. We therefore adopt an approach of combining established tools of subsidence analysis and detrital geochronology with emerging methods of volcanic glass paleoaltimetry, which enables us to explore a broad range of viable interpretations to understand the development of intermontane basins and their relationship to the development of the central Andean plateau. We investigated a suite of temporally overlapping and spatially separate Cenozoic basins spanning the east-west extent of the central Andean plateau in southern Peru. These basins contain an exceptional record of the vertical movements of this region. We calculate sediment accumulation and subsidence rates through decompaction of measured stratigraphic sections, and reconstruct past environmental conditions based on the stable isotopic composition of ancient waters preserved in hydrated volcanic glass. These data and published records of crustal shortening and exhumation show that although paleoaltimetry data in the study areas may be interpreted in various ways, they are best explained by multiple geodynamic processes driving (i) Eocene-early Miocene development of high topography in the Western Cordillera, then (ii) a pulsed middle Miocene-present building of the central Andean plateau from west to east, consistent with global climate changes as well as regional climate shifts driven by topographic development of the Andean orogen.

  14. Contemporary crustal vertical velocity field in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau inferred from precise leveling data (United States)

    Hao, M.; Wang, Q.; Shen, Z.; Cui, D.; Li, Y.; Ji, L.


    is uplifting and the Yinchuan graben is subsiding. The crustal shortening of the Liupan Shan region is the primary drive for uplift. The subsidence of the central and southern Sichuan-Yunnan fragment is caused by the near east-west extension. Our final result will be reported at the meeting.

  15. Quantifying crustal thickness over time in magmatic arcs (United States)

    Profeta, Lucia; Ducea, Mihai N.; Chapman, James B.; Paterson, Scott R.; Gonzales, Susana Marisol Henriquez; Kirsch, Moritz; Petrescu, Lucian; DeCelles, Peter G.


    We present global and regional correlations between whole-rock values of Sr/Y and La/Yb and crustal thickness for intermediate rocks from modern subduction-related magmatic arcs formed around the Pacific. These correlations bolster earlier ideas that various geochemical parameters can be used to track changes of crustal thickness through time in ancient subduction systems. Inferred crustal thicknesses using our proposed empirical fits are consistent with independent geologic constraints for the Cenozoic evolution of the central Andes, as well as various Mesozoic magmatic arc segments currently exposed in the Coast Mountains, British Columbia, and the Sierra Nevada and Mojave-Transverse Range regions of California. We propose that these geochemical parameters can be used, when averaged over the typical lifetimes and spatial footprints of composite volcanoes and their intrusive equivalents to infer crustal thickness changes over time in ancient orogens. PMID:26633804

  16. Relationship between Crustal Structure and Tin Mineralization in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A close relationship between tin metallogenic and crustal structure in South China is demonstrated, which is based on a careful study on crustal structure and a detailed comparison between typical deposits in different tectonic units. Types, locations, emplacement of ore bodies and ore genesis of tin deposits are relative to crustal structure. Tin mineralization zones of South China can be divided into three tin metallogenic units including the west part corresponding to Youjiang fold belt, middle part corresponding to fold belt of Hunan-Guangdong-Jiangxi provinces and the east part corresponding to Southeast China coastal volcanic faulting depression. From the above, it is concluded that crustal compositions and structures are the main facts of Sn concentration in South China.

  17. [Effects of removable partial dentures on the quality of life in people with shortened dental arches]. (United States)

    Armellini, D B; Heydecke, G; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J


    In order to assess the enhanced value of removable partial dentures on the quality of life, patients at 2 university clinics were screened for the presence of complete or shortened dental arches. Those selected were assigned to 1 of 5 subgroups: 1) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, 2) a shortened dental arch with one or more frontal diastemas, 3) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, restored by a removable partial denture, 4) a shortened dental arch and several diastemas, restored by a removable partial denture, 5) a complete dental arch. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical data recorded were: whether any teeth were missing and if so which, whether or not these had been replaced by a removable partial denture, and the number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars. The results revealed that a shortenend dental arch has a certain impact on the quality of life. However, the participants only experienced benefits from a removable partial denture if the denture also replaced frontal teeth. PMID:20101937

  18. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing. (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason


    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain. PMID:27064175

  19. Shortened telomere length in white matter oligodendrocytes in major depression: potential role of oxidative stress. (United States)

    Szebeni, Attila; Szebeni, Katalin; DiPeri, Timothy; Chandley, Michelle J; Crawford, Jessica D; Stockmeier, Craig A; Ordway, Gregory A


    Telomere shortening is observed in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this finding and its biological causes impact the health of the brain in MDD is unknown. Brain cells have differing vulnerabilities to biological mechanisms known to play a role in accelerating telomere shortening. Here, two glia cell populations (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) known to have different vulnerabilities to a key mediator of telomere shortening, oxidative stress, were studied. The two cell populations were separately collected by laser capture micro-dissection of two white matter regions shown previously to demonstrate pathology in MDD patients. Cells were collected from brain donors with MDD at the time of death and age-matched psychiatrically normal control donors (N = 12 donor pairs). Relative telomere lengths in white matter oligodendrocytes, but not astrocytes, from both brain regions were significantly shorter for MDD donors as compared to matched control donors. Gene expression levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase were significantly lower in white matter oligodendrocytes from MDD as compared to control donors. Likewise, the gene expression of oxidative defence enzymes superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) were significantly lower in oligodendrocytes from MDD as compared to control donors. No such gene expression changes were observed in astrocytes from MDD donors. These findings suggest that attenuated oxidative stress defence and deficient telomerase contribute to telomere shortening in oligodendrocytes in MDD, and suggest an aetiological link between telomere shortening and white matter abnormalities previously described in MDD. PMID:24967945

  20. Telomere shortening correlates with increasing aneuploidy of chromosome 8 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Plentz, Ruben R; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Flemming, Peer; Gebel, Michael; Kreipe, Hans; Manns, Michael P; Rudolph, K Lenhard; Wilkens, Ludwig


    Chromosomal instability (CIN) leads to an increase in aneuploidy and chromosomal aberrations in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Telomere shortening appears as one mechanism fostering the development of CIN. Whether telomere shortening correlates to specific genetic changes that characterize a certain type of cancer has yet to be established. In our recent study, we combined on a cellular level the analysis of hepatocellular telomere fluorescent intensity (TFI) and copy number of chromosome 8-one of the hallmark chromosomal alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated 15 cytological fine-needle biopsies of aneuploid HCC and 5 touch prints of cadaver livers without cancer. Hepatocyte-specific TFI and the measurement of centromere-specific probe for chromosome 8 were both performed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) or FISH. Combined analysis of both methods (coFISH) allowed measurement of telomere length and chromosome 8 copy number on a single cell level. We observed that telomere shortening correlates significantly with increasing copy number of chromosome 8 in HCC on the cellular level. Above the level of 5 copies of chromosome 8 per nucleus, no further shortening of telomeres was found, indicating that telomeres had reached a critically short length at this stage of aneuploidy. In conclusion, our study gives direct evidence that telomere shortening is linked to a specific genetic alteration characteristic for human HCC. PMID:16116624

  1. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy (United States)

    Perrone, L.; Korsunova, L. P.; Mikhailov, A. V.


    Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979-2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs) and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8-5.9) tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  2. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone


    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  3. The crustal dynamics intelligent user interface anthology (United States)

    Short, Nicholas M., Jr.; Campbell, William J.; Roelofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.


    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) has initiated an Intelligent Data Management (IDM) research effort which has, as one of its components, the development of an Intelligent User Interface (IUI). The intent of the IUI is to develop a friendly and intelligent user interface service based on expert systems and natural language processing technologies. The purpose of such a service is to support the large number of potential scientific and engineering users that have need of space and land-related research and technical data, but have little or no experience in query languages or understanding of the information content or architecture of the databases of interest. This document presents the design concepts, development approach and evaluation of the performance of a prototype IUI system for the Crustal Dynamics Project Database, which was developed using a microcomputer-based expert system tool (M. 1), the natural language query processor THEMIS, and the graphics software system GSS. The IUI design is based on a multiple view representation of a database from both the user and database perspective, with intelligent processes to translate between the views.

  4. Global Crustal Heat Flow Using Random Decision Forest Prediction (United States)

    Becker, J. J.; Wood, W. T.; Martin, K. M.


    We have applied supervised learning with random decision forests (RDF) to estimate, or predict, a global, densely spaced grid of crustal heat flow. The results are similar to global heat flow predictions that have been previously published but are more accurate and offer higher resolution. The training inputs are measurement values and uncertainties of existing sparsely sampled, (~8,000 locations), geographically biased, yet globally extensive, datasets of crustal heat flow. The RDF estimate is a highly non-linear empirical relationship between crustal heat flow and dozens of other parameters (attributes) that we have densely sampled, global, estimates of (e.g., crustal age, water depth, crustal thickness, seismic sound speed, seafloor temperature, sediment thickness, and sediment grain type). Synthetic attributes were key to obtaining good results using the RDF method. We created synthetic attributes by applying physical intuition and statistical analyses to the fundamental attributes. Statistics include median, kurtosis, and dozens of other functions, all calculated at every node and averaged over a variety of ranges from 5 to 500km. Other synthetic attributes are simply plausible, (e.g., distance from volcanoes, seafloor porosity, mean grain size). More than 600 densely sampled attributes are used in our prediction, and for each we estimated their relative importance. The important attributes included all those expected from geophysics, (e.g., inverse square root of age, gradient of depth, crustal thickness, crustal density, sediment thickness, distance from trenches), and some unexpected but plausible attributes, (e.g., seafloor temperature), but none that were unphysical. The simplicity of the RDF technique may also be of great interest beyond the discipline of crustal heat flow as it allows for more geologically intelligent predictions, decreasing the effect of sampling bias, and improving predictions in regions with little or no data, while rigorously

  5. Estimation of the shortening rate since late Pleistocene in the Aksu area on the southern flank of the Tianshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xin


    [1]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: Effects on a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[2]Molnar, P., Deng Qidong, Faulting associated with large earthquakes and the average rate of deformation in central and eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89: 6203-6227.[3]Hendrix, M. S., Dumitru, T. A., Graham, S. A., Late Oligocene-early Miocene unroofing in the Chinese Tianshan: An early effect of the India-Asia collision, Geology, 1994, 22: 487-490.[4]Sobel, R. E., Dumitru, T. A., Thrusting and exhumation around the margins of the western Tarim Basin during the India-Asia collision, J. Geophys. Res., 1997, 102: 5043-5063.[5]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Virieux, J., Three-dimentional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tianshan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103: 2725-2748.[6]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Ammon, C. J., Source parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in the Tianshan, central Asia from regional moment tensor inversion, Geophys. Res. lett., 1998, 25: 3181-3184.[7]Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye, Aldazhanov, S. A., Hager, B. H. et al., Relatively recent construction of the Tianshan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day curstal deformation rates, Nature, 1996, 384: 450-452.[8]Wang Qi, Ding Guoyu, Qiao Xuejun et al., Present-day Tianshan's quick shortening and the south-north block's relative movement, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 2000, 45(14): 1543-1547.[9]Zhu Wenyao, Wang Xiaoya, Chen Yuyi et al., Crustal motion of Chinese mainland monitored by GPS, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 394-400.[10]Avouac, J. P., Tapponnier, P., Bai, M. et al., Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tianshan and late cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan, J. Geopgys. Res., 1993, 98: 6755-6804.[11]Burtman, V. S.,Skobelev, S. F., Molnar, P., Late cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tianshan

  6. Pb isotopic geochemical study on the crustal structure of Tongbaishan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pb isotopic composition of the Tongbai complex, distributed in the Tongbaishan to the west of the Dabieshan, ranges between the Dabie core complex and the Dabie ultral-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic complex, the latter having more radiogenic Pb isotopic composition than the former. Granites from the Jigongshan pluton, which intruded mainly into the Tongbai complex, are distinct from the Tongbai complex but similar to the Dabie core complex in Pb isotopic composition, showing that the magma of the Jigongshan granites was derived from the partial melting of the Dabie core complex. According to Pb isotopic compositional variation model in the vertical crustal section and magma source from the Jigongshan pluton, it is suggested that the Tongbai complex was an upper rock serial of the Dabie core complex, which is beneath the Dabie UHP metamorphic complex in the crustal structure of the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The Tongbai complex was not well preserved in the Dabie area due to the high exhumed crustal section. However, the crustal section in the Tongbai area was exhumed less than that in the Dabie area, and the deep crust in the Tongbai area still contains the basement composition similar to the Dabie core complex. Therefore, the crustal basements from the Dabie to Tongbai areas are united. The present distribution of the basement blocks in different locations of the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt reflects different exposure of the crustal section.

  7. The crustal structure of south central Mongolia using receiver functions (United States)

    He, Jing; Wu, Qingju; Sandvol, Eric; Ni, James; Gallegos, Andrea; Gao, Mengtan; Ulziibat, Munkhuu; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu


    The crustal thickness H and average crustal velocity ratio k (Vp/Vs) beneath south central Mongolia are investigated using the H-k stacking method based on teleseismic radial receiver functions. Our primary results reveal that the local crustal thickness varies from 38 to 46 km with an average value of 43 km. Thicker crust is found beneath the western Hentey Mountains, while thinner crust is located in the southern area of the Zuunbayan fault zone. The Bouguer gravity anomalies exhibit a strong correlation with the overall crustal thickness pattern throughout most of our study regime. Moreover, a new approach which integrates the Bouguer anomaly gradient and the receiver function-derived crustal thickness is adopted to calculate the density of the lower crust underneath central Mongolia. Fairly dense lower crust of approximately 3000 kg/m3 is found in the Middle Gobi Desert. The measured crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.68 to 1.83 with an average value of 1.74. Low Vp/Vs ratio is found beneath the western Hentey Mountains. In general, low Vp/Vs ratios correlate well with regions of quartz-rich crust and high heat flow. High Vp/Vs ratios occur in the Middle Gobi volcanic regions and the Mesozoic Southern Gobi Basin.

  8. Crustal-scale tectonic wedging in the central Longmen Shan: Constraints on the uplift mechanism in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Lu, Renqi; He, Dengfa; Xu, Xiwei; Liu, Bo


    This study focuses on the upper-middle crust (UMC) deformation in the central Longmen Shan (LMS). The results of this study are constrained by the surface geology, typical seismic reflection profiles, previously available thermochronology, and deep geophysical data. Regional seismic profiles demonstrate a strata dip of about 2°, northwest trending, from the Sichuan Basin (SB) to LMS. The interpretation of shallow artificial seismic reflection data indicates that an unknown basement structure lead to the uplifting of the sedimentary cover by 3-4 km. A long and wide-angle reflection seismic profile presents evidence that the middle crustal-scale structure is involved in the deformation. Geophysical data support that there is an upper detachment (D1) at the depth of ∼20 km. The other lower detachment (D2) could be generated at approximately 30-40 km depth in the low velocity zone. The ductile middle crust between the D1 and D2, has shortening and forming a wedge tip beneath the transition zone of the LMS and the SB. The deformation of the LMS frontal monocline belt is related to this crustal-scale wedging. Two different tectonic stages are distinguished in the Cenozoic through the axial surface analysis and chronological data. During the first stage, the crustal-scale tectonic wedge was developed between the upper and lower detachment, resulting in the uplift of the UMC. During the second stage, the middle crust could hardly be extruding and uplifting. The brittle upper crust was rapidly uplifted and shortened by the shallow major thrusts, which were developed on the D1. The D1 and D2 controlled the uplifting and shortening in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The lower crust (LC) may be decoupled from the D2 and subducted due to the resistance by the stable craton underlying the SB. The structural model manifests the importance of multi-detachments and the superimposed deformation in the LMS thrust belt. However, we emphasize that this crustal

  9. Telomere shortening: a new prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease post-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telomere length has been proposed as a marker of mitotic cell age and as a general index of human organism aging. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood lymphocytes has been linked to cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. The authors investigated the potential correlation of conventional risk factors, radiation dose and telomere shortening with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) following radiation therapy in a large cohort of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that hypertension and telomere length were the only independent risk factors. This is the first study in a large cohort of patients that demonstrates significant telomere shortening in patients treated by radiation therapy who developed cardiovascular disease. Telomere length appears to be an independent prognostic factor that could help determine patients at high risk of developing CAD after exposure in order to implement early detection and prevention. (authors)

  10. Early roentgenological grading of femoral shortening is correlated to the late outcome after femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using orthoradiography, the distance between the centre of the femoral head and the intercondylar notch was assessed at regular intervals in 144 patients who were followed for a 2-year period after osteosynthesis of a femoral neck fracture. Late complications, such as segmental collapse and non-union, occurred in 27% of the patients. The degree of femoral shortening was significantly correlated to the incidence of late complications. At 1 month, femoral shortening of more than 5 mm was observed in 85% of patients who developed late complications, and in only 5% of patients without such complications. Thus, the observation of a shortening of more than 5 mm predicted a greater than 6-fold increase of the incidence of late complications. The prognostic accuracy of this observation 1 month after treatment was 92%. (orig.)

  11. Load-shortening behavior of an initially curved eccentrically loaded column (United States)

    Fichter, W. B.; Pinson, Mark W.


    To explore the feasibility of using buckled columns to provide a soft support system for simulating a free-free boundary condition in dynamic testing, the nonlinear load-shortening behavior of initially imperfect, eccentrically loaded slender columns is analyzed. Load-shortening curves are obtained for various combinations of load eccentricity and uniform initial curvature and are compared, for reference purposes, with the limiting case of the classical elastica. Results for numerous combinations of initial curvature and load eccentricity show that, over a wide range of shortening, an axially loaded slender column exhibits load-deflection compliance which is of the same order as that of a straight but otherwise identical cantilever beam under lateral tip loading.

  12. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Galata


    Full Text Available Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. Keywords: Achondroplasia, dysplastic coxarthrosis, limb shortening, distal femur osteotomy.

  13. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Freitas Ribeiro


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World Health Organization goal for oral health in the age group 65 to 74 years (50% having at least 20 natural teeth; presence of shortened dental arch; number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth. The Chi-square test assessed the association between categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess differences of mean between number of posterior occluding pairs teeth, macro-region and gender. RESULTS: The elderly population had an average of 5.49 teeth (SD: 7.93 with a median of 0. The proportion of completely edentulous respondents was 54.7%. Complete edentulism was 18.2% in the upper arch and 1.9% in the lower arch. The World Health Organization goal was achieved in 10% of all respondents studied. However, only 2.7% had acceptable masticatory function and aesthetics (having at least shortened dental arch and a mean number of posterior occluding pairs of 6.94 (SD=2.97. There were significant differences of the percentage of respondents that met the World Health Organization goal and presence of shortened dental arch between men and women. There were differences in shortened dental arch between macroregions. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian epidemiological oral health survey showed high rate of edentulism and low rate of shortened dental arch in the elderly population studied, thus suggesting significant functional and aesthetic impairment in all Brazilian macroregions especially among women.

  14. Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment Associated with Inferior Posterior Staphyloma Treated with Scleral Shortening and Vitrectomy


    Kasai, Akihito; Kanda, Naotaka; Sekiryu, Tetsuju


    Purpose We report a case of bilateral serous retinal detachment (SRD) associated with inferior posterior staphyloma (IPS) treated successfully with scleral shortening. Patient and Methods A 63-year-old woman presented with bilateral visual loss due to an SRD with IPS. The best-corrected visual acuity levels were 0.6 (20/30) and 0.5 (20/40) in the right and left eye, respectively. The patient underwent vitrectomy and scleral shortening in the right eye. The lamellar scleral crescent was resect...

  15. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence. (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M


    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26805432

  16. Mars crustal magnetism, plate tectonics, and more (United States)

    Connerney, J.; Acuna, M.; Ness, N.

    Mars has no global magnetic field of internal origin, but must have had one in the past when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization or TRM). The Mars crust is at least an order of magnitude more intensely magnetized than that of the Earth. The apparent lack of magnetization associated with major impact basins suggests that the crust acquired magnetic remanence early in its history, about 4 billion years ago. A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled at ˜ 400 km mapping altitude by Mars Global Surveyor, is presented here. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of this global map is unprecedented, inviting geologic interpretation heretofor reserved for aeromagnetic and ship surveys on Earth. These data provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. The apparent lack of magnetization associated with volcanic provinces may indicate that the magnetic layer resides within a few km of the surface, requiring magnetization intensity of order few 100 A/m, almost unthinkable. Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and describe the relative motion of two ancient Mars plates on the surface of a sphere. The magnetic imprint in Meridiani is consistent with that observed above a mid-ocean ridge on Earth. It is a relic of an era of plate tectonics on Mars, an era of crustal spreading, rifting, plate motions, and widespread volcanism following the demise of the dynamo. We present this new data in the context of the early development of plate tectonics on Earth, as advanced by the Vine-Matthews hypothesis and the work of W. Jason Morgan and others. Finally, we discuss the next logical steps in Mars exploration: magnetic surveys on global and regional scales.

  17. Nitrogen speciation in mantle and crustal fluids (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Keppler, Hans


    Seventy-nine experiments have been carried out at 600-1400 °C, 2-35 kbar, and oxygen fugacities ranging from the Fe-FeO to the Re-ReO2 buffer to investigate the nitrogen speciation in mantle and crustal N-H-O fluids. Laser Raman analyses of fluid inclusions trapped in situ in quartz and olivine crystals show that N2 and/or NH3 are the only detectable nitrogen species in the fluids at the conditions of the present study. The results further show that in the fluids of the oxidized shallow upper mantle, nitrogen is mostly present as N2, while in the deep reduced upper mantle, NH3 is the dominant nitrogen species. Nitrogen speciation in subduction zone fluids is also calculated from the experimental data to constrain the efficiency of nitrogen recycling. The data show that a hot, oxidized slab is an efficient barrier for deep nitrogen subduction, while a cold, reduced slab would favor recycling nitrogen into the deep mantle. The nitrogen species in magmatic fluids of mid-ocean ridge basalt and arc magmas are predominantly N2, but a significant fraction of nitrogen can be NH3 at certain conditions. The nitrogen species in fluids released from the solidifying magma ocean and the reduced young mantle may have been mostly NH3. The release of such fluids may have created a reduced atmosphere on the every early Earth, with an elevated concentration of NH3. This may not only resolve the faint young Sun paradox but may also have created favorable conditions for the formation of biomolecules through Miller-Urey type reactions.

  18. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska (United States)

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.


    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  19. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)


    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))


    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  2. An Updated Eurasian Crustal Model Using Multiple Seismic Methods (United States)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.; McDonald, S.


    An updated 2 by 2 degree crustal model for greater Eurasia is being completed from (1) synthesizing existing models, such as WENA 1.0, the new Barents Sea model, and WINPAK; (2) Pn/Sn tomography data; (3) our ongoing compilation of published seismic models for the crust, based on active- and passive-source seismology; and (4) observed and calculated seismic surface wave group and phase velocity maps. In particular, three controlled source studies from China and India completed by the U.S. Geological Survey and colleagues in the past year are contributing to this updated Eurasian crustal model. These include: (1) three short (20-35 km) seismic reflection profiles from the immediate region of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj (western India) earthquake that yielded a crustal thickening from 35 to 45 km over a distance of about 50 km from the northern margin of the Gulf of Kutch to the epicentral zone of the earthquake; (2) a compilation of over 90 seismic refraction/wide angle reflection profiles, with a cumulative length of more than sixty thousand kilometers, across mainland China that have shown a mid-crustal low velocity layer in unstable regions; and (3) a 1000- km-long geophysical profile from Darlag-Lanzhou-Jingbian extending from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane to the Ordos basin in the NE margin of the Tibetan plateau that yielded a 2-D seismic velocity profile from which crustal composition and continental dynamics of the Tibetan plateau are inferred. New crustal depth and velocity maps for greater Eurasia have been compiled, which incorporate the results from the above three studies and other relevant controlled source experiments. This updated compilation of Eurasian Pn and Sn data in CRUST 2.2 will yield more detailed models of the Earth's structure and subsequently more accurate seismic monitoring. Well-resolved crustal models are critical for determining event locations and size estimations.

  3. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions


    Danielewicz, P.


    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  4. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William


    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge preserving between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singlely charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped a...

  5. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings. (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A


    Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, and low-fat food increases. High-amylose corn starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of oleic acid. Amylose formed helical inclusion complexes with the fatty acid. Shortening was added at different levels to jet-cooked starch. The resulting starch-lipid composites (SLC) had 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% fat. The composites were used to substitute shortening in the preparation of cake icings with 1% to 13% fat. SLC icings were formulated by either keeping the total solids constant, or the starch and sugar to water ratio constant as the fat level was reduced. The effect of fat and formulation of shortening and SLC icings on the physical and rheological characteristics were studied. It was found that low-fat SLC icings can be prepared by optimizing the formulation. Practical Application:  This study indicates potential new applications for SLC that benefit the confectionary industry by generating new products offering healthy alternatives to the consumers. PMID:22417587

  6. Changing Quality Controls: The Effects of Increasing Product Variety and Shortening Product Life Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. van Iwaarden (Jos)


    textabstractIn many industries (e.g. cars, electronics, clothing) manufacturing complexity and unpredictability have increased in recent years because of increasing product variety and shortening product life cycles. At the same time, manufacturers in these industries appear to have more problems wi

  7. The Shortened Visuospatial Questionnaire for Children: A Useful Tool to Identify Students with Low Visuospatial Abilities (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Cherchi, Rossella; Penna, Maria Pietronilla


    The current research was aimed mainly at exploring the reliability of a short-screening tool developed to self-evaluate visuospatial abilities in children. We presented 290 Italian third, fourth, and fifth graders with the 16-item Shortened Visuospatial questionnaire and several objective measures of intellectual efficiency, such as Raven's…

  8. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh


    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  9. Left ventricle shortening fraction: a comparison between euploid and trisomy 21 fetuses in the first trimester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calda, P.; Břešťák, M.; Tomek, V.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Sonek, J.


    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2010), s. 368-371. ISSN 0197-3851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : trisomy 21 * first trimester * shortening fraction of the left ventricle Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2010

  10. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature. (United States)

    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran


    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) is the standard procedure for correcting positive ulnar variance. Goal of this procedure is to minimize the symptoms by restoring the neutral radio - ulnar variance. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for ulnar shorthening osteotomy, their advantages and drawbacks. Methods of ulnar shortening osteotomies are divided into intraarticular and extraarticular. Intraarticular method of ulnar shortening can be performed arthroscopically or through open approach. Extraarticular methods include subcapital osteotomy and osteotomy of ulnar diaphysis, which depending on shape can be transverse, oblique, and step cut. All of those osteotomies can be performed along wrist arthroscopy in order to dispose and treat possibly existing triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. At the end we described surgical procedures that can be done in case of ulnar shorthening osteotomy failure. PMID:26157524

  11. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings (United States)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  12. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik;


    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  13. A method for measuring mean circumferential fiber shortening rate from gated blood pool scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejection fraction and ejection rate are easily obtained from gated cardiac images, but no method is available for calculating mean circumferential fiber shortening rate. We assumed that the cube root of left ventricular end-diastolic volume or counts is proportional to the minor axis of the left ventricle at end-diastole or end-systole. Mean circumferential fiber shortening rate is then equal to the [cube root of the end-diastolic volume (count) minus cube root of end-systolic volume (count)] divided by [cube root of end-diastolic volume (count) multiplied by the ejection time]. In 250 contrast ventriculograms, the standard mean circumferential fiber shortening rate (MCFSR) and that derived by the cube root method correlated well (r = 0.94). The mean value of MCFSR (0.85 +- 0.35) was greater than the cube root value (0.75 +- 0.35) (P < 0.001). The regression equation was y = 0.86x + 0.02. Similar correlations were obtained from gated radionuclide images using a semiautomated program (r = 0.93) in 24 subjects or completely automated program (r = 0.85) in 28 patients. The regression equation between MCFSR and that derived from the cube root of counts for the semiautomated program was y = 0.82x + 0.04 and for the automated program was y = 0.84x + 0.004. Similar correlations, slopes, and intercepts were seen using circumferential fractional shortening for angiographic data when correlated with both the semiautomated and automated gated blood pool scan programs. These data indicate that MCFSR and circumferential fractional shortening may be obtained from gated blood pool images using cube root estimates of end-diastolic and end-systolic radii with a high degree of correlation with the standard contrast ventriculographic technique. (orig.)

  14. Combined crustal-geological cross-section of Ellesmere Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian; Oakey, Gordon

    Ellesmere Island, in Canada’s Arctic, consists of a series of ~SW-NE trending tectonic provinces, the crustal structure and geological expression of which represent a combination of interplate, accretionary orogenesis in the Palaeozoic and, most recently, intraplate deformation in the Cenozoic...... are reported in detail in another presentation at this symposium (Schiffer et al.). Moho depth, a number of intracrustal horizons and sedimentary thicknesses can be inferred. Meanwhile, geological mapping on Ellesmere Island in the framework of BGR’s (Germany) CASE (“Circum-Arctic Structural Events...... cross-sections have been integrated to produce a single, combined crustal-geological 2-D model of Ellesmere Island with the aim of illuminating the relationships between crustal architecture and geology as expressed at the surface of and in the topography of Ellesmere Island....

  15. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    -dependence (we use tectono-thermal ages) of crustal parameters allows for distinguishing the effects of various tectonic processes on the crustal structure. The analysis provides the basis for studies of crustal evolution and geodynamic process in the region where the age of tectonic structures spans over ~4 Ga......We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west...... and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data (from the late 1960-ies until present). Seismic structure along seismic profiles is digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with the resolution of seismic models. Structural parameters based on gravity modeling...

  16. Seismic Imaging across the Moroccan Atlas (SIMA): An effort to constrain the crustal thickness of the Atlas Mountains (United States)

    Carbonell, R.; Ayarza, P.; Harnafi, M.; Teixell, A.; Kchikah, A.; Martí, D.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M.; Charroud, M.; Amrhar, M.


    The Atlas Mountains are a young intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt located at the southern edge of the diffuse plate boundary zone separating Africa and Europe. The Atlas features a high topography that locally exceeds 4000 m. However, geological and preliminary geophysical studies suggest that it has experienced less than 25% of shortening and moderate crustal thickening. These observations rise the question of the origin of the Atlas high elevation. Potential field geophysical studies and previous low-resolution refraction experiments report a maximum crustal thickness of ~40 km, suggesting that the range is out of isostatic equilibrium at a crustal level and that an asthenospheric upwelling is needed to support the mountain load. These models, however, lack the constraints that would provide the knowledge of the precise Moho depth. In order to fulfill this requirement and to constrain the seismic velocity structure of this mountain system, a 700 km long, seismic wide-angle reflection and refraction transect has been recently acquired by an international team. The north-south transect extends from the Sahara Desert south of Merzouga, to Ceuta at the Gibraltar arc, crossing the High and Middle Atlas and the Rif mountains. Seismic energy released at 6 shot points generated by the detonation of 1 TN of explosives was recorded by ~ 900 Reftek-125a seismic recorders from the IRIS-PASSCAL pool. Seismic stations were deployed with an average spacing of 650-750 m. The 6 shot points were located within the southern part of the transect with a shot spacing of ~60-70 km. Preliminary analysis of data shows an uneven distribution of the energy, providing a poor signal/ratio relation at longest offsets, thus hindering the identification of the deepest phases. However, crustal phases (Pg and PiP) and mantle reflected/refracted phases (PmP and Pn) are present in most of the shot gathers. Preliminary modelling of these phases leads to an estimation of the changes in the

  17. High crustal diversity preserved in the lunar meteorite Mount DeWitt 12007 (Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Collareta, Alberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Pack, Andreas; Folco, Luigi


    The meteorite Mount DeWitt (DEW) 12007 is a polymict regolith breccia mainly consisting of glassy impact-melt breccia particles, gabbroic clasts, feldspathic clasts, impact and volcanic glass beads, basaltic clasts, and mingled breccia clasts embedded in a matrix dominated by fine-grained crystals; vesicular glassy veins and rare agglutinates are also present. Main minerals are plagioclase (typically An>85) and clinopyroxene (pigeonites and augites, sometimes interspersed). The presence of tranquillityite, coupled with the petrophysical data, the O-isotope data (Δ17O = -0.075), and the FeOtot/MnO ratios in olivine (91), pyroxene (65), and bulk rock (77) indicate a lunar origin for DEW 12007. Impactites consist of Al-rich impact-melt splashes and plagioclase-rich meta-melt clasts. The volcanic products belong to the very low titanium (VLT) or low titanium (LT) suites; an unusual subophitic fragment could be cryptomare-related. Gabbroic clasts could represent part of a shallow intrusion within a volcanic complex with prevailing VLT affinity. DEW 12007 has a mingled bulk composition with relatively high incompatible element abundances and shows a high crustal diversity comprising clasts from the Moon's major terranes and rare lithologies. First-order petrographic and chemical features suggest that DEW 12007 could be launch-paired with other meteorites including Y 793274/981031, QUE 94281, EET 87521/96008, and NWA 4884.

  18. Monitoring Crustal Deformations with Radar Interferometry:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国祥; 丁晓利; 黄丁发


    The crustal movements, probably motivating earthquakes, are considered as one of the main geodynamic sources. The quantitative measurements of ground surface deformations are vital for studying mechanisms of the buried faults or even estimating earthquake potential. A new space-geodetic technology, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), can be applied to detect such large-area deformations, and has demonstrated some prominent advantages. This paper reviews the capacity and limitations of InSAR, and summarises the existing applications including some of our results in studying the earthquake-related crustal motions.Finally it gives the outlook for the future development of InSAR.

  19. Serotonin in the solitary tract nucleus shortens the laryngeal chemoreflex in anaesthetized neonatal rats. (United States)

    Donnelly, William T; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C


    What is the central question of this study? Failure to terminate apnoea and arouse is likely to contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Serotonin is deficient in the brainstems of babies who died of SIDS. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) would shorten reflex apnoea. What is the main finding and its importance? Serotonin microinjected into the NTS shortened the apnoea and respiratory inhibition associated with the laryngeal chemoreflex. Moreover, this effect was achieved through a 5-HT3 receptor. This is a new insight that is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of SIDS. The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR), an airway-protective reflex that causes apnoea and bradycardia, has long been suspected as an initiating event in the sudden infant death syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT receptors may be deficient in the brainstems of babies who die of sudden infant death syndrome, and 5-HT seems to be important in terminating apnoeas directly or in causing arousals or as part of the process of autoresuscitation. We hypothesized that 5-HT in the brainstem would limit the duration of the LCR. We studied anaesthetized rat pups between 7 and 21 days of age and made microinjections into the cisterna magna or into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Focal, bilateral microinjections of 5-HT into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. The 5-HT1a receptor antagonist, WAY 100635, did not affect the LCR consistently, nor did a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, alter the duration of the LCR. The 5-HT3 specific agonist, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, microinjected bilaterally into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. Thus, endogenous 5-HT released within the NTS may curtail the respiratory depression that is part of the LCR, and serotonergic shortening of the LCR may be attributed to activation of 5-HT3 receptors within the NTS. 5-HT3 receptors are expressed presynaptically on C

  20. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander


    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  1. Gamma probe dry bulk densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma density probe is a useful instrument for measuring water content in small volumes of soil. Essentially, the gamma probe measures the density of the soil and water between a source and a detector. To transpose the gamma densities into water content, the dry bulk density of the soil is needed. A nondestructive method for estimating dry bulk densities for use with the gamma probe is proposed. The procedure is based on the assumption that water content values in a field dry condition were more stable than the dry bulk density values and could be transferred from one point to another. The procedure was successfully used on three areas in Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho. (U.S.)

  2. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons


    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash


    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  3. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A


    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  4. Signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders--Follow-up of subjects with shortened and complete dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of cardinal signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in subjects with shortened dental arches and to clarify the individual course of these signs and symptoms. METHODS: In this 9-year follow-up study, subjects with shortened dental arches (n=74)

  5. Treatment of Acute Tuberculous Spondylitis by the Spinal Shortening Osteotomy: A Technical Notes and Case Illustrations (United States)

    Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Chanplakorn, Niramol; Kraiwattanapong, Chaiwat; Laohacharoensombat, Wichien


    Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis is necessary in particular cases that a large amount of necrotic tissue is encountered and there is spinal cord compression. A spinal shortening osteotomy procedure has previously been described for the correction of the sagittal balance in a late kyphotic deformity, but there have been no reports on this as a surgical treatment in the acute stage. Thus, the aim of this report is to present the surgical techniques and clinical results of 3 patients who were treated with this procedure. Three patients with tuberculous spondylitis at the thoracic spine were surgically treated with this procedure. All the patients presented with severe progressive back pain, kyphotic deformity and neurological deficit. The patients recovered uneventfully from surgery without further neurological deterioration. Their pain was improved and the patients remained free of pain during the follow-up period. In conclusion, posterior spinal shortening osteotomy is an alternative method for the management of tuberculous spondylitis. PMID:22164318

  6. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty (United States)

    Galata, Christian L.; Rieger, Bertram; Friederich, Niklaus F.


    Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. PMID:27298915

  7. Development of advanced concept for shortening construction period of ABWR plant (Part 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) is the most critical part in construction of an ABWR plant. Use of steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) and a large modular construction method are effective in shortening the construction period (Ijichi et al., 2004)1). This research is aimed at a remarkable shortening of the construction period of an ABWR plant (period from 1st concrete placement to Fuel/Loading is less than 22 months). Conceptual design of a steel plate reinforced concrete containment vessel (SCCV) using an SC structure is carried out and structural experiments are conducted. It is thus confirmed that SCCV shows outstanding structural performance, compared with RCCV. This paper outlines the study results. (authors)

  8. Diaphragm muscle shortening modulates kinematics of lower rib cage in dogs


    Chu, Iris; Fernandez, Cristina; Rodowicz, Kathleen Allen; Lopez, Michael A.; Lu, Raymond; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Boriek, Aladin M.


    We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm muscle shortening modulates volume displacement and kinematics of the lower rib cage in dogs and that posture and mode of ventilation affect such modulation. Radiopaque markers were surgically attached to the lower three ribs of the rib cage and to the midcostal region of the diaphragm in six dogs of ∼8 kg body masses, and the locations of these markers were determined by a biplane fluoroscopy system. Three-dimensional software modeling techniques were ...

  9. Mitochondrial genome instability resulting from SUV3 haploinsufficiency leads to tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan


    Chen, Phang-Lang; Chen, Chi-Fen; Chen, Yumay; Guo, Xuning Emily; Huang, Chun-Kai; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Reddick, Robert L.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Lee, Wen-Hwa


    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been a hallmark of cancer. However, whether it plays a causive role awaits to be elucidated. Here, using an animal model derived from inactivation of SUV3, a mitochondrial helicase, we demonstrated that mSuv3+/− mice harbored increased mtDNA mutations and decreased mtDNA copy numbers, leading to tumor development in various sites and shortened lifespan. These phenotypes were transmitted maternally, indicating the etiological role of the mitochondria. Importantly,...

  10. Remodelling of the contractile apparatus of striated muscle stimulated electrically in a shortened position.


    Jakubiec-Puka, A; Carraro, U


    The aim of this study was to examine reorganisation of the contractile apparatus during adaptation to function when the length of a muscle is decreased. The rat soleus muscle was maintained in a shortened position and simultaneously stimulated electrically at a low frequency for 1-45 h. This experimental model decreased the length of the muscle and made the contractile apparatus irregular. The length of the sarcomeres decreased and became variable. The Z-line appeared wavy or fragmented. Foci...

  11. Efficient Algorithms for Searching Optimal Shortened Cyclic Single-Burst-Correcting Codes


    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Cortez, José René Fuentes; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Blaum, Mario


    In a previous work it was shown that the best measure for the efficiency of a single burst-correcting code is obtained using the Gallager bound as opposed to the Reiger bound. In this paper, an efficient algorithm that searches for the best (shortened) cyclic burst-correcting codes is presented. Using this algorithm, extensive tables that either tie existing constructions or improve them are obtained for burst lengths up to b=10.

  12. A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice


    Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia


    The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. Here, heterozygous TIN2-DC mice showed a telomere-shortening phenotype in both telomerase-proficient and telomerase-deficient backgrounds. This study raises the possibility that some of the TIN2-DC mutations may affect telo...



    Sciote, James J.; Morris, Terence J.; Horton, Michael J.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rosen, Clark


    Myosin description in human laryngeal muscles is incomplete, but evidence suggests the presence of type I, IIA, IIX, and tonic myosin heavy chain (MHC) fibers. This study describes the unloaded shortening velocity (V0) of chemically skinned laryngeal muscle fibers measured by the slack test method in relation to MHC content. Skeletal fibers from human laryngeal and limb muscle biopsy specimens were obtained for determination of V0, and subsequently, glycerol–sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylam...

  14. Lengthening of the first metatarsal bone. A case of congenital shortening


    Amillo, S.; Gil-Albarova, J. (Jorge); Pampliega, T. (Tomás)


    A 14-year-old boy had a congenital shortening of the first right metatarsal bone, with overloading of the central metatarsals and medial deviation of the second toe. A percutaneous osteotomy and slow distraction by an external fixator for 10 weeks lengthened the bone from 32 mm to 60 mm. After the distraction, a bone graft was performed, and tenotomies and a capsulotomy corrected a threatening subluxation. Consolidation of the lengthening focus required 16 weeks.

  15. Diabetes mellitus as a cause of life span shortening in locally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the development of remote radiation pathology of pancreas in male rats after local irradiation of abdomen with doses of 5, 10 (two fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval) and 15 Gy (three fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval). The clinical and morphological estimates show the dose-dependent development of diabetes mellitus and 1.8-fold shortening of the life span, as compared to biological control

  16. A shortened version of the basic IY Program : effects four years after parent training


    Vik, Heidi Haukebøe; Heggelund, Kjetil


    Background: To test whether the effects of a shortened version of the Basic Incredible Years program, aimed at preventing child behavior problems, were sustained 4 years after the initial intervention. Method: Data were obtained from parents in a randomized controlled trial for children aged 6 to 12 (N = 117). Results: Significant increases on positive parenting and parents’ sense of competence, and significant decreases of harsh parenting were observed. No significant difference between g...

  17. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature


    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran


    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus...

  18. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003


    Marco Túlio de Freitas Ribeiro; Marco Aurélio Camargo da Rosa; Rosa Maria Natal de Lima; Andréa Maria Duarte Vargas; João Paulo Amaral Haddad; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World...

  19. Treatment of Acute Tuberculous Spondylitis by the Spinal Shortening Osteotomy: A Technical Notes and Case Illustrations


    Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Chanplakorn, Niramol; Kraiwattanapong, Chaiwat; Wajanavisit, Wiwat; Laohacharoensombat, Wichien


    Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis is necessary in particular cases that a large amount of necrotic tissue is encountered and there is spinal cord compression. A spinal shortening osteotomy procedure has previously been described for the correction of the sagittal balance in a late kyphotic deformity, but there have been no reports on this as a surgical treatment in the acute stage. Thus, the aim of this report is to present the surgical techniques and clinical results of 3 patients w...

  20. Assessment of plantarflexor function during a stretch-shortening cycle task


    Furlong, Laura-Anne M


    peer-reviewed The plantarflexors are important due to their role in locomotion and stiffness control, high prevalence of injury, link to knee stability and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Current methods of assessing the plantarflexors are limited primarily by issues of validity and reliability. The aims of this thesis were to develop a method of measuring plantarflexor function in a dynamic yet controlled stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) task and to assess plantarflexor muscle-tendon uni...

  1. Temperature dependence of the inhibitory effects of orthovanadate on shortening velocity in fast skeletal muscle.


    Pate, E; Wilson, G. J.; Bhimani, M; Cooke, R


    We have investigated the effects of the orthophosphate (P(i)) analog orthovanadate (Vi) on maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) in activated, chemically skinned, vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers. Using new "temperature-jump" protocols, reproducible data can be obtained from activated fibers at high temperatures, and we have examined the effect of increased [Vi] on Vmax for temperatures in the range 5-30 degrees C. We find that for temperatures < or = 20 degrees C, increasing [Vi] inhibits Vmax...

  2. The randomized shortened dental arch study (RaSDA): design and protocol


    Kern Matthias; Jahn Florentine; Heydecke Guido; Hartmann Sinsa; Hannak Wolfgang; Gitt Ingrid; Dressler Paul; Busche Eckhard; Aggstaller Hans; Heinecke Achim; Gerss Joachim; Marré Birgit; Luthardt Ralph G; Mundt Torsten; Pospiech Peter


    Abstract Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the lon...

  3. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model (United States)

    Pollpeter, Molly J.


    Background Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated. Objective To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice. Methods We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death. Results and Conclusions Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p < 0.0001). In addition, the hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated. PMID:27144769


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢国刚; 樊小力; 吴苏娣; 宋新爱; 朱保恭; 唐斌


    Objective: To study the possible mechanism and prevention of disuse muscle atrophy. Methods: The shortened immobilization (plaster fixation) of rat' s soleus muscle (SOL) was used as the model of muscle and the lengthened immobilization of rat' s SOL muscle as "passive stretch" method. Types of skeletal muscle fibers were differentiated with m - ATPase staining technique. The changes of rat' s SOL muscle weight (wet weight) as well as the types and the mean cross - sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers were examined respectively on day 2, 4,7, 14 and 21 under both shortened and lengthened immobilization and then the effect of passive stretch on soleus muscle atrophy in immobilized rats was observed. Results: When shortened immobilization was applied for 4 days, SOL muscle weight (wet weight) became lighter; the fiber crosssectional area (CSA) shrank and type Ⅰ muscle fibers started transforming into type Ⅱ, which all indicated immobilized muscles began to atrophy and as immobilization proceeded, muscle atrophy proceeded toward higher level. In contrast to that, when lengthened immobilization was applied, SOL muscle didn' t show any sign of atrophy until 7th day, and reached its highest level on day 14 and maintained that level even though immobilization continued. Conclusion: From the results, we conclude that passive stretch can either relieve or defer disuse muscle atrophy.

  5. Hepatocellular telomere shortening correlates with chromosomal instability and the development of human hepatoma. (United States)

    Plentz, Ruben R; Caselitz, Martin; Bleck, Joerg S; Gebel, Michael; Flemming, Peer; Kubicka, Stefan; Manns, Michael P; Rudolph, K Lenhard


    The telomere hypothesis of cancer initiation indicates that telomere shortening initiates cancer by induction of chromosomal instability. To test whether this hypothesis applies to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we analyzed the telomere length of hepatocytes in cytological smears of fine-needle biopsies of liver tumors from patients with cirrhosis (n = 39). The tumors consisted of 24 HCC and 15 regenerative nodules as diagnosed by combined histological and cytological diagnostics. In addition, we analyzed the telomere length of hepatocytes in HCC and surrounding noncancerous liver tissue within individual patients in another cohort of 10 patients with cirrhosis. Telomere length analysis of hepatocytes was correlated with tumor pathology and ploidy grade of the tumors, which was analyzed by cytophotometry. Telomeres were significantly shortened in hepatocytes of HCC compared to hepatocytes in regenerative nodules or surrounding noncancerous liver tissue. Hepatocyte telomere shortening in HCC was independent of the patient's age. There was no overlap in mean telomere lengths of individual samples when comparing HCC with regenerative nodules or noncancerous surrounding liver. Within the HCC group, telomeres were significantly shorter in hepatocytes of aneuploid tumors compared to diploid tumors. In conclusion, our data suggest that the telomere hypothesis of cancer initiation applies to human HCC and that cell type-specific telomere length analysis might indicate the risk of HCC development. PMID:15239089

  6. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.


    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge. Solutions involving anomaly terms preserve between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries but Chern-Simons fluxes generally break all of the remaining supersymmetry. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singly charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped around a space with non-zero first Pontryagin class picks up an electric charge proportional to the Pontryagin number.

  7. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I


    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  8. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;


    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  9. A proposed concept for a crustal dynamics information management network (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.; Renfrow, J. T.


    The findings of a requirements and feasibility analysis of the present and potential producers, users, and repositories of space-derived geodetic information are summarized. A proposed concept is presented for a crustal dynamics information management network that would apply state of the art concepts of information management technology to meet the expanding needs of the producers, users, and archivists of this geodetic information.

  10. Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen


    Maier, Eva


    Hintergrund und Ziele: Untersuchung der Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen bzgl. Konversionsrate (degree of conversion = DC), Vickers-Härte (HV), Polymerisationsschrumpfungsstress (PSS) und Polymerisationsvolumenschrumpfung (PVS) im Vergleich zu konventionellen Kompositen. Material und Methode: Untersucht wurden die Bulk-Fill Komposite Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBF, 3M ESPE, Seefeld), Surefil Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR, Dentsply, Konstanz), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill...

  11. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado


    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by ~ 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near ~ 20°S has a deeper Moho at ~ 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at ~ 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  12. Effects of Martian crustal magnetic field on its ionosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effect of the Martian crustal magnetic field is one of the hot topics of the study of Martian ionosphere.The studies on this topic are summarized in this paper.Main data of the Martian ionosphere were resulted from radio occultation experiments.According to the observations,the electron density scale height and the peak electron density of the Martian ionosphere are influenced by its crustal magnetic field.The strong horizontal magnetic field prevents the vertical diffusion of the plasma and makes the electron density scale height in the topside ionosphere close to that in the photo equilibrium region.In the cusp-like regions with strong vertical magnetic field,the enhanced vertical diffusion leads to a larger electron density scale height in the diffusion equilibrium region.The observation of radio occultation experiment onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) showed that the averaged peak electron density observed in the southern hemisphere with strong crustal magnetic field was slightly larger than that in the northern hemisphere with weak crustal magnetic field.The Mars advanced radar for subsurface and ionosphere sounding (MARSIS) onboard Mars Express (MEX) was the first topside sounder to be used to observe Martian ionosphere.The MARSIS results confirmed that the enhancement of the peak electron density occurred in cusp-like regions with open field lines,and the amount of the enhancement was much larger than that observed by the radio occultation experiment.There are two possible mechanisms for the peak electron density enhancement in the cusp-like crustal magnetic field regions:One is the precipitation of the energetic particles and the other is the heating by the waves excited by plasma instabilities.It’s difficult to determine which one is the key mechanism for the peak electron density enhancement.Based on these studies,several interesting problems on the Martian ionosphere and plasma environment are presented.

  13. Evolution of crustal stress, pressure and temperature around shear zones during orogenic wedge formation: a 2D thermo-mechanical numerical study (United States)

    Markus Schmalholz, Stefan; Jaquet, Yoann


    We study the formation of an orogenic wedge during lithospheric shortening with 2D numerical simulations. We consider a viscoelastoplastic rheology, thermo-mechanical coupling by shear heating and temperature-dependent viscosities, gravity and erosion. In the initial model configuration there is either a lateral temperature variation at the model base or a lateral variation in crustal thickness to generate slight stress variations during lithospheric shortening. These stress variations can trigger the formation of shear zones which are caused by thermal softening associated with shear heating. We do not apply any kind of strain softening, such as reduction of friction angle with progressive plastic strain. The first major shear zone that appears during shortening crosscuts the entire crust and initiates the asymmetric subduction/underthrusting of mainly the mechanically strong lower crust. After some deformation, the first shear zone in the upper crust is abandoned, the deformation propagates towards the foreland and a new shear zone forms only in the upper crust. The shear zone propagation occurs several times where new shear zones form in the upper crust and the mechanically strong top of the lower crust acts as detachment horizon. We calculate the magnitudes of the maximal and minimal principal stresses and of the mean stress (or dynamic pressure), and we record also the temperature for several marker points in the upper and lower crust. We analyse the evolution of stresses and temperature with burial depth and time. Deviatoric stresses (half the differential stress) in the upper crust are up to 200 MPa and associated shear heating in shear zones ranges between 40 - 80 °C. Lower crustal rocks remain either at the base of the orogenic wedge at depths of around 50 km or are subducted to depths of up to 120 km, depending on their position when the first shear zone formed. Largest deviatotric stresses in the strong part of the lower crust are about 1000 MPa and

  14. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner


    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  15. 3D geological modeling of the Trujillo block: Insights for crustal escape models of the Venezuelan Andes (United States)

    Dhont, Damien; Monod, Bernard; Hervouët, Yves; Backé, Guillaume; Klarica, Stéphanie; Choy, José E.


    The Venezuelan Andes form a N50°E-trending mountain belt extending from the Colombian border in the SW to the Caribbean Sea in the NE. The belt began to rise since the Middle Miocene in response to the E-W collision between the Maracaibo block to the NW and the Guyana shield belonging to South America to the SE. This oblique collision led to strain partitioning with (1) shortening along opposite-vergent thrust fronts, (2) right-lateral slip along the Boconó fault crossing the belt more or less along-strike and (3) crustal escape of the Trujillo block moving towards the NE in between the Boconó fault and the N-S-striking left-lateral Valera fault. The geology of the Venezuelan Andes is well described at the surface, but its structure at depth remains hypothetic. We investigated the deep geometry of the Mérida Andes by a 3D model newly developed from geological and geophysical data. The 3D fault model is restricted to the crust and is mainly based on the surface data of outcropping fault traces. The final model reveals the orogenic float concept where the mountain belt is decoupled from its underlying lithosphere over a horizontal décollement located either at the upper/lower crust boundary. The reconstruction of the Boconó and Valera faults results in a 3D shape of the Trujillo block, which floats over a mid-crustal décollement horizon emerging at the Boconó-Valera triple junction. Motion of the Trujillo block is accompanied by a widespread extension towards the NE accommodated by normal faults with listric geometries such as for the Motatan, Momboy and Tuñame faults. Extension is explained by the gravitational spreading of the upper crust during the escape process.

  16. The role of block rotations and oroclinal bending in Iran during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia shortening (United States)

    Cifelli, F.; Mattei, M.; Alimohammadian, H.; Sabouri, J.; Rashid, H.; Ghassemi, M.


    Shortening related to the Arabia-Eurasia convergence in the Cenozoic has been - and is at present being - taken up mainly by displacements in the Zagros, Alborz, and Kopeh Dag thrust-and-fold belts of Iran, whereas the intervening, fault-bounded crustal blocks of Central Iran (Yazd, Tabas and Lut blocks) show little internal deformation. Central Iran is separated from the Alborz belt by NE-SW left-lateral strike-slip and thrust faults (e.g., the Great Kavir fault), whereas N-S right-lateral strike-slip faults define the boundary between the Tabas and Lut blocks within Central Iran (e.g., the Neyband fault). Based on structural and seismological data, it has been proposed that NE-SW left-lateral and N-S right-lateral faults can accommodate the NNE-SSW Arabia-Eurasia convergence if they are allowed to rotate clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW), respectively. A rotating-fault deformation model predicts that the intervening fault-bounded rigid blocks should rotate accordingly. To test this hypothesis, paleomagnetic sampling was carried out on Oligocene-Miocene sediments from different areas of Central Iran (Torud, Jandaq, Anarak, Tabas, Yazd, Bafq, Ferdows), dominated by right-lateral and left-lateral strike slip faults activity, and along the southeastern margin of the Alborz Mts. (Bastam, Tall, Gardaneye-Ahovan, Momenabad Abdolabad), where left lateral and thrust faults prevail. Large counterclockwise (CCW) rotations (20°-35°) have been measured in the Tabas and Yazd blocks, characterized by the presence of N-S to NNW-SSE trending, right-lateral strike-slip faults. This structural domain is bounded to the north by the ENE-WSW oriented Great Kavir-Doruneh left-lateral strike-slip fault system. North of this fault paleomagnetic data show a different behaviour, with no or small CW rotation about vertical axis during the late Tertiary. In particular a small amount of CW rotation has been measured in the Jandaq and Torud area, to the north of the Great Kavir fault

  17. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter


    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  18. Mid-term clinical outcome of radial shortening for kienbock disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes of radius shortening as a treatment for Kienbock′s disease. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort, 16 skeletally mature patients (9 men and 7 women with Kienbock disease, who were treated with radial shortening osteotomy between 2002 and 2012, were reviewed in our study. The mean age of our patients was 30 (range 18-43 years old. According to Litchman staging, there were 7 wrists at stage II and 9 wrists at stage III (6 at stage IIIA and 3 at stage IIIB. The data of grip strength, pain (visual analog scale (VAS score, wrist range of motion (ROM, ulnar variance (according to Palmer method, and the Lichtman stage were gathered before and after surgery. We evaluated overall wrist function using the Mayo Wrist score and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH score before surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: The average of follow-up was 7 years (range from 5 to 9 years. Preoperative ulnar variance was -1.3 mm (range from 2.5 to 1 preoperatively. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was 1 mm positive (range from 0.5 to 1.5. The VAS pain score, the mean arc of wrist flexion and extension, and grip strength improved significantly preoperatively compared to after recovery from surgery. The Lichtman stage was unchanged in nine patients, one grade worse in six patients, and one grade better in one patient. The mean DASH and Mayo scores improved significantly postoperatively compare with preoperation. Comparing preoperative positive, neuter, and negative ulnar variance, there was no significant difference in terms of VAS, DASH, and Mayo scores as well as ROM and grip strength. Conclusion: Our study shows that radius shortening surgery improves pain and disability regardless of ulnar variance.

  19. Lactose tolerance test shortened to 30 minutes: an exploratory study of its feasibility and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Domínguez-Jiménez


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactose malabsorption (LM is a very common condition with a high prevalence in our setting. Lactose tolerance test (LTT is a basic, affordable test for diagnosis that requires no complex technology. It has been recently shown that this test can be shortened to 3 measurements (baseline, 30 min, 60 min with no impact on final results. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility and benefits of LTT simplification and shortening to 30 min, as well as the financial impact entailed. Material and methods: A multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing LTT for LM suspicion. Patients received 50 g of lactose following a fasting period of 12 h, and had blood collected from a vein at all 3 time points for the measurement of blood glucose (mg/dl. Differences between the shortened and complete test forms were analyzed using McNemar's test. A comparison of blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal results was performed using Student's T-test for independent mean values. Consistency was assessed using the kappa index. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 270 patients (69.6% females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 16 years. LTT was abnormal for 151 patients (55.9%. We observed no statistically significant differences in baseline blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal LTT results (p = 0.13; however, as was to be expected, such differences were obvious for the remaining time points (p < 0.01. Deleting blood glucose measurements at 60 minutes only led to overdiagnose LM (false positive results in 6 patients (2.22 %, with a kappa index of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99 (p < 0.001 versus the complete test. Suppressing measurements at 60 min would have saved at least € 7,726. Conclusion: The shortening of LTT to only 2 measurements (baseline and 30-min hardly leads to any differences in final results, and would entail savings in

  20. Stochastic scanning method to shorten acquisition time using liquid crystal optical phased array (United States)

    Wang, Xiangru; Huang, Ziqiang; Tan, Qinggui; Kong, Lingjiang; Qiu, Qi


    Agile beam steering has been previously reported to be one of the unique properties of a liquid crystal optical phased array. We propose a stochastic scanning method using the property of agile beam steering to shorten acquisition time in building a free-space laser communication link. As a specific example, Gaussian stochastic scan enables higher acquisition probability and shorter acquisition time. In addition, there are two factors to influence the results: standard deviation of stochastic scanning angle and the width of the laser beam. Theoretical analysis is presented that the stochastic scanning method is a unique method to speed up the acquisition process in free-space laser communication.

  1. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Magnusson, Stig Peter;


    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps...... on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P ...

  2. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.


    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  3. Separation of core and crustal magnetic field sources (United States)

    Shure, L.; Parker, R. L.; Langel, R. A.


    Fluid motions in the electrically conducting core and magnetized crustal rocks are the two major sources of the magnetic field observed on or slightly above the Earth's surface. The exact separation of these two contributions is not possible without imposing a priori assumptions about the internal source distribution. Nonetheless models like these were developed for hundreds of years Gauss' method, least squares analysis with a truncated spherical harmonic expansion was the method of choice for more than 100 years although he did not address separation of core and crustal sources, but rather internal versus external ones. Using some arbitrary criterion for appropriate truncation level, we now extrapolate downward core field models through the (approximately) insulating mantle. Unfortunately our view can change dramatically depending on the degree of truncation for describing core sources.

  4. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    The climate of the Earth is changing. A consequence of this is observed at the polar regions such as Greenland, where the ice sheet is melting with an increasing rate. The unloading of ice causes the Earth to respond elastically in terms of uplift and an outward horizontal deformation of the crust...... the state of the ice sheet. However, the Earth is also adjusting viscoelastically to variations in the late Pleistocene ice sheets i.e. glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Observed rates of crustal displacement therefor contain signals from both past and present ice mass variations. Hence, to...... interpret the observed rates a separation of theses signals are needed. In this thesis, observed rates of crustal displacement are combined with modeled elastic rates to obtain constraints on the vertical displacement rate related to GIA. Observed rates are furthermore used to assess the local mass balance...

  5. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation. (United States)

    Meade, F C; Troll, V R; Ellam, R M; Freda, C; Font, L; Donaldson, C H; Klonowska, I


    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous Centre, Ireland. We show that early microgranites are the result of extensive assimilation of trace element-enriched partial melts of local metasiltstones into mafic parent magmas. Melting experiments reveal the crust is very fusible, but thermodynamic modelling indicates repeated heating events rapidly lower its melt-production capacity. Granite generation ceased once enriched partial melts could no longer form and subsequent magmatism incorporated less fertile restite compositions only, producing mafic intrusions and a pronounced compositional gap. Considering the frequency of bimodal magma suites in the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and the ubiquity of suitable crustal compositions, we propose 'progressively inhibited crustal assimilation' (PICA) as a major cause of bimodality in continental volcanism. PMID:24947142

  6. Two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasty using a shortened post-operative course of antibiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Paul B


    We present a series of 30 consecutive patients with 31 infected total hip arthroplasties treated by a single surgeon over a 4-year period in whom a shortened post-operative course of antimicrobial chemotherapy was used.

  7. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    Receiver Function study based on an average of 36 events per station reveals a clear eastward dipping high-velocity structure underneath the study area. The geophysical character, supported by synthetic modelling, is consistent with a 10 km thick subducted slab of eclogitized oceanic crust. This might be...... interpretation, we present selected results from on-going detailed studies of the crustal and upper mantle, including a Receiver Function inversion, seismic P-wave travel time tomography and gravity modelling....

  8. Crustal structure of mainland China from deep seismic sounding data (United States)

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.; Fan, J.


    Since 1958, about ninety seismic refraction/wide angle reflection profiles, with a cumulative length of more than sixty thousand kilometers, have been completed in mainland China. We summarize the results in the form of (1) a new contour map of crustal thickness, (2) fourteen representative crustal seismic velocity-depth columns for various tectonic units, and, (3) a Pn velocity map. We found a north-south-trending belt with a strong lateral gradient in crustal thickness in central China. This belt divides China into an eastern region, with a crustal thickness of 30-45??km, and a western region, with a thickness of 45-75??km. The crust in these two regions has experienced different evolutionary processes, and currently lies within distinct tectonic stress fields. Our compilation finds that there is a high-velocity (7.1-7.4??km/s) layer in the lower crust of the stable Tarim basin and Ordos plateau. However, in young orogenic belts, including parts of eastern China, the Tianshan and the Tibetan plateau, this layer is often absent. One exception is southern Tibet, where the presence of a high-velocity layer is related to the northward injection of the cold Indian plate. This high-velocity layer is absent in northern Tibet. In orogenic belts, there usually is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the crust, but in stable regions this layer seldom exists. The Pn velocities in eastern China generally range from 7.9 to 8.1??km/s and tend to be isotropic. Pn velocities in western China are more variable, ranging from 7.7 to 8.2??km/s, and may display azimuthal anisotropy. ?? 2006.

  9. Subduction offshore Northern Sumatra: crustal structure and earthquake ruptures segmentation


    Shulgin, A.; Kopp, H.; Klaeschen, D.; Frederik Tilmann; Flueh, E; Franke, D.; Djajadihardja, Y


    The studies of the 2004 and 2005 Sumatra earthquakes showed the presence of the segmentation boundary limiting the rupture areas offshore Northern Sumatra. Recent geophysical studies provide new insight on the structure of this boundary and the changes in the subduction processes around Northern Sumatra. In this study we present new model obtained from refraction/reflection seismic modeling, MCS data, and relocated seismicity. The comparison with the crustal scale profile located in the ruptu...

  10. Crustal structure of the French Guiana margin, West Equatorial Atlantic (United States)

    Greenroyd, C. J.; Peirce, C.; Rodger, M.; Watts, A. B.; Hobbs, R. W.


    Geophysical data from the Amazon Cone Experiment are used to determine the structure and evolution of the French Guiana and Northeast Brazil continental margin, and to better understand the origin and development of along-margin segmentation. A 427-km-long combined multichannel reflection and wide-angle refraction seismic profile acquired across the southern French Guiana margin is interpreted, where plate reconstructions suggest a rift-type setting. The resulting model shows a crustal structure in which 35-37-km-thick pre-rift continental crust is thinned by a factor of 6.4 over a distance of ~70 km associated with continental break-up and the initiation and establishment of seafloor spreading. The ocean-continent boundary is a transition zone up to 45 km in width, in which the two-layered oceanic-type crustal structure develops. Although relatively thin at 3.5-5.0 km, such thin oceanic crust appears characteristic of the margin as a whole. There is no evidence of rift-related magmatism, either as seaward-dipping sequences in the reflection data or as a high velocity region in the lower crust in the P-wave velocity model, and as a such the margin is identified as non-volcanic in type. However, there is also no evidence of the rotated fault block and graben structures characteristic of rifted margins. Consequently, the thin oceanic crust, the rapidity of continental crustal thinning and the absence of characteristic rift-related structures leads to the conclusion that the southern French Guiana margin has instead developed in an oblique rift setting, in which transform motion also played a significant role in the evolution of the resulting crustal structure and along-margin segmentation in structural style.

  11. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio;


    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  12. Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer and Pavel Novák


    Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the _ crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The _ gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.

  13. Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese Islands (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.


    We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.

  14. The Crustal Structure Character of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents actuality of investigation and study of the crustal structure characters of East China Sea at home and abroad. Based on lots of investigation and study achievements and the difference of the crustal velocity structure from west to east, the East China Sea is divided into three parts - East China Sea shelf zone, Okinawa Trough zone and Ryukyu arc-trench zone. The East China Sea sheff zone mostly has three velocity layers, i.e.,the sediment blanket layer (the velocity is 5.8-5.9 km/s), the basement layer (the velocity is 6.0-6.3 km/s), and the lower crustal layer (the velocity is 6.8-7.6 km/s). So the East China Sea shelf zone belongs to the typical continental crust. The Okinawa Trough zone is located at the transitional belt between the continental crust and the oceanic crust. It still has the structural characters of the continental crust, and no formation of the oceanic crust, but the crust of the central trough has become to thinning down. The Ryukyu arc-trench zone belongs to the transitional type crust as a whole, but the ocean side of the trench already belongs to the oceanic crust. And the northwest Philippine Basin to the east of the Ryukyu Trench absolutely belongs to the typical oceanic crust.

  15. Deep crustal studies in Antarctica using wide band magnetotelluric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. To map the deep electrical conductivity structure of East Antarctica around Maitri, the Indian permanent station, long period MT studies have been taken up using wide band (1000-0.001 Hz) including short and long period signals covering both AMT and MT signals. A total of six stations have been occupied with a station interval of 3-4 km during January - February 2006. The stations are occupied along a profile oriented in a NE-SW direction. One station occupied near Maitri station on land and remaining five stations are on continental ice sheet area. The MT data have been collected for about 5 days at each station to acquire long period signals and also to obtain good quality of short period signals. Use of titanium electrodes as e-probes has reduced the contact resistance further to kilo-ohms and facilitated to record the high frequency signals. In the present study, results are presented in the form of a deep crustal geoelectric section. From 2-D modeling along NE-SW profile, it is observed a high resistive (104 ohm.m) upper crust upto a depth of about 10 km and mid and lower crustal thickness of about 25-30 km. Relatively resistive (>102 ohm.m) upper mantle is obtained. The crustal structure is compared with south Indian shield region.

  16. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela


    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to ‑41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  17. A Comparison of Prostaglandin & Stripping in Ripening of Cervix and Shortening of Labor in Post Date Pregnancies


    S Rabiee; M Arab; M. Shokrpour


    Introduction & Objective: Around 22% of pregnancies reach to 40 weeks or more. Investigations have shown that PG is effective in improving cervical ripe and shortening the labor. Stripping also is one of the effective approach for reducing post date pregnancies. This study was undertaken to compare vaginal Misoprostol (PG E1) and membrane stripping to improve Bishop Score and shortening of labor in post date pregnancies.Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 post date p...

  18. Differentiation between the contributions of shortening reaction and stretch-induced inhibition to rigidity in Parkinson’s disease


    Xia, Ruiping; Powell, Douglas; Rymer, W. Zev; Hanson, Nicholas; Fang, Xiang; THRELKELD, A. JOSEPH


    Parkinsonian rigidity is characterized by an increased resistance of a joint to externally imposed motion that remains uniform with changing joint angle. Two candidate mechanisms are proposed for the uniformity of rigidity, involving neural-mediated excitation of shortening muscles, i.e., shortening reaction (SR), or inhibition of stretched muscles, i.e., stretch-induced inhibition (SII). To date, no study has addressed the roles of these two phenomena in rigidity. The purpose of this study w...

  19. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies


    Rangrej, V.; Shah, V; Patel, J.; Ganorkar, P. M.


    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significant...

  20. To compare the efficacy of Drotaverine hydrochloride and Valethamate bromide in shortening of the first stage of labour


    Sangeeta Raman Jogi


    Background: To compare the efficacy of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Valethamate Bromide in shortening of the first stage of Labor. Drotaverine is more effective in regards of shorten the 1st stage of labor, rate of cervical dilatation with less side effects in compare to Valethamate Bromide. Methods: Two Hundred demographically similes woman with full term pregnancy in active labour were included in the study and divided into two groups viz. First Group: 100 women were given injection...

  1. Bulk metallic glass tube casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. → Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. → Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. → Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

  2. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John


    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  3. A novel shortened electrospun nanofiber modified with a 'concentrated' polymer brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the fabrication of shortened electrospun polymer fibers with a well-defined concentrated polymer brush. We first prepared electrospun nanofibers from a random copolymer of styrene and 4-vinylbenzyl 2-bromopropionate, with number-average molecular weight Mn=105 200 and weight-average molecular weight Mw=296 700 (Mw/Mn=2.82). The fibers had a diameter of 593±74 nm and contained initiating sites for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Then, SI-ATRP of hydrophilic styrene sodium sulfonate (SSNa) was carried out in the presence of a free initiator and the hydrophobic fibers. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that Mn and Mw/Mn values were almost the same for free polymers and graft polymers. Mn agreed well with the theoretical prediction, and Mw/Mn was relatively low (n, we calculated the graft density σ as 0.22 chains nm-2. This value was nearly equal to the density obtained on silicon wafers (σ=0.24 chains nm-2), which is categorized into the concentrated brush regime. Finally, we mechanically cut the fibers with a concentrated poly(SSNa) brush by a homogenizer. With increasing cutting time, the fiber length became shorter and more homogenous (11±17 μm after 3 h). The shortened fibers exhibited excellent water dispersibility owing to the hydrophilic poly(SSNa) brush layer.

  4. [Shortening undergraduate medical training: now and for all medical schools in Chile?]. (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto


    In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors. PMID:26998976

  5. Moderate stem-cell telomere shortening rate postpones cancer onset in a stochastic model (United States)

    Holbek, Simon; Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe


    Mammalian cells are restricted from proliferating indefinitely. Telomeres at the end of each chromosome are shortened at cell division and when they reach a critical length, the cell will enter permanent cell cycle arrest—a state known as senescence. This mechanism is thought to be tumor suppressing, as it helps prevent precancerous cells from dividing uncontrollably. Stem cells express the enzyme telomerase, which elongates the telomeres, thereby postponing senescence. However, unlike germ cells and most types of cancer cells, stem cells only express telomerase at levels insufficient to fully maintain the length of their telomeres, leading to a slow decline in proliferation potential. It is not yet fully understood how this decline influences the risk of cancer and the longevity of the organism. We here develop a stochastic model to explore the role of telomere dynamics in relation to both senescence and cancer. The model describes the accumulation of cancerous mutations in a multicellular organism and creates a coherent theoretical framework for interpreting the results of several recent experiments on telomerase regulation. We demonstrate that the longest average cancer-free lifespan before cancer onset is obtained when stem cells start with relatively long telomeres that are shortened at a steady rate at cell division. Furthermore, the risk of cancer early in life can be reduced by having a short initial telomere length. Finally, our model suggests that evolution will favor a shorter than optimal average cancer-free lifespan in order to postpone cancer onset until late in life.

  6. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq) (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard


    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  7. Photo-induced irreversible shortening and swelling of isolated cochlear outer hair cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to UVR with or without intracellular fura-2 and to blue light in the presence of BCECF (irradiation intensities of 2-12 x 105 W/m2) cochlear outer hair cells shortened and swelled within 15-30 s, accompanied by the formation of numerous cytoplasmic granulations. The cellular reactions were significantly delayed to 3 min by the addition of 1 mM of the radical scavengers p-phenylenediamine or n-propyl gallate. This protection suggests that free radicals, produced under UVR or under blue light irradiation in the presence of the sensitizer BCECF, are possible causative agents of this cell damage. The response of photo-damaged cells, namely shortening and increase in volume, resembled characteristics of hair cells exposed to an hypo-osmotic shock. This suggests that structural alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane and the sub-membrane cortex occurred under photo-irradiation, and that these structures can be implicated in the maintenance of the elongated cylindrical shape of the outer hair cells, possibly by maintaining intracellular hyperosmolarity. (author)

  8. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment. (United States)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho


    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  9. Gold based bulk metallic glass


    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan


    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  10. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas


    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  11. Bulk dynamics for interfacial growth models


    López, Cristóbal; Santos, Fernando; Garrido, P. L.


    We study the influence of the bulk dynamics of a growing cluster of particles on the properties of its interface. First, we define a general bulk growth model by means of a continuum Master equation for the evolution of the bulk density field. This general model just considers an arbitrary addition of particles (though it can be easily generalized to consider subtraction) with no other physical restriction. The corresponding Langevin equation for this bulk density field is derived where the i...

  12. Shortened telomere length is associated with increased risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability, and telomere shortening is involved in initiation and progression of malignancies. A series of epidemiological studies have examined the association between shortened telomeres and risk of cancers, but the findings remain conflicting. METHODS: A dataset composed of 11,255 cases and 13,101 controls from 21 publications was included in a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between overall cancer risk or cancer-specific risk and the relative telomere length. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were further assessed by the χ(2-based Q statistic test and Egger's test, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that shorter telomeres were significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.60, compared with longer telomeres. In the stratified analysis by tumor type, the association remained significant in subgroups of bladder cancer (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.38-2.44, lung cancer (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.18-4.88, smoking-related cancers (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.83-2.78, cancers in the digestive system (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.53-1.87 and the urogenital system (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.12-2.67. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the association between the relative telomere length and overall cancer risk was statistically significant in studies of Caucasian subjects, Asian subjects, retrospective designs, hospital-based controls and smaller sample sizes. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested that there was no publication bias in the current meta-analysis (P = 0.532. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the presence of shortened telomeres may be a marker for susceptibility to human cancer, but single larger, well-design prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  13. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A


    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  14. Gold based bulk metallic glass (United States)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan


    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  15. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ∼350 Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry

  16. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  17. Irradiation shortens the survival time of red cells deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenasee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, M.P. (Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL); Wald, N.; Diloy-Puray, M.


    X radiation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient red cells causes distinct shortening of their survival time. This is accompanied by significant lowering of reduced glutathione content and is not observed in similarly prepared and treated normal cells. The damage is most likely related to irradiation-induced formation of activated oxygen products and to their subsequent effects on the cells. Neither methemoglobin increases nor Heinz body formation were observed, suggesting that hemolysis occurred prior to these changes. The study provides a model for examining the effects of irradiation and activated oxygen on red cells and suggests that patients with G6PD deficiency who receive irradiation could develop severe hemolysis in certain clinical settings.

  18. Irradiation shortens the survival time of red cells deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenasee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X radiation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient red cells causes distinct shortening of their survival time. This is accompanied by significant lowering of reduced glutathione content and is not observed in similarly prepared and treated normal cells. The damage is most likely related to irradiation-induced formation of activated oxygen products and to their subsequent effects on the cells. Neither methemoglobin increases nor Heinz body formation were observed, suggesting that hemolysis occurred prior to these changes. The study provides a model for examining the effects of irradiation and activated oxygen on red cells and suggests that patients with G6PD deficiency who receive irradiation could develop severe hemolysis in certain clinical settings

  19. To the problem of cross-bridge tension in steady muscle shortening and lengthening

    CERN Document Server

    Kokshenev, Valery B


    Despite the great success of the Huxley sliding filament model proposed half a century ago for actin-myosin linkages (cross-bridges), it fails to explain the force-velocity behavior of stretching skeletal muscles. Huxley's two-state kinetic equation for cross-bridge proportions is therefore reconsidered and a new solution to the problem of steady muscle eccentric and concentric contractions is reported. When the second law of statistical thermodynamics is applied to cross-bridge proportions, the weakly bound states appear to be correlated to the strongly bound states via structural and kinetic intrinsic muscle characteristics. The explicit force-velocity curve fits the empirical tension-velocity data on frog muscle shortening using only one adjustable parameter, while the Huxley model employed four parameters.

  20. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  1. Guidelines for Measuring Bulk Density of Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk density is defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of undisturbed soil. • Bulk density can be used to give an indication of the porosity and structure of the soil influencing O2 and H2O movement in the soil. • Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 may restrict root development. • Bulk density is also a measurement of the degree of compaction of the soil. • Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with soil depth. • Sandy soils tend to have higher bulk density (1.4-1.5 g/cm3) than clay soils (1.2-1/3g/cm3). The measurement of soil bulk density is carried out by collecting undisturbed soil samples through inserting metal rings (with a known volume) into the soil, and determining the weight of the collected soil after drying

  2. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollace Vincenzo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  3. A novel shortened electrospun nanofiber modified with a 'concentrated' polymer brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Yoshikawa, Kun Zhang, Ewelina Zawadzak and Hisatoshi Kobayashi


    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of shortened electrospun polymer fibers with a well-defined concentrated polymer brush. We first prepared electrospun nanofibers from a random copolymer of styrene and 4-vinylbenzyl 2-bromopropionate, with number-average molecular weight Mn=105 200 and weight-average molecular weight Mw=296 700 (Mw/Mn=2.82. The fibers had a diameter of 593±74 nm and contained initiating sites for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP. Then, SI-ATRP of hydrophilic styrene sodium sulfonate (SSNa was carried out in the presence of a free initiator and the hydrophobic fibers. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that Mn and Mw/Mn values were almost the same for free polymers and graft polymers. Mn agreed well with the theoretical prediction, and Mw/Mn was relatively low (<1.3 in all the examined cases, indicating that this polymerization proceeded in a living manner. Using the values of the graft amount measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the surface area, and Mn, we calculated the graft density σ as 0.22 chains nm−2. This value was nearly equal to the density obtained on silicon wafers (σ=0.24 chains nm−2, which is categorized into the concentrated brush regime. Finally, we mechanically cut the fibers with a concentrated poly(SSNa brush by a homogenizer. With increasing cutting time, the fiber length became shorter and more homogenous (11±17 μm after 3 h. The shortened fibers exhibited excellent water dispersibility owing to the hydrophilic poly(SSNa brush layer.

  4. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  5. New reconstruction algorithm allows shortened acquisition time for myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortening scan time and/or reducing radiation dose at maintained image quality are the main issues of the current research in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We aimed to validate a new iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm for SPECT MPI allowing shortened acquisition time (HALF time) while maintaining image quality vs. standard full time acquisition (FULL time). In this study, 50 patients, referred for evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease by SPECT MPI using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin, underwent 1-day adenosine stress 300 MBq/rest 900 MBq protocol with standard (stress 15 min/rest 15 min FULL time) immediately followed by short emission scan (stress 9 min/rest 7 min HALF time) on a Ventri SPECT camera (GE Healthcare). FULL time scans were processed with IR, short scans were additionally processed with a recently developed software algorithm for HALF time emission scans. All reconstructions were subsequently analyzed using commercially available software (QPS/QGS, Cedars Medical Sinai) with/without X-ray based attenuation correction (AC). Uptake values (percent of maximum) were compared by regression and Bland-Altman (BA) analysis in a 20-segment model. HALF scans yielded a 96% readout and 100% clinical diagnosis concordance compared to FULL. Correlation for uptake in each segment (n = 1,000) was r = 0.87at stress (p < 0.001) and r = 0.89 at rest (p < 0.001) with respective BA limits of agreement of -11% to 10% and -12% to 11%. After AC similar correlation (r = 0.82, rest; r = 0.80, stress, both p < 0.001) and BA limits were found (-12% to 10%; -13% to 12%). With the new IR algorithm, SPECT MPI can be acquired at half of the scan time without compromising image quality, resulting in an excellent agreement with FULL time scans regarding to uptake and clinical conclusion. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Drusano

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem, particularly with the advent of multi-drug resistance. Shortening therapy duration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major goal, requiring generation of optimal kill rate and resistance-suppression. Combination therapy is required to attain the goal of shorter therapy.Our objective was to identify a method for identifying optimal combination chemotherapy. We developed a mathematical model for attaining this end. This is accomplished by identifying drug effect interaction (synergy, additivity, antagonism for susceptible organisms and subpopulations resistant to each drug in the combination.We studied the combination of linezolid plus rifampin in our hollow fiber infection model. We generated a fully parametric drug effect interaction mathematical model. The results were subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to extend the findings to a population of patients by accounting for between-patient variability in drug pharmacokinetics.All monotherapy allowed emergence of resistance over the first two weeks of the experiment. In combination, the interaction was additive for each population (susceptible and resistant. For a 600 mg/600 mg daily regimen of linezolid plus rifampin, we demonstrated that >50% of simulated subjects had eradicated the susceptible population by day 27 with the remaining organisms resistant to one or the other drug. Only 4% of patients had complete organism eradication by experiment end.These data strongly suggest that in order to achieve the goal of shortening therapy, the original regimen may need to be changed at one month to a regimen of two completely new agents with resistance mechanisms independent of the initial regimen. This hypothesis which arose from the analysis is immediately testable in a clinical trial.

  7. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?


    Mendoza, L.; A. Richter; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Cogliano, D.; R. Dietrich; Fritsche, M.


    Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA ef...

  8. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains. (United States)

    Ernst, W G


    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (approximately 70 km) occur at 25 degrees south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile-Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25 degrees south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrain at 45 degrees south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (approximately 35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25 degrees south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  9. Telomere Length on Chromosome 17q Shortens More than Global Telomere Length in the Development of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Rashid-Kolvear


    Full Text Available It is known that total telomere length is shorter in invasive breast cancer than in normal breast tissue but the status of individual telomere lengths has not been studied. Part of the difficulty is that usually telomere length in interphase cells is measured on all chromosomes together. In this study we compared normal breast epithelium, duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and invasive duct carcinoma (IDC from 18 patients. Telomere length was specifically measured on chromosome 17q and was found to be shorter in DCIS and IDC than in normal breast epithelial cells, with more heterogeneity in telomere length in DCIS associated with IDC than in DCIS alone. More importantly, we found that the shortening of telomere on chromosome 17q is greater than the average shortening of all telomeres. This finding indicates that telomere shortening is not simply the result of the end replication problem; otherwise, all telomeres should be subjected to the same rate of telomere shortening. It seems there are mechanisms that preferentially erode some telomeres more than others or preferentially protect some chromosome ends. Our results suggest that the increased level of telomere shortening on 17q may be involved in chromosome instability and the progression of DCIS.

  10. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee


    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  11. Spectral Properties of the Martian Crustal Magnetic Field (United States)

    Lewis, K. W.; Simons, F. J.


    Although the planet Mars no longer possesses an internal dynamo, its crustal rocks retain strong remanent magnetization thought to have been induced by an ancient core-sourced field. The strength and distribution of the crustal field is extremely heterogeneous, and particularly strong in the Terra Cimmeria region of the southern hemisphere. The field as a whole is inconsistent with induction from a single dipolar source, although previous studies have attempted to isolate individual magnetic anomalies to deduce paleopolar orientations. While several areas of the planet appear to have been demagnetized, including large impact basins and the Tharsis volcanic province, the distribution of the field is generally poorly correlated with surface geologic structures. However, beyond the spatial pattern of crustal magnetization, the magnetic power spectrum can provide information about the nature of the source and formation processes. Previous studies have used the power spectrum of the Martian field to estimate the approximate depth of the magnetic anomalies. We extend this approach by applying the spatiospectral localization technique of Wieczorek and Simons (2005) and Dahlen and Simons (2008) to isolate the magnetic power spectra of several areas of the Martian surface. This method allows us to look beyond the strongly magnetized Terra Cimmeria region, which dominates the global power spectrum. Localized spectral estimates, along with their appropriate errors, allow us to examine the significance of observed variations between distinct regions of the planet, and to evaluate the validity of analyses which operate on the whole sphere. Significant differences are observed between spectra of the Terra Cimmeria region and the remainder of the planet, a result of the concentration of power at certain spherical harmonic degrees in this anomalous region. Approximate depths to the magnetic sources are calculated for tiled windows on the planet using the stochastic magnetized

  12. Magnetar Outbursts from Avalanches of Hall Waves and Crustal Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xinyu; Belovorodov, Andrei M


    We explore the interaction between Hall waves and mechanical failures inside a magnetar crust, using detailed one-dimentional models that consider temperature-sensitive plastic flow, heat transport and cooling by neutrino emission, as well as the coupling of the crustal motion to the magnetosphere. We find that the dynamics is enriched and accelerated by the fast, short-wavelength Hall waves that are emitted by each failure. The waves propagate and cause failures elsewhere, triggering avalanches. We argue that these avalanches are the likely sources of outbursts in transient magnetars.

  13. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.;


    During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...... compensated by the lateral extrusion of the central Eastern Alps. The Periadriatic (Insubric) line east of the triple junction and the mid-Hungarian fault zone have relatively recently lost their role as first-order active structures. We favor the idea that the Pannonian fragment and the TISZA block merged to...

  14. Crustal structure beneath China from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Chen, Youlin; Niu, Fenglin; Liu, Ruifeng; Huang, Zhibin; TkalčIć, Hrvoje; Sun, Li; Chan, Winston


    We collected and processed a large amount of high-quality broadband teleseismic waveform data recorded by the 48 Chinese National Digital Seismic Network stations to estimate large-scale lateral variations of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio (hence Poisson's ratio) beneath China. A statistical method was used to select mutually coherent receiver functions at each station, which yielded over 200 traces for most of the stations. With the conventional H-κ (the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio) approach, there is a large trade-off between H and κ. Consequently, multiple maxima are frequently observed in the H-κ domain. We introduced a weight function that measures the coherence between the P-to-S conversion and the reverberation phases at each H-κ grid to reduce the trade-off. A 4th-root stacking method was further applied to reduce uncorrelated noise relative to the linear stack. These modifications turned out to be very effective in reducing the H-κ trade-off and yielded reliable estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. The crust beneath eastern China is as thin as 31-33 km and the underlying Moho is relatively flat and sharp. In the western part of China, the crust is considerably thicker and shows large variations. The Moho is observed at about 51 km depth along the Tian Shan fold system and about 84 km deep beneath the central part of the Tibetan Plateau. The transition occurs at the so-called N-S belt between about 100° and 110°E, which is featured by unusually high seismicity and large gravity anomalies. The average Vp/Vs ratio over the mainland China crust is about 1.730 (σ = 0.249), significantly lower than the global average 1.78 (σ = 0.27) of the continental crust. This lower Vp/Vs ratio may suggest a general absence of mafic lowermost crustal layer beneath China.

  15. Deep Continental Crustal Earthquakes and Lithospheric Structure: A Global Synthesis (United States)

    Devlin, S.; Isacks, B. L.


    The distribution of earthquake depths within the continental crust defines the seismogenic thickness (TS), over which at least some part of crustal deformation is accommodated by rapid release of stored elastic strains. Intraplate continental seismicity is often thought to be restricted to the upper crust where TS is within the range of 15 to 20 km. This appears consistent with a lithospheric strength profile involving a weak, ductile lower crust located beneath a stronger, brittle upper crust. With the assumption of a strong uppermost mantle lid, this is often referred to the Jelly Sandwich model of lithosphere rheology. Studies in many places, however, document lower crustal earthquakes beneath continents in apparent disagreement with the model. We explore this and related issues through a survey of where and in what tectonic settings deep intraplate earthquakes are well documented in the continental crust. TS reaches Moho depth in many intraplate regions \\--- Sierra Nevada, Colorado Plateau, East African and Baikal Rift Systems, North Island New Zealand, Tien Shan, and the Andean and Alpine forelands. A review of possible deformation mechanisms which could control continental earthquake depth and facilitate seismicity beneath the brittle-ductile transition suggests that the influence of fluids is the only mechanism capable of encouraging earthquake occurrence throughout the continental crust at any tectonic setting. Surface derived fluids can induce pore fluid pressure changes to depths of 25 km and melt-reactions can induce earthquakes at depths throughout continental crust. On a global scale, fluid-enhanced embrittlement is not limited by depth or tectonic environment. We find that deep crustal earthquakes occur where the lithosphere is in a transitional state between primarily stable (e.g., shields) and highly deformed (e.g., U.S. Basin and Range or Southern California). Observations of relative intensity of tectonic deformation and regional percent strain

  16. Crustal Boundaries in the Southern MidContinent (United States)

    Gilbert, M. C.


    Four crustal boundaries appear to intersect in the area of southern Oklahoma and north-central Texas. These span the period 1.4Ga to 300Ma. Thus part of the EarthScope effort should be focussed on following these boundaries from where they are more simply displayed and known toward the area of intersection with the attempt to decipher how the lithosphere was created or modified during these 4 events. These events have effectively defined the southern boundary (in today's coordinates) of Laurentia and the North American Plate. The oldest of these events is a compressive plate margin recorded in geochemistry of the Arbuckle basement 3.9 to 3.7Ga by Lidiak and colleagues. This boundary marks the southern terminus of the Granite-Rhyolite Terrane, but does not seem widely appreciated. The next oldest of these events is the Grenville Suture (Llano Front) of west Texas whose age is ~1.0Ga. This suture marks the joining of the Texas Craton to Laurentia but it has not been well tracked to the intersection area. The next youngest event is the rifting represented by the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, which marks the departure of part of the Texas Craton to the present Precordillera of Argentina. This rifting event created the Paleozoic southern margin of North America, and now seems to be fairly well-defined at 540-525Ma, with the age of the Mount Scott Granite at 534 +/- 1.5Ma from Hogan, Wright, and Gilbert, as a specific tie point. The last event is the Ouachita closure at 350-300Ma. Crustal structure of the eastern part of this boundary is perhaps best known through the work of COCORP and Keller and associates. Although work has been done on each of these boundaries to the sides of the intersection area, the crustal structure and lithosphere of the intersection area itself has not been well studied. The upper crust of the area is known extremely well because of its famous petroleum potential, but the lower crust and upper mantle have been largely ignored. A crustal model

  17. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky


    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  18. Constraints on plateau architecture and assembly from deep crustal xenoliths, northern Altiplano (SE Peru) (United States)

    Chapman, Alan; Ducea, Mihai; McQuarrie, Nadine; Coble, Matthew; Petrescu, Lucian; Hoffman, Derek


    northernmost Altiplano at ~30-40 km below the surface. Together, these results indicate that crustal thickening under the northernmost Altiplano started earlier than major latest Oligocene and Miocene uplift episodes affecting the region and was coeval with a flat slab-related regional episode of deformation. Total shortening must have been at least 20% more than previous estimates in order to satisfy the basement to cover depth constraints provided by the xenolith data. Sedimentary rocks at >30 km paleodepth require that Andean basement thrusts decapitated earlier Triassic normal faults, trapping Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks below the main décollement. Magma loading from intense Cenozoic plutonism within the plateau probably played an additional role in transporting Mesozoic cover rocks to >30 km and thickening the crust beneath the northern Altiplano.

  19. Quaternary N-S shortening across the Garlock fault in Pilot Knob Valley, California (United States)

    Rittase, W. M.; Walker, J. D.; Kirby, E.; McDonald, E.; Gosse, J.; Spencer, J. Q.; Wan, E.; Herrs, A. J.


    New constraints on differential vertical motions along the Garlock fault (GF) in eastern Pilot Knob Valley (PKV) provide insight into the interactions between the Panamint Valley fault system (PVFS) and the GF. The nature of strain transfer between orthogonal active fault systems such as occurs where faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone apparently accommodate dextral shear both north and south of the sinistral GF is a question of first-order importance for both the dynamics of deforming lithosphere and hazard. New mapping (based on field as well as both airborne and ground-based LiDAR) and chronology of Quaternary deposits exposed along the GF place bounds on the vertical components of recent deformation and include: (1) 2 10Be depth profiles, (2) soil descriptions and (3) tephrochronologic correlation of Quaternary volcanic deposits. Here we focus on two terrace treads adjacent to the GF and one adjacent to the southern Slate Range (SSR), which are displaced vertically relative to base-level. Uplift of the two terraces adjacent to the GF are inferred from modern stream channel incisions. A ~46 ka 10Be profile age for a 16-m-high terrace tread adjacent to the GF suggests a minimum differential uplift rate of ~0.34 mm/yr. A ~56 ka 10Be profile age from a 12.5-m-high tread located 4.5 km west on the GF suggests a differential uplift rate of ~0.22 mm/yr. A 25.5-m-high terrace adjacent to the SSR was dated via TCN, OSL and PDI. Acquiring reliable TCN and OSL data were problematic here. However, a soil PDI age estimate of ~164 ka brackets the maximum age of uplift and thus a minimum uplift rate of ~0.16 mm/yr here. Tephrochronologic data bracket the minimum age of the PKV at ~0.7 Ma (new unit). These sediments sit up to 430 m above the modern PKV floor. If faults controlling ~430 m of uplifted PKV sediments dip 70-80°, 155-76 m of N-S shortening is expected between the GF and SSR. A long-term uplift rate of ~0.61 mm/yr and N-S shortening rate of 0.22-0.11 mm

  20. Mechanisms and Magnitude of Cenozoic Crustal Extension in the Vicinity of Lake Mead, Nevada and the Beaver Dam Mountains, Utah: Geochemical, Geochronological,Thermochronological and Geophysical Constraints (United States)

    Almeida, Rafael V.

    The central Basin and Range Province of Nevada and Utah was one of the first areas in which the existence of widespread low-angle normal faults or detachments was first recognized. The magnitude of associated crustal extension is estimated by some to be large, in places increasing original line lengths by as much as a factor of four. However, rock mechanics experiments and seismological data cast doubt on whether these structures slipped at low inclination in the manner generally assumed. In this dissertation, I review the evidence for the presence of detachment faults in the Lake Mead and Beaver Dam Mountains areas and place constraints on the amount of extension that has occurred there since the Miocene. Chapter 1 deals with the source-provenance relationship between Miocene breccias cropping out close to Las Vegas, Nevada and their interpreted source at Gold Butte, currently located 65 km to the east. Geochemical, geochronological and thermochronological data provide support for that long-accepted correlation, though with unexpected mismatches requiring modification of the original hypothesis. In Chapter 2, the same data are used to propose a refinement of the timing of ~1.45 Ga anorogenic magmatism, and the distribution of Proterozoic crustal boundaries. Chapter 3 uses geophysical methods to address the subsurface geometry of faults along the west flank of the Beaver Dam Mountains of southwestern Utah. The data suggest that the range is bounded by steeply inclined normal faults rather than a regional-scale detachment fault. Footwall folding formerly ascribed to Miocene deformation is reinterpreted as an expression of Cretaceous crustal shortening. Fission track data presented in Chapter 4 are consistent with mid-Miocene exhumation adjacent to high-angle normal faults. They also reveal a protracted history dating back to the Pennsylvanian-Permian time, with implications for the interpretation of other basement-cored uplifts in the region. A key finding of this

  1. Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves and crustal structure in northern Italy (United States)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.


    Horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratio of elliptically-polarised ground motion of Rayleigh waves depends on the local crustal structure. Its measurement therefore adds another, seldom used, tool to image shallow earth structure. Frequency-dependent sensitivity kernels are dominated by shear-wave velocity and are rather shallow, so they are a convenient tool to model sedimentary layers that nicely complement surface wave studies. We perform extensive measurements, in the period range between 10 and 110 s, on traces from about 500 globally-distributed earthquakes, occurred in years 2008 ÷ 2014, recorded by 95 stations in northern Italy - - a region including the wide basin of the Po Plain and encircling Alps and northern Apennines. The observations are well correlated with known strucure: high ellipticity correlates well with low seismic velocity (such as in the Po Plain), and low ellipticity corresponds to fast seismic velocity in hard rock environments in correspondence of Alps and Apennines. Comparison between observations and predicted ellipticity from a reference crustal model of the region (Molinari et al., 2015) shows substantial fit. Sensitivity to vS is quite non linear, but inversion is possible and may provide very useful complementary information to, e.g., surface wave phase or group velocity or receiver functions.

  2. Gravitational radiation from neutron stars deformed by crustal Hall drift

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorov, Arthur George; Geppert, Ulrich


    A precondition for the radio emission of pulsars is the existence of strong, small-scale magnetic field structures (`magnetic spots') in the polar cap region. Their creation can proceed via crustal Hall drift out of two qualitatively and quantitatively different initial magnetic field configurations: a field confined completely to the crust and another which penetrates the whole star. The aim of this study is to explore whether these magnetic structures in the crust can deform the star sufficiently to make it an observable source of gravitational waves. We model the evolution of these field configurations, which can develop, within $\\sim 10^4$ -- $10^5$ yr, magnetic spots with local surface field strengths $\\sim 10^{14}$ G maintained over $\\gtrsim 10^6$ yr. Deformations caused by the magnetic forces are calculated. We show that, under favourable initial conditions, a star undergoing crustal Hall drift can have ellipticity $\\epsilon\\sim 10^{-6}$, even with sub-magnetar polar field strengths, after $\\sim 10^5$ ...

  3. Gravitational radiation from neutron stars deformed by crustal Hall drift (United States)

    Suvorov, A. G.; Mastrano, A.; Geppert, U.


    A precondition for the radio emission of pulsars is the existence of strong, small-scale magnetic field structures (`magnetic spots') in the polar cap region. Their creation can proceed via crustal Hall drift out of two qualitatively and quantitatively different initial magnetic field configurations: a field confined completely to the crust and another which penetrates the whole star. The aim of this study is to explore whether these magnetic structures in the crust can deform the star sufficiently to make it an observable source of gravitational waves. We model the evolution of these field configurations, which can develop, within ˜104-105 yr, magnetic spots with local surface field strengths ˜1014 G maintained over ≳106 yr. Deformations caused by the magnetic forces are calculated. We show that, under favourable initial conditions, a star undergoing crustal Hall drift can have ellipticity ɛ ˜ 10-6, even with sub-magnetar polar field strengths, after ˜105 yr. A pulsar rotating at ˜102 Hz with such ɛ is a promising gravitational wave source candidate. Since such large deformations can be caused only by a particular magnetic field configuration that penetrates the whole star and whose maximum magnetic energy is concentrated in the outer core region, gravitational wave emission observed from radio pulsars can thus inform us about the internal field structures of young neutron stars.

  4. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine


    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  5. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  6. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  7. Influence of joint angular velocity on electrically evoked concentric force potentiation induced by stretch-shortening cycle in young adults


    Fukutani, Atsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Isaka, Tadao


    Background During a stretch- shortening cycle (SSC), muscle force attained during concentric contractions (shortening phase) is potentiated by the preceding eccentric contractions (lengthening phase). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of joint angular velocity on force potentiation induced by SSC (SSC effect). Findings Twelve healthy men (age, 24.2 ± 3.2 years; height, 1.73 ± 0.05 m; body mass, 68.1 ± 11.0 kg) participated in this study. Ankle joint angle was passively mo...

  8. Simultaneous Radial Lengthening and Ulnar Shortening for a Delayed Presentation of Radius Distal Physeal Arrest: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Uzun


    Full Text Available Distal radius fractures are common injuries in both children and in the elderly (25%; 18%. Distal radius physeal fractures have a high incidence, but physeal growth arrest occurs at a low rate. As a main deformity, radial shortening occurs with relative ulnar overgrowth leading to significant complaints of pain and functional limitations after distal radial growth arrest. In this paper we aim to report on the restoration of the wrist mechanics attained by performing a surgical technique of simultaneous radial lengthening and ulnar shortening procedures in an adolescent with a significant ulnar overgrowth deformity due to a posttraumatic growth arrest of distal radius.

  9. Spinal shortening and monosegmental posterior spondylodesis in the management of dorsal and lumbar unstable injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A Aly


    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with spinal injuries have been treated in the past by laminectomy in an attempt to decompress the spinal cord. The results have shown insignificant improvement or even a worsening of neurologic function and decreased stability without effectively removing the anterior bone and disc fragments compressing the spinal cord. The primary indication for anterior decompression and grafting is narrowing of the spinal canal with neurologic deficits that cannot be resolved by any other approach. One must think of subsequent surgical intervention for increased stability and compressive posterior fusion with short-armed internal fixators. Aim: To analyze the results and efficacy of spinal shortening combined with interbody fusion technique for the management of dorsal and lumbar unstable injuries. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with traumatic fractures and or fracture-dislocation of dorsolumbar spine with neurologic deficit are presented. All had radiologic evidence of spinal cord or cauda equina compression, with either paraplegia or paraparesis. Patients underwent recapping laminoplasty in the thoracic or lumbar spine for decompression of spinal cord. The T-saw was used for division of the posterior elements. After decompression of the cord and removal of the extruded bone fragments and disc material, the excised laminae were replaced exactly in situ to their original anatomic position. Then application of a compression force via monosegmental transpedicular fixation was done, allowing vertebral end-plate compression and interbody fusion. Results: Lateral Cobb angle (T10-L2 was reduced from 26 to 4 degrees after surgery. The shortened vertebral body united and no or minimal loss of correction was seen. The preoperative vertebral kyphosis averaged +17 degrees and was corrected to +7 degrees at follow-up with the sagittal index improving from 0.59 to 0.86. The segmental local kyphosis was reduced from +15 degrees to −3

  10. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq


    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  11. Development of a Single-Crystal Mineral Elasticity Database and Applications to Crustal and Upper Mantle Mineralogy (United States)

    Duffy, T. S.


    The single-crystal elastic stiffness tensor fully characterizes the anisotropic elastic response of minerals. An understanding of how such elastic properties vary with pressure, temperature, structure, and composition are needed to interpret seismic data for the Earth. Additionally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. A database of single-crystal elastic properties of minerals and related phases is being assembled. This dataset currently incorporates over 400 sets of elastic constant measurements on more than 270 separate phases. In addition to compiling the individual elastic stiffnesses, the database also allows calculation of a variety of additional properties including anisotropy factors, bulk and linear compressibilities, and stability criteria, as well as evaluation of aggregate properties including bounds and averages of bulk, shear, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and elastic wave speeds. Extensions of the database to include high pressure and high temperature data as well as theoretical calculations are being planned. Examples of application of this database to geophysical problems will be highlighted. Specific applications to be discussed include: 1) variation of elastic anisotropy with pressure for mantle and crustal minerals; 2) evaluation of elasticity data for pyroxenes revealing major structural and chemical controls on elasticity as well as remaining ambiguities and uncertainties.

  12. Designing cobalt chromium removable partial dentures for patients with shortened dental arches: a pilot survey. (United States)

    Nassani, M Z; Devlin, H; Tarakji, B; McCord, J F


    The aim of this survey was to investigate the quality of prescription for the fabrication of cobalt chromium removable partial dentures (RPDs) that are used to extend the shortened dental arches (SDAs). A survey of four commercial dental laboratories located in northern England was conducted. The target of this survey was cobalt chromium RPDs that were requested to restore SDAs comprising the anterior teeth and 2-4 premolars. Dentists' prescriptions were scrutinised, and a special data collection form was completed accordingly. A total of 94 dentists' prescriptions and associated SDA casts were examined. Almost all the requested cobalt chromium RPDs were clasp-retained RPDs (97%). Scrutinising the 91 prescriptions for clasp-retained cobalt chromium RPDs showed that dentists' prescriptions did not have any instructions about the design of the partial denture in a considerable proportion of the cases (32%). Teeth to be clasped were identified clearly in 45% of the prescriptions. A majority of the dentists (64%) failed to provide any instructions about the design of the rests to be placed on the most posterior premolar abutment teeth. A considerable proportion of the dentists delegated the task of selecting the type of the major connector to the dental technician (41%). Only 21 (23%) of the examined casts had clearly defined rest seat preparation. The outcome of this pilot survey shows inadequate quality of prescription in designing RPDs for patients with SDAs. This finding has an ethical and clinical bearing and does not fit with current legal guidelines relevant to designing RPDs. PMID:21175736

  13. Exhumation of metamorphic rocks in N Aegean: the path from shortening to extension and extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lacassin


    Full Text Available The Olympos-Ossa-Pelion (OOP ranges, in NW Aegean, encompass Greece highest summit and are located near the extremity of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF. Structural and thermochronological data gathered in the OOP ranges show that the main exhumation of metamorphic nappes occurred in the Eocene, at ca. 43–39 Ma. This early exhumation, associated with ductile, then brittle-ductile normal faulting with northeastward transport, is nearly coeval with orogenic shortening in the close area. Cooling rates, and likely exhumation, have been low between ~40 Ma and ~20 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar crystallization ages (between 20 and 15 Ma appears related to brittle-ductile normal faulting and likely associated with the onset of Aegean back-arc extension. The dating of a diabase dyke, and the geometry of associated brittle jointing, of onshore and offshore active normal faults imply a shift in extension direction after 4 Ma. Such a shift is probably related the propagation of the NAF in northern Aegean known to have occurred around 5 Ma.

  14. Microbial metabolism induced chain shortening of polyacrylamide with assistance of bioelectricity generation. (United States)

    Sun, Min; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Cui, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jun


    The water-soluble polyacrylamide (PAM) can accumulate in ecosystems and cause serious environmental pollution. Biological approach achieves poor PAM degradation efficiency, due to the extreme resistance of PAM to the microbial metabolism. In the present work, the potential of bioelectrochemical system (BES) as an effective tool to degrade the PAM is adequately evaluated. The closed-circuit operation of BES obtains COD removal efficiencies of 29.2 and 33.6 % for the PAM and polyacrylic acid (PAA), respectively. In comparison, 4.3 and 2.7 % of COD are removed after the PAM and PAA are treated in the open-circuit BES, and 7.3 and 6.6 % are removed in the aerobic BES. These results suggest the bioelectricity generation is crucial to trigger the activity of bioanode for the effective degradation of PAM. Bioelectricity generation not only favors the decomposition of carbon backbone but also facilitates the hydrolysis of amide group in the side-chain of PAM. Microbial attack on the carbon backbone of PAM is proposed to initiate at the head-to-head linkage, resulting in the formation of ether bond within the shortened carbon chain. The Ignavibacterium sp. and phenotypically uncharacterized bacteria are classified as the dominant species on the anode of PAM-fed BES. PMID:26971512

  15. A shortened common foundation programme for graduates--the students' experience of student-centred learning. (United States)

    Jasper, M A


    This paper examines the students' experience of student-centred teaching and learning strategies within a shortened Common Foundation Programme (CFP) for Graduates. The perceptions of 'student-centreness' and its use as experienced by the students is addressed using material generated from on-going research using new-paradigm methodology within an action research framework. Graduates enter nurse training from the background of a subject area and possessing the academic skills required to access and assimilate knowledge effectively. These qualities underpin the design of this course, which concentrates on enabling the students to achieve the learning outcomes of the CFP within a flexible structure concentrating on skill acquisition and reflective practice according to the needs of the individual. The differing expectations of the course, the need for clear, externally set objectives, and the question of the ability of the students to self-motivate arise as the pertinent issues from the evaluation. These are discussed with reference to the students perceived needs, levels of achievement and differing learning styles. The author concludes that student-centred methods are appropriate for nurse education, but that these have significant implications for course design, course content and staff development, if the course is to satisfy both students and teachers. PMID:7968970

  16. A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz


    The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  18. The implementation of an Intensive Care Information System allows shortening the ICU length of stay. (United States)

    Levesque, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Azoulay, Daniel; Ichai, Philippe; Samuel, Didier; Saliba, Faouzi


    Intensive care information systems (ICIS) implemented in intensive care unit (ICU) were shown to improve patient safety, reduce medical errors and increase the time devolved by medical/nursing staff to patients care. Data on the real impact of ICIS on patient outcome are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ICIS on the outcome of critically-ill patients. From January 2004 to August 2006, 1,397 patients admitted to our ICU were enrolled in this observational study. This period was divided in two phases: before the implementation of ICIS (BEFORE) and after implementation of ICIS (AFTER). We compared standard ICU patient's outcomes: mortality, length of stay in ICU, hospital stay, and the re-admission rate depending upon BEFORE and AFTER. Although patients admitted AFTER were more severely ill than those of BEFORE (SAPS II: 32.1±17.5 vs. 30.5±18.5, p=0.014, respectively), their ICU length of stay was significantly shorter (8.4±15.2 vs. 6.8±12.9 days; p=0.048) while the re-admission rate and mortality rate were similar (4.4 vs. 4.2%; p=0.86, and 9.6 vs 11.2% p=0.35, respectively) in patients admitted AFTER. We observed that the implementation of ICIS allowed shortening of ICU length of stay without altering other patient outcomes. PMID:24973014

  19. IL-12 enhances efficacy and shortens enrichment time in cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy (United States)

    Helms, Mike W.; Prescher, Jennifer A.; Cao, Yu-An; Schaffert, Steven


    Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are T cell derived ex vivo expanded cells with both NK and T cell properties. They exhibit potent anti-tumor efficacy against various malignancies in preclinical models and have proven safe and effective in clinical studies. We combined CIK cell adoptive immunotherapy with IL-12 cytokine immunotherapy in an immunocompetent preclinical breast cancer model. Combining CIK cells with IL-12 increased anti-tumor efficacy in vivo compared to either therapy alone. Combination led to full tumor remission and long-term protection in 75% of animals. IL-12 treatment sharply increased the anti-tumor efficacy of short-term cultured CIK cells that exhibited no therapeutic effect alone. Bioluminescence imaging based in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo homing assays revealed that short-term cultured CIK cells exhibit full cytotoxicity in vitro, but display different tumor homing properties than fully expanded CIK cells in vivo. Our data suggest that short-term cultured CIK cells can be “educated” in vivo, producing fully expanded CIK cells upon IL-12 administration with anti-tumor efficacy in a mouse model. Our findings demonstrate the potential to improve current CIK cell-based immunotherapy by increasing efficacy and shortening ex vivo expansion time. This holds promise for a highly efficacious cancer therapy utilizing synergistic effects of cytokine and cellular immunotherapy. PMID:20532883

  20. Bose-condensate tunneling dynamics: momentum-shortened pendulum with damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well trap, as well 3He-B baths connected by micropores, have been shown to exhibit Josephson-like tunneling phenomena. Unlike the superconductor Josephson junction of phase difference φ that maps onto a rigid pendulum of energy cos(φ), these systems map onto a momentum-shortened pendulum of energy - √1-pφ2 cos(φ) and length √1-pφ2, where pφ is a population imbalance between the wells/baths. We study here the effect of damping on the four distinct modes of the nonrigid pendulum, characterized by distinct temporal mean values, and φ>. Damping is shown to produce different decay trajectories to the final equilibrium φ=0=pφ state that are characteristic dynamic signatures of the initial oscillation modes. In particular, damping causes π-state oscillations with =π to increase in amplitude and pass through phase-slip states, before equilibrating. Similar behavior has been seen in 3He-B experiments. (author)

  1. Breeding of shortening of generation cycles for a faster bambara groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manipulation of generation cycles for a faster breeding of food legumes through in vitro culture systems is an attractive but technically challenging goal. We report here, for the first time, that generation cycles were drastically shortened in the food legume Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) to be of value in breeding programmes when in vitro and in vivo strategies were used. Thus, we used a greenhouse strategy as the control system and an in vitro plus in vivo strategy with various Bambara landraces. Using in vitro plus in vivo system and embryo axis explants, we obtained more than four generations per year as compared to 1 or <2 generations in the control field/greenhouse system. The landraces of Bambara groundnut tested slightly differed in their generation cycle responses, but plants obtained through in vitro plus in vivo systems were morphologically normal and fertile, as their progeny. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to use in vitro and in vivo strategies to significantly reduce the duration of generation cycles in Bambara groundnut, thus offering novel and viable strategies for breeding of this important crop. (author)

  2. Urban environment shortens telomere length in nestling great tits, Parus major. (United States)

    Salmón, P; Nilsson, J F; Nord, A; Bensch, S; Isaksson, C


    Urban environments are expanding rapidly, and with urbanization come both challenges and opportunities for wildlife. Challenges include combating the anthropogenic disturbances such as light, noise and air pollution and lower availability of natural food sources. The benefits are many, including the availability of anthropogenic food sources, breeding boxes and warmer temperatures. Thus, depending on the context, urbanization can have both positive and negative effects on fitness related traits. It is well known that early-life conditions can have lifelong implications on fitness; little is however known about development in urban environments. We reciprocally cross-fostered urban and rural nestling great tits (Parus major L.) to study how growing up in an urban versus rural habitat affected telomere length (TL)-a suggested biomarker of longevity. We show, for the first time, that growing up in an urban environment significantly shortens TL, independently of natal origin (i.e. urban or rural). This implies that the urban environment imposes a challenge to developing birds, with potentially irreversible effects on lifespan. PMID:27303051

  3. Update: Shortened Interval for Postvaccination Serologic Testing of Infants Born to Hepatitis B-Infected Mothers. (United States)

    Schillie, Sarah; Murphy, Trudy V; Fenlon, Nancy; Ko, Stephen; Ward, John W


    Infants born to hepatitis B-infected mothers receive postexposure prophylaxis to reduce their risk for perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Postexposure prophylaxis consists of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin administered within 12 hours of birth, followed by completion of the 3-dose or 4-dose HepB vaccine series. Postvaccination serologic testing (PVST) assesses an infant's response to HepB vaccination and has typically occurred at age 9-18 months. This report provides a CDC update recommending shortening the interval for PVST from age 9-18 months to age 9-12 months. Providers should order PVST (consisting of hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] and antibody to HBsAg [anti-HBs]) for infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers at age 9-12 months (or 1-2 months after the final dose of the vaccine series, if the series is delayed). This recommendation was prompted by the discontinuation of production of Hib/HepB vaccine (Comvax) and new data from the Enhanced Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program supporting PVST 1・2 months after receipt of the last HepB vaccine dose, and at age ≥9 months. PMID:26447601

  4. Chemical protection against life shortening and radio-induced leukemias and cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantage gained on the long term survival and the induction of leukemias and cancers in mice exposed to a single dose of ionizing radiation by a combination of radiochemical protectors, are examined. The results show clearly that chemical protective compounds protect mice against radiation-induced life-shortening, They demonstrate also that the obtained protection was improved by combination of various protectors acting in a supplementary manner. The optimum dose reduction factor obtained was 1.5 for AET and about 2 for a mixture of 5 radioprotectors. These dose reduction factors are lower than those offered with these two treatments against the acute effects of ionizing radiation. In addition, the dose effect curve for the long term survival obtained for irradiated untreated mice and for mice treated with a mixture of radioprotectors are not parallel. Thus, the dose reduction factors vary with the X-ray dose administered. The best protection was achieved for X-ray doses from 500 to 1000 R. After an exposure to 100 R (BALB/c+ mice) and 350 R (C5781 mice) of X-rays, the total incidence of leukemias and cancers was significantly lower in treated irradiated mice than in non treated mice


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Despite the great success, seminal Huxley's sliding filament model broadly fails to explain the steady state behavior of stretched activated skeletal muscles. Here, a new self-consistent solution to the fundamental kinetic equation for the distribution of actin-myosin linkages (cross-bridges is proposed in light of the generalized thermodynamic theory of fluctuations, thus substituting the transition state theory traditionally used for the transition rates. The unified description for mechanism of the force output in both shortening and stretching regimes is attributed to the interplay between the uniformly-state distributed, thermodynamically equilibrated myosin heads attached to actin filaments and asymmetrically-state distributed, mechanically equilibrated rotating myosin heads. The crossover between two steady regimes is associated with a reconstruction of the cross-bridge domains and change their attach-detach rates, leaving unchanged basic mechanical characteristics. Theory suggests a unified generic force-velocity equation, using only a single combination of the cross-bridge parameters for each regime, while Huxley's approach (1957 as well as its subsequent modifications, requires four adjustable parameters to fit the same data.

  6. Tooth loss as a predictor of shortened longevity: exploring the hypothesis. (United States)

    Friedman, Paula K; Lamster, Ira B


    Many factors contribute to human tooth loss, including oral hygiene practices, trauma, smoking, health status, socio-economic status and individual preferences. Loss of teeth impairs quality-of-life measures, including the eating of most foods that require full masticatory function. A recent study of centenarians found that at age 65-74 years, those who lived to be 100 had a lower rate of edentulism than did younger members of their birth cohort at ages 65-74 years. Oral health was consistent with compression of morbidity toward the end of life. This article explores the hypothesis that factors associated with oral disease and noncommunicable diseases may increase the risk of tooth loss and lead to diminished longevity as a result of multifactorial interactions. It specifically addresses two critical questions. The first is: 'Can we conclude that the number of teeth in aging humans can affect longevity and life expectancy?' The answer is yes. The second is: 'Is tooth loss a predictor of shortened longevity?' Again, the answer is yes. Edentulism and partial edentulism are discussed as a disability, and how the philosophy/belief systems of dental providers and patients toward retaining teeth influences the outcome of tooth loss is also examined. Osteoporosis and cognitive impairment provide examples of modifying risk factors. PMID:27501497

  7. Response of tibialis anterior tendon to a chronic exposure of stretch-shortening cycles: age effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Brent B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of aging on tendon response to repetitive exposures of stretch-shortening cycles (SSC's. Methods The left hind limb from young (3 mo, N = 4 and old (30 mo, N = 9 male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were exposed to 80 maximal SSCs (60 deg/s, 50 deg range of motion 3x/week for 4.5 weeks in vivo. After the last exposure, tendons from the tibialis anterior muscle were isolated, stored at -80°C, and then tested using a micro-mechanical testing machine. Deformation of each tendon was evaluated using both relative grip-to-grip displacements and reference marks via a video system. Results At failure, the young control tendons had higher strain magnitude than the young exposed (p Conclusion The chronic protocol enhanced the elastic stiffness of young tendon and the loads in both the young and old tendons. The old exposed tendons were found to exhibit higher load capacity than their younger counterparts, which differed from our initial hypothesis.

  8. A signal combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz


    The cooperative relaying process needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems, e.g. wireless sensor networks where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination can capture the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  9. Stability of lower limb minimal perceptible difference in floor height during hopping stretch-shortening cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate a novel proprioceptive test, the minimal perceptible difference (MPD) test, that assessed participants' ability to perceive floor height changes whilst hopping. Sixteen healthy volunteers performed multiple trials of five hops on a custom built sleigh apparatus that permitted a floor height change (range 3 –48 mm) or no change, as dictated by a structured searching algorithm. Minimum detected surface height change was recorded for eight different hopping conditions (factors–technique: alternate/bilateral hopping; side: dominant/non-dominant; direction of change: up/down) over two separate testing occasions. Within day and between day reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals. The only factor which significantly influenced the sensitivity of subjects to detect changes in floor height was the hopping technique (bilateral or alternate). The mean MPD was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) for the bilateral hopping technique (MPDmean = 15.7 mm) when compared to the alternate hopping technique (MPDmean = 26.6 mm). All bilateral hopping techniques yielded moderate to high ICC for within (0.60–0.79) and between day (0.67–0.88) reliability. The results suggest that the bilateral hopping MPD assessment is a reliable, functional assessment of proprioception sensitivity during repeated stretch-shortening cycles that may better reflect human gait than established static assessment. Increased sensitivity to detection during bilateral hopping may reflect strategy dependent utility of proprioceptive information. (paper)

  10. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.

  11. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon

  12. The seismogenic zone of the continental crust in Northwest Iberia and its relation to crustal structure (United States)

    Llana-Fúnez, Sergio; López-Fernández, Carlos


    The distribution of seismicity at the western end of the Cantabrian mountain range (NW Iberia), reflecting current crustal dynamics, is investigated integrating seismically active structures, long-term structures, and the topographic features at the surface. The thickness of the seismogenic zone within the continental crust is established in 20 km. Two crustal domains can be distinguished in the study area in terms of the seismicity pattern, the style of Alpine structures and the relief. The presence of crustal fluids arises as a very likely contributing factor to the excessive thickness of the seismogenic zone in the study area. More importantly, a switch in tectonic style at the transition between crustal domains in coincidence with the lateral termination of orogenic frontal thrusts is envisaged as involving sufficient stress heterogeneity and amplification to explain the current concentration and characteristic pattern of historical seismicity in the region. Overall, the distribution of seismicity in the crust is sensitive to the type and style of crustal structures.

  13. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles. (United States)

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V


    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy. PMID:17792016

  14. Continental Lower-crustal Flow: Channel Flow and Laminar Flow (United States)

    LI, Dewei

    Numerous geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations and finite element modeling indicate that crustal flow layers exist in the continental crust. Both channel flow model and laminar flow model have been created to explain the flow laws and flow mechanisms. As revealed by the channel flow model, a low-viscosity channel in middle to lower crust in orogen or plateau with thick crust and high elevation would flow outward from mountain root in response to lateral pressure gradient resulted from topographic loading or to denudation. However, according to the laminar flow model proposed based on investigation of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, circulative movement of crustal lithologies with different rheological properties between basin and orogen would occur, under the driving forces resulted from dehydration and melting of subduction plate on active continental margin and from thermal energy related to upwelling and diapiring of intercontinental mantle plume or its gravitational interactions. Similarly, when driven by gravity, the softened or melted substances of the lower crust in a basin would flow laterally toward adjacent mountain root, which would result in a thinned basin crust and a thickened orogenic crust. Partially melted magma within the thickened orogenic lower crust would cause vertical movement of metamorphic rocks of lower to middle crust due to density inversion, and the vertical main stress induced by thermal underplating of lower crust would in turn lead to formation of metamorphic core complexes and low-angle detachment fault systems. Lateral spreading of uplifting mountain due to gravitation potential would result in thrust fault systems on the border between mountain and basin. Meanwhile, detritus produced synchronously by intense erosion of uplifting mountain would be transported and deposited along the marginal deep depression in the foreland basin dragged by lower crust flow. Channel flow is similar to laminar flow in a variety of aspects

  15. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  16. 3'UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonit Hoffman


    Full Text Available Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA sites and hence diverse 3'UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3'UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3'UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3'UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3'UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes.

  17. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  18. Multi-carrier Equalization by Restoration of RedundancY (MERRY) for Adaptive Channel Shortening in Multi-carrier Systems


    Samir Abd Elghafar; Salaheldin M. Diab; Sallam, Bassiouny M.; Moawad I. Dessouky; El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie; Fathi E. Abd El-Samie


    This paper proposes a new blind adaptive channel shortening approach for multi-carrier systems. Theperformance of the discrete Fourier transform-DMT (DFT-DMT) system is investigated with the proposedDST-DMT system over the standard carrier serving area (CSA) loop1. Enhanced bit rates demonstratedand less complexity also involved by the simulationof the DST-DMT system.

  19. Trade-off between stress shielding and initial stability on an anatomical cementless stem shortening: in-vitro biomechanical study. (United States)

    Yamako, Go; Chosa, Etsuo; Totoribe, Koji; Watanabe, Shinji; Sakamoto, Takero


    Shortened cementless femoral stems have become popular with the advent of minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA). Successful THA requires initial stem stability and prevention of stress shielding-mediated bone loss, although the effect of stem shortening is controversial. Here we experimentally examined whether stem shortening affects stress shielding and initial stability. Anatomical stems (length, 120 mm) were cut to an 80 mm or 50 mm length. Ten tri-axial strain gauges measured the cortical strain on each stem-implanted femur to evaluate stress shielding. Two transducers measured axial relative displacement and rotation under single-leg stance loading. The 50 mm stem increased the equivalent strains with respect to the original stem in the proximal calcar region (31.0% relative to intact strain), proximal medial region (63.1%), and proximal lateral region (53.9%). In contrast, axial displacement and rotation increased with a decreasing stem length. However, the axial displacement of the 50 mm stem was below a critical value of 150 µm for bone ingrowth. Our findings indicate that, with regard to a reduction in stem length, there is a tradeoff between stress shielding and initial stability. Shortening the stem up to 50 mm can promote proximal load transfer, but bone loss would be inevitable, even with sufficient initial stability for long-term fixation. PMID:26117334

  20. An Examination of the Stretch-Shortening Cycle of the Dorsiflexors and Evertors in Uninjured and Functionally Unstable Ankles


    Porter, Gary K.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Hatzel, Brian; Powers, Michael E.; Horodyski, MaryBeth


    Objective: To determine if there were differences in concentric peak torque/body-weight (PT/BW) ratios and concentric time to peak torque (TPT) of the dorsiflexors and evertors in uninjured and functionally unstable ankles using a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) protocol on an isokinetic dynamometer.

  1. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Boer (Rob); A. Threlfall; P. Warmerdam (Peter); A. Street (Andrew); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Woodman; H.J. de Koning (Harry)


    markdownabstract__OBJECTIVE__: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69. __DESIG

  2. A retrospective study of the association between shortening of the clavicle after fracture and the clinical outcome in 136 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe; Jensen, Steen L; Petersen, Jens; Falstie-Jensen, Thomas; Lausten, Gunnar; Olsen, Bo S


    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the association between shortening of the clavicle after a united midshaft fracture and clinical outcome. Second, the purpose was to compare the results obtained by conservative treatment with either a figure-of-eight bandage or a simple sling....

  3. Basin Excavation, Lower Crust, Composition, and Bulk Moon Mass balance in Light of a Thin Crust (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.


    New lunar gravity results from GRAIL have been interpreted to reflect an overall thin and low-density lunar crust. Accordingly, crustal thickness has been modeled as ranging from 0 to 60 km, with thinnest crust at the locations of Crisium and Moscoviense basins and thickest crust in the central farside highlands. The thin crust has cosmochemical significance, namely in terms of implications for the Moon s bulk composition, especially refractory lithophile elements that are strongly concentrated in the crust. Wieczorek et al. concluded that the bulk Moon need not be enriched compared to Earth in refractory lithophile elements such as Al. Less Al in the crust means less Al has been extracted from the mantle, permitting relatively low bulk lunar mantle Al contents and low pre- and post-crust-extraction values for the mantle (or the upper mantle if only the upper mantle underwent LMO melting). Simple mass-balance calculations using the method of [4] suggests that the same conclusion might hold for Th and the entire suite of refractory lithophile elements that are incompatible in olivine and pyroxene, including the KREEP elements, that are likewise concentrated in the crust.

  4. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel


    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  5. Morphometric effects of acute shortening of the spine: the kinking and the sliding of the cord, response of the spinal nerves


    Alemdaroğlu, Kadir Bahadır; Atlıhan, Doğan; Çimen, Oğuzhan; Kılınç, Cem Yalın; İltar, Serkan


    Spinal shortening is performed for a wide spectrum of diseases. This study was designed to investigate the morphologic effects of shortening on the spinal cord, to enlighten the amount and direction of the sliding of the cord, the alteration of the angles of the roots, and to identify the appropriate laminectomy length. Total vertebrectomy of T12 was applied to ten sheep models after spinal instrumentation. Gradual shortening was applied to five sheep; then, the degree and direction of the sl...

  6. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.;


    ) are distinct up to 60-90 km offset and are characterized by large variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The contact between the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps represents a barrier for seismic waves. Mid-crustal reflections (Pc) are usually recorded at short distance intervals (20-50 km...... low-velocity sediments penetrate towards the southwest (SW) down to about 10 km depth. In the middle crust of the Alpine part, a reflective zone was modelled by a lamellae structure with alternating high and low velocities and thicknesses of about 2-3 km. The lower crust in this part of the model is...... of significant features alongside the CEL10/Alp04 profile. This area is affected by both collision and escape tectonics. The high-reflectivity zone in the middle crust is explained by intermediate to mafic intrusions, rather than by ductile extensional deformation as generally observed in the lower...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiaoXuejun; WangQi; DuRuilin; ChenZongshi; YouXinzhao; TanKai


    The co-seismic and post-seismic deformation velocities of Ms 8. 1 Kunlunshan earthquake on Nov. 14, 2001 were calculated from the results of 1991—2001 GPS data and 4 repeated GPS surveys after the event. The result indicates the maximum co-seismic and post-seismic changes are 1.9 m and 0.08 m respectively. On the basis of the result of post-seismic velocity, we used an elastic dislocation model to inverse the crustal deformation characteristics of eastern Kunlun active fault. The result shows that the domain motion of eastern Kunlun fault is leftlateral and strike-slip. The trend of eastward motion for the southern block of Kunlun fault implies redistribution and reaccumulation of energy after the earthquake. It is possible that the seismicity will migrate to eastern region in the future according to the trend that strong earthquakes along Kunlun fault extended from west to east during the last several decades.

  8. Do Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Data Accurately Portray the Crustal Component? (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator)


    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained during the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO)-Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous United States were upward continued by equivalent point source inversion and compared with POGO satellite magnetic anomaly and preliminary scalar MAGSAT data. Initial comparisons indicate that the upward continued NOO data is dominated by long wavelength (approximately equal to 1000 to 3000 km) anomalies which are not present in the satellite anomaly data. Thus, the comparison of the data sets is poor. Several possible sources for these differences are present in the data analysis chain. However, upon removal of these long wavelengths from the upward continued NOO data, a close comparison observed between the anomalies verifies that satellite magnetic anomaly data do portray the crustal component within a range of wavelengths from roughly 1000 km down to the resolution limit of the observations.

  9. Lower crustal intrusions beneath the southern Baikal Rift Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Thybo, Hans


    centre. The BEST (Baikal Explosion Seismic Transect) project acquired a 360-km long, deep seismic, refraction/wide-angle reflection profile in 2002 across southern Lake Baikal. The data from this project is used for identification of large-scale crustal structures and modelling of the seismic velocities......The Cenozoic Baikal Rift Zone (BRZ) is situated in south-central Siberia in the suture between the Precambrian Siberian Platform and the Amurian plate. This more than 2000-km long rift zone is composed of several individual basement depressions and half-grabens with the deep Lake Baikal at its...... of the crust and uppermost mantle. Previous interpretation and velocity modelling of P-wave arrivals in the BEST data has revealed a multi layered crust with smooth variation in Moho depth between the Siberian Platform (41 km) and the Sayan-Baikal fold belt (46 km). The lower crust exhibits normal...

  10. Treatment of tibial defect and bone nonunion with limb shortening with external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 刘建; 胡蕴玉; 孟国林; 金格勒; 袁志; 王海强; 戴先文


    Objective: To explore the effect of external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft (RBX) in the treatment of tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening. Methods: Twenty patients ( 13 males and 7 females) with tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion or congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening were treated with external fixation. Two kinds of external fixators were used: a half ring sulcated external fixator used in 13 patients and a combined external fixator in 7 patients. Foot-drop was corrected at the same time with external fixation in 4 patients. The shortened length of the tibia was in the range of 2-9 cm, with an average of 4.8 cm. For bone grafting, RBX was used in 12 patients, autogenous ilium was used in 3 patients and autogenous fibula was implanted as a bone plug into the medullary canal in 1 case, and no bone graft was used in 4 patients. Results: All the 20 patients were followed-up for 8 months to 7 years, averaging 51 months. Satisfactory function of the affected extremities was obtained. All the shortened extremities were lengthened to the expected length. For all the lengthening area and the fracture sites, bone union was obtained at the last. The average healing time of 12 patients treated with RBX was 4.8 months. Conclusions: Both the half ring sulcated external fixator and the combined external fixator have the advantages of small trauma, simple operation, elastic fixation without stress shielding and non-limitation from local soft tissue conditions, and there is satisfactory functional recovery of affected extremities in the treatment of tibial bone defects, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia combined with limb shortening. RBX has good biocompatibility and does not cause immunological rejections. It can also be safely used in treatment of bone nonunion and has reliable effect to promote bone healing.

  11. Crustal Structure of the PARANÁ Basin from Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Collaço, B.; Assumpcao, M.; Rosa, M. L.; Sanchez, G.


    Previous surface-wave tomography in South America (SA) (e.g., Feng et al., 2004; 2007) mapped the main large-scale features of the continent, such as the high lithospheric velocities in cratonic areas and low velocities in the Patagonian province. However, more detailed features such as the Paraná Basin, have not been mapped with good resolution because of poor path coverage, i.e. classic surface- wave tomography has low resolution in low-seismicity areas, like Brazil and the Eastern Argentina. Crustal structure in Southern Brazil is poorly known. Most paths used by Feng et al. (2007) in this region are roughly parallel, which prevents good spatial resolution in tomographic inversions. This work is part of a major project that will increase knowledge of crustal structure in Southern Brazil and Eastern Argentina and is being carried out by IAG-USP (Brazil) in collaboration with UNLP and INPRES (Argentina). To improve resolution for the Paraná Basin we used inter-station dispersion curves derived from correlation of ambient noise for new stations deployed with the implementation of the Brazilian Seismic Network (Pirchiner et al. 2011). This technique, known as ambient noise tomography (ANT), was first applied by Shapiro et al. (2005) and is now expanding rapidly, especially in areas with high density of seismic stations (e.g. Bensen et al. 2007, Lin et al. 2008, Moschetti et al. 2010). ANT is a well-established method to estimate short period (Petrobras with additional support from CNPq and FAPESP.

  12. GPS derived Crustal Deformation and Strain determination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay P. Singh,


    Full Text Available The theory of Plate tectonics has revolutionized the way thinking about the processes of Earth. According to this theory, the surface of the Earth is broken into large plates. The size and position of these plates change over time. The edges of these plates, where they move against each other, are sites of intense tectonic activity, suchas earthquakes, volcanism, and mountain building. It is well known that Indian Plate is currently moving in the northeast direction, while the Eurasian Plate is moving north. This is causing the Indian and Eurasian Plate to deform at the point of contact besides its interior. Modern geophysical and space geodetic techniques such asseismology and GPS (Global Positioning system, have become important tools in the study of the deformation in the Earth due to tectonic processes, leading to earthquakes. Geodesy has provided an important role for plate tectonics study with high temporal resolution of the plate movements, particular from space technologies such as GPS and VLBI. The Global Positioning System (GPS provides accurate measurements of the rate of displacement of crustal. Indeed, the GPS velocity field can only be compared to finite strain if one assumes adeformation mechanism and that the style of deformation has been the same over long periods of geological time. For study of crustal deformation National Center of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad installed highly efficient and accurate LEICA GRX1200 Pro receiver at Ghoorpur near to Allahabad. This instrument is also equipped withMET3A sensor to record pressure, temperature, humidity at regular interval of 30 second. The Latitude and longitude of the GPS sites is 25.21N, 81.28E.

  13. Crustal structure of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refraction data from blasts recorded in eastern Washington between 1980 and 1983 are used to determine the upper crustal structure of the Columbia Plateau. Fourteen blast sites with over 25 individual shots were recorded on the University of Washington regional seismic network made up of 36 short-period seismograph stations recorded digitally at 100 samples/s. Additional data were obtained from a 12-station dense digital network in the central plateau operated by the Rockwell Hanford Operations Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Major crustal refractors of 5.1 and 6.05 km/s are observed at distances of 15 to 50 km and 50 to 120 km, respectively. A time-term method is used to model layer thicknesses below the stations for each major refractor. A statistical source-receiver separation operation is used to handle the inherent nonindependence of the data. Constraints are used to fix the mean values of the time terms. Ray tracing through two-dimensional velocity structures is used to augment the interpretation of the time-term solutions for areas where the lateral velocity changes are large. Station delays for the 5.1-km/s layer show a good correlation with elevation and surficial geology. The areal extent of the 5.1-km/s layer roughly coincides with the Columbia River basalts. Time terms from the 6.05-km/s layer indicate a nearly uniform depth of 1 to 2 km in the northern plateau. Time terms in the central plateau indicate a depth to the 6.05-km/s layer of over 8 km, and a systematic thinning away from its center. Magnetotelluric studies indicate that the basalts are probably no thicker than 5 km in the central Columbia Plateau region

  14. Constraining Moment Deficit Rate on Crustal Faults from Geodetic Data (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Bradley, A. M.; Segall, P.


    Constraining moment deficit rates on crustal faults using geodetic data is currently an under-utilized but powerful method for estimating the potential seismic hazard presented by crustal faults. Two previous approaches to moment-bounding, bootstrapping and Metropolis-Hastings sampling, can both fail catastrophically when estimating the probability distribution of moment given data, p(Mo|d). Straightforward application of traditional Metropolis-Hastings sampling with uniform prior probabilities on slip leads to a mesh-dependent estimate of moment with a variance inversely related to the number of model elements. Moment thus estimated exhibits an "effective prior" on p(MO) that tends toward a delta function halfway between the bounds as the fault discretization becomes finer! Thus, it is incorrect to estimate the uncertainty in moment directly from the uncertainty in slip. Bootstrapping can produce optimistic bounds and give biased results. A third approach is functional moment bounding (FMB), which obtains bounds on moment by minimizing the data misfit over slip for all possible values of Mo and accepting only those values with a total misfit less than some threshold. We present a modified version of this method that creates a probability distribution function on Mo from the misfit and uses this pdf to obtain confidence bounds. We also present a fourth method that we term Probabilistic Moment Bounding (PMB) that we derive within a Bayesian framework and incorporate a smoothed slip prior. Both of these approaches produce conservative results and do not exhibit mesh dependence. We compare the results from FMB and PMB to those obtained from other methods and assess the results.

  15. Observatory crustal magnetic biases during CHAMP satellite mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Verbanac


    Full Text Available Taking advantage of nine years of CHAMP satellite mission (June 2000–August 2009, we investigate the temporal evolution of the observatory monthly crustal magnetic biases. To determine biases we compute X (northward, Y (eastward and Z (vertically downward monthly means from 42 observatory one-minute or hourly values, and compare them to synthetic monthly means obtained from a GRIMM3 core field model (V. Lesur, personal communication, 2014. Both short period variations and long term trends in the monthly bias time series are analyzed. A comparison with biases based on MAGSAT and Ørsted satellite data, related to the 1979.92 and 1992.92 epochs is performed. Generally, the larger biases averaged over nine years and the larger differences between biases based on different models are found in Z component. This can be the signature of the induced magnetic fields. Although annual trends in most bias series are observed, no clear evidence that the constant crustal field changed significantly over the studied period is found. Time series of monthly biases exhibit distinct oscillatory pattern in the whole time span, which we assign to the external field contributions. The amplitudes of these variations are linked with the phase of the solar cycle, being significantly larger in the period 2000–2005 than in the period 2006–2009. Clear semi-annual variations are evident in all components, with extremes in spring and fall months of each year. Common external field pattern is found for European monthly biases. A dependence of the bias monthly variations on geomagnetic latitudes is not found for the non-European observatories. The results from this study represent a base to further exploit the observatory and repeat stations magnetic biases together with the data from the new satellite mission SWARM.

  16. Geodetic measurement of crustal strain in the Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network of stations whose positions are known at the 1:106 to 1:108 level is being established in the United States over an area reaching from the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. Monitoring of this network will allow determination of crustal strain and deformation in the eastern United States. This network will have three primary components. The most accurate component will be a set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) stations and stations with continuous observations using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. In most cases, those VLBI and GPS systems will be co-located. The differential positions of these fundamental stations, which are expected to be 10 to 15 in number, will be monitored with an accuracy of 1:108. This fundamental network will also provide a firm tie to the worldwide coordinate system provided by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) through inclusion of several VLBI stations which contribute to the IERS and, through inclusion of GPS stations contributing to GPS satellite orbit determination, to the coordinate system in which GPS satellite positions are expressed. The second component will be a regional component of 75 to 100 stations established using transportable GPS receivers with a relative accuracy in the 1:107 to 1:108 range. The final component, a densification component, will consist of 1,000 to 2,000 stations whose differential positions will have a relative accuracy in the 1:106 to 1:107 range. This paper describes the requirements for the high accuracy crustal strain and deformation network in the eastern United States, the current status of network establishment, accuracies being achieved, and future plans

  17. Crustal structure north of Falkland Plateau offshore Argentina (United States)

    Becker, Katharina; Schnabel, Michael; Franke, Dieter


    The passive continental margin offshore Argentina has been investigated by numerous geophysical surveys conducted by the Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources. In this study we focus on the area located north of Falkland Plateau. There, the passive margin forms the transition between the sheared margin of the Falkland Plateau and the volcanic passive margin of southern Argentina. This study aims at achieving a more detailed image of the crustal structure along the continent-ocean transition. Also we want to decipher the influence of the plume (Tristan da Cunha) on the evolution of the continental margin. The seismic data were acquired during a marine geophysical survey in 2004 and edited with an improved processing sequence. The imaging involves the application of Prestack Depth Migration, which gives information about depth and interval velocities of the reflectors. In addition we combine our seismic section with information from magnetic and gravimetric measurements. In this study we present preliminary results. A first section gives insight in the structure of the crust along the continent ocean boundary. Landwards there is no clear evidence of extension, which can be inferred from graben structures. In the transition zone the breakup unconformity is tilted seawards. In this part it is covered by a sedimentary drift body, which reaches a maximum thickness of 4km. The drift body can be divided into several units. In the east the oceanic basement is highly dissected by faults. The sedimentary succession overlying the oceanic basement reaches a maximum thickness of 4km. Further processing will reveal more details about the upper crustal structure along the margin. In the future we want to investigate the structure of the lower crust based on refraction seismic measurements.

  18. Automatic data processing and crustal modeling on Brazilian Seismograph Network (United States)

    Moreira, L. P.; Chimpliganond, C.; Peres Rocha, M.; Franca, G.; Marotta, G. S.; Von Huelsen, M. G.


    The Brazilian Seismograph Network (RSBR) is a joint project of four Brazilian research institutions with the support of Petrobras and its main goal is to monitor the seismic activities, generate alerts of seismic hazard and provide data for Brazilian tectonic and structure research. Each institution operates and maintain their seismic network, sharing their data in an virtual private network. These networks have seismic stations transmitting in real time (or near real time) raw data to their respective data centers, where the seismogram files are then shared with other institutions. Currently RSBR has 57 broadband stations, some of them operating since 1994, transmitting data through mobile phone data networks or satellite links. Station management, data acquisition and storage and earthquake data processing at the Seismological Observatory of the University of Brasilia is automatically performed by SeisComP3 (SC3). However, the SC3 data processing is limited to event detection, location and magnitude. An automatic crustal modeling system was designed process raw seismograms and generate 1D S-velocity profiles. This system automatically calculates receiver function (RF) traces, Vp/Vs ratio (h-k stack) and surface waves dispersion (SWD) curves. These traces and curves are then used to calibrate the lithosphere seismic velocity models using a joint inversion scheme The results can be reviewed by an analyst, change processing parameters and selecting/neglecting RF traces and SWD curves used in lithosphere model calibration. The results to be obtained from this system will be used to generate and update a quasi-3D crustal model of Brazil's territory.

  19. The crustal structure of the Southern Nain and Makkovik Provinces of Labrador deriverd from seismic refraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, T.; Hansen, A.K.; Reid, Ian Derry; Louden, K.E.


    the crust has P-wave velocity 5.8 -6.9 km/s. Further south, upper crustal velocities iand the Poisson's ratio increase. This zone correlates with a gravity low interpreted as the NPS. The upper crustal velocities are compatible with the  NPS. There is a  lower crustal reflector under the NPS. In the...

  20. Internal Structure and Mineralogy of Differentiated Asteroids Assuming Chondritic Bulk Composition: The Case of Vesta (United States)

    Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Forni, O.; Monnereau, M.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    Bulk composition (including oxygen content) is a primary control on the internal structure and mineralogy of differentiated asteroids. For example, oxidation state will affect core size, as well as Mg# and pyroxene content of the silicate mantle. The Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite class of meteorites (HED) provide an interesting test-case of this idea, in particular in light of results of the Dawn mission which provide information on the size, density and differentiation state of Vesta, the parent body of the HED's. In this work we explore plausible bulk compositions of Vesta and use mass-balance and geochemical modelling to predict possible internal structures and crust/mantle compositions and mineralogies. Models are constrained to be consistent with known HED samples, but the approach has the potential to extend predictions to thermodynamically plausible rock types that are not necessarily present in the HED collection. Nine chondritic bulk compositions are considered (CI, CV, CO, CM, H, L, LL, EH, EL). For each, relative proportions and densities of the core, mantle, and crust are quantified. Considering that the basaltic crust has the composition of the primitive eucrite Juvinas and assuming that this crust is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the residual mantle, it is possible to calculate how much iron is in metallic form (in the core) and how much in oxidized form (in the mantle and crust) for a given bulk composition. Of the nine bulk compositions tested, solutions corresponding to CI and LL groups predicted a negative metal fraction and were not considered further. Solutions for enstatite chondrites imply significant oxidation relative to the starting materials and these solutions too are considered unlikely. For the remaining bulk compositions, the relative proportion of crust to bulk silicate is typically in the range 15 to 20% corresponding to crustal thicknesses of 15 to 20 km for a porosity-free Vesta-sized body. The mantle is predicted to be largely

  1. Enzyme:substrate hydrogen bond shortening during the acylation phase of serine protease catalysis. (United States)

    Fodor, Krisztián; Harmat, Veronika; Neutze, Richard; Szilágyi, László; Gráf, László; Katona, Gergely


    Atomic resolution (shortening may be hindered by the 27I-32I disulfide bridge and Asn-15I of SGTI. The position of the catalytic histidine changes slightly as it adapts to the different nucleophilic attacker during the transition from the Michaelis complex to the acyl-enzyme state, and simultaneously its interaction with Asp-102 and Ser-214 becomes stronger. The oxyanion hole hydrogen bonds provide additional stabilization for acyl-ester bond in the acyl-enzyme than for scissile peptide bond of the Michaelis complex. Significant deviation from planarity is not observed in the reactive bonds of either the Michaelis complex or the acyl-enzyme. In the Michaelis complex the electron distribution of the carbonyl bond is distorted toward the oxygen atom compared to other peptide bonds in the structure, which indicates the polarization effect of the oxyanion hole. PMID:16475800

  2. Biophysical Mechanisms Underlying Hearing Loss Associated with a Shortened Tectorial Membrane (United States)

    Oghalai, John S.; Xia, Anping; Liu, Christopher C.; Gao, Simon S.; Applegate, Brian E.; Puria, Sunil; Rousso, Itay; Steele, Charles


    The tectorial membrane (TM) connects to the stereociliary bundles of outer hair cells (OHCs). Herein, we summarize key experimental data and modeling analyses that describe how biophysical alterations to these connections underlie hearing loss. The heterozygous C1509G mutation in alpha tectorin produces partial congenital hearing loss that progresses in humans. We engineered this mutation in mice, and histology revealed that the TM was shortened. DIC imaging of freshly-dissected cochlea as well as imaging with optical coherence tomography indicated that the TM is malformed and only stimulates the first row of OHCs. Noise exposure produced acute threshold shifts that fully recovered in Tecta+/+ mice although there was some OHC loss within all three rows at the cochlear base. In contrast, threshold shifts only partially recovered in TectaC1509G/+ mice. This was associated with OHC loss more apically and nearly entirely within the first row. Young's modulus of the TM, measured using atomic force microscopy, was substantially reduced at the middle and basal regions. Both the wild-type and heterozygous conditions were simulated in a computational model. This demonstrated that the normalized stress distribution levels between the TM and the tall cilia were significantly elevated in the middle region of the heterozygous cochlea. Another feature of the TectaC1509G/+ mutation is higher prestin expression within all three rows of OHCs. This increased electricallyevoked movements of the reticular lamina and otoacoustic emissions. Furthermore, electrical stimulation was associated with an increased risk of OHC death as measured by vital dye staining. Together, these findings indicate that uncoupling of the TM from some OHCs not only leads to partial hearing loss, but also puts the OHCs that remain coupled at higher risk. Both the mechanics of the malformed TM and increased electromotility contribute to this higher risk profile.

  3. Effect of prosthetic restoration on masticatory function in patients with shortened dental arches: a multicentre study. (United States)

    Fueki, K; Igarashi, Y; Maeda, Y; Baba, K; Koyano, K; Sasaki, K; Akagawa, Y; Kuboki, T; Kasugai, S; Garrett, N R


    The aim of this multicentre study was to investigate the effect of prosthetic restoration for missing posterior teeth on mastication in patients with shortened dental arches (SDAs). Partially dentate patients who had an intact teeth in anterior region and missed distal molar(s) (2-12 missing occlusal units) classified as Kennedy Class I or Class II were recruited from seven university-based dental hospitals in Japan. Of the 125 subjects who underwent baseline (pre-treatment) and follow-up/post-treatment evaluation, 53 chose no replacement of missing teeth and 72 chose treatment with removable partial dentures (n = 53) or implant-supported fixed partial dentures (n = 19). Objective masticatory performance (MP) was evaluated using a gummy jelly test. Perception of chewing ability (CA) was rated using a food intake questionnaire. In the no-treatment group, mean MP and CA scores at baseline were similar to those at follow-up evaluation (P > 0·05). In the treatment group, mean MP after treatment was significantly greater than the pre-treatment mean MP (P 0·05). In a subgroup analysis of subjects in the treatment group, subjects with lower pre-treatment CA showed a significant CA increase after treatment (P = 0·004), but those with higher pre-treatment CA showed a significant decrease in CA (P = 0·001). These results suggest that prosthetic restoration for SDAs may benefit objective masticatory performance in patients needing replacement of missing posterior teeth, but the benefit in subjective chewing ability seems to be limited in subjects with perceived impairment in chewing ability before treatment. PMID:26854877

  4. An increase in telomere sister chromatid exchange in murine embryonic stem cells possessing critically shortened telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL


    Telomerase deficiency leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA that eventually triggers cell apoptosis in human primary cells during prolonged growth in culture. Rare survivors can maintain telomere length through either activation of telomerase or recombination-based telomere lengthening, and thus proliferate indefinitely. We have explored the possibility that telomeres may be maintained through telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) in murine telomere reverse transcriptase-deficient (mTert -/-) splenocytes and ES cells. Because telomerase deficiency leads to gradual loss of telomeric DNA in mTert -/- splenocytes and ES cells and eventually to chromosomes with telomere signal-free ends (SFEs), we examined these cell types for evidence of sister chromatid exchange at telomeres, and observed an increase in T-SCEs only in a subset of mTert -/- splenocytes or ES cells that possessed multiple SFEs. Furthermore, T-SCEs were more often detected in ES cells than in splenocytes that harbored a similar frequency of SFEs. In mTert heterozygous (mTert +/-) ES cells or splenocytes, which are known to exhibit a decrease in average telomere length but no SFEs, no increase in T-SCE was observed. In addition to T-SCE, other genomic rearrangements (i.e., SCE) were also significantly increased in mTert -/- ES cells possessing critically short telomeres, but not in splenocytes. Our results suggest that animals and cell culture differ in their ability to carry out genomic rearrangements as a means of maintaining telomere integrity when telomeres become critically shortened.

  5. Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

  6. Decoupling of modern shortening rates, climate, and topography in the Caucasus (United States)

    Forte, Adam M.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Rossi, Matthew W.


    The Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains and their associated foreland basins contain similar rock types, experience a similar two-fold, along-strike variation in mean annual precipitation, and were affected by extreme base-level drops of the neighboring Caspian Sea. However, the two Caucasus ranges are characterized by decidedly different tectonic regimes and rates of deformation that are subject to moderate (less than an order of magnitude) gradients in climate, and thus allow for a unique opportunity to isolate the effects of climate and tectonics in the evolution of topography within active orogens. There is an apparent disconnect between modern climate, shortening rates, and topography of both the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus which exhibit remarkably similar topography along-strike despite the gradients in forcing. By combining multiple datasets, we examine plausible causes for this disconnect by presenting a detailed analysis of the topography of both ranges utilizing established relationships between catchment-mean erosion rates and topography (local relief, hillslope gradients, and channel steepness) and combining it with a synthesis of previously published low-temperature thermochronologic data. Modern climate of the Caucasus region is assessed through an analysis of remotely-sensed data (TRMM and MODIS) and historical streamflow data. Because along-strike variation in either erosional efficiency or thickness of accreted material fail to explain our observations, we suggest that the topography of both the western Lesser and Greater Caucasus are partially supported by different geodynamic forces. In the western Lesser Caucasus, high relief portions of the landscape likely reflect uplift related to ongoing mantle lithosphere delamination beneath the neighboring East Anatolian Plateau. In the Greater Caucasus, maintenance of high topography in the western portion of the range despite extremely low (structure of either range.

  7. Postauricular Approach for Mandibular Angle Ostectomy: An Alternative for Shortening the Recovery Time. (United States)

    Lim, Hyoseob; Kang, Minbum


    Many surgical procedures to improve mandibular contour have been introduced in East Asia. Despite consensus regarding mandible contouring surgery, surgery which includes angle ostectomy and lateral cortex excision, some patients require only mandibular angle ostectomy. The intraoral approach is a widely used method, but has disadvantages with regard to the need for endotracheal intubation and patients are limited in their food intake for a considerable length of time. The authors wanted to shorten the recovery period and so the postauricular approach is introduced in this study and assessed.One hundred seventy-five Asian patients underwent mandibular angle ostectomy via a postauricular approach. All operations were performed under intravenous sedation without endotracheal intubation. Superficial subcutaneous dissection and vertical dissection were performed, with special care taken to avoid injuring the facial nerve. Patients responded to a simple questionnaire during the postoperative period. Questions solicited the patient's reason for their choice of this approach and their satisfaction with it.No visible scar and no palpable bony step were observed without ear pulling. Some patients experienced temporary sensory changes in the postauricular area. None of the patients complained of perioral numbness or facial paralysis. Six patients had significant bleeding in the operative field and 1 patient experienced salivary leakage for 2 weeks which was managed well without event. Of the 175 patients, 133 responded to the questionnaire. Satisfaction was expressed by 94.7% of patients and 88.7% of patients would recommend this surgery to their friends; 69.2% of patients experienced inconvenience for 1 week or less.The postauricular approach for mandibular angle ostectomy is a very convenient method for surgeons to use for patients who want to undergo mandibular angle ostectomy with a short recovery time. PMID:25325390

  8. Life shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at the perinatal period with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study elucidates the life-span radiation effects in mice irradiated at the perinatal period in comparison to mice irradiated at the young adult period. B6C3F1 female mice were irradiated at 17 days of prenatal age, at 0 days of postnatal age, or as young adults at 15 weeks of age with 190, 380, or 570 rads of 137Cs gamma rays. Mice irradiated at the late fetal period showed dose-dependent life shortening of somewhat lesser magnitude than that seen after neonatal or young adult irradiation. Mice exposed at the late fetal period were highly susceptible to induction of pituitary tumors for which the latent period was the longest of all induced neoplasms. Incidence of lung tumors in mice irradiated at the late fetal period with 190 and 380 rads was higher than in controls. Malignant lymphomas of the lymphocytic type developed in excess, after a short latent period, in mice irradiated fetally with the highest dose; susceptibility of prenatally exposed mice was lower than that of early postnatally exposed mice. Liver tumors developed more frequently in mice irradiated in utero than in controls; susceptibility to induction of this type of neoplasm was highest at the neonatal period. In general, carcinogenic response of mice exposed at the late fetal period resembled that of neonatally exposed mice but was quite different from that of young adult mice. Mice exposed as young adults have no, or low, susceptibility to induction of pituitary, lung, and liver tumors; and a higher susceptibility to induction of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Brain targeted transcranial administration of diazepam and shortening of sleep latency in healthy human volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Pathirana


    Full Text Available Application of medicated oils on scalp had been practiced for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in diseases associated with the central nervous system. It is possible that the effectiveness of the therapy may be a result of targeted delivery of active compounds to the brain transcranially. Evidence also comes from two previous studies with positive results on brain targeted transcranial delivery of methadone base and diazepam on rat models. Possibility of transcranial drug delivery was investigated in healthy human volunteers using electroencephalography techniques by assessing the ability of transcranially administered diazepam in bringing about β activity in the electroencephalographic wave patterns and shortening of the sleep latency period. Non polar drug molecules dissolved in a non-aqueous sesame oil based vehicle is a significant feature in the transcranial dosage design. The study was under taken in two phases. In the Phase-I study scalp application of a single dose of 2 mg/3 ml of the oil was employed and in the Phase-II study repeat application of three doses 24 h apart were employed. Sleep latency changes were monitored with Multiple Sleep Latency Tests with 5 naps employing the standard electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography electrodes. Sleep onset was identified with the first epoch of any sleep stage non rapid eye movement 1, 2, 3, 4 or rapid eye movement using electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography criteria. In both phases of the study there was significant reduction in the sleep latencies. It was much more pronounced in the Phase-II study. None of the subjects however displayed beta activity in the electroencephalography. Sleep latency reduction following scalp application in both the phases are suggestive of transcranial migration of diazepam molecules to the receptor sites of the nerve tissue of the brain eliciting its pharmacological effect of sedation

  10. Crustal differentiation on Earth and Mars from Potassium and Thorium multi-scale distributions (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Jessell, M. W.; Fall, M.; Ndiaye, P. M.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Baratoux, L.; MacFarlane, H.; Boamah, K.; André-Mayer, A. S.


    Potassium (K) and Thorium (Th) are useful tracers of crustal differentiation and secondary processes as these elements concentrate in melts during magmatic processes but are not equally mobile during alteration. They may be mapped by airborne or orbiting gamma ray spectrometers measuring the natural activity of 232Th and 40K. Such data are commonly used in geological mapping and mineral exploration on the Earth and have been produced for other planets. However, the direct comparison of spatially averaged concentrations measured remotely with bulk rock analyses of surface samples may be challenging. In the case of Mars, there is a notable shift between K, Th concentrations in Martian meteorites with those from orbital data [1]. We observe a similar discrepancy when airborne radiometric surveys on portions of the continental crusts are statistically compared with bulk analyses of rock samples. We argue that the generally right-skewed characteristics of the distributions of K, Th concentrations for the terrestrial crust may be extrapolated to the Martian crust. We illustrate how such distributions transform with resolution in remote sensing data, and evolve as normal laws as expected from the central limit theorem. This well-known statistical effect offers a simple explanation for the shift between K, Th concentrations in meteorites and orbital data. The shift would reflect the existence of disseminated occurrences of differentiated rocks on Mars, adding to other pieces of evidence for magmatic diversity [2-4]. The characteristics of the distribution of K and Th within the GRS footprint appears to be critical for a correct interpretation or these data, but such distribution cannot be directly documented on Mars due to the lack of appropriate data. However, interpretation of airborne remote sensing data sets on Earth will clearly benefit from the characterization of the spatial organization of K and Th concentrations at the outcrop scale (1 - 100 m), which is now

  11. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham W.; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Basuyau, Clémence


    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ˜35 km; (2) this thins to ˜22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high-velocity lower crust is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ˜1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ˜130-km-wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which on the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high-velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point towards a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  12. Bulk Viscosity in Holographic Lifshitz Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron


    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent.

  13. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics


    Carlos Hoyos; Bom Soo Kim; Yaron Oz


    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical ...

  14. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  15. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  16. Repeatability of corticospinal and spinal measures during lengthening and shortening contractions in the human tibialis anterior muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Tallent

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Elements of the human central nervous system (CNS constantly oscillate. In addition, there are also methodological factors and changes in muscle mechanics during dynamic muscle contractions that threaten the stability and consistency of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and perpherial nerve stimulation (PNS measures. PURPOSE: To determine the repeatability of TMS and PNS measures during lengthening and shortening muscle actions in the intact human tibialis anterior. METHODS: On three consecutive days, 20 males performed lengthening and shortening muscle actions at 15, 25, 50 and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. The amplitude of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs produced by TMS was measured at rest and during muscle contraction at 90° of ankle joint position. MEPs were normalised to Mmax determined with PNS. The corticospinal silent period was recorded at 80% MVC. Hoffman reflex (H-reflex at 10% isometric and 25% shortening and lengthening MVCs, and V-waves during MVCs were also evoked on each of the three days. RESULTS: With the exception of MEPs evoked at 80% shortening MVC, all TMS-derived measures showed good reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.94 from days 2 to 3. Confidence intervals (CI, 95% were lower between days 2 and 3 when compared to days 1 and 2. MEPs significantly increased at rest from days 1 to 2 (P = 0.016 and days 1 to 3 (P = 0.046. The H-reflex during dynamic muscle contraction was reliable across the three days (ICC = 0.76-0.84. V-waves (shortening, ICC = 0.77, lengthening ICC = 0.54 and the H-reflex at 10% isometric MVC (ICC = 0.66 was generally less reliable over the three days. CONCLUSION: Although it is well known that measures of the intact human CNS exhibit moment-to-moment fluctuations, careful experimental arrangements make it possible to obtain consistent and repeatable measurements of corticospinal and spinal excitability in the actively lengthening and shortening human

  17. Models of crustal thickness for South America from seismic refraction, receiver functions and surface wave tomography (United States)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Feng, Mei; Tassara, Andrés; Julià, Jordi


    An extensive compilation of crustal thicknesses is used to develop crustal models in continental South America. We consider point crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction experiments, receiver function analyses, and surface-wave dispersion. Estimates of crustal thickness derived from gravity anomalies were only included along the continental shelf and in some areas of the Andes to fill large gaps in seismic coverage. Two crustal models were developed: A) by simple interpolation of the point estimates, and B) our preferred model, based on the same point estimates, interpolated with surface-wave tomography. Despite gaps in continental coverage, both models reveal interesting crustal thickness variations. In the Andean range, the crust reaches 75 km in Southern Peru and the Bolivian Altiplano, while crustal thicknesses seem to be close to the global continental average (~ 40 km) in Ecuador and southern Colombia (despite high elevations), and along the southern Andes of Chile-Argentina (elevation lower than 2000 m). In the stable continental platform the average thickness is 38 ± 5 km (1-st. deviation) and no systematic differences are observed among Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratons, NeoProterozoic fold belts, and low-altitude intracratonic sedimentary basins. An exception is the Borborema Province (NE Brazil) with crust ~ 30-35 km thick. Narrow belts surrounding the cratons are suggested in central Brazil, parallel to the eastern and southern border of the Amazon craton, and possibly along the TransBrasiliano Lineament continuing into the Chaco basin, where crust thinner than 35 km is observed. In the sub-Andean region, between the mid-plate cratons and the Andean cordillera, the crust tends to be thinner (~ 35 km) than the average crust in the stable platform, a feature possibly inherited from the old pre-Cambrian history of the continent. We expect that these crustal models will be useful for studies of isostasy, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution of the

  18. Late Cenozoic crustal extension and magmatism, southern Death Valley region, California (United States)

    Calzia, J.P.; Rämö, O.T.


    The late Cenozoic geologic history of the southern Death Valley region is characterized by coeval crustal extension and magamatism. Crustal extension is accommodated by numerous listric and planar normal faults as well as right- and left-lateral strike slip faults. The normal faults sip 30°-50° near the surface and flatten and merge leozoic miogeoclinal rocks; the strike-slip faults act as tear faults between crustal blocks that have extended at different times and at different rates. Crustal extension began 13.4-13.1 Ma and migrated northwestward with time; undeformed basalt flows and lacustrine deposits suggest that extension stopped in this region (but continued north of the Death Valley graben) between 5 and 7 Ma. Estimates of crustal extension in this region vary from 30-50 percent to more than 100 percent. Magmatic rocks syntectonic with crustal extension in the southern Death Valley region include 12.4-6.4 Ma granitic rocks as well as bimodal 14.0-4.0 Ma volcanic rocks. Geochemical and isotopic evidence suggest that the granitic rocks get younger and less alkalic from south to north; the volcanic rocks become more mafic with less evidence of crustal interaction as they get younger. The close spatial and temporal relation between crustal extension and magmatism suggest a genetic and probably a dynamic relation between these geologic processes. We propose a rectonic-magmatic model that requires heat to be transported into the crust by mantle-derived mafic magmas. These magmas pond at lithologic or rheologic boundaries, begin the crystallize, and partially melt the surrounding crustal rocks. With time, the thermally weakened crust is extended (given a regional extensional stress field) concurrent with granitic magmatism and bimodal volcanism.

  19. The randomized shortened dental arch study (RaSDA: design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the long time required for the treatment impede respective clinical trials. Methods/design This 14-center randomized controlled investigator-initiated trial is ongoing. Last patient out will be in 2010. Patients over 35 years of age with all molars missing in one jaw and with at least both canines and one premolar left on each side were eligible. One group received a treatment with removable dental prostheses for molar replacement (treatment A. The other group received a treatment limited to the replacement of all missing anterior and premolar teeth using fixed bridges (treatment B. A pilot trial with 32 patients was carried out. Two hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled in the main trial where 109 patients were randomized for treatment A and 106 for treatment B. The primary outcome measure is further tooth loss during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures encompassed clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG WA 831/2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5. Discussion The particular value of this trial is the adaptation of common design components to the very specific features of complex dental prosthetic treatments. The pilot trial proved to be indispensable because it led to a number of adjustments in the study protocol that considerably improved the practicability. The expected results are of high clinical relevance and will show the efficacy of two common

  20. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment? (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Del Cogliano, D.; Dietrich, R.; Fritsche, M.


    Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  1. Technical specifications for the bulk shielding reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information concerning the technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor. Areas covered include: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of airborne effluents. 10 refs

  2. The bulk radio expansion of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison, in the visibility plane, or radio observations of Cassiopeia A made at 151 MHz over a 2.3 yr interval indicates that the bulk of the radio emitting material has not been decelerated strongly

  3. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals. (United States)

    Monro, John A


    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE



    Kajimura, K.


    Experimental and theoretical studies of phonon echoes in bulk and powdered materials are reviewed. Phonon echoes have been observed in many materials such as bulk piezoelectric crystals, paramagnets, glasses, doped semiconductors, and piezoelectric, magnetic, and metallic powders, etc. The echoes arise from a time reversal of the phase, like spin echoes, of a primary pulsed acoustic excitation due to a second acoustic or rf pulse. The phase reversal occurs through the nonlinear interactions o...

  5. Orbital magnetization in insulators: Bulk versus surface (United States)

    Bianco, Raffaello; Resta, Raffaele


    The orbital magnetic moment of a finite piece of matter is expressed in terms of the one-body density matrix as a simple trace. We address a macroscopic system, insulating in the bulk, and we show that its orbital moment is the sum of a bulk term and a surface term, both extensive. The latter only occurs when the transverse conductivity is nonzero and it is due to conducting surface states. Simulations on a model Hamiltonian validate our theory.

  6. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk


    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert


    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  7. The effect of strength training, recreational soccer and running exercise on stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance during countermovement jumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard;


    muscle fiber size (CSA) were studied in untrained individuals (n=49, 21-45yrs) pre and post 12weeks of progressive heavy-resistance strength training (ST, n=8), recreational soccer training (SOC, n=15), high-intensity interval running (INT, n=7), continuous running (RUN, n=9) or continuation of an......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrasting training modalities on mechanical muscle performance and neuromuscular activity during maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycle) countermovement jumps (CMJ). Bilateral countermovement jumping, surface electromyography (EMG) and...... inactive life-style (CON, n=10). ST displayed shortened CMJ take-off time (p.70) were observed following ST between training-induced changes in CMJ SSC muscle performance, neuromuscular activity and muscle fiber CSA, respectively. ST induced a more rapid CMJ take-off phase and elevated muscle power...

  8. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males. (United States)

    Váczi, Márk; Nagy, Szilvia A; Kőszegi, Tamás; Ambrus, Míra; Bogner, Péter; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Tóth, Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor


    The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC and high rate ECC contractions in the form of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) but at equal total mechanical work would produce rate-specific adaptations in healthy old males age 60-70. Both training programs produced similar improvements in maximal voluntary isometric (6%) and ECC torque (23%) and stretch-shortening cycle function (reduced contraction duration [24%] and enhanced elastic energy storage [12%]) (pmechanical work seems to regulate the hypetrophic, hormonal, and most of the mechanical adaptations. However, SSC exercise was uniquely effective in improving a key deficiency of aging muscle, i.e., its ability to produce force rapidly. PMID:25064038

  9. Crustal and deep seismicity in Italy (30 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvaggi


    Full Text Available The first modern studies of seismicity in Italy date back to the late 60's and early 70's. Although with a sparse seismic network available and only a few telemetered short-period stations, significant studies were carried out that outlined the main features of Italian seismicity (see, e.g., Boschi et al., 1969. Among these studies, one of the most important achievements was the reconnaissance of a Wadati-Benioff zone in Southern Tyrrhenian, described for the first time in detail in the papers of Caputo et al.(1970, 1973. Today, after three decades of more and more detailed seismological monitoring of the Italian region and tens of thousands earthquakes located since then, the knowledge of the earthquake generation processes in our country is much improved, although some of the conclusions reached in these early papers still hold. These improvements were made possible by the efforts of many institutions and seismologists who have been working hard to bring seismological research in Italy to standards of absolute quality, under the pivoting role of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING. From the relocation of about 30000 crustal earthquakes and detailed studies on intermediate and deep shocks carried out in the last few years, we show that seismic release in peninsular Italy is only weakly related to the Africa-Eurasia convergence, but rather is best explained by the existence of two separate subduction/collision arcs (Northern Apennines and Southern Apennines-Calabria-Sicily. The width of the deforming belt running along peninsular Italy is 30 to 60 km, it is broader in the north than in the south, and the two arcs are separated by a region of more distributed deformation and stress rotations in the Central Apennines. Along the belt, the reconnaissance of regions of continuous and weak release of seismic energy, adjacent to fault areas which are currently «locked» (and therefore are the best candidates for future earthquakes is another

  10. In vivo muscle mechanics during human locomotion : fascicle-tendinous tissue interaction during stretch-shortening cycle exercises


    Ishikawa, Masaki


    The present series of studies were designed to examine how the interaction between muscle fibers and tendinous tissues (TT) were modulated for effective utilization of elastic energy during stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercises. By combining the in vivo direct recordings of tendon force with fascicle length changes by the ultrasonic techniques, the in vivo behavior of the vastus lateralis and triceps surae muscle groups was examined in several different intensity drop jumps as well as in w...

  11. Shortening day length as a previously unrecognized selective pressure for early breeding in a bird with long parental care


    Podlaszczuk, Marcin; Wojciechowski, Zbigniew; Podlaszczuk, Patrycja; Minias, Piotr; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka


    Several different selective pressures have been suggested to explain an intense competition for early return to breeding grounds in birds. In this study we hypothesized that shortening day length during summer months may constitute additional selective force acting towards early breeding in avian species with long parental care. To test this hypothesis, we studied time budget and foraging activities of early-nesting and late-nesting white storks Ciconia ciconia from th...

  12. Acute shortening and angulation for limb salvage in a paediatric patient with a high-energy blast injury. (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Yechezkel; Wilson, Jessica Jeanne; Kassis, Shokrey; Lerner, Alexander


    We present the case of an 8-year-old girl casualty of the Syrian conflict who arrived with open fractures of the right tibia and fibula with extensive bone and soft tissue loss as well as an open fracture of the left calcaneus as the result of a high-energy blast injury. She was successfully treated with repeated debridement procedures, external fixation with acute temporary shortening and angulation of the right leg and skin grafting to both lower limbs. PMID:24654251

  13. A (Fluoroalkyl)Guanidine Modulates the Relaxivity of a Phosphonate-Containing T1-Shortening Contrast Agent


    Wu, Xinping; Dawsey, Anna C.; Siriwardena-Mahanama, Buddhima N.; Allen, Matthew J.; Williams, Travis J.


    Responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, those that change their relaxivity according to environmental stimuli, have promise as next generation imaging probes in medicine. While several of these are known based on covalent modification of the contrast agents, fewer are known based on controlling non-covalent interactions. We demonstrate here accentuated relaxivity of a T1-shortening contrast agent, Gd-DOTP5− based on non-covalent, hydrogen bonding of Gd-DOTP5− with a novel...

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of yeast prion protein Ure2p with shortened N-terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An orthorhombic crystal form of a recombinant yeast prion protein with shortened N-terminal, 90Ure2p, has been obtained. Crystals were grown by the vapordiffusion technique against a mother liquor containing imidazole. Crystals belong to the primitive orthorhombic lattice with the cell parameters a = 54.5 ?, b = 74.7 ?, c = 131.0 ?. The crystals diffract to beyond 3.0 ? resolution at a synchrotron beamline.

  15. Alternative procedure to shorten rectal barostat procedure for the assessment of rectal compliance and visceral perception: a feasibility study


    Vanhoutvin, S.A.L.W.; Troost, F. J; Kilkens, T. O. C.; Lindsey, P. J.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Venema, K.; Masclee, A.; Brummer, R-J M


    Background Barostat methodology is widely used for assessing visceral perception. Different barostat protocols are described with respect to the measurement of rectal compliance and visceral perception. The choice of protocols affects the duration, which is normally 60–90 min, and accuracy of the procedure. This study aimed to shorten the procedure by using the semi-random distension protocol for both compliance and visceral perception measurement and a correction based on rectal capacity (RC...

  16. Alternative procedure to shorten rectal barostat proecure for the assessment of rectal compliance and visceral perception: a feasibility study


    Vanhoutvin, S.A.; Troost, F. J; Kilkens, T.O.; Lindsey, P. J.; Jonkers, D.M.; Venema, K.; Masclee, A.; Brummer, R J


    BACKGROUND: Barostat methodology is widely used for assessing visceral perception. Different barostat protocols are described with respect to the measurement of rectal compliance and visceral perception. The choice of protocols affects the duration, which is normally 60-90 min, and accuracy of the procedure. This study aimed to shorten the procedure by using the semi-random distension protocol for both compliance and visceral perception measurement and a correction based on rectal capacity (R...

  17. Analytical formulas for shear and bulk viscosities in relativistic gaseous mixtures with constant cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, O


    Using Mathematica package, we derive analytical closed-form expressions for the shear and the bulk viscosity coefficients in multicomponent relativistic gases with constant cross sections, being the relativistic generalization for the hard spheres model. Some of them are cumbersome and require symbolic manipulations in an algebraic package. The constant cross sections are of the elastic processes, while the inelastic (or number-changing) processes (collisions or decays) are considered only partly. As examples, we find explicit expressions of the correct single-component first-order shear viscosity coefficient and some explicit analytical results for the binary mixture. These formulas have numerous applications in approximate nonequilibrium descriptions of gases of particles or quasiparticles with averaged (temperature dependent) cross sections. In addition to this, we present formulas for collision rates and some other related formulas. This paper is a shortened version of a previous one.

  18. Lipid Peroxidation-Mediated Telomere Shortening in Hydroxyl Radical-Induced Apoptosis in HeLa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建国; 陈晶; 戴尧仁


    Many anti-cancer drugs have been found to trigger apoptosis in tumor cells through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydroxyl radicals (@ OH) regardless of chemical types. At the same time, telomerase is found to be associated with malignancy and reduced apoptosis. However, little is known about the linkage between ROS (such as @ OH) and telomerase/telomere. The focus of this investigation was to examine the possible pathway of the apoptosis induced by @ OH production via Fe2+ and H2O2. Results of the present study demonstrated that after exposure of HeLa cells to Fe2+-H2O2 system, an increase in lipid peroxidation and reduction of GSH was observed. These events proceeded and triggered apoptosis, resulting in DNA fragmentation. More interestingly, we did not observe any changes of telomerase activity. However, the telomere length in apoptotic cells shortened significantly. We also found that GSH rescued @ OH-induced HeLa cell death and prevened telomere shortening, and that 3,3'-diethyoxadicarbocyanine (DODCB), a telomerase inhibitor, increased susceptibility of HeLa cells to @ OH-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that @ OH-induced telomere shortening is not through telomerase inhibition but possibly a direct effect of @ OH on telomeres themselves via lipid peroxidation.

  19. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies. (United States)

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M


    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived. PMID:26028753

  20. Recent regional shortening in the interior of the orogenic Puna Plateau of the southern central Andes: New InSAR observations from the Salar de Pocitos, Salta, NW Argentina. (United States)

    Eckelmann, Felix; Motagh, Mahdi; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred; Freymark, Jessica; Bekeschus, Benjamin; Alonso, Ricardo


    sedimentary units in the western part of the basin are tilted eastward as part of the eastern flank of an anticline. Importantly, the Quaternary lacustrine shorelines along the margins of the basin document protracted tilting associated with an anticline. Our analysis of InSAR-measurements suggests the existence of two deformation signals. (1) As observed in other areas of the Puna there appears to be a seasonal change in elevation in the salt-basin center, which may be caused by volume changes related to the crystallization of evaporate minerals (e.g. Ruch et al., 2012); (2) to the west of the Salar de Pocitos the deformation signals point toward continued shortening associated with the growth of the anticline. This is compatible with observed shortening in the Chilean Salar de Atacama to the west. Combined with published data on the termination of shortening and the onset of extension in the orogen interior, our study emphasizes the diachronous evolution of crustal deformation on the Puna Plateau and the need to reconsider models that suggest coeval plateau-wide extension.

  1. A Crustal Structure Study of South America. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Renbarger, K. S.


    Variations in the average crustal thickness of the South American platform were determined by measuring fundamental mode Rayleigh wave dispersion between nine pairs of South American WWSSN seismograph stations and inverting the measurements to obtain average shear wave velocity-depth models across the platform. Additional models were derived from the Rayleigh wave dispersion data previously measured over eastern South America. Both sets of models were interpreted in terms of average crustal thickness and average crustal shear wave velocity. The results obtained were depicted in a contour map of crustal thickness. Average values for seismic velocities in the crust and upper mantle were calculated and compared with maps of regional gravity models, MAGSAT magnetic anomalies, and major tectonic features. The correlations and relationships discovered are discussed.

  2. JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry Applications: Mapping of Rain Forest Environments and Crustal Deformation Studies (United States)

    Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Peltzer, G.; Rignot, E.; Werner, C.


    This research using JERS-1 SAR data has been very fruitful, resulting in a strong collaboration with geodesists and geophysicists in Japan, and several important papers characterizing crustal deformation, and the capabilities and limitations of JERS data for these studies.

  3. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina;


    ). With this method, we determine seismic P- and S-velocities that are comparable to the results of teleseismic body wave and surface wave tomography techniques. The RF model shows variations in the crustal thickness between 35 and 55 km. Intracrustal structures are identified, in particular using the......This study presents seismic images of the crustal and lithospheric structure in Siberia based on the available broadband seismic data using teleseismic receiver functions (RFs). We invert P- and S-RFs jointly. The inversion technique is carried out by approach described by Vinnik et al. (2004...... resolved. The current results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure will help to build a model for tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia. We compare our results to the recent detailed models of crustal structure in the area and with seismic models for similar...

  4. Geodetic and Seismic Investigation of Crustal Deformation in Northwest Himalaya (United States)

    Pasari, S.; Dikshit, O., Sr.; Kato, T.


    Underthrusting of Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate results into a persistent compression and strain accumulation along a north-dipping detachment zone in the Himalayan orogen, producing a number of moderate and great interplate earthquakes. In this study, we present the ongoing crustal deformation from our GPS network comprising eight continuously operating permanent stations and three profiles of campaign stations which are lined up perpendicular to the Himalayan mega thrust faults. The campaign stations clearly reveal the ongoing deformation near the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) zones. We further combine our geodetic results with the probalistic earthquake hazards of the northwestern Himalaya (280-320N, 740-800E) to provide a comprehensive report on the seismic hazard scenario of the thickly populated Himalayan cities. For this, the earthquake interevent times and conditional probabilities for events exceeding magnitude 6.0 are estimated from thirteen different probability models, namely exponential, gamma, lognormal, Weibull, Levy, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, inverse Gaussian (Brownian passage time), inverse Weibull (Frechet), exponentiated exponential, exponentiated Rayleigh (Burr type X), and exponentiated Weibull distributions.

  5. Extreme crustal oxygen isotope signatures preserved in coesite in diamond. (United States)

    Schulze, Daniel J; Harte, Ben; Valley, John W; Brenan, James M; Channer, Dominic M De R


    The anomalously high and low oxygen isotope values observed in eclogite xenoliths from the upper mantle beneath cratons have been interpreted as indicating that the parent rock of the eclogites experienced alteration on the ancient sea floor. Recognition of this genetic lineage has provided the foundation for a model of the evolution of the continents whereby imbricated slabs of oceanic lithosphere underpin and promote stabilization of early cratons. Early crustal growth is thought to have been enhanced by the addition of slab-derived magmas, leaving an eclogite residuum in the upper mantle beneath the cratons. But the oxygen isotope anomalies observed in eclogite xenoliths are small relative to those in altered ocean-floor basalt and intermediate-stage subduction-zone eclogites, and this has hindered acceptance of the hypothesis that the eclogite xenoliths represent subducted and metamorphosed ocean-floor basalts. We present here the oxygen isotope composition of eclogitic mineral inclusions, analysed in situ in diamonds using an ion microprobe/secondary ion mass spectrometer. The oxygen isotope values of coesite (a polymorph of SiO2) inclusions are substantially higher than previously reported for xenoliths from the subcratonic mantle, but are typical of subduction-zone meta-basalts, and accordingly provide strong support for the link between altered ocean-floor basalts and mantle eclogite xenoliths. PMID:12721625

  6. Crustal architecture of a continental large igneous province (United States)

    Minakov, Alexander; Faleide, Jan Inge; Krupnova, Natalia; Sakoulina, Tamara


    The northern Barents Sea was strongly affected by the Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province through abundant mafic intrusions, eruption of flood basalts, and regional uplift. Recently acquired geophysical data in this region provide a unique opportunity to study in detail crustal architecture of large igneous provinces. A giant dike swarm is identified based on magnetic anomalies coherent over a distance of hundreds of kilometers. Coincident ocean bottom seismometer, multichannel streamer, and gravity data indicate that the surface basalts and shallow sills were associated with feeder systems cross-cutting the entire crust. At the same time, the distribution of dikes exhibits more complex pattern than radially symmetric with respect to the presumable magmatic center in the Alpha Ridge region. Thus, the preferred orientation of dikes could be controlled by both paleostress and pre-existing weaknesses (Early-Late Paleozoic faults). The data do not indicate a thick igneous mafic lower crust while the existence of heavy ultramafic cumulates below the Moho has not been resolved yet. In view of these observations different models of magma transport and related paleo-surface topography are discussed.

  7. Investigation of upper crustal structure beneath eastern Java (United States)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummnins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono


    The complexity of geology structure in eastern Java causes this region has many potential resources as much as the disasters. Therefore, the East Java province represents an interesting area to be explored, especially regarding its upper crustal structure. To investigate this structure, we employ the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method. We have used seismic waveform data from 25 Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 26 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. Inter-station cross-correlation produces more than 800 Rayleigh wave components, which depict the structure beneath eastern Java. Based on the checkerboard resolution test, we found that the optimal grid size is 0.25ox0.25o. Our inversion results for the periods of 1 to 10 s indicate a good agreement with geological and Bouguer anomaly maps. Rembang high depression, most of the southern mountains zone, the northern part of Rembang zone and the central part of the Madura Island, the area of high gravity anomaly and areas dominated with igneous rocks are associated with high velocity zones. On the other hand, Kendeng zone and most of the basin in the Rembang zone are associated with low velocity zones.

  8. Crustal structure off Norway, 62° to 70° north (United States)

    Planke, Sverre; Skogseid, Jakob; Eldholm, Olav


    Extensive geophysical surveys have been undertaken on the volcanic passive continental margin offshore Norway between 62° and 70°N during the last 25 years. Three main margin segments have been identified, the Lofoten-Vesteralen Margin, the Vøring Margin and the Møre Margin. The main features of the margins are prominent marginal highs, including seaward dipping reflector sequences and an up to 22 km thick volcanic and transitional crust, prominent escarpments (the Vøring Plateau Escarpment and the Faeroe-Shetland Escarpment), and up to 12 km deep post-Jurassic sedimentary basins east of the escarpments. Velocity-depth solutions from about 250 sonobuoys, expanding spread profiles and refraction profiles have been compiled and contoured. Isovelocity horizon contour maps and velocity transects outline a crust which broadly thickens from an oceanic crust with a normal oceanic-type velocity structure to a ca. 35 km thick continental crust with a continental velocity structure, beneath the Norwegian coast. Anomalous features include local crustal thickening below the Møre and Vering marginal highs, and high-velocity bodies in the lower crust in the extension of the Precambrian Lofoten-Vesterålen archipelago. The free-air SEASAT-derived gravity anomalies show a good correlation with the high-velocity bodies, and show prominent NE-trending highs from the Rockall Plateau/Porcupine Plateau region, over the Møre, Vøring and Lofoten-Vesterålen margins, to the southwestern Barents Sea.

  9. Maps of North American crustal stability and geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbridge, R.W.


    A three-year program of analysis of crustal movements in North America was planned with the objective of preparing a series of 1 = 5 million scale maps depicting relative stability/instability. The part of the proposal completed during the first year is described; much of this first year's work was preparatory. Three time scales were considered for the data analysis: 1 - 10/sup 2/ yr., 10/sup 4/ yr., and 10/sup 8/ yr. Significant differences in sign and rate were suspected between short and long-term motions and these are now confirmed. The first part of the program is now complete. It consisted of two principal activities: (a) data collection for the short and mid-term scales on a U.S.-wide basis, excluding Alaska and Hawaii (all of this material has been reduced to compatible computer language and is stored on tape ready for further study, analysis and final cartography); (b) map and data analysis of the long-term scale with a completed draft map, applied specifically to the Mid-West and eastern U.S.

  10. Recent advances in imaging crustal fault zones: a review (United States)

    Yang, Hongfeng


    Crustal faults usually have a fault core and surrounding regions of brittle damage, forming a low-velocity zone (LVZ) in the immediate vicinity of the main slip interface. The LVZ may amplify ground motion, influence rupture propagation, and hold important information of earthquake physics. A number of geophysical and geodetic methods have been developed to derive high-resolution structure of the LVZ. Here, I review a few recent approaches, including ambient noise cross-correlation on dense across-fault arrays and GPS recordings of fault-zone trapped waves. Despite the past efforts, many questions concerning the LVZ structure remain unclear, such as the depth extent of the LVZ. High-quality data from larger and denser arrays and new seismic imaging technique using larger portion of recorded waveforms, which are currently under active development, may be able to better resolve the LVZ structure. In addition, effects of the along-strike segmentation and gradational velocity changes across the boundaries between the LVZ and the host rock on rupture propagation should be investigated by conducting comprehensive numerical experiments. Furthermore, high-quality active sources such as recently developed large-volume air-gun arrays provide a powerful tool to continuously monitor temporal changes of fault-zone properties, and thus can advance our understanding of fault zone evolution.

  11. The moon: Sources of the crustal magnetic anomalies (United States)

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J., Jr.; Wilhelms, D.E.


    Previously unmapped Apollo 16 subsatellite magnetometer data collected at low altitudes over the lunar near side are presented. Medium-amplitude magnetic anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro and Cayley Formations (primary and secondary basin ejecta emplaced 3.8 to 4.0 billion years ago) but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The largest observed anomaly (radial component ??? 21 gammas at an altitude of 20 kilometers) is exactly correlated with a conspicuous light-colored deposit on western Oceanus Procellarum known as Reiner ??. Assuming that the Reiner ?? deposit is the source body and estimating its maximum average thickness as 10 meters, a minimum mean magnetization level of 5.2 ?? 2.4 ?? 10-2 electromagnetic units per gram, or ??? 500 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned sample, is calculated. An age for its emplacement of ??? 2.9 billion years is inferred from photogeologic evidence, implying that magnetization of lunar crustal materials must have continued for a period exceeding 1 billion years. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  12. The oxygen-hafnium isotope paradox in the early post Columbia River Basalt silicic volcanism: Evidence for complex batch assembly of upper crustal, lower crustal and low-δ18O silicic magmas (United States)

    Colon, D.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Schmitt, A. K.; Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.


    Eruptions of the Columbia River flood basalts were immediately followed by large eruptions of silicic magmas; some may have been coeval, others genetically-linked to the CRB. Among the most voluminous of these eruptions was the Jarbidge Rhyolite, which comprises ~500 km3 of lava erupted from 16.1-15.0 Ma in northern Nevada. Activity at Jarbidge was followed at 15.0 Ma by a series of rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas in the J-P Desert of Idaho ~50 km NW of the Jarbidge Rhyolite center. To constrain magmatic origins and upper crustal magma storage conditions of these two silicic magmatic systems, we conducted bulk and high spatial resolution analysis of whole rocks and minerals (quartz, feldspar, and zircon). Bulk quartz and plagioclase δ18O values of the J-P Desert units are only moderately lower than mantle values, with δ18O-quartz of 5.0-5.5‰ and plagioclase δ18O of ~3.9-5.8‰, along with slightly unradiogenic Nd and Hf whole rock values (average ɛHf and ɛNd of -13.1 and -10.0, respectively), while quartz from the Jarbidge Rhyolite has normal δ18O (+8.4‰), but very unradiogenic ɛHf-ɛNd (ɛHf = -34.7, ɛNd = -24.0), fingerprinting Archean upper crust. SIMS analysis of J-P Desert zircons reveals considerably diverse δ18O values, ranging from -0.6‰ to +6.5‰ in a single unit. The same zircon spots yielded U-Pb SIMS ages which generally agree with the 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages, with no evidence of inheritance of pre-Miocene zircons. Combined with LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis of Hf isotopes overlapping the earlier SIMS spots, these zircons show a clear near-linear correlation between ɛHf and δ18O values observed in individual zircons. This relationship suggests variable mixing of two distinct silicic magmas prior to eruption of the J-P Desert rhyolites. One of these, characterized by extremely low ɛHf values and normal δ18O values, is likely a mantle magma strongly contaminated with shallow Archean crust, represented by the Jarbidge Rhyolite. The other is

  13. Crustal processes cause adakitic chemical signatures in syn-collision magmatism from SE Iran (United States)

    Allen, Mark; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Neill, Iain


    We report new elemental and Nd-Sr isotopic analyses for Late Cenozoic intrusive and extrusive rocks emplaced in SE Iran as part of the wider syn-collision magmatic province within the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. The sample sites are near the town of Dehaj in Kerman Province. Most of the rocks are from stocks and batholiths, interpreted as the roots of central volcanoes. Age controls are not precise, but the rocks are likely to be Late Miocene-Quaternary in age. Basaltic to andesitic lavas crop out nearby; their relationships to the intrusive rocks are uncertain. Geochemically, the entire range of rocks from basalt lavas through to rhyolitic intrusives ranges from 51-71 wt.% silica and isotopic signatures are similar to Bulk Earth, without any clear evidence for large-scale crustal contamination. The basaltic to andesitic lavas appear to have variable and often high La/Yb and Sr/Y such that they range from calc-alkaline arc-like rocks to adakitic compositions depending on the degree of fractionation. The intrusive rocks seem to form a separate suite, with clear indications of increasing Sr/Y and Dy/Yb with fractionation. Previous interpretations relate adakitic magmatism to Tethyan oceanic slab break-off and slab melting beneath the collision zone. However, as the 'adakitic signature' is increasingly apparent in more evolved magmas, at least in the intrusives, adakite generation is more likely to have occurred during melt evolution from an initial low Sr/Y and low La/Yb parent. This parental melt may have been similar in starting composition to proposed non-adakitic basaltic melts from elsewhere in the collision zone. The high Sr/Yb and La/Yb signatures are best explained by the suppression of plagioclase fractionation by high magmatic water contents, promoting incompatible behaviour of Sr. Conversely, Y and Yb are compatible during amphibole and garnet fractionation at crustal or uppermost mantle levels. Rather than a localised slab break-off or melting effect, the

  14. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent (United States)

    Carmichael, R. S.


    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.



    Cahit Tağı ÇELİK


    Monitoring the Crustal Movement in Geodesy is performed by the deformation survey and analysis. If monitoring the crustal movements involves more than two epochs of survey campaign then from the plate tectonic theory, stations do not move randomly from one epoch to the other, therefore Kalman Filter may be suitable to use. However, if sudden movements happened in the crust in particular earthquake happened, the crust moves very fast in a very short period of time. When Kalman Filter used for ...

  16. Crustal structure of the northern Gulf of Mexico from potential fields and seismic refraction (United States)

    Norton, I. O.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Christeson, G. L.; Eddy, D. R.


    A recent seismic refraction program in the northern offshore Gulf of Mexico (US waters) has greatly enhanced understanding of the crustal structure of this previously poorly-known region. These data are the first to show how crustal thickness varies across this area. Interpretations of crustal types derived from the refraction data have helped to delineate regions of oceanic and extended continental crust, as well as regions of crustal thickening probably associated with synrift volcanism. Onshore, however, there is still a lack of refraction data so understanding of crustal structure and therefore extension history is poorly constrained. Potential field modeling can help address this issue. It is well know that gravity modeling by itself can yield many different interpretations of density distributions and hence crustal structure. Combined with refraction data these interpretations can be much better constrained. In this study crustal structure for the onshore northern Gulf of Mexico is derived from the offshore refraction data combined with regional gravity and magnetic data, along with EarthScope interpretations of crust thickness. The lack of observed rift faulting in deep seismic reflection data in the region has long been a puzzle, as the several hundreds of kilometers of extension implied by plate reconstructions should have resulted in extensive faulting. The potential field data does suggest the existence of deep grabens parallel to the coast, associated with large magnetic anomalies that may indicate a partly magmatic margin in agreement with some published interpretations. These new interpretations are used to build a model of crustal evolution of the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Crustal anisotropy and ductile flow beneath the eastern Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas (United States)

    Kong, Fansheng; Wu, Jing; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.


    Crustal anisotropy beneath 71 broadband seismic stations situated at the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin is investigated based on the sinusoidal moveout of P-to-S conversions from the Moho and an intra-crustal discontinuity. Significant crustal anisotropy is pervasively detected beneath the study area with an average splitting time of 0.39 ± 0.18 s. The resulting fast orientations are mostly parallel to the major shear zones in the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, and can be explained by fluid-filled fractures, favoring the model of rigid block motion with deformations concentrated on the block boundaries. In the vicinity of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault Zone in the southern Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, our results, when combined with previously revealed high crustal Poisson's ratio in the area, support the existence of mid/lower crustal flow. The Longmenshan Fault Zone and adjacent areas are dominated by strike-orthogonal fast orientations, which are consistent with alignments of cracks associated with compressional stress between the Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The observations suggest that crustal thickening is the main cause of the high topographic relief across the Longmenshan Fault Zone.

  18. Near-axis crustal structure and thickness of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Soule, Dax; Wilcock, William S. D.; Toomey, Douglas R.; Hooft, Emilie E. E.; Weekly, Robert T.


    A model of crustal thickness and lower crustal velocities is obtained for crustal ages of 0.1-1.2 Ma on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge by inverting travel times of crustal paths and non-ridge-crossing wide-angle Moho reflections obtained from a three-dimensional tomographic experiment. The crust is thicker by 0.5-1 km beneath a 200 m high plateau that extends across the segment center. This feature is consistent with the influence of the proposed Heckle melt anomaly on the spreading center. The history of ridge propagation on the Cobb overlapping spreading center may also have influenced the formation of the plateau. The sharp boundaries of the plateau and crustal thickness anomaly suggest that melt transport is predominantly upward in the crust. Lower crustal velocities are lower at the ends of the segment, likely due to increased hydrothermal alteration in regions influenced by overlapping spreading centers, and possibly increased magmatic differentiation.

  19. Seismic evidence for widespread western-US deep-crustal deformation caused by extension. (United States)

    Moschetti, M P; Ritzwoller, M H; Lin, F; Yang, Y


    Laboratory experiments have established that many of the materials comprising the Earth are strongly anisotropic in terms of seismic-wave speeds. Observations of azimuthal and radial anisotropy in the upper mantle are attributed to the lattice-preferred orientation of olivine caused by the shear strains associated with deformation, and provide some of the most direct evidence for deformation and flow within the Earth's interior. Although observations of crustal radial anisotropy would improve our understanding of crustal deformation and flow patterns resulting from tectonic processes, large-scale observations have been limited to regions of particularly thick crust. Here we show that observations from ambient noise tomography in the western United States reveal strong deep (middle to lower)-crustal radial anisotropy that is confined mainly to the geological provinces that have undergone significant extension during the Cenozoic Era (since approximately 65 Myr ago). The coincidence of crustal radial anisotropy with the extensional provinces of the western United States suggests that the radial anisotropy results from the lattice-preferred orientation of anisotropic crustal minerals caused by extensional deformation. These observations also provide support for the hypothesis that the deep crust within these regions has undergone widespread and relatively uniform strain in response to crustal thinning and extension. PMID:20376148

  20. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  1. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)


    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  2. A domain decomposition approach to implementing fault slip in finite-element models of quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation (United States)

    Aagaard, B.T.; Knepley, M.G.; Williams, C.A.


    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  3. A Domain Decomposition Approach to Implementing Fault Slip in Finite-Element Models of Quasi-static and Dynamic Crustal Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Aagaard, Brad T; Williams, Charles A


    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  4. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa


    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  5. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.


    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  6. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio and a...... low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state are...... discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  7. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS


    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  8. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J


    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  9. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado


    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  10. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  11. Remedial investigations for quarry bulk wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs

  12. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  13. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)


    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  14. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity


    Livine, Etera R; Terno, Daniel R.


    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales w...

  15. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R


    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. We show that in this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  16. Crustal structure of the Alps as seen by attenuation tomography (United States)

    Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Traversa, Paola


    We develop a simple tomographic approach exploiting the decay rate of coda waves to map the absorption properties of the crust in a region delimited approximately by the Rhine Graben to the North, the Apennines to the South, the Massif Central to the West and the Dinarides to the East. Our dataset comprises 40 000 coda records of about 2000 weak to moderate crustal earthquakes, with magnitude ranging from 2.8 to 6 and recorded by broad-band, accelerometric and short-period stations. After proper choice of a coda window minimizing the effects of variable epicentral distances, we measure the coda quality factor Qc in five non-overlapping frequency windows covering the 1-32 Hz band for all available source station pairs. These measurements are subsequently converted into maps of absorption quality factor (Qi) using a linearized, approximate relation between Qc and Qi. In practice the following procedure is applied in each frequency band: (1) we divide the target region into 40 × 40 km cells; (2) for each source-station pair, we assign the measured Qc value to each pixel intercepted by the direct ray path; (3) the results are averaged over all paths and subsequently smoothed with a 3 × 3 pixels moving window. Our approach is consistent with the high sensitivity of Qc to the value of Qi between source and station. Our tomographic approach reveals strong lateral variations of absorption with length scales ranging from 100 km to 1000 km. At low frequency (˜ 1 Hz), the correlation with the surface geology is clear, Cenozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins (resp. crystalline massifs) being recognized as high (resp. low)-absorption regions. Furthermore the Qi map delineates finer geological features such as the Ivrea Body, the Rhône Valley, or felsic intrusions in the central Alps. At high-frequency (>16 Hz), only the thickest Cenozoic sedimentary deposits show up as high-attenuation regions and a north/south dichotomy is apparent in the absorption structure. The limit

  17. Microearthquakes and Crustal Structures in the Southern Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Lin, J.; Sibuet, J.; Lee, C.; Hsu, S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Auffret, Y.; Pelleau, P.; Crozon, J.


    Located east of Taiwan, the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) is a portion of a young continental backarc basin, which is still in the rifting stage. Based on seismicity data, a slab tear was identified along 123.3°E. In order to better understand the nature and role of tectonic features in this region, a passive seismic Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) experiment was conducted from November 19 to December 1, 2003. 15 OBSs were deployed in a 130 x 90 km area including the Ryukyu slab tear and the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail (CBVT). OBSs with three 4.5 Hz component geophones and an hydrophone recorded about 4000 microearthquakes. Most of them (about 94%) are crustal earthquakes (0-20 km) which occured in the SOT central graben. Just a few earthquakes were recorded from the upper slope of the northern SOT and from the Ryukyu forearc. Most of the earthquake local magnitudes (ML) range from 1 to 2, even if the whole range of magnitudes spans from 0.9 to 4. Three clusters of high microearthquake activity are observed in : (1) the CBVT area (24.7-25°N; 122.5-123°E); (2) the southern central graben area (24.65-24.85°N;123-123.3°E); and (3) the northern central graben area (24.9-25.2°N ;123.2-123.65°E). The southern central graben cluster is also identified by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquakes determined by the JMA in the northern central graben present larger magnitudes than ours, but are globally located 10-km south of our cluster. The CBVT cluster is not recorded in JMA data probably because the shallow (O-5 km) volcanic activity only involved small earthquakes which are too far from the JMA's network. Based on swath bathymetric and seismic data, most of the epicenters lie along already identified normal faults. Thus, except the volcanic activity, which occurs in the CBVT area, the main factor controlling the SOT tectonic activity is normal faulting. On the northern and southern slopes of the central graben, hypocenters occur along normal fauls

  18. The crustal structure of Beira High, Central Mozambique (United States)

    Olaf Müller, Christian; Franke, Dieter; Heyde, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Jokat, Wilfried


    Up to Jurassic times the Antarctic and African continents were part of the supercontinent Gondwana. Since some 185 Ma the rifting in our research area caused the dispersal of Gondwana and Eastern Africa. The timing and geometry of the break-up as well as the amount of volcanism connected to the Jurassic rifting are still controversial. In the southern part of the Mozambique channel a prominent basement high, the Beira High, forms a specific crustal anomaly along the margin. It is still controversial if this high is a continental fragment or was formed during a period of enhanced magmatism. Therefore a deep seismic profile with 37 OBS/H was acquired from the deep Mozambique Channel, across the Beira High and terminating on the shelf. The main objectives are to provide constraints on the crustal composition and origin of the Beira High as well as the amount of volcanism and the continent-ocean transition below the Zambezi Delta. To obtain a P-wave velocity model of this area the data was forward modelled by means of 2D-Raytracing. Furthermore, potential field data acquired in parallel to the seismic data were used to calculate a 2D gravity model. Preliminary results indicate a 20-24 km thick crust for the Beira High. In good agreement to the adjacent oceanic crust in the Mozambique Channel the upper crust has velocities between 5.5-5.9 km/s. The middle crust is characterised by velocities between 6.2-6.7 km/s and the lower crust higher than 6.7 km/s and a density of 3.0 g/cm3. However, these velocities are only constrained by Moho reflections, since no diving waves are observed for the lower crust. In the area of the Zambezi Delta Depression the top of the acoustic basement is at 11.5 km depth and the crust thickness thins to 7 km. The basement here is overlain by a 2 km thick layer of 4.9-5.1 km/s, which we interpret as pre-rift sediments (Karoo-Belo-Group, including Lava Flows on top). Furthermore, evidence for the presence of a high velocity body (HVB) at below

  19. Tracing crustal contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia (United States)

    Jolis, E. M.; Troll, V.; Deegan, F.; Blythe, L.; Harris, C.; Freda, C.; Hilton, D.; Chadwick, J.; Van Helden, M.


    Arc magmas typically display chemical and petrographic characteristics indicative of crustal input. Crustal contamination can take place either in the mantle source region or as magma traverses the upper crust (e.g. [1]). While source contamination is generally considered the dominant process (e.g. [2]), late-stage crustal contamination has been recognised at volcanic arcs too (e.g. [3]). In light of this, we aim to test the extent of upper crustal versus source contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda arc, which, due its variable upper crustal structure, is an exemplary natural laboratory. We present a detailed geochemical study of 7 volcanoes along a traverse from Anak-Krakatau in the Sunda strait through Java and Bali, to characterise the impact of the overlying crust on arc magma composition. Using rock and mineral elemental geochemistry, radiogenic (Sr, Nd and Pb) and, stable (O) isotopes, we show a correlation between upper crustal composition and the degree of upper crustal contamination. We find an increase in 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O values, and a decrease in 143Nd/144Nd values from Krakatau towards Merapi, indicating substantial crustal input from the thick continental basement present. Volcanoes to the east of Merapi and the Progo-Muria fault transition zone, where the upper crust is thinner, in turn, show considerably less crustal input in their isotopic signatures, indicating a stronger influence of the mantle source. Our new data represent a systematic and high-resolution arc-wide sampling effort that allows us to distinguish the effects of the upper crust on the compositional spectrum of individual volcanic systems along the Sunda arc. [1] Davidson, J.P, Hora, J.M, Garrison, J.M & Dungan, M.A 2005. Crustal Forensics in Arc Magmas. J. Geotherm. Res. 140, 157-170; [2] Debaille, V., Doucelance, R., Weis, D., & Schiano, P. 2005. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70,723-741; [3] Gasparon, M., Hilton, D.R., & Varne, R. 1994. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 15-22.

  20. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe (United States)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz


    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, drilling induced tensile fractures, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions and stress inversions from these, engineering methods (overcoring, borehole slotter) and geological data (e.g. volcanic alignment, inversion of fault slip data). To guarantee the comparability of the different stress indicator the resulting data are quality-ranked using the WSM quality ranking scheme. The new data set has a better coverage and enables us to identifying the regional and local variability of the stress pattern. For the Mediterranean and Central Europe we analysed the wave-length of the stress pattern by determining the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid using an updated version of the hybrid approach of Heidbach et al. [2010]. The preliminary results show that the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is a key control of the overall stress pattern. However, given the complex tectonic setting in particular due to the indentation/collision of the Adriatic micro block, the Alpine topography as well as forces that control the movement of the Anatolian and Aegean block, the stress pattern shows in these regions significant changes in the mean SHmax orientation as well as in the tectonic regime.

  1. Telomere shortening impairs regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in response to injury but not under homeostatic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Watabe-Rudolph

    Full Text Available Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE associated with impaired olfaction and dry nose represents one of the most common phenotypes of human aging. Impairment in regeneration of a functional olfactory epithelium can also occur in response to injury due to infection or nasal surgery. These complications occur more frequently in aged patients. Although age is the most unifying risk factor for atrophic changes and functional decline of the olfactory epithelium, little is known about molecular mechanisms that could influence maintenance and repair of the olfactory epithelium. Here, we analyzed the influence of telomere shortening (a basic mechanism of cellular aging on homeostasis and regenerative reserve in response to chemical induced injury of the OE in late generation telomere knockout mice (G3 mTerc(-/- with short telomeres compared to wild type mice (mTerc(+/+ with long telomeres. The study revealed no significant influence of telomere shortening on homeostatic maintenance of the OE during mouse aging. In contrast, the regenerative response to chemical induced injury of the OE was significantly impaired in G3 mTerc(-/- mice compared to mTerc(+/+ mice. Seven days after chemical induced damage, G3 mTerc(-/- mice exhibited significantly enlarged areas of persisting atrophy compared to mTerc(+/+ mice (p = 0.031. Telomere dysfunction was associated with impairments in cell proliferation in the regenerating epithelium. Deletion of the cell cycle inhibitor, Cdkn1a (p21 rescued defects in OE regeneration in telomere dysfunctional mice. Together, these data indicate that telomere shortening impairs the regenerative capacity of the OE by impairing cell cycle progression in a p21-dependent manner. These findings could be relevant for the impairment in OE function in elderly people.

  2. Platinum(II) phenanthroimidazole G-quadruplex ligand induces selective telomere shortening in A549 cancer cells. (United States)

    Mancini, Johanna; Rousseau, Philippe; Castor, Katherine J; Sleiman, Hanadi F; Autexier, Chantal


    Telomere maintenance, achieved by the binding of protective shelterin capping proteins to telomeres and by either telomerase or a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism, is critical for cell proliferation and survival. Extensive telomere shortening or loss of telomere integrity activates DNA damage checkpoints, leading to cell senescence or death. Although telomerase upregulation is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy, the lag associated with telomere shortening and the potential activation of ALT pose a challenge. An alternative approach is to modify telomere interactions with binding proteins (telomere uncapping). G-quadruplex ligands stabilize structures generated from single-stranded G-rich 3'-telomere end (G-quadruplex) folding, which in principle, cannot be elongated by telomerase, thus leading to telomere shortening. Ligands can also mediate rapid anti-proliferative effects by telomere uncapping. We previously reported that the G-quadruplex ligand, phenylphenanthroimidazole ethylenediamine platinum(II) (PIP), inhibits telomerase activity in vitro[47]. In the current study, a long-term seeding assay showed that PIP significantly inhibited the seeding capacity of A549 lung cancer cells and to a lesser extent primary MRC5 fibroblast cells. Importantly, treatment with PIP caused a significant dose- and time-dependent decrease in average telomere length of A549 but not MRC5 cells. Moreover, cell cycle analysis revealed a significant increase in G1 arrest upon treatment of A549 cells, but not MRC5 cells. Both apoptosis and cellular senescence may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of PIP. Our studies validate the development of novel and specific therapeutic ligands targeting telomeric G-quadruplex structures in cancer cells. PMID:26724375

  3. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona


    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial

  4. Insights into Oceanic Crust Accretion from a Comparison of Rock Magnetic and Silicate Fabrics from Lower Crustal Gabbros from Hess Deep Rift (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Morris, A.; Friedman, S. A.; Cheadle, M. J.


    The mechanisms of lower crustal accretion remain a long-standing question for those who study fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. One of the goals of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 is to test accretionary models by investigating the structure of the lower oceanic crust exposed within the Hess Deep Rift. Located near the tip of the westward-propagating Cocos-Nazca spreading center, Hess Deep Rift exposes crust formed at the East Pacific Rise. During IODP Expedition 345, primitive gabbroic rocks were recovered from a dismembered lower crustal section at ~4850 meters below sealevel. Constraints on physical processes during magmatic accretion are provided by the relative orientation and strength of rock fabrics. We present anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabric data from gabbros recovered from the two deepest holes (U1415J and U1415P). AMS measurements provide petrofabric data that may be used to constrain magma emplacement and subsequent magmatic flow. Bulk susceptibility ranges from 1.15 x 10-4 to 5.73 x 10-2 SI, with a majority of the samples having susceptibility greater than 10-3 SI, suggesting magnetite is the dominant contributor to the AMS signal. Low-temperature demagnetization data show Verwey transitions near 125K indicating the presence of nearly stoichiometric magnetite in most samples. AMS reveals dominantly oblate fabrics with a moderate degree of anisotropy (P') ranging from 1.01 to 1.38 (average P' = 1.13). Fabric strength varies within each of the petrologically-defined units recovered from different crustal blocks. Additional remanence anisotropy fabric analyses of a few specimens reveal nearly identical directions of principal axes compared to AMS, but with larger degrees of anisotropy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from one sample shows a moderate plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation best defined by a b-axis maxima that is coincident with the AMS minimum principal axis. This comparison

  5. Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field from Low-Altitude Measurements by MESSENGER. (United States)

    Johnson, C. L.; Phillips, R. J.; Purucker, M. E.; Anderson, B. J.; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Fan, K. A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Hauck, S. A., II; Head, J. W., III; Korth, H.; James, P. B.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Philpott, L. C.; Siegler, M. A.; Strauss, B. E.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Solomon, S. C.


    Magnetized rocks can record the history of a planet's magnetic field, a key constraint for understanding interior evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft at altitudes below 150 km, we have detected fields indicative of crustal magnetization. Fields from non-crustal sources, which dominate the observations even at low altitudes, were estimated and subtracted from the observations using both magnetospheric models and signal filtering. The resulting high-pass filtered fields have amplitudes of a few to 20 nT. The first low-altitude signals were detected over the Suisei Planitia region and were confirmed by upward continuation to be of crustal origin. At least some contribution from thermoremanent magnetization is required to account for these signals, and we infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7-3.9 Ga on the basis of correlation of crustal magnetic fields with volcanic units of that age range. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust derived from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Here, we extend these initial results with observations obtained at spacecraft altitudes below 60 km at all body-fixed longitudes from ~40°N to ~75°N. The strongest crustal fields occur in the region 120°E to 210°E, and weaker signals characterize the northern volcanic plains. We test the hypothesis that the longest-wavelength crustal field signals in this region reflect magnetization contrasts between the Caloris basin and the surrounding intercrater plains and circum-Caloris plains. We report the spatial distribution of observed crustal fields, together with magnetization models derived from them and the implications of these models, particularly for the depth distribution of sources compatible with the observations.

  6. Crustal shear velocity structure in the Southern Lau Basin constrained by seafloor compliance (United States)

    Zha, Yang; Webb, Spahr C.


    Seafloor morphology and crustal structure vary significantly in the Lau back-arc basin, which contains regions of island arc formation, rifting, and seafloor spreading. We analyze seafloor compliance: deformation under long period ocean wave forcing, at 30 ocean bottom seismometers to constrain crustal shear wave velocity structure along and across the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC). Velocity models obtained through Monte Carlo inversion of compliance data show systematic variation of crustal structure in the basin. Sediment thicknesses range from zero thickness at the ridge axis to 1400 m near the volcanic arc. Sediment thickness increases faster to the east than to the west of the ELSC, suggesting a more abundant source of sediment near the active arc volcanoes. Along the ELSC, upper crustal velocities increase from the south to the north where the ridge has migrated farther away from the volcanic arc front. Along the axial ELSC, compliance analysis did not detect a crustal low-velocity body, indicating less melt in the ELSC crustal accretion zone compared to the fast spreading East Pacific Rise. Average upper crust shear velocities for the older ELSC crust produced when the ridge was near the volcanic arc are 0.5-0.8 km/s slower than crust produced at the present-day northern ELSC, consistent with a more porous extrusive layer. Crust in the western Lau Basin, which although thought to have been produced through extension and rifting of old arc crust, is found to have upper crustal velocities similar to older oceanic crust produced at the ELSC.

  7. On the effect of the martian crustal magnetic field on atmospheric erosion (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Liemohn, Michael W.; Nagy, Andrew F.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Ma, Yingjuan


    Without the shielding of a strong intrinsic magnetic field, the martian atmosphere directly interacts with the impacting solar wind. The neutral constituents of the atmospheric corona can be ionized, and then picked up and accelerated by the magnetic field and convection electric field in the solar wind. A significant fraction of pickup ions escape Mars' gravitational pull and are lost to space. This non-thermal escape process of heavy species is an important mechanism responsible for atmospheric erosion. While there is a perception that the martian magnetic anomalies are significant for the ionospheric density distribution and the bow shock standoff location, little is known about the quantitative influence of the martian crustal magnetic field on the global distribution of escaping pickup ions. In this paper, we apply a newly developed Monte Carlo ion transport model to resolve the crustal field effect on the pickup oxygen ion distribution around Mars. The background magnetic and electric fields, in which test particles are followed, are calculated using an independent three-dimensional multispecies MHD model. The effects of the crustal magnetic field on particle escape are quantified by varying the crustal field orientation in the model setup and comparing the corresponding test particle simulation results. The comparison is made by turning on or off the crustal field or changing the local time of the strongest field from the dayside to the dawnside. It is found that without the protection of the crustal magnetic field, the total amount of atmospheric escape through the tail region would be enhanced by more than a factor of two. It is shown that the crustal magnetic field not only regionally deflects the solar wind around the martian atmosphere, but also has an important global effect on atmospheric erosion and thus on long-term atmospheric evolution.

  8. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, N; Hansen, E R;


    We studied telomerase activity and telomere length in PBMC and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from blood obtained from a total of 32 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 30 normal controls. The telomerase activity was significantly increased in PBMC from the patients......(+) T cell subsets from normal donors. In conclusion, the increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length indicates that T lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are chronically stimulated and have an increased cellular turnover in vivo....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  10. Determining the bulk strength of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk rock strength of strata is determined by logging a bore-hole with an instrument to obtain a neutron-neutron log of the hole and determining in conjunction with the lithology of the strata the strength by applying an inverse relation formula. (author)

  11. Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

  12. Crevice chemistry estimation from bulk water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first PWR plant in Japan started commercial operation in 1970, 22 plants are running in Japan as of the end of 1994. The main purpose of secondary water chemistry control is to minimize the corrosion possibility of the secondary system equipment, especially steam generators (SG). To achieve this objective, much effort has been concentrated on improving secondary water chemistry control. As a result of this effort, the recent secondary water chemistry in Japanese plants is well maintained in every stage of operation. However, to ensure and improve the reliability of SG, it is necessary to control crevice environments, which are located at tube/tube support plate intersections and under the sludge pile on the tube sheet. According to recent crevice monitoring examination results, the concentration behavior impurities in SG bulk water at the crevice is different for each species, and SG bulk water and crevice chemical compositions are not always equal. From these results, to control the crevice chemistry, improving bulk water chemistry control methods and a new type of molar ratio control index is needed. This paper introduces a brief summary of a recent crevice chemistry evaluation technique and bulk water chemistry control method, which is employed for crevice chemistry control, based on crevice monitoring examination results

  13. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James


    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  14. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina


    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  15. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;


    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization is cond...

  16. Upper crustal seismic structure of the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge from traveltime tomography: Implications for oceanic crustal accretion (United States)

    Weekly, Robert T.; Wilcock, William S. D.; Toomey, Douglas R.; Hooft, Emilie E. E.; Kim, Eunyoung


    isotropic and anisotropic P wave velocity structure of the upper oceanic crust on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is studied using refracted traveltime data collected by an active-source, three-dimensional tomography experiment. The isotropic velocity structure is characterized by low crustal velocities in the overlapping spreading centers (OSCs) at the segment ends. These low velocities are indicative of pervasive tectonic fracturing and persist off axis, recording the history of ridge propagation. Near the segment center, velocities within the upper 1 km show ridge-parallel bands with low velocities on the outer flanks of topographic highs. These features are consistent with localized thickening of the volcanic extrusive layer from eruptions extending outside of the axial valley that flow down the fault-tilted blocks that form the abyssal hill topography. On-axis velocities are generally relatively high beneath the hydrothermal vent fields likely due to the infilling of porosity by mineral precipitation. Lower velocities are observed beneath the most vigorous vent fields in a seismically active region above the axial magma chamber and may reflect increased fracturing and higher temperatures. Seismic anisotropy is high on-axis but decreases substantially off axis over 5-10 km (0.2-0.4 Ma). This decrease coincides with an increase in seismic velocities resolved at depths ≥1 km and is attributed to the infilling of cracks by mineral precipitation associated with near-axis hydrothermal circulation. The orientation of the fast-axis of anisotropy is ridge-parallel near the segment center but curves near the segment ends reflecting the tectonic fabric within the OSCs.

  17. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe


    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  18. Strain induced bulk superconductivity in BaFe2As2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report superconductivity in non-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba122) thin films grown on Fe buffered Spinel single crystalline substrates. Superconductivity was achieved in our thin films by varying the thickness of the Ba122. Increasing the thickness to a critical value of approximately 10 nm results in an increase of the superconducting critical temperature to Tc = 28 K whereas films with a thickness of >100 nm do not show any superconductivity. We connect this appearance of superconductivity with the inclusion of strain in our samples. Very thin samples are fixed to the Fe buffer layer and substrate lattice constant (increased a-axis lattice constant and shortened c-axis lattice constant) whereas with increasing thickness the Ba122 layer relaxes to its bulk values. We present via X-ray analysis the relaxation of the c-axis lattice constant coming along with structural changes showed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bulk nature of superconductivity was determined by measurements of the critical current density and via magnetic measurements using a SQUID.

  19. Bulk agent Plantago ovata after Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy with Ligasure. (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Dragutin M; Pavlov, Maja J; Ceranic, Miljan S; Kerkez, Mirko D; Rankovic, Vitomir I; Masirevic, Vesna P


    The aim of this study was to determine usefulness of the bulk agent Plantago ovata in reducing postoperative pain and tenesmus after open hemorrhoidectomy (Milligan-Morgan with Ligasure). Ninety-eight patients were randomized into two groups of 49 patients each. In both groups Milligan-Morgan open hemorrhoidectomy with Ligasure was performed. The first group received postoperatively two sachets daily of 3.26 g of the bulk agent, Plantago ovata, for 20 days. The control group was treated postoperatively with glycerin oil. There was no statistically significant difference in age, gender distribution and hemorrhoid grading, between the two groups. The pain score after first defecation (p Plantago ovata, while there was no statistically significant difference in the pain level after 20 days (p > 0.05). The hospital stay was statistically significantly shorter in the group receiving Plantago ovata (2.6 +/- 0.6 vs 3.9 +/- 0.7 days, p Plantago ovata after open hemorrhoidectomy, reduces pain, tenesmus rate and shortens postoperative hospital stay. PMID:16708408

  20. What we know about magnetic and other physical bulk properties at Curie depth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The ferro(i)magnetic-paramagnetic transition, taking place in a few degree wide temperature range at the critical (Curie or Neel) temperature is a second-order magnetic phase transition. A possible extreme (theoretically infinite) enhancement of magnetic susceptibility (the Hopkinson peak, or the 'lambda-type' anomaly) of magnetic materials around this temperature has been known for a long time. If the enhancement is sufficiently high, it is able to cause important geomagnetic and magnetotelluric anomalies (Kiss et al., GRL, 2005). Theoretically, and according to solid state physics experiments, it does have reality, and we think, at mid-crustal depths the temperature stability and homogeneity would be able to maintain such a phenomena. At the same time, the disordered nature of real earth materials and rock physics experimental results (where the Hopkinson peaks have not exceeded 3-4) make this phenomenon questionable. Hopkinson-peak measurements are usually carried out to determine precisely the Curie temperature, not the intensity of the peak itself. In order to be able to determine the peak's magnitude, the temperature sampling should be much denser, the heating (cooling) rate and the external field should be much lower than in routine rock physics measurements. The required heating (cooling) rate limit may be further constrained due to an enhanced specific heat capacity and a diminished thermal conductivity around the critical temperature. Moreover, as we have found in various publications about such solid state physics experiments, significant changes in electrical resistivity and elastic constants may also occur at the critical temperature. The second-order magnetic phase transition, if it is really accompanied with abnormal bulk parameters at Curie depth, might deeply improve our knowledge about structures and processes at mid-crustal depths. The magnetotelluric consequences are discussed in a companion poster

  1. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  2. Physical and chemical consequences of crustal melting in fossil mature intra-oceanic arcs (United States)

    Berger, J.; Burg, J.-P.


    Seismic velocity models of active intra-oceanic arcs show roots with densities and P-wave velocities intermediate to classical lower oceanic crust (density; ~3.0, Vp: ~7.0 km/s) and uppermost harzburgitic mantle (density: 3.2-3.3, Vp: 7.9-8.0 km/s). Most studies on active and fossil exhumed island arcs interpret the petrological nature of this root as ultramafic cumulates crystallized from primitive melts and/or as pyroxenites formed via basalt-peridotite reactions. Igneous cumulates and pyroxenites have densities close to or above that of uppermost mantle rocks; they can consequently undergo gravity-driven delamination, a process thought to drive the bulk composition of the arc toward an andesitic, continental crust-like composition. Dehydration and melting reactions are reported from exposed arc roots (Jijal complex in Kohistan; Amalaoulaou arc in Mali; Fiordland arc in New-Zealand). Intense influx of mantle-derived basaltic magmas at high pressure in a thickening island arc can enable lower crustal rocks to locally cross the dehydration-melting solidus of hydrous subalkaline basalts. Thermodynamic modeling using Perple_X, geochemical analysis and compilation of experimental and field data have been combined to constrain processes, conditions and consequences of intra-arc melting. The position of the solidus in a P-T grid is strongly dependent of the bulk water content: at 1 GPa, it is as low as 750 °C for water saturated hornblende-gabbros (>1 wt% H2O) and 830°C for gabbros with 0.1 wt% H2O. Incipient melting (F <10 %) near the solidus produces trondhjemitic melt and garnet granulites residue. The latter has composition very close to that of igneous precursors but is characterized by contrasted physical properties (density: 3.2-3.3, Vp: 6.9-7.4 km/s). Higher partial melting degrees (F: 10-20 %) lead to the formation of anorthositic melts in equilibrium with garnet-clinopyroxene-rutile residues (density: up to 3.45, Vp: up to 7.7 km/s). These melts are rich in

  3. Melt evolution and residence in extending crust: Thermal modeling of the crust and crustal magmas (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Dufek, Josef


    Tectonic extension and magmatism often act in concert to modify the thermal, mechanical, and chemical structure of the crust. Quantifying the effects of extension and magma flux on melting relationships in the crust is fundamental to determining the rate of crustal melting versus fractionation, magma residence time, and the growth of continental crust in rift environments. In order to understand the coupled control of tectonic extension and magma emplacement on crustal thermal evolution, we develop a numerical model that accounts for extension and thermal-petrographic processes in diverse extensional settings. We show that magma flux exerts the primary control on melt generation and tectonic extension amplifies the volume of melt residing in the crustal column. Diking into an extending crust produces hybrid magmas composed of 1) residual melt remaining after partial crystallization of basalt (mantle-derived melt) and 2) melt from partial melting of the crust (crustal melt). In an extending crust, mantle-derived melts are more prevalent than crustal melts across a range of magma fluxes, tectonic extension rates, and magmatic water contents. In most of the conditions, crustal temperatures do not reach their solidus temperatures to initiate partial melting of these igneous lithologies. Energy balance calculations show that the total enthalpy transported by dikes is primarily used for increasing the sensible heat of the cold surrounding crust with little energy contributing to latent heat of melting the crust (maximum crustal melting efficiency is 6%). In the lower crust, an extensive mush region develops for most of the conditions. Upper crustal crystalline mush is produced by continuous emplacement of magma with geologically reasonable flux and extension rates on timescales of 106 yr. Addition of tectonic effects and non-linear melt fraction relationships demonstrates that the magma flux required to sustain partially molten regions in the upper crust is within the

  4. Crustal structure from the Faroes Shelf to the Norwegian Basin (United States)

    Roberts, A. W.; White, R. S.; Kusznir, N. J.; Christie, P.; Roberts, A. M.; Isimm Team


    We show the crustal structure along a 400km seismic profile extending across a prime example of a volcanically rifted margin, from the Faroes shelf across the continent-ocean boundary northeast of the Faroe Islands, and 100km into oceanic crust of the Norwegian Sea formed immediately after continental break-up. 85 4-component OBS were used for the survey, giving wide-angle arrivals visible to beyond 120km offset. The survey was complemented by a 12 km Q-streamer profile along the same line. Integration of the normal incidence through wide-angle arrivals for the OBS and streamer data allow us to make a constrained velocity model through the active crust and into the upper mantle. We used a large airgun source comprising 14 guns with a total volume of 6,360 cu. in. towed at 20m depth. The resulting output was dominated by low frequencies (peak at 9Hz) to allow improved imaging through the basalts. A thickened oceanic crust is found, indicative of high temperatures caused by the Iceland mantle plume, and the presence of clear seaward dipping reflectors is evidence of extrusive lavas. Underplating is also inferred on the margin from the high seismic velocities in the lower crust. Academia and industry seek to understand magmatic margin evolution for its impact on deep water hydrocarbon prospecting. The NE Atlantic has been chosen as our research area because of its accessibility, wealth of related data and current exploration on the Atlantic margin. The iSIMM programme's long term goals are to characterise volcanically rifted margins and to develop theoretical models of the formation and subsidence of rifted margins. iSIMM investigators are: R.S. White (1), N.J. Kusznir (2), P.A.F. Christie (3), A.M. Roberts (4), N. Hurst (2), Z.C. Lunnon (1,3), C.J. Parkin (1), A.W. Roberts (1), L.K. Smith (1), R. Spitzer (1), V. Tymms (2), A. Davies (1), A. Surendra (1), with funding from NERC, Agip UK, BP, Amerada Hess Ltd., Anadarko, Conoco, Phillips, Shell, Statoil, and WesternGeco.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky


    Full Text Available The article presents a systematic review of the available tectonophysical data on the state of crustal uplifts and basins in intracontinental orogens. Based on results of the tectonophysical analysis of data on earthquake focal mechanisms for the Altai-Sayan and Northern Tien Shan regions, it is established that in many cases the crust in the basins and uplifts has antipodal structures, considering various types of the state of stresses. In the crust of the uplifts, maximum compression axes are usually sub-horizontal; in the crust of the basins, only the axis of the principal stress of minimum compression (i.e. maximum deviatoric extension is sub-horizontal. These observations correlate well with estimations of deformations on the surface of the crust on the basis of the GPS-geodesy data, as well as with stress measurements taken directly on mining sites. The antipodal structures and physical fields in the crust of the uplifts and basins are not a random phenomenon. This suggests a common mechanism of deformation at the stage of active formation of the uplifts and basins. However, results of a similar tectonophysical analysis performed for the crust of the Pamir plateau and Tibet show that minimum compression stresses are subhorizontal in these regions, and the geodynamic type of the state of stresses is determined as horizontal extension or horizontal shearing. This pattern contrasts sharply with the type of the state of stresses of horizontal compression in the crust of the mountain ranges around the plateau (the Himalayas, Kunlun, Tsilian Shan, Hindu Kush, as well as with the state of stresses of active orogenic structures of the Tien Shan and Altai-Sayan regions.Based on the stress values estimated for a range of geodynamic types of the state of stresses, it is estimated that additional compression stresses of the order of 5.4 kbar are required for the transition from horizontal extension to horizontal compression. If the regional strain

  6. Analysis of Crustal Magnetisation in Cartesian Vector Harmonics (United States)

    Gubbins, D.; Ivers, D.; Williams, S.


    We present a new set of functions, Vector Cartesian Harmonics (VCH), analogous to the Vector Spherical Harmonics that we have applied recently to global models of crustal and lithospheric magnetisation. Like their spherical counterpart, the VCH form a complete, orthogonal set: planar models of magnetisation can be expanded in them. There are 3 distinct types of VCH, one representing that part of the magnetisation which generates the potential magnetic field above the surface, another the potential magnetic field below the surface, and a toroidal function that generates only a non-potential field. One function therefore describes the magnetisation detected by observations of the magnetic anomaly while the other two describe the null space of an inversion of magnetic observations for magnetisation. The formalism is therefore ideal for analysing the results of inversions for magnetic structures in plane layers such as local or regional surveys where Earth's curvature can be ignored. The null space is in general very large, being an arbitrary combination of a doubly-infinite set of vector functions. However, in the absence of remanence and when the inducing field is uniform the null space reduces to only 2 types of structure, uniform susceptibility (Runcorn's Theorem) and a pattern of susceptibility induced by a uniform field, the null space is restricted to uniform magnetisation and 1D patterns of susceptibility aligned with a horizontal inducing field. Both these cases are already well known, but this analysis shows them to be the ONLY members of the null space. We also give results for familiar text-book structures to show the nature of the null space in each case. Curiously, inversion of the magnetic field from a buried dipole returns exactly half the correct magnitude plus a spurious distributed magnetisation. A more complex application is the topographic structure based on the Bishop formation in California (Fairhead and Williams, SEG exp. abstr. 25, 845, 2006

  7. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.


    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  8. Seismological constraints on the crustal structures generated by continental rejuvenation in northeastern China. (United States)

    Zheng, Tian-Yu; He, Yu-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Zhao, Liang


    Crustal rejuvenation is a key process that has shaped the characteristics of current continental structures and components in tectonic active continental regions. Geological and geochemical observations have provided insights into crustal rejuvenation, although the crustal structural fabrics have not been well constrained. Here, we present a seismic image across the North China Craton (NCC) and Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) using a velocity structure imaging technique for receiver functions from a dense array. The crustal evolution of the eastern NCC was delineated during the Mesozoic by a dominant low seismic wave velocity with velocity inversion, a relatively shallow Moho discontinuity, and a Moho offset beneath the Tanlu Fault Zone. The imaged structures and geochemical evidence, including changes in the components and ages of continental crusts and significant continental crustal growth during the Mesozoic, provide insight into the rejuvenation processes of the evolving crust in the eastern NCC caused by structural, magmatic and metamorphic processes in an extensional setting. The fossil structural fabric of the convergent boundary in the eastern CAOB indicates that the back-arc action of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction did not reach the hinterland of Asia. PMID:26443323

  9. Seismological constraints on the crustal structures generated by continental rejuvenation in northeastern China (United States)

    Zheng, Tian-Yu; He, Yu-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Zhao, Liang


    Crustal rejuvenation is a key process that has shaped the characteristics of current continental structures and components in tectonic active continental regions. Geological and geochemical observations have provided insights into crustal rejuvenation, although the crustal structural fabrics have not been well constrained. Here, we present a seismic image across the North China Craton (NCC) and Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) using a velocity structure imaging technique for receiver functions from a dense array. The crustal evolution of the eastern NCC was delineated during the Mesozoic by a dominant low seismic wave velocity with velocity inversion, a relatively shallow Moho discontinuity, and a Moho offset beneath the Tanlu Fault Zone. The imaged structures and geochemical evidence, including changes in the components and ages of continental crusts and significant continental crustal growth during the Mesozoic, provide insight into the rejuvenation processes of the evolving crust in the eastern NCC caused by structural, magmatic and metamorphic processes in an extensional setting. The fossil structural fabric of the convergent boundary in the eastern CAOB indicates that the back-arc action of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction did not reach the hinterland of Asia.

  10. Deep crustal structure of the Adare and Northern Basins, Ross Sea, Antarctica, from sonobuoy data (United States)

    Selvans, M. M.; Stock, J. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Cande, S.; Granot, R.


    Extension associated with ultraslow seafloor spreading within the Adare Basin, in oceanic crust just north of the continental shelf in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, extended south into the Northern Basin. Magnetic and gravity anomaly data suggest continuity of crustal structure across the continental shelf break that separates the Adare and Northern Basins. We use sonobuoy refraction data and multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected during research cruise NBP0701, including 71 new sonobuoy records, to provide constraints on crustal structure in the Adare and Northern Basins. Adjacent 1D sonobuoy profiles along several MCS lines reveal deep crustal structure in the vicinity of the continental shelf break, and agree with additional sonobuoy data that document fast crustal velocities (6000-8000 m/s) at shallow depths (1-6 km below sea level) from the Adare Basin to the continental shelf, a structure consistent with that of other ultraslow-spread crust. Our determination of crustal structure in the Northern Basin only extends through sedimentary rock to the basement rock, and so cannot help to distinguish between different hypotheses for formation of the basin.

  11. Imaging Earth's crustal magnetic field with satellite data. A regularised spherical triangle tessellation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We will present a method for imaging the global crustal magnetic field at Earth's surface using a local basis representation and a minimum norm approach. The local basis consists of a spherical triangle tessellation (STT) parameterisation of the vertical component of the crustal field at Earth's surface. The Green's function for Laplace's equation in spherical geometry with Neumann boundary conditions provides the necessary forward modelling scheme. We solve the inverse problem of estimating the crustal field from magnetic observations by minimising an objective function consisting of a mean absolute deviation (L1 -norm) measure of misfit plus a norm measuring model complexity. Both quadratic and entropy measures of field complexity are investigated. Applying our technique to real observations collected by the CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C satellites, we obtain stable images of the crustal magnetic field at Earth's surface that include sharp features with high amplitude. These images provide a perspective on the crustal magnetic field complementary to that given by conventional spherical harmonic models.

  12. Postactivation potentiation in a human muscle: effect on the load-velocity relation of tetanic and voluntary shortening contractions. (United States)

    Baudry, Stéphane; Duchateau, Jacques


    Recently it was demonstrated that postactivation potentiation (PAP), which refers to the enhancement of the muscle twitch torque as a result of a prior conditioning contraction, increased the maximal rate of torque development of tetanic and voluntary isometric contractions (3). In this study, we investigated the effects of PAP and its decay over time on the load-velocity relation. To that purpose, angular velocity of thumb adduction in response to a single electrical stimulus (twitch), a high-frequency train of 15 pulses at 250 Hz (HFT(250)), and during ballistic voluntary shortening contractions, performed against loads ranging from 10 to 50% of the maximum torque, were recorded before and after a conditioning 6-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The results showed an increase of the peak angular velocity for the different loads tested after the conditioning MVC (P HFT(250) or voluntary contractions ( approximately 14% for both contraction types). The maximal potentiation occurred immediately following the conditioning MVC for the twitch, whereas it was reached 1 min later for the tetanic and ballistic voluntary contractions. At that time, the load-velocity relation was significantly shifted upward, and the maximal power of the muscle was increased ( approximately 13%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results also indicated that the effect of PAP on shortening contractions was not related to the modality of muscle activation. In conclusion, the findings suggest a functional significance of PAP in human movements by improving muscle performance of voluntary dynamic contractions. PMID:17641222

  13. Estimation of the shortening rate since late Pleistocene in the Aksu area on the southern flank of the Tianshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This research focused on the Aksu area in the central part of the southern Tianshan. Along the 60 km wide Aksu fold-and-thrust belt, active thrusts reach the surface and offset the youngest sediments. Our research was based on the geomorphologic study that examined the advance and retreat of glaciers cut by thrusts in the Tomur area in the north of Aksu. Our fieldwork revealed that two fault scarps were clearest across three different moraines that represent the maximum of advance of glaciers during three glacial periods along the Tailan River in the Tomur area. The measured heights of the fault scarps that cut the moraines, together with the moraines-inferred age, imply a shortening rate of 1.85 mm/a on the Aksu area since late Pleistocene. This rate, similar to that of the Korla area on its east side and of the Kaping area on its west side, but lower than that of the Kashgar area farther west and of the Manas area in the northern margin of the belt, implies that the distribution of shortening across the Tianshan changed markedly along the mountain.

  14. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong


    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  15. A Comparison of Prostaglandin & Stripping in Ripening of Cervix and Shortening of Labor in Post Date Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rabiee


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Around 22% of pregnancies reach to 40 weeks or more. Investigations have shown that PG is effective in improving cervical ripe and shortening the labor. Stripping also is one of the effective approach for reducing post date pregnancies. This study was undertaken to compare vaginal Misoprostol (PG E1 and membrane stripping to improve Bishop Score and shortening of labor in post date pregnancies.Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 post date pregnant women (gestational age > 40w, primigravida and gravida 2 enrolled in two study groups. Group A was stripping and group B was PG E2 (Misoprostol tablet. The mean of labor time and Bishop Score changes compared by t-student test.Results: Mean of labor time in the group B and A was 11.6±8.8 and 11.9±6.8 hours respectively. Mean of Bishop Score change in group A was 4 ± 0.81 and in group B was 3.7 ± 1.86.Conclusion: Efficacy of each method in improvement of Bishop Score and reduction of labor time was equal and statistically had no significant difference.

  16. Utilization of organic chromium from tannery waste on reducing transportation stress and shortening recovery period at beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santosa


    Full Text Available Transportation increases stress that subtantially decreases body weight and feed comsumption even weight gain loss after arriving at the location of fattening. A research has been conducted to study the effects of organic chromium from tannery wastes on the level of transportation stress and recovery period in beef cattle fattening. Twenty Ongole crossbreed cattles were transported from the Wirasaba Feedlot at Purbalingga in Central Java to the Agro Citra Buana Semesta Feedlot in Malangbong-Garut in West Java for about 18 hours. Completely Randomized Design (CRD was applied, wih four repetitions. The Cr-organic was given seven days before and after transportation. Dose of Cr-organic used was: R0 = control diet without Cr-organic, R1 = R0 + 1.5 ppm, R2 = R0 + 3.0 ppm, R3 = R0 + 4.5 ppm, R4 = R0 + 6.0 ppm. Results showed that 3.0 ppm organic chromium of the dry matter of ration tended to affect physiology and haematological conditions, as well as decreased weight loss, shortened recovery time, improved weight gain. It is concluded that organic chromium supplementation was able to lowered stress levels, shortened recovery time, and increased daily gain for one week recovery process, especially at dose of 3.0 ppm.

  17. Shortened leukocyte telomere length in type 2 diabetes mellitus: genetic polymorphisms in mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and telomeric pathways. (United States)

    Zhou, Yuling; Ning, Zhixin; Lee, Yvonne; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S


    Current debate in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has focused on shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as the result of a number of possible causes, including polymorphisms in mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) leading to oxidative stress, telomere regulatory pathway gene polymorphisms, or as a direct result of associated cardiovascular complications inducing tissue organ inflammation and oxidative stress. There is evidence that a heritable shorter telomere trait is a risk factor for development of T2DM. This review discusses the contribution and balance of genetic regulation of UCPs and telomere pathways in the context of T2DM. We discuss genotypes that are well known to influence the shortening of LTL, in particular OBFC1 and telomerase genotypes such as TERC. Interestingly, the interaction between short telomeres and T2DM risk appears to involve mitochondrial dysfunction as an intermediate process. A hypothesis is presented that genetic heterogeneity within UCPs may directly affect oxidative stress that feeds back to influence the fine balance of telomere regulation, cell cycle regulation and diabetes risk and/or metabolic disease progression. PMID:26951191

  18. Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulė Sipavičienė


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n=18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7 yr participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72 h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue between the two menstrual cycle phases were small.

  19. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized-power-density x bandwidth) amongst previously reported inertial energy harvesters. The fabricated energy harvester is

  20. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kei


    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block

  1. Syncollisional extension along the India-Asia suture zone, south-central Tibet: Implications for crustal deformation of Tibet (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Sanchez, V.; Taylor, M. H.


    Crustal deformation models of the Tibetan plateau are assessed by investigating the nature of Neogene deformation along the India-Asia suture zone through geologic mapping in south-central Tibet (84°30'E). Our mapping shows that the suture zone is dominated by a system of 3 to 4 ENE-striking, south-dipping thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults as predicted by models calling upon eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau. Faults along the suture zone are not active, as they are cut by a system of NNW-striking oblique slip normal faults, referred to herein as the Lopukangri fault system. Fault-slip data from the Lopukangri fault system shows that the mean slip direction of its hanging wall is N36W. We estimate the net slip on the Lopukangri fault by restoring components of the thrust system. We estimate that the fault has accommodated ˜ 7 km of right-slip and ˜ 8 km of normal dip-slip, yielding a net slip of ˜ 10.5 km, and 6 km of horizontal east-west extension. The Lopukangri fault system is active and geomorphic offsets indicate right separations and westside-down dip-separation. The mapview curviplanar geometry and geomorphic expression of the Lopukangri fault system is similar to faults and rift basins to its east and west. These extensional faults are en echelon in map view and encompass a region that is 200 km long (east-west) and 95 km wide (north-south). Assuming our results for the Lopukangri fault are applicable to the entire system, we estimate a maximum of 18% extension across the zone. All active faults in the system terminate southward adjacent to the India-Asia suture zone. Because the individual rift geometries are similar and suggest a common kinematic relationship, we propose that the extensional system formed as a trailing extensional imbricate fan at the southern termination of the central Tibet conjugate fault zone. Alternatively, the extensional system may terminate to the north and represent a group of isolated crustal tears. Both

  2. Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals (United States)

    Alsayed, A. M.; Islam, M. F.; Zhang, J.; Collings, P. J.; Yodh, A. G.


    Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at temperatures below the bulk melting transition. It can be thought of as the nucleation of the melting process. Premelting has been observed at the surfaces of crystals but not within. We report observations of premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals using real-time video microscopy. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed, three-dimensional colloidal structures made from thermally responsive microgel spheres. Particle tracking reveals increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. Our observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and atomic-scale crystals.

  3. Fully antisymmetrised dynamics for bulk fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron star's crust and mantel are typical examples of non-uniform bulk systems with spacial localisations. When modelling such systems at low temperatures, as is the case in the crust, one has to work with antisymmetrised many-body states to get the correct fermion behaviour. Fermionic molecular dynamics, which works with an antisymmetrised product of localised wave packets, should be an appropriate choice. Implementing periodic boundary conditions into the fermionic molecular dynamics formalism would allow the study of the neutron star's crust as a bulk quantum system. Unfortunately, the antisymmetrisation is a non-local entanglement which reaches far out of the periodically repeated unit cell. In this proceeding, we give a brief overview how periodic boundary conditions and fermionic molecular dynamics can be combined without truncating the long-range many-body correlation induced by the antisymmetry of the many-body state.

  4. NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience are summarized. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is shown as one of the companies which are able to make NPPs industrial sites free from stored bulk equipment with its further utilization. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is the Russian Federation sole specialized metallic LLW (MLLW) treatment and utilization facility. Company's main objectives are waste predisposal volume reduction and treatment for the unrestricted release as a scrap. Leningrad NPP decommissioned main pumps and moisture separators/steam super heaters dismantling results are presented. Prospective fragmentation technologies (diamond and electro-erosive cutting) testing results are described. The electro-erosive cutting machine designed by 'ECOMET-S' JSC is presented. The fragmentation technologies implementation plans for nuclear industry are presented too. (author)

  5. Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDM case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10−11 || cb2 ∼−8

  6. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary


    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  7. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk cash smuggling is a serious issue that has grown in volume in recent years. By building on the magnetic characteristics of paper currency, induction sensing is found to be capable of quickly detecting large masses of banknotes. The results show that this method is effective in detecting bulk cash through concealing materials such as plastics, cardboards, fabrics and aluminum foil. The significant difference in the observed phase between the received signals caused by conducting materials and ferrite compounds, found in banknotes, provides a good indication that this process can overcome the interference by metal objects in a real sensing application. This identification strategy has the potential to not only detect the presence of banknotes, but also the number, while still eliminating false positives caused by metal objects

  8. Surface-Bulk Vibrational Correlation Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Covert, Paul A; Jarisz, Tasha A; Chan, Chantelle; Hore, Dennis K


    Homo- and heterospectral correlation analysis are powerful methods for investigating the effects of external influences on the spectra acquired using distinct and complementary techniques. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive probe of surface structure changes, as bulk molecules are excluded on the basis of symmetry. However, as a result of this exquisite specificity, it is blind to changes that may be occurring in the solution. We demonstrate that correlation analysis between surface-specific techniques and bulk probes such as infrared absorption or Raman scattering may be used to reveal additional details of the adsorption process. Using the adsorption of water and ethanol binary mixtures as an example, we illustrate that this provides support for a competitive binding model and adds new insight into a dimer-to-bilayer transition proposed from previous experiments and simulations. PMID:27058265

  9. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro;


    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared include......-layers-thick polymer woodpile photonic crystal. Characterization of such samples before and after metal deposition in the 700 nm 1700 nm range exposes some unpredictable features like an enhanced broadband transmission, which still waits to be explained.......Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  10. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei


    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  11. Nuclear Matter Bulk Parameter Scales and Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the arising of correlations among some isovector bulk parameters in nonrelativistic and relativistic hadronic mean-field models. For the former, we investigate correlations in the nonrelativistic (NR) limit of relativistic point-coupling models. We provide analytical correlations, for the NR limit model, between the symmetry energy and its derivatives, namely, the symmetry energy slope, curvature, skewness and fourth order derivative, discussing the conditions in which they are linear ones. We also show that some correlations presented in the NR limit model are reproduced for relativistic models presenting cubic and quartic self-interactions in its scalar field. As a direct application of such linear correlations, we remark its association with possible crossing points in the density dependence of the linearly correlated bulk parameter. (author)

  12. Brane plus Bulk Supersymmetry in Ten Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas; Roest, D; Van Proeyen, A


    We discuss a generalized form of IIA/IIB supergravity depending on all R-R potentials C^(p) (p=0,1,...,9) as the effective field theory of Type IIA/IIB superstring theory. For the IIA case we explicitly break this R-R democracy to either p=5 which allows us to write a new bulk action that can be coupled to N=1 supersymmetric brane actions. The case of 8-branes is studied in detail using the new bulk & brane action. The supersymmetric negative tension branes without matter excitations can be viewed as orientifolds in the effective action. These D8-branes and O8-planes are fundamental in Type I' string theory. A BPS 8-brane solution is given which satisfies the jump conditions on the wall. As an application of our results we derive a quantization of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant in string units.

  13. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koulakov


    Full Text Available We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening.

  14. Modelling of crustal rock mechanics for radioactive waste storage in Fennoscandia - problem definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing knowledge of crustal stresses for Fennoscandia is presented. Generic, two-dimensional models are proposed for vertical and planar sections of a traverse having a direction NW-SE in Northern Fennoscandia. The proposed traverse will include the major neotectonic structures at Lansjaerv and Paervie, respectively, and also the study site for storage of spent nuclear fuel at Kamlunge. The influence of glaciation, deglaciation, glacial rebound on crustal rock mechanics and stability is studied for the modelling work. Global models, with a length of roughly 100 km, will increase our over all understanding of the change in stresses and deformations. These can provide boundary conditions for regional and near-field models. Properties of strength and stiffness of intact granitic rock masses, faults and joints are considered in the modelling of the crustal rock mechanics for any of the three models described. (orig./HP)

  15. Crustal Flows beneath the Eastern Tibetan Plateau Revealed by Magnetotelluric Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Denghai; TENG Jiwen; MA Xiaobing; KONG Xiangru


    @@ The ongoing collision of the Indian and Asian continents has created the Himalayan and Tibetan plateau through a range of deformation processes that include crustal thickening, delamination, lateral extrusion and crustal flow.A debate continues as to which of these processes are most significant in terms of the overall mass balance of this continent-continent collision.In eastern Tibet GPS data show large-scale motion of the surface has been occurring around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis (EHS), but the nature of deformation at depth remains unresolved.A large-scale crustal flow has been proposed as an explanation for regional uplift in eastern Tibet, but existing geophysical data do not constrain the pattern of flow.

  16. Crustal magnetization and temperature at depth beneath the Yilgarn block, Western Australia inferred from Magsat data (United States)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Wasilewski, Peter J.; Johnson, B. D.


    Variations in crustal magnetization along a seismic section across the Archean Yilgarn block of Western Australia inferred from Magsat data are interpreted as a subtle thermal effect arising from variations in depth to the Curie isotherm. The isotherm lies deep within the mantle of the eastern part of the province, but transects the crust-mantle transition and rises well into the crust on the western side. The model is consistent with heat flow variations along the section line. The mean crustal magnetization implied by the model is approximately 2 A/m. The temperature variation implied by the model is consistent with the hypothesis that the crust-mantle transition seen seismically corresponds to the mafic granulite-eclogite phase transition within a zone of igneous crustal underplating.

  17. Isotopic disequilibrium and lower crustal contamination in slowly ascending magmas: Insights from Proterozoic anorthosites (United States)

    Bybee, G. M.; Ashwal, L. D.


    Many Proterozoic anorthosite massifs show crustal isotopic signatures that have, for decades, fuelled debate regarding the source of these temporally-restricted magmas. Are these signatures indicative of lower crustal melting or of significant assimilation of crustal material into mantle-derived magmas? Traditional whole rock isotopic tracers (Sr, Nd, Pb and Os), like other geochemical, petrological and experimental tools, have failed to identify unambiguously the origins of the crust-like signature and resolve the source controversies for these feldspathic, cumulate intrusives. We make use of high precision Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mineral phases (plag, opx, mag) and comagmatic, high-pressure orthopyroxene megacrysts as well as whole rock anorthosites/leuconorites from the Mealy Mountains Intrusive Suite (MMIS) and the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) to probe the origin of the crustal isotopic signatures and assess the importance of differentiation at lower crustal depths. This selection of samples represents fragments from various stages of the polybaric ascent of the magmas, while the study of the Mealy Mountains Intrusive Suite and the Nain Plutonic Suite is instructive as each is intruded into crust of significantly different age and isotopic composition. We observe marked differences in the whole-rock isotopic composition of Proterozoic anorthosites and high-pressure megacrysts (e.g. εNd;T = +2 to -10) intruded into crustal terranes of different ages and isotopic compositions. Evidence for varying degrees of internal isotopic disequilibrium (ΔNd, ΔSr, ΔPb) in anorthosites from these different terranes reinforces the notion that crustal contamination, and more importantly, the nature of the crustal assimilant, has a profound influence on the chemical signature of Proterozoic anorthosites. While most samples from the MMIS and NPS show significant and measurable ΔNd and ΔPb disequilibrium, ΔSr compositions cluster around zero. This decoupling in

  18. Melting-induced crustal production helps plate tectonics on Earth-like planets (United States)

    Lourenço, Diogo L.; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul J.


    Within our Solar System, Earth is the only planet to be in a mobile-lid regime. It is generally accepted that the other terrestrial planets are currently in a stagnant-lid regime, with the possible exception of Venus that may be in an episodic-lid regime. In this study, we use numerical simulations to address the question of whether melting-induced crustal production changes the critical yield stress needed to obtain mobile-lid behaviour (plate tectonics). Our results show that melting-induced crustal production strongly influences plate tectonics on Earth-like planets by strongly enhancing the mobility of the lid, replacing a stagnant lid with an episodic lid, or greatly extending the time in which a smoothly evolving mobile lid is present in a planet. Finally, we show that our results are consistent with analytically predicted critical yield stress obtained with boundary layer theory, whether melting-induced crustal production is considered or not.

  19. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mendoza


    Full Text Available Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  20. Alfven seismic vibrations of crustal solid-state plasma in quaking paramagnetic neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S; Takata, J; Chang, H -K; Xu, R X


    Magneto-solid-mechanical model of two-component, core-crust, paramagnetic neutron star responding to quake-induced perturbation by differentially rotational, torsional, oscillations of crustal electron-nuclear solid-state plasma about axis of magnetic field frozen in the immobile paramagnetic core is developed. Particular attention is given to the node-free torsional crust-against-core vibrations under combined action of Lorentz magnetic and Hooke's elastic forces; the damping is attributed to Newtonian force of shear viscose stresses in crustal solid-state plasma. The spectral formulae for the frequency and lifetime of this toroidal mode are derived in analytic form and discussed in the context of quasi-periodic oscillations of the X-ray outburst flux from quaking magnetars. The application of obtained theoretical spectra to modal analysis of available data on frequencies of oscillating outburst emission suggests that detected variability is the manifestation of crustal Alfven's seismic vibrations restored b...

  1. Three-dimensional seismic model of crustal structure in Southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, B.; Behm, M.; Thybo, Hans;


    New insights in crustal structure in southern Norway are given by combining stacking techniques and traveltime tomography of 3-D wide-angle reflection/refraction data. The Magnus Rex crustal scale wide-angle refraction/reflection data set in Southern Norway covers an area of 400 km × 430 km where...... 716 receivers on three profiles recorded seismic waves from 26 explosive sources. Previous data analysis focused on 2-D interpretation along the profiles. Here we extract additional P-wave velocity information by inverting inline and cross-line data simultaneously. We combine stacking routines......, traveltime tomography, and interpolation algorithms to the high quality inline and cross-line data. A smooth 3-D crustal velocity model is inverted from traveltimes of diving Pg waves with similar results for two initial models. Initial models include a 1-D average model and an interpolated 3-D model based...

  2. Crustal thinning between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus from modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, M H; Nyblade, A A; Pasyanos, M E


    The East African and Ethiopian Plateaus have long been recognized to be part of a much larger topographic anomaly on the African Plate called the African Superswell. One of the few places within the African Superswell that exhibit elevations of less than 1 km is southeastern Sudan and northern Kenya, an area containing both Mesozoic and Cenozoic rift basins. Crustal structure and uppermost mantle velocities are investigated in this area by modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion. Modeling results indicate an average crustal thickness of 25 {+-} 5 km, some 10-15 km thinner than the crust beneath the adjacent East African and Ethiopian Plateaus. The low elevations can therefore be readily attributed to an isostatic response from crustal thinning. Low Sn velocities of 4.1-4.3 km/s also characterize this region.

  3. Magnetic crustal thickness in Greenland from CHAMP and Ørsted data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Cathrine Fox; Purucker, Michael E.; Olsen, Nils


    The magnetic crustal thickness of Greenland and the surrounding area is determined by inversion of gridded values of the magnetic radial component as given by the IDEMM model, which is based on CHAMP and Ørsted data alone, and by the Comprehensive Model (CM4), which is based on satellite and obse...... using the equivalent source magnetic dipole method.......The magnetic crustal thickness of Greenland and the surrounding area is determined by inversion of gridded values of the magnetic radial component as given by the IDEMM model, which is based on CHAMP and Ørsted data alone, and by the Comprehensive Model (CM4), which is based on satellite and...... observatory data. After correcting for the remanent magnetization, we determine the vertically integrated magnetization of the crust. Making some simplifying assumptions about the susceptibility, the thickness of the magnetic crust is determined by iteratively improving an initial crustal thickness model...

  4. Melt Grown ZnO Bulk Crystals


    Schulz, Detlev; Ganschow, Steffen; Klimm, Detlef


    Bulk crystals of zinc oxide can be grown from the melt by a Bridgman technique under pressure. This new technology using an iridium crucible shows the potential to yield large single crystals of good crystalline perfection. Crystals with diameters up to 33 mm and a length of up to 50 mm have been demonstrated. The impurity content can be strongly reduced by using the crucibles repeatedly.

  5. Oscillatory Dynamical Switching System of Bulk Ferroelectrics


    M. N.A. Halif; S. Daud; Junaidah Osman


    This study gives a detailed account of calculation of the bulk ferroelectric (FE) oscillatory dynamical system switching to first and second-order phase transition, respectively. All the formalism is delineated in the framework of Landau free-energy expansion and Landau-Khalatnikov (LK) equation of motion where the effect of external energy may affray FE atoms similar to the spring damped oscillatory system. Here we scrutinized the switching properties from free-energy expansion and hysteresi...

  6. Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation


    Knill, Emanuel; Chuang, Isaac; Laflamme, Raymond


    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computa...

  7. Superconducting RF cavities film of bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre


    The successful operation of LEP2 has demonstrated the feasibility of using on a large scale copper accelerating cavities coated with a thin superconducting niobium film. Yet other existing or planned installations such as CEBAF and TESLA, rely instead on the bulk niobium technology. The reason is a wide spread belief that the film technology would suffer from fundamental limitations preventing high gradients to be reached...

  8. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.


    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions


    Roehling, J.D.; Rochester, C.W.; Ro, H.W.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J; Batenburg, Joost; Arslan, I; Delongchamp, D.M.; Moulé, A.J.


    The morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualitatively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fulleren...

  10. Statistical Determination of Bulk Flow Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yong-Seon; Nichol, Robert C; Miller, Christopher J


    We present here a new parameterization for the bulk motions of galaxies and clusters (in the linear regime) that can be measured statistically from the shape and amplitude of the two-dimensional two-point correlation function. We further propose the one-dimensional velocity dispersion (v_p) of the bulk flow as a complementary measure of redshift-space distortions, which is model-independent and not dependent on the normalisation method. As a demonstration, we have applied our new methodology to the C4 cluster catalogue constructed from Data Release Three (DR3) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find v_p=270^{+433}km/s (also consistent with v_p=0) for this cluster sample (at z=0.1), which is in agreement with that predicted for a WMAP5-normalised LCDM model (i.e., v_p(LCDM=203km/s). This measurement does not lend support to recent claims of excessive bulk motions (\\simeq1000 km/s) which appear in conflict with LCDM, although our large statistical error cannot rule them out. From the measured coherent evolutio...

  11. Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora


    Full Text Available Well recognized empty core (EMC pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength NOV of some (Ni33Zr671 – xVx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H, Taylor (T, Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU, Farid et al. (F and Sarkar et al. (S to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The TC obtained from Sarkar et al. (S local field correction function are found an excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic TC equation has been proposed, which provide successfully the TC values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  12. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh


    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program

  14. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole


    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites are...

  15. Reluctance motors with bulk HTS material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have successfully designed, built and tested several reluctance motors with YBCO bulk material incorporated into the rotor, working at 77 K. Our last motor type SRE150 was tested up to 200 kW. The aim of our investigations is the construction of motors with extremely high power density and dynamics. In comparison to conventional motor types the advantage of HTS reluctance motors with respect to size and dynamics could be demonstrated. Some fields of possible future applications will be described. These motors show a significant improvement in performance using high quality HTS bulk elements in the rotor. Until now the motor parameters have been limited by the current density which could be obtained in the bulk material at 77 K and by the geometric dimensions of the segments available. Therefore we expect further improvements in the case of these materials. Since the total motor including stator and rotor is working at low temperature we have to optimize the windings and the magnetic circuit to these operation conditions. A new design of a 200 kW motor in order to achieve increased power density and the theoretical results of our calculations will be shown

  16. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.


    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  17. Bulk and surface characterization of novel photoresponsive polymeric systems (United States)

    Venkataramani, Shivshankar

    This dissertation presents a detailed characterization of two important classes of photoresponsive polymers-polydiacetylenes (PDAs) and azopolymers. Bulk and surface characterization techniques were used to evaluate the structure-property relationships of the PDAs and surface characterization, in particular-atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the azopolymers. PDAs from bis-alkylurethanes of 5,7 dodecadiyn 1,12-diol (viz.,) ETCD, IPUDO and PUDO are of particular interest in view of reports of reversible thermochromic and photochromic phase transitions in these materials. Thermochromism in the above PDAs is associated with a first order phase transition involving expansion of the crystallographic unit cell, the preservation of the urethane hydrogen bonding and possibly some relief of mechanical strain upon heating. Insights into thermochromism obtained from studies of nonthermochromic forms of PDA-ETCD are discussed. Some of the bulk characterization experiments reported In the literature are repeated. The motivation to investigate the surface morphology of the PDA single crystals using AFM was derived from Raman spectroscopy studies of various PDAs in which dispersion of the Raman spectrum indicating surface heterogeneity was observed. Micron scale as well as molecularly resolved images were obtained The micron scale images indicated a variable surface of the crystals. The molecularly resolved images showed a well defined 2-D lattice and are interpreted in terms of known crystallographic data. The surface parameters obtained from AFM measurements are similar to those determined from X-ray diffraction. During an attempt of AFM imaging of IPUDO crystals exposed to 254 nm ultraviolet light, it was observed that these crystals undergo a "macroscopic shattering". In the interest of rigorously defining conditions for photochromism, this research has undertaken a combined study of the surface morphology of the above mentioned PDA crystals by AFM and the

  18. Gravity anomalies, spatial variation of flexural rigidity, and role of inherited crustal structure in the Aquitaine Basin (United States)

    Angrand, Paul; Ford, Mary; Watts, Anthony; Bell, Rebecca E.


    The Aquitaine foreland basin developed from Campanian to Miocene by flexure of the upper (European) plate during the Pyrenean orogeny. The foreland basin forms a syn-orogenic sedimentary wedge up to 6 km thick in the south, thinning rapidly north and has a maximum width of 200 km in the west. The flexural basin was superimposed on a lithosphere previously affected by Apto-Albian hyper-extension. What are the effects of an inherited extremely weak and narrow rifted zone on the behavior of a superimposed flexural foreland basin? Coupled with surface and subsurface data, Bouguer gravity anomalies were used to determine the crustal structure of the northern Pyrenean retrowedge and the flexure of the European plate. In the centre, the basin shows a regional Bouguer anomaly pattern typical of foreland basins with the maximum of syn-orogenic deposits corresponding to a low and the forebulge to a high. However, south of the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust (NPFT) this regional field is overprinted by strong positive Bouguer anomalies, which correspond to high density bodies (mantle or lower crust) transported along the NPFT. Stratigraphy shows that the central basin evolved as a series of narrow, laterally variable depocentres that migrated north. Shortening is accommodated mainly by thick skinned deformation and local reactivation of salt structures. In the east, the Toulouse Fault separates the central and eastern foreland. The eastern foreland shows a broader zone of negative Bouguer values. This foreland is salt-free and stratigraphy records higher subsidence. The easternmost basin is completely overprinted by the opening of the Gulf of Lion. In the west, the foreland does not show a typical regional gravity anomaly pattern due to overprinting by the opening of the Bay of Biscay. Instead, a major gravity high is centered on the northern Landes High, with a second high centered on the Labourd massif south of the NPFT. Neither the Parentis rift basin nor the salt

  19. Developing a Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Model for the Brazilian Northeast (United States)

    Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.


    Development of 3D models for the earth's crust and upper mantle is important for accurately predicting travel times for regional phases and to improve seismic event location. The Brazilian Northeast is a tectonically active area within stable South America and displays one of the highest levels of seismicity in Brazil, with earthquake swarms containing events up to mb 5.2. Since 2011, seismic activity is routinely monitored through the Rede Sismográfica do Nordeste (RSisNE), a permanent network supported by the national oil company PETROBRAS and consisting of 15 broadband stations with an average spacing of ~200 km. Accurate event locations are required to correctly characterize and identify seismogenic areas in the region and assess seismic hazard. Yet, no 3D model of crustal thickness and crustal and upper mantle velocity variation exists. The first step in developing such models is to refine crustal thickness and depths to major seismic velocity boundaries in the crust and improve on seismic velocity estimates for the upper mantle and crustal layers. We present recent results in crustal and uppermost mantle structure in NE Brazil that will contribute to the development of a 3D model of velocity variation. Our approach has consisted of: (i) computing receiver functions to obtain point estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio and (ii) jointly inverting receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion velocities from an independent tomography study to obtain S-velocity profiles at each station. This approach has been used at all the broadband stations of the monitoring network plus 15 temporary, short-period stations that reduced the inter-station spacing to ~100 km. We expect our contributions will provide the basis to produce full 3D velocity models for the Brazilian Northeast and help determine accurate locations for seismic events in the region.

  20. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - Tomographic inversion (United States)

    Watremez, Louise; Lau, K. W. Helen; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Louden, Keith E.; Karner, Garry D.


    Orphan Basin is located on the eastern margin of Canada, offshore of Newfoundland and East of Flemish Cap. It is an aborted continental rift formed by multiple episodes of rifting. The crustal structure across the basin has been determined by an earlier refraction study using 15 instruments on a 550 km long line. It shows that the continental crust was extended over an unusually wide region but did not break apart. The crustal structure of the basin thus documents stages in the formation of a magma-poor rifted margin up to crustal breakup. The OBWAVE (Orphan Basin Wide-Angle Velocity Experiment) survey was carried out to image crustal structures across the basin and better understand the processes of formation of this margin. The spacing of the 89 recording stations varies from 3 to 5 km along this 500-km-long line, which was acquired along a pre-existing reflection line. The highest resolution section corresponds to the part of the profile where the crust was expected to be the thinnest. We present the results from a joint tomography inversion of first and Moho reflected arrival times. The high data density allows us to define crustal structures with greater detail than for typical studies and to improve the understanding of the processes leading to the extreme stretching of continental crust. The final model was computed following a detailed parametric study to determine the optimal parameters controlling the ray-tracing and the inversion processes. The final model shows very good resolution. In particular, Monte Carlo standard deviations of crustal velocities and Moho depths are generally Orphan Basin is the result of rifting of a non-homogeneous Avalon terrane where the lower crust is primarily ductile.