WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk comptonization model

  1. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  2. Spectral evolution of bright NS LMXBs with INTEGRAL: an application of the thermal plus bulk Comptonization model

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, L I; Farinelli, R; Kuulkers, E; Rodriguez, J; Hannikainen, D; Savolainen, P; Piraino, S; Bazzano, A; Santangelo, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate in a physical and quantitative way the spectral evolution of bright Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (NS LMXBs), with special regard to the transient hard X-ray tails. We analyzed INTEGRAL data for five sources (GX 5-1, GX 349+2, GX 13+1, GX 3+1, GX 9+1) and built broad-band X-ray spectra from JEM-X1 and IBIS/ISGRI data. For each source, X-ray spectra from different states were fitted with the recently proposed model compTB. The spectra have been fit with a two-compTB model. In all cases the first compTB describes the dominant part of the spectrum that we interpret as thermal Comptonization of soft seed photons ( 1 keV), likely from the neutron star and the innermost part of the system, the Transition Layer, are Comptonized by matter in a converging flow. The presence and nature of this second compTB component (be it a pure blackbody or Comptonized) are related to the inner local accretion rate which can influence the transient behaviour of the hard tail: high values...

  3. The contribution of bulk Comptonization to the soft X-ray excess in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.; Hirose, S.

    2017-01-01

    Bulk velocities exceed thermal velocities for sufficiently radiation pressure dominated accretion flows. We model the contribution of bulk Comptonization to the soft X-ray excess in AGN. Bulk Comptonization is due to both turbulence and the background shear. We calculate spectra both taking into account and not taking into account bulk velocities using scaled data from radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shearing box simulations. We characterize our results with temperatures and optical depths to make contact with other warm Comptonization models of the soft excess. We chose our fiducial mass, M = 2 × 106M⊙, and accretion rate, L/LEdd = 2.5, to correspond to those fit to the super-Eddington narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) RE1034+396. The temperatures, optical depths, and Compton y parameters we find broadly agree with those fit to RE1034+396. The effect of bulk Comptonization is to shift the Wien tail to higher energy and lower the gas temperature, broadening the spectrum. Observations of the soft excess in NLS1s can constrain the properties of disc turbulence if the bulk Comptonization contribution can be separated out from contributions from other physical effects, such as reflection and absorption.

  4. The X-ray spectral evolution of Cyg X-2 in the framework of bulk Comptonization

    CERN Document Server

    Farinelli, R; Landi, R; Titarchuk, L

    2009-01-01

    We used the newly developed thermal plus bulk Comptonization model comptb to investigate the spectral evolution of the neutron star LMXB Cyg X-2 along its Z-track. We selected a single source in order to trace in a quantitative way the evolution of the physical parameters of the model. We analyzed archival broad-band BeppoSAX spectra of Cyg X-2. Five broad-band spectra have been newly extracted according to the source position in the Z-track described in the colour-colour and colour-intensity diagrams. We have fitted the spectra of the source with two comptb components. The first one, with bulk parameter delta=0, dominates the overall source broad-band spectrum and its origin is related to thermal upscattering (Comptonization) of cold seed photons off warm electrons in high-opacity enviroment. We attribute the origin of these seed photons to the part of the disk which illuminates the outer coronal region (transition layer) located between the accretion disk itself and the neutron star surface. This thermal co...

  5. Compton scattering in the Endpoint Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dagaonkar, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    We use the Endpoint model for exclusive hadronic processes to study Compton scattering of the proton. The parameters of the Endpoint model are fixed using the data for $F_1$ and the ratio of Pauli and Dirac form factors ($F_2/F_1$) and then used to get numerical predictions for the differential scattering cross section. We studied the Compton scattering at fixed $\\theta_{CM}$ in the $s \\sim t \\gg \\Lambda_{QCD}$ limit and at fixed $s$ much larger than $t$ limit. We observed that the calculations in the Endpoint Model give a good fit with experimental data in both regions.

  6. Bulk Comptonization of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Extragalactic Jets as a Probe of their Matter Content

    CERN Document Server

    Georganopoulos, M; Perlman, E; Stecker, F; Georganopoulos, {Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Perlman, Eric; Stecker, Floyd

    2005-01-01

    We propose a method for estimating the composition, i.e. the relative amounts of leptons and protons, of extragalactic jets which exhibit X-ray bright knots in their kpc scale jets. The method relies on measuring, or setting upper limits on, the component of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation that is bulk-Comptonized by cold electrons in the relativistically flowing jet. These measurements, along with modeling of the broadband knot emission that constrain the bulk Lorentz factor of the jets, can yield estimates of the jet power carried by protons and leptons. We provide an explicit calculation of the spectrum of the bulk-Comptonized (BC) CMB component and apply these results to PKS 0637--752 and 3C 273, two superluminal quasars with Chandra-detected large scale jets. What makes these sources particularly suited for such a procedure is the absence of significant non-thermal jet emission in the `bridge', the region between the core and the first bright jet knot, which guarantees that most of the el...

  7. Variation of bulk Lorentz factor in AGN jets due to Compton rocket in a complex photon field

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillaume, Thomas; Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei are among the most powerful objects in the universe. In these objects, most of the emission comes from relativistic jets getting their power from the accretion of matter onto supermassive black holes. However, despite the number of studies, a jet's acceleration to relativistic speeds is still poorly understood. It is widely known that jets contain relativistic particles that emit radiation through several physical processes, one of them being the inverse Compton scattering of photons coming from external sources. In the case of a plasma composed of electrons and positrons continuously heated by the turbulence, inverse Compton scattering can lead to relativistic bulk motions through the Compton rocket effect. We investigate this process and compute the resulting bulk Lorentz factor in the complex photon field of an AGN composed of several external photon sources. We consider various sources here: the accretion disk, the dusty torus, and the broad line region. We take their geo...

  8. Influence of an AGN complex photon field on the jet bulk Lorentz factor through Compton rocket effect

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillaume, Thomas; Henri, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    AGNs jets are known to display relativistic motion on parsec scales but the accelerating mechanism as well as the exact bulk Lorentz factor of the flow are still a matter of discussion. Under certain assumptions, a plasma can be accelerated to relativistic speeds through the Compton rocket effect. Here, we study this effect and the resulting bulk Lorentz factor in the complex environment of an AGN including various external sources. This is the proceedings to the IAU Symposium 313.

  9. Modeling the Compton Hump Reverberation Observed in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoormann, Janie; Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, observations of the Iron K alpha reverberation in supermassive black holes have provided a new way to probe the inner accretion flow. Furthermore, a time lag between the direct coronal emission and the reprocessed emission forming the Compton Hump in AGN has been observed. In order to model this Compton Hump reverberation we performed general relativistic ray tracing studies of the accretion disk surrounding supermassive black holes, taking into account both the radial and angular dependence of the ionization parameter. We are able to model emission not only from a lamp-post corona but also implementing 3D corona geometries. Using these results we are able to model the observed data to gain additional insight into the geometry of the corona and the structure of the inner accretion disk.

  10. Evaluation of two Compton camera models for scintimammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, C. Z.; Round, W. H.; Cree, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    We study the performance of a Si/LaBr 3:Ce Compton camera model for scintimammography, and compare it with a Si/NaI(Tl) model of similar geometry. The GEANT4 simulation toolkit was used to study the behaviour of the cameras at 511 keV. Certain simulation steps, such as the modelling of radionuclide decay times, scintillation photon transport and interactions with photomultipliers, as well as detector dead time corrections were included to make the modelling of the cameras more realistic than previous studies. The Si/LaBr 3:Ce Compton camera shows superior efficiency of 2.0×10 -3 and resolution of 5.3 mm over the Si/NaI(Tl) Compton camera model which has the efficiency of 1.6×10 -3 and resolution of 6.9 mm at a source-to-scatterer distance of interest, 2.5 cm. A similar result sequence is obtained for two breast tumours of 5 mm diameter embedded in the medial region of an average-size breast phantom of thickness 5 cm. Notably, the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) obtained for the Si/LaBr 3:Ce camera are 9.7 and 3.4 for tumour/background radiation uptakes of 10:1 and 6:1, whereas 6.8 and 2.4 were obtained for the Si/NaI(Tl) camera model for the same tumour/background radiation uptakes respectively. It is therefore envisioned that with lower cost, LaBr 3:Ce could replace NaI(Tl) as the Compton camera absorber.

  11. Evaluation of two Compton camera models for scintimammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uche, C.Z., E-mail: czu1@waikato.ac.nz [School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105 Hamilton (New Zealand); Round, W.H., E-mail: h.round@waikato.ac.nz [School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105 Hamilton (New Zealand); Cree, M.J., E-mail: cree@waikato.ac.nz [School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105 Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2012-01-11

    We study the performance of a Si/LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Compton camera model for scintimammography, and compare it with a Si/NaI(Tl) model of similar geometry. The GEANT4 simulation toolkit was used to study the behaviour of the cameras at 511 keV. Certain simulation steps, such as the modelling of radionuclide decay times, scintillation photon transport and interactions with photomultipliers, as well as detector dead time corrections were included to make the modelling of the cameras more realistic than previous studies. The Si/LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Compton camera shows superior efficiency of 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and resolution of 5.3 mm over the Si/NaI(Tl) Compton camera model which has the efficiency of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and resolution of 6.9 mm at a source-to-scatterer distance of interest, 2.5 cm. A similar result sequence is obtained for two breast tumours of 5 mm diameter embedded in the medial region of an average-size breast phantom of thickness 5 cm. Notably, the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) obtained for the Si/LaBr{sub 3}:Ce camera are 9.7 and 3.4 for tumour/background radiation uptakes of 10:1 and 6:1, whereas 6.8 and 2.4 were obtained for the Si/NaI(Tl) camera model for the same tumour/background radiation uptakes respectively. It is therefore envisioned that with lower cost, LaBr{sub 3}:Ce could replace NaI(Tl) as the Compton camera absorber.

  12. Design and Modeling of a Compton-Suppressed Phoswich Detector for Radioxenon Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    modeled using MCNPX Version 2.5.0. The Compton suppression mechanism is integrated into the phoswich design to effectively reduce the Compton continuum...background radiation was modeled using MCNPX Version 2.5.0. The Compton suppression mechanism is integrated into the phoswich design to effectively reduce...be calculated through regions of interest corresponding to the four xenon radioisotopes in the 2D spectrum. An alternative solution to measure

  13. Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for PSR B2319+60

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. G. Wang; M. Lv

    2011-03-01

    Using the multifrequency radio profiles of pulsar PSR B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained.

  14. An X-ray Imaging Survey of Quasar Jets -- Testing the Inverse Compton Model

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Schwartz, D A; Murphy, D W; Lovell, J E J; Worrall, D M; Birkinshaw, M; Perlman, E S; Godfrey, L; Jauncey, D L

    2011-01-01

    We present results from continued Chandra X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of a flux-limited sample of flat spectrum radio-emitting quasars with jet-like extended structure. X-rays are detected from 24 of the 39 jets observed so far. We compute the distribution of alpha_rx, the spectral index between the X-ray and radio bands, showing that it is broad, extending at least from 0.8 to 1.2. While there is a general trend that the radio brightest jets are detected most often, it is clear that predicting the X-ray flux from the radio knot flux densities is risky so a shallow X-ray survey is the most effective means for finding jets that are X-ray bright. We test the model in which the X-rays result from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons by relativistic electrons in the jet moving with high bulk Lorentz factor nearly along the line of sight. Depending on how the jet magnetic fields vary with z, the observed X-ray to radio flux ratios do not follow the redshift dependence exp...

  15. Deeply virtual Compton scattering in a relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzenberg, T.

    2007-09-15

    This thesis is mainly concerned with a model calculation for generalized parton distributions (GPDs). We calculate vectorial- and axial GPDs for the N{yields}N and N{yields}{delta} transition in the framework of a light front quark model. This requires the elaboration of a connection between transition amplitudes and GPDs. We provide the first quark model calculations for N{yields}{delta} GPDs. The examination of transition amplitudes leads to various model independent consistency relations. These relations are not exactly obeyed by our model calculation since the use of the impulse approximation in the light front quark model leads to a violation of Poincare covariance. We explore the impact of this covariance breaking on the GPDs and form factors which we determine in our model calculation and find large effects. The reference frame dependence of our results which originates from the breaking of Poincare covariance can be eliminated by introducing spurious covariants. We extend this formalism in order to obtain frame independent results from our transition amplitudes. (orig.)

  16. Proposal to determine the Fermi-surface topology of a doped iron-based superconductor using bulk-sensitive Fourier-transform Compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.J.; Lin, H.; Barbiellini, B.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Kaprzyk, S.; Markiewicz, R.S.; Bansil, A.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out first-principles calculations of the Compton scattering spectra to demonstrate that the filling of the hole Fermi surface in LaO1−xFxFeAs produces a distinct signature in the Fourier-transformed Compton spectrum when the momentum transfer vector lies along the [100] direction. We

  17. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  18. Measurements of accretion disc corona size in LMXB: consequences for Comptonization and LMXB models

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Church; Balucinska-Church, M.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of measurements of the radial extent of the accretion disc corona in low mass X-ray binaries. These results prove conclusively the extended nature of the ADC, with radial extent varying from 20,000 km in the faintest sources to 700,000 km in the brightest, a substantial fraction of the accretion disc radius, typically 15%. This result rules out the Eastern model for LMXB which is extensively used, in which the Comptonizing region is a small central region. The ADC size depe...

  19. Modeling of Microimprinting of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming CHENG; John A. Wert

    2006-01-01

    A finite element analysis (FEA) model has been developed to analyze microimprinting of bulk metallic glasses (BMG) near the glass transition temperature (Tg). The results reveal an approximately universal imprinting response for BMG, independent of surface feature length scale. The scale-independent nature of BMG imprinting derives from the flow characteristics of BMG in the temperature range above Tg. It also shows that the lubrication condition has a mild influence on BMG imprinting in the temperature range above Tg.

  20. Measurements of accretion disc corona size in LMXB: consequences for Comptonization and LMXB models

    CERN Document Server

    Church, M J

    2004-01-01

    We present results of measurements of the radial extent of the accretion disc corona in low mass X-ray binaries. These results prove conclusively the extended nature of the ADC, with radial extent varying from 20,000 km in the faintest sources to 700,000 km in the brightest, a substantial fraction of the accretion disc radius, typically 15%. This result rules out the Eastern model for LMXB which is extensively used, in which the Comptonizing region is a small central region. The ADC size depends strongly on the 1 - 30 keV source luminosity via a simple relationship r_ADC = L^{0.88 +/- 0.16} (99% confidence) close to a simple proportionality. We also present limited evidence that the ADC size agrees with the Compton radius r_C, or maximum radius for hydrostatic equilibrium. The results are consistent with models in which an extended ADC is formed by illumination of the disc by the central source. The dependence on luminosity may reflect the known decrease of coronal temperature as the source luminosity increas...

  1. An inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model of pulsar emission II. frequency behavior of pulse profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, G J; Zhang, B; Han, J L

    2001-01-01

    The shapes of pulse profiles, especially their variations with respect to observing frequencies, are very important to understand emission mechanisms of pulsars, while no previous attempt has been made in interpreting the complicated phenomenology. In this paper, we present theoretical simulations for the integrated pulse profiles and their frequency evolution within the framework of the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model proposed by Qiao (1988) and Qiao & Lin (1998). Using the phase positions of the pulse components predicted by the ``beam-frequency figure'' of the ICS model, we present Gaussian fits to the multi-frequency pulse profiles for some pulsars. It is shown that the model can reproduce various types of the frequency evolution behaviors of pulse profiles observed.

  2. Self-consistent Black Hole Accretion Spectral Models and the Forgotten Role of Coronal Comptonization of Reflection Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, James F.; García, Javier A.; Eikmann, Wiebke; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Brenneman, Laura W.; Dauser, Thomas; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2017-02-01

    Continuum and reflection spectral models have each been widely employed in measuring the spins of accreting black holes. However, the two approaches have not been implemented together in a photon-conserving, self-consistent framework. We develop such a framework using the black hole X-ray binary GX 339–4 as a touchstone source, and we demonstrate three important ramifications. (1) Compton scattering of reflection emission in the corona is routinely ignored, but is an essential consideration given that reflection is linked to the regimes with strongest Comptonization. Properly accounting for this causes the inferred reflection fraction to increase substantially, especially for the hard state. Another important impact of the Comptonization of reflection emission by the corona is the downscattered tail. Downscattering has the potential to mimic the relativistically broadened red wing of the Fe line associated with a spinning black hole. (2) Recent evidence for a reflection component with a harder spectral index than the power-law continuum is naturally explained as Compton-scattered reflection emission. (3) Photon conservation provides an important constraint on the hard state’s accretion rate. For bright hard states, we show that disk truncation to large scales R\\gg {R}{ISCO} is unlikely as this would require accretion rates far in excess of the observed \\dot{M} of the brightest soft states. Our principal conclusion is that when modeling relativistically broadened reflection, spectral models should allow for coronal Compton scattering of the reflection features, and when possible, take advantage of the additional constraining power from linking to the thermal disk component.

  3. Testing one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton models with spectral energy distributions of Mrk 421

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Qianqian; Zhang, Pengfei; Yin, Qian-Qing; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    We test one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models with high-quality multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) data of Mrk 421. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to fit twelve day-scale SEDs of Mrk 421 with one-zone SSC models. Three types of electron energy distribution (EED), a log-parabola (LP) EED, a power-law log-parabola (PLLP) EED and a broken power-law (BPL) EED, are assumed in fits. We find that the one-zone SSC model with the PLLP EED provides successful fits to all the twelve SEDs. However, the one-zone SSC model with the LP and BPL EEDs fail to provide acceptable fits to the highest energy X-ray data or GeV data in several states. We therefore conclude that the one-zone SSC model works well in explaining the SEDs of Mrk 421, and the PLLP EED is preferred over the LP and BPL EEDs for Mrk 421 during the flare in March 2010. We derive magnetic field $B'\\sim0.01$\\ G, Doppler factor $\\delta_{\\rm D}\\sim$30--50, and the curvature parameter of EED $r\\sim1$--$10$ in the model wi...

  4. Model-Based Detection of Radioactive Contraband for Harbor Defense Incorporating Compton Scattering Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Breitfeller, E F; Guidry, B L; Verbeke, J M; Axelrod, M A; Sale, K E; Meyer, A M

    2010-03-02

    The detection of radioactive contraband is a critical problem is maintaining national security for any country. Photon emissions from threat materials challenge both detection and measurement technologies especially when concealed by various types of shielding complicating the transport physics significantly. This problem becomes especially important when ships are intercepted by U.S. Coast Guard harbor patrols searching for contraband. The development of a sequential model-based processor that captures both the underlying transport physics of gamma-ray emissions including Compton scattering and the measurement of photon energies offers a physics-based approach to attack this challenging problem. The inclusion of a basic radionuclide representation of absorbed/scattered photons at a given energy along with interarrival times is used to extract the physics information available from the noisy measurements portable radiation detection systems used to interdict contraband. It is shown that this physics representation can incorporated scattering physics leading to an 'extended' model-based structure that can be used to develop an effective sequential detection technique. The resulting model-based processor is shown to perform quite well based on data obtained from a controlled experiment.

  5. Crystal Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Braverman, Joshua B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fabris, Lorenzo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  6. Confirming the thermal Comptonization model for black hole X-ray emission in the low-hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, M; Braga, J; Maiolino, T; Pottschmidt, K; Wilms, J

    2014-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra of black hole binaries in the low/hard state are well modeled by thermal Comptonization of soft seed photons by a corona-type region with $kT$\\thinspace$\\sim 50${\\thinspace}keV and optical depth around 1. Previous spectral studies of 1E{\\thinspace}1740.7$-$2942, including both the soft and the hard X-ray bands, were always limited by gaps in the spectra or by a combination of observations with imaging and non-imaging instruments. In this study, we have used three rare nearly-simultaneous observations of 1E{\\thinspace}1740.7$-$1942 by both XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL satellites to combine spectra from four different imaging instruments with no data gaps, and we successfully applied the Comptonization scenario to explain the broadband X-ray spectra of this source in the low/hard state. For two of the three observations, our analysis also shows that, models including Compton reflection can adequately fit the data, in agreement with previous reports. We show that the observations can also be modele...

  7. MODELING THE Fe K LINE PROFILES IN TYPE I ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH A COMPTON-THICK DISK WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatum, M. M.; Turner, T. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sim, S. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Miller, L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Reeves, J. N.; Patrick, A. R. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Long, K. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We have modeled a small sample of Seyfert galaxies that were previously identified as having simple X-ray spectra with little intrinsic absorption. The sources in this sample all contain moderately broad components of Fe K-shell emission and are ideal candidates for testing the applicability of a Compton-thick accretion disk wind model to active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission components. Viewing angles through the wind allow the observer to see the absorption signature of the gas, whereas face-on viewing angles allow the observer to see the scattered light from the wind. We find that the Fe K emission line profiles are well described with a model of a Compton-thick accretion disk wind of solar abundances, arising tens to hundreds of gravitational radii from the central black hole. Further, the fits require a neutral component of Fe K{alpha} emission that is too narrow to arise from the inner part of the wind, and likely comes from a more distant reprocessing region. Our study demonstrates that a Compton-thick wind can have a profound effect on the observed X-ray spectrum of an AGN, even when the system is not viewed through the flow.

  8. A Joint Model Of X-ray And Infrared Backgrounds. II. Compton-Thick AGN Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the abundance of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) based on our joint model of X-ray and infrared backgrounds. At L_{rest 2-10 keV} > 10^42 erg/s, the CT AGN density predicted by our model is a few 10^-4 Mpc^-3 from z=0 up to z=3. CT AGN with higher luminosity cuts (> 10^43, 10^44 & 10^45 erg/s) peak at higher z and show a rapid increase in the number density from z=0 to z~2-3. The CT to all AGN ratio appears to be low (2-5%) at f_{2-10keV} > 10^-15 erg/s/cm^2 but rises rapidly toward fainter flux levels. The CT AGN account for ~ 38% of the total accreted SMBH mass and contribute ~ 25% of the cosmic X-ray background spectrum at 20 keV. Our model predicts that the majority (90%) of luminous and bright CT AGN (L_{rest 2-10 keV} > 10^44 erg/s or f_{2-10keV} > 10^-15 erg/s/cm^2) have detectable hot dust 5-10 um emission which we associate with a dusty torus. The fraction drops for fainter objects, to around 30% at L_{rest 2-10 keV} > 10^42 erg/s or f_{2-10keV} > 10^-17 erg/s/cm^2. Ou...

  9. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  10. High Energy Variability Of Synchrotron-Self Compton Emitting Sources Why One Zone Models Do Not Work And How We Can Fix It

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Philip B; Perlman, Eric S; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-01-01

    With the anticipated launch of GLAST, the existing X-ray telescopes, and the enhanced capabilities of the new generation of TeV telescopes, developing tools for modeling the variability of high energy sources such as blazars is becoming a high priority. We point out the serious, innate problems one zone synchrotron-self Compton models have in simulating high energy variability. We then present the first steps toward a multi zone model where non-local, time delayed Synchrotron-self Compton electron energy losses are taken into account. By introducing only one additional parameter, the length of the system, our code can simulate variability properly at Compton dominated stages, a situation typical of flaring systems. As a first application, we were able to reproduce variability similar to that observed in the case of the puzzling `orphan' TeV flares that are not accompanied by a corresponding X-ray flare.

  11. High Energy Variability Of Synchrotron-Self Compton Emitting Sources: Why One Zone Models Do Not Work And How We Can Fix It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Philip B.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Perlman, Eric S.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-07-01

    With the anticipated launch of GLAST, the existing X-ray telescopes, and the enhanced capabilities of the new generation of TeV telescopes, developing tools for modeling the variability of high energy sources such as blazars is becoming a high priority. We point out the serious, innate problems one zone synchrotron-self Compton models have in simulating high energy variability. We then present the first steps toward a multi zone model where non-local, time delayed Synchrotron-self Compton electron energy losses are taken into account. By introducing only one additional parameter, the length of the system, our code can simulate variability properly at Compton dominated stages, a situation typical of flaring systems. As a first application, we were able to reproduce variability similar to that observed in the case of the puzzling `orphan' TeV flares that are not accompanied by a corresponding X-ray flare.

  12. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtain a determinate model, an equation of state ρ=kλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy density is ζ∝ρ1/2.

  13. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtaina determinate model, an equation of state p = κλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. Thephysical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuouslyexpanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy densityis ζ∝1 p1/2.

  14. Constraining the fraction of Compton-thick AGN in the Universe by modelling the diffuse X-ray background spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Akylas, A; Georgantopoulos, I; Brightman, M; Nandra, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates what constraints can be placed on the fraction of Compton-thick (CT) AGN in the Universe from the modeling of the spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background (XRB). We present a model for the synthesis of the XRB that uses as input a library of AGN X-ray spectra generated by the Monte Carlo simulations described by Brightman & Nandra. This is essential to account for the Compton scattering of X-ray photons in a dense medium and the impact of that process on the spectra of obscured AGN. We identify a small number of input parameters to the XRB synthesis code which encapsulate the minimum level of uncertainty in reconstructing the XRB spectrum. These are the power-law index and high energy cutoff of the intrinsic X-ray spectra of AGN, the level of the reflection component in AGN spectra and the fraction of CT AGN in the Universe. We then map the volume of the space allowed to these parameters by current observations of the XRB spectrum in the range 3-100 keV. One of the least constraine...

  15. Time-dependent simulations of emission from FSRQ PKS1510-089: multiwavelength variability of external Compton and SSC models

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus

    2012-01-01

    [abridged] We present results of modeling the SED and multiwavelength variability of the bright FSRQ PKS1510-089 with our time-dependent multizone Monte Carlo/Fokker-Planck code (Chen et al. 2001). As primary source of seed photons for inverse Compton scattering, we consider radiation from the broad line region (BLR), from the molecular torus, and the local synchrotron radiation (SSC). Different scenarios are assessed by comparing simulated light curves and SEDs with one of the best flares by PKS1510-089, in March 2009. The time-dependence of our code and its correct handling of light travel time effects allow us to fully take into account the effect of the finite size of the active region, and in turn to fully exploit the information carried by time resolved observed SEDs, increasingly available since the launch of Fermi. We confirm that the spectrum adopted for the external radiation has an important impact on the modeling of the SED, in particular for the lower energy end of the Compton component, observed...

  16. Singularities and Entropy in Bulk Viscosity Dark Energy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟新河; 窦旭

    2011-01-01

    In this paper bulk viscosity is introduced to describe the effects of cosmic non-perfect fluid on the cosmos evolution and to build the unified dark energy (DE) with (dark) matter models. Also we derive a general relation between the bulk viscosity form and Hubble parameter that can provide a procedure for the viscosity DE model building. Especially, a redshift dependent viscosity parameter ζ ∝ λ0 +λ1(1 +z)n proposed in the previous work [X.H. Meng and X. Dou, Commun. Theor. Phys. B2 (2009) 377] is investigated extensively in this present work. Further more we use the recently released supernova dataset (the Constitution dataset) to constrain the model parameters. In order to differentiate the proposed concrete dark energy models from the well known ACDM model, statefinder diagnostic method is applied to this bulk viscosity model, as a complementary to the Om parameter diagnostic and the deceleration parameter analysis performed by us before. The DE model evolution behavior and tendency are shown in the plane of the statefinder diagnostic parameter pair {τ, s} as axes where the fixed point represents the A CDM model The possible singularity property in this bulk viscosity cosmology is also discussed to which we can conclude that in the different parameter regions chosen properly, this concrete viscosity DE model can have various late evolution behaviors and the late time singularity could be avoided. We also calculate the cosmic entropy in the bulk viscosity dark energy frame, and find that the total entropy in the viscosity DE model increases monotonously with respect to the scale factor evolution, thus this monotonous increasing property can indicate an arrow of time in the universe evolution, though the quantum version of the arrow of time is still very puzzling.

  17. Inverse Compton gamma-ray models for remnants of Galactic type Ia supernovae?

    CERN Document Server

    Völk, H J; Berezhko, E G

    2008-01-01

    We theoretically and phenomenologically investigate the question whether the gamma-ray emission from the remnants of the type Ia supernovae SN 1006, Tycho's SN and Kepler's SN can be the result of electron acceleration alone. The observed synchrotron spectra of the three remnants are used to determine the average momentum distribution of nonthermal electrons as a function of the assumed magnetic field strength. Then the inverse Compton emission spectrum in the Cosmic Microwave Background photon field is calculated and compared with the existing upper limits for the very high energy gamma-ray flux from these sources. It is shown that the expected interstellar magnetic fields substantially overpredict even these gamma-ray upper limits. Only rather strongly amplified magnetic fields could be compatible with such low gamma-ray fluxes. However this would require a strong component of accelerated nuclear particles whose energy density substantially exceeds that of the synchrotron electrons, compatible with existing...

  18. Relativistic Accretion Mediated by Turbulent Comptonization

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle

    2008-01-01

    Black hole and neutron star accretion flows display unusually high levels of hard coronal emission in comparison to all other optically thick, gravitationally bound, turbulent astrophysical systems. Since these flows sit in deep relativistic gravitational potentials, their random bulk motions approach the speed of light, therefore allowing turbulent Comptonization to be an important effect. We show that the inevitable production of hard X-ray photons results from turbulent Comptonization in the limit where the turbulence is trans-sonic and the accretion power approaches the Eddington Limit. In this regime, the turbulent Compton y-parameter approaches unity and the turbulent Compton temperature is a significant fraction of the electron rest mass energy, in agreement with the observed phenomena.

  19. Modeling and simulation of bulk gallium nitride power semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sabui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bulk gallium nitride (GaN power semiconductor devices are gaining significant interest in recent years, creating the need for technology computer aided design (TCAD simulation to accurately model and optimize these devices. This paper comprehensively reviews and compares different GaN physical models and model parameters in the literature, and discusses the appropriate selection of these models and parameters for TCAD simulation. 2-D drift-diffusion semi-classical simulation is carried out for 2.6 kV and 3.7 kV bulk GaN vertical PN diodes. The simulated forward current-voltage and reverse breakdown characteristics are in good agreement with the measurement data even over a wide temperature range.

  20. Hierarchical Bulk Synchronous Parallel Model and Performance Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Linpeng; SUNYongqiang; YUAN Wei

    1999-01-01

    Based on the framework of BSP, aHierarchical Bulk Synchronous Parallel (HBSP) performance model isintroduced in this paper to capture the performance optimizationproblem for various stages in parallel program development and toaccurately predict the performance of a parallel program byconsidering factors causing variance at local computation and globalcommunication. The related methodology has been applied to several realapplications and the results show that HBSP is a suitable model foroptimizing parallel programs.

  1. Non-LTE Models and Theoretical Spectra of Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. Effects of Compton Scattering and Metal Opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, I; Krolik, J H; Agol, E; Hubeny, Ivan; Blaes, Omer; Krolik, Julian H.

    2001-01-01

    We extend our models of the vertical structure and emergent radiation field of accretion disks around supermassive black holes described in previous papers of this series. Our models now include both a self-consistent treatment of Compton scattering and the effects of continuum opacities of the most important metal species (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, Ni). With these new effects incorporated, we compute the predicted spectrum from black holes accreting at nearly the Eddington luminosity (L/L_Edd = 0.3) and central masses of 10^6, 10^7, and 10^8 M_sun. We also consider two values of the Shakura-Sunyaev alpha parameter, 0.1 and 0.01. Although it has little effect when M > 10^8 M_sun, Comptonization grows in importance as the central mass decreases and the central temperature rises. It generally produces an increase in temperature with height in the uppermost layers of hot atmospheres. Compared to models with coherent electron scattering, Comptonized models have enhanced EUV/soft X-ray emission, but they...

  2. Bulk Universality and Related Properties of Hermitian Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pastur, L

    2007-01-01

    We give a new proof of universality properties in the bulk of spectrum of the hermitian matrix models, assuming that the potential that determines the model is globally $C^{2}$ and locally $C^{3}$ function (see Theorem \\ref{t:U.t1}). The proof as our previous proof in \\cite{Pa-Sh:97} is based on the orthogonal polynomial techniques but does not use asymptotics of orthogonal polynomials. Rather, we obtain the $sin$-kernel as a unique solution of a certain non-linear integro-differential equation that follows from the determinant formulas for the correlation functions of the model. We also give a simplified and strengthened version of paper \\cite{BPS:95} on the existence and properties of the limiting Normalized Counting Measure of eigenvalues. We use these results in the proof of universality and we believe that they are of independent interest.

  3. Bulk Motions in Large-Scale Void Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    1999-01-01

    To explain the puzzling situation in the observed bulk flows on scales $\\sim 150 h^{-1}$ Mpc ($H_0 = 100 h^{-1}$ km sec$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$), we consider the observational behavior of spherically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological models, which consist of inner and outer homogeneous regions connected by a shell or an intermediate self-similar region. It is assumed that the present matter density parameter in the inner region is smaller than that in the outer region, and the present Hubble parameter in the inner region is larger than that in the outer region. Then galaxies in the inner void-like region can be seen to have a bulk motion relative to matter in the outer region, when we observe them at a point O deviated from the center C of the inner region. Their velocity $v_p$ in the CD direction is equal to the difference of two Hubble parameters multiplied by the distance between C and O. It is found also that the velocity $v_d$ corresponding to CMB dipole anisotropy observed at O is by a factor $\\approx 10$ ...

  4. Towards advanced aeration modelling: from blower to bubbles to bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Andreia; Schraa, Oliver; Rieger, Leiv; Gillot, Sylvie; Fayolle, Yannick; Bellandi, Giacomo; Amerlinck, Youri; Mortier, Séverine T F C; Gori, Riccardo; Neves, Ramiro; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    Aeration is an essential component of aerobic biological wastewater treatment and is the largest energy consumer at most water resource recovery facilities. Most modelling studies neglect the inherent complexity of the aeration systems used. Typically, the blowers, air piping, and diffusers are not modelled in detail, completely mixed reactors in a series are used to represent plug-flow reactors, and empirical correlations are used to describe the impact of operating conditions on bubble formation and transport, and oxygen transfer from the bubbles to the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms involved are very complex in nature and require significant research efforts. This contribution highlights why and where there is a need for more detail in the different aspects of the aeration system and compiles recent efforts to develop physical models of the entire aeration system (blower, valves, air piping and diffusers), as well as adding rigour to the oxygen transfer efficiency modelling (impact of viscosity, bubble size distribution, shear and hydrodynamics). As a result of these model extensions, more realistic predictions of dissolved oxygen profiles and energy consumption have been achieved. Finally, the current needs for further model development are highlighted.

  5. Induced Compton Scattering by Relativistic Electrons in Magnetized Astrophysical Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincell, Mark William

    1994-01-01

    The effects of stimulated scattering on high brightness temperature radiation are studied in two important contexts. In the first case, we assume that the radiation is confined to a collimated beam traversing a relativistically streaming magnetized plasma. When the plasma is cold in the bulk frame, stimulated scattering is only significant if the angle between the photon motion and the plasma velocity is less than gamma^{-1} , where gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor. Under the assumption that the center of the photon beam is parallel to the bulk motion, we calculate the scattering rate as a function of the angular spread of the beam and gamma. Magnetization changes the photon recoil, without which stimulated scattering has no effect. It also introduces a strong dependence on frequency and polarization: if the photon frequency matches the electron cyclotron frequency, the scattering rate of photons polarized perpendicular to the magnetic field can be substantially enhanced relative to Thomson, and if the photon frequency is much less than the cyclotron frequency the scattering is suppressed. Applying these calculations to pulsars, we find that stimulated scattering of the radio beam in the magnetized wind believed to exist outside the light cylinder can substantially alter the spectrum and polarization state of the radio signal. We suggest that the scattering rate is so high in some pulsars that the ability of the radio signal to penetrate the pulsar magnetosphere requires modification of either the conventional model of the magnetosphere or assumptions about the effects of stimulated scattering upon a beam. In the second case, we present a model of the radio emission from synchrotron self-absorbed sources, including the effects of induced Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in the source. Order of magnitude estimates show that stimulated scattering becomes the dominant absorption process when (kTB/m ec^2)tau_{T }_sp{~}> 0.1. Numerical simulations

  6. Probabilistic models and numerical calculation of system matrix and sensitivity in list-mode MLEM 3D reconstruction of Compton camera images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Voichita; Lojacono, Xavier; Hilaire, Estelle; Krimmer, Jochen; Testa, Etienne; Dauvergne, Denis; Magnin, Isabelle; Prost, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the system matrix and the sensitivity for iterative reconstruction in Compton camera imaging. Proposed models and numerical calculation strategies are compared through the influence they have on the three-dimensional reconstructed images. The study attempts to address four questions. First, it proposes an analytic model for the system matrix. Second, it suggests a method for its numerical validation with Monte Carlo simulated data. Third, it compares analytical models of the sensitivity factors with Monte Carlo simulated values. Finally, it shows how the system matrix and the sensitivity calculation strategies influence the quality of the reconstructed images.

  7. Turbulent Comptonization in Black Hole Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Blaes, Omer M; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer

    2004-01-01

    In the inner-most regions of radiation pressure supported accretion disks, the turbulent magnetic pressure may greatly exceed that of the gas. If this is the case, it is possible for bulk Alfvenic motions driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to surpass the electron thermal velocity. Bulk rather than thermal Comptonization may then be the dominant radiative process which mediates gravitational energy release. For sufficiently large turbulent stresses, we show that turbulent Comptonization produces a significant contribution to the far-UV and X-ray emission of black hole accretion disks. The existence of this spectral component provides a means of obtaining direct observational constraints on the nature of the turbulence itself. We describe how this component may affect the spectral energy distributions and variability properties of X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei.

  8. QSAR modeling of estrogenic alkylphenols using bulk and electronic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad range of structurally diverse alkylphenols has been found to be considerably potential estrogenic agents in combating estrogen-linked pathologies, but their mechanism of action in mimicking responses of endogenous hormones is still to be understood. The present work explores pharmacophore signals of some varied alkylphenols and predicts estrogenic activities through generated linear relations implementing theoretical molecular modeling techniques. The binding affinity to estrogen receptor of alkylphenols has been modeled investigating large data set of whole molecular and atomic descriptors. Univariate and multivariate relationships were estimated using correlation analysis and statistical significance of the generated relations assessed. The predictive ability of the generated models was further verified using ′Leave-One-Out′ cross validation. The relationships with molecular properties could be developed with a maximum correlation exceeding 94%, with explained variance as high as 87% and cross-validated variances> 0.8. It was inferred that increased molecular bulk, enhanced molecular ionization potential, presence of electron donating groups in para position and branched chain terminal atoms might have influence on binding affinity to the receptor.

  9. Compton Scattering on the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Scholten, O

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic coupled-channels model for Compton and pion scattering off the nucleon is introduced which is applicable at the lowest energies (polarizabilities) as well as at GeV energies. To introduce the model first the conventional K-matrix approach is discussed to extend this in a following chapter to the "Dressed K-Matrix" model. The latter approach restores causality, or analyticity, of the amplitude to a large extent. In particular, crossing symmetry, gauge invariance and unitarity are satisfied. The extent of violation of analyticity (causality) is used as an expansion parameter.

  10. Bulk flows and CMB dipole anisotropy in cosmological void models

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    1999-01-01

    The observational behavior of spherically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological models is studied, which consist of inner and outer homogeneous regions connected by a shell or an intermediate self-similar region. It is assumed that the present matter density parameter in the inner region is smaller than that in the outer region, and the present Hubble parameter in the inner region is larger than that in the outer region. Then galaxies in the inner void-like region can be seen to have a bulk motion relative to matter in the outer region, when we observe them at a point O deviated from the center C of the inner region. Their velocity $v_p$ in the CD direction is equal to the difference of two Hubble parameters multiplied by the distance between C and O. It is found also that the velocity $v_d$ corresponding to CMB dipole anisotropy observed at O is by a factor $\\approx 10$ small compared with $v_p$. This behavior of $v_d$ and $v_p$ may explain the puzzling situation of the cosmic flow of cluster galaxies, when t...

  11. Investigation of the Compton Rescue technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Alexander W.; Williams, Christopher S.; Burggraf, Larry W.; Kowash, Benjamin R.

    2015-05-15

    This paper summarizes an investigation of a process to improve the efficiency of position-sensitive gamma-radiation measurements from thin, planar semiconductor detectors. The method entails the use of a second, more efficient coaxial bulk detector placed behind a position-sensitive planar detector to collect Compton scattered photons that escape the volume of the position-sensitive detector. The technique is termed Compton rescue. The investigation consisted of two phases. First, a Monte-Carlo simulation was conducted to test feasibility of employing the technique. The simulation predicted the increase in detection efficiency by directly counting the number of photons added to the data set by Compton rescue and comparing to the number detected without the use of the technique. The simulation indicated that the technique could improve detection efficiency by approximately doubling the number of full-energy photons detected. The technique was tested in a laboratory setting using a coaxial semiconductor detector in coincidence with a thin, planar position-sensitive semiconductor detector. An efficiency improvement of approximately 20% was measured. The effect of Compton rescue data on the energy resolution of the position-sensitive detector was also determined.

  12. Theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Poutanen, Juri

    2010-01-01

    Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, and relativistic jets, clusters of galaxies as well as the early Universe. In most of the calculations it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation, or anisotropic source of seed soft photons. We develop here an analytical theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic distribution of electrons that can simplify significantly the calculations. Assuming that the electron angular distribution can be represented by a second order polynomial over cosine of some angle (dipole and quadrupole anisotropy), we integrate the exact Klein-Nishina cross-section over the angles. Exact analytical and approximate formulae valid for any photon and electron energies are derived for the redistribution functions describin...

  13. Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Anjali

    2004-09-01

    Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field together with physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  14. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom). E-mail: gary.barnes at eng.ox.ac.uk; McCulloch, M.D.; Dew-Hughes, D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation. (author)

  15. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.

  16. Randall-Sundrum model with {lambda}<0 and bulk brane viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: joel.saavedra@ucv.cl

    2008-04-17

    We study the effect of the inclusion of bulk brane viscosity on brane world (BW) cosmology in the framework of the Eckart's theory, we focus in the Randall-Sundrum model with negative tension on the brane.

  17. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann-Gow, Travis K; King, Benjamin J; El-Ghannam, Ahmed;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel...... agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety...

  18. Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model in the presence of bulk stress with varying $\\Lambda$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V G METE; A S NIMKAR; V D ELKAR

    2016-10-01

    Cylindrically symmetric non-static space–time is investigated in the presence of bulk stress given by Landau and Lifshitz. To get a solution, a supplementary condition between metric potentials is used. The viscosity coefficient of the bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density whereas the coefficient of shear viscosity is considered as proportional to the scale of expansion in the model. Also some physical and geometrical properties of the model are discussed.

  19. Bulk Density Adjustment of Resin-Based Equivalent Material for Geomechanical Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An equivalent material is of significance to the simulation of prototype rock in geomechanical model test. Researchers attempt to ensure that the bulk density of equivalent material is equal to that of prototype rock. In this work, barite sand was used to increase the bulk density of a resin-based equivalent material. The variation law of the bulk density was revealed in the simulation of a prototype rock of a different bulk density. Over 300 specimens were made for uniaxial compression test. Test results indicated that the substitution of quartz sand by barite sand had no apparent influence on the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of the specimens but can increase the bulk density, according to the proportional coarse aggregate content. An ideal linearity was found in the relationship between the barite sand substitution ratio and the bulk density. The relationship between the bulk density and the usage of coarse aggregate and barite sand was also presented. The test results provided an insight into the bulk density adjustment of resin-based equivalent materials.

  20. Bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid model and its asymptotic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, K.R.; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper we consider a flat FLRW universe with bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid as the cosmic component. Considering the bulk viscosity as characterized by a constant bulk viscous coefficient, we analyze the evolution of the Hubble parameter. Type Ia Supernovae data is used for constraining the model and for extracting the constant bulk viscous parameter and present the Hubble parameter. We also present the analysis of the scale factor, equation of state, and deceleration parameter. The model predicts the later time acceleration and is also compatible with the age of the universe as given by the oldest globular clusters. Study of the phase-space behavior of the model shows that a universe dominated by bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid is stable. But the inclusion of a radiation component in addition to the Zel'dovich fluid makes the model unstable. Hence, even though the bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid dominated universe is a feasible one, the model as such fails to predict a prior radiation dominated phase. (orig.)

  1. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis K. Mann-Gow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10 and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile.

  2. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Gow, Travis K.; King, Benjamin J.; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe-Ducheyne, Christine; Kida, Masatoshi; Dall, Ole M.; Krhut, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile. PMID:27688751

  3. Comparisons of friction models in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Xincai

    2002-01-01

    A friction model is one of the key input boundary conditions in finite element simulations. It is said that the friction model plays an important role in controlling the accuracy of necessary output results predicted. Among the various friction models, which one is of higher accuracy is still...... unknown and controversial. In this paper, finite element analyses applying five different friction models to experiments of upsetting of AA 6082 lubricated with four lubricants are presented. Frictional parameter values are determined by fitness of data of friction area ratio from finite element analysis...... to experimental results. It is found that calibration curves of the friction area ratio for all of the five chosen friction models used in the finite element simulation do fit the experimental results. Usually, calbration curves of the friction area ratio are more sensitive to friction at the tool...

  4. Constraining the parameter space of the one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton model for GeV-TeV detected BL Lac objects

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, Matteo; Zech, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model aims to describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of BL Lac objects via synchrotron emission by a non-thermal population of electrons and positrons in a single homogeneous emission region, partially upscattered to gamma-rays by the particles themselves. The model is usually considered as degenerate, given that the number of free parameters is higher than the number of observables. It is thus common to model the SED by choosing a single set of values for the SSC-model parameters that provide a good description of the data, without studying the entire parameter space. We present here a new numerical algorithm which permits us to find the complete set of solutions, using the information coming from the detection in the GeV and TeV energy bands. The algorithm is composed of three separate steps: we first prepare a grid of simulated SEDs and extract from each SED the values of the observables; we then parametrize each observable as a function of the SSC param...

  5. Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity in General Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    The Bianchi type-Ⅲcosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are studied. To obtain a determinate solution, it is assumed that the coefficient of bulk viscosity is a power function of the scalar of expansion ζ = kθm and the shear scalar is proportional to scalar of expansion σ∝θ, which leads to the relation between metric potentials B = Cn. The physical features of the model are also discussed. It is found that the power index mhas significant influence on the string model. There is a "big bang" start in the model when m ≤ 1 but there is no the big-bang start when m > 1. In the special case m = 0, the model reduces to the string model of constant coefficient of bulk viscosity that was the result previously given in the literature.

  6. Compton polarimetry revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.

    2015-11-01

    We compute the average polarisation asymmetry from the Klein–Nishina differential cross-section on free electrons at rest. As expected from the expression for the asymmetry, the average asymmetry is found to decrease like the inverse of the incident photon energy asymptotically at high energy. We then compute a simple estimator of the polarisation fraction that makes optimal use of all the kinematic information present in an event final state, by the use of “moments” method, and we compare its statistical power to that of a simple fit of the azimuthal distribution. In contrast to polarimetry with pair creation, for which we obtained an improvement by a factor of larger than two in a previous work, here for Compton scattering the improvement is only of 10–20%.

  7. Compton polarimetry revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    I compute the average polarisation asymmetry from the Klein-Nishina differential cross section on free electrons at rest. As expected from the expression for the asymmetry, the average asymmetry is found to decrease like the inverse of the incident photon energy asymptotically at high energy. I then compute a simple estimator of the polarisation fraction that makes optimal use of all the kinematic information present in an event final state, by the use of "moments" method, and I compare its statistical power to that of a simple fit of the azimuthal distribution. In contrast to polarimetry with pair creation, for which I obtained an improvement by a factor of larger than two in a previous work, here for Compton scattering the improvement is only of 10-20 %.

  8. Higher-dimensional cosmological model with variable gravitational constant and bulk viscosity in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; R V Deshpande; T Singh

    2004-11-01

    We have studied five-dimensional homogeneous cosmological models with variable and bulk viscosity in Lyra geometry. Exact solutions for the field equations have been obtained and physical properties of the models are discussed. It has been observed that the results of new models are well within the observational limit.

  9. Bulk Randall-Sundrum models, electroweak precision tests, and the 125 GeV Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abhishek M.; Sridhar, K.; Vempati, Sudhir K.

    2016-04-01

    We present up-to-date electroweak fits of various Randall-Sundrum (RS) models. We consider the bulk RS, deformed RS, and the custodial RS models. For the bulk RS case we find the lightest Kaluza-Klein (KK) mode of the gauge boson to be ˜8 TeV , while for the custodial case it is ˜3 TeV . The deformed model is the least fine-tuned of all which can give a good fit for KK masses <2 TeV depending on the choice of the model parameters. We also comment on the fine-tuning in each case.

  10. A commuting network model: going to the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, Floriana; Huet, Sylvie; Espinosa, Omar Baqueiro

    2011-01-01

    The influence of commuting in socio-economic dynamics increases constantly. Analysing and modelling the networks formed by commuters to help decision-making regarding the land-use has become crucial. This paper presents a simple spatial interaction simulated model with only one parameter. The proposed algorithm considers each individual who wants to commute, starting from their living place to all their workplaces. It decides where the location of the workplace following the classical rule inspired from the gravity law consisting in a compromise between the job offers and the distance to the jobs. The further away the job offer is, the more important it must be in order to be considered. Inversely, only the quantity of offers is important for the decision when these offers are close. The paper also presents a comparative analysis of the structure of the commuting networks of the four European regions to which we apply our model. The model is calibrated and validated on these regions. Results from the analysis...

  11. Bulk viscous cosmological model with interacting dark fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study a cosmological model for a spatially flat Universe whose constituents are a dark energy field and a matter field which includes baryons and dark matter. The constituents are supposed to be in interaction and irreversible processes are taken into account through the inclusion of a non-equilibrium pressure. The non-equilibrium pressure is considered to be proportional to the Hubble parameter within the framework of a first order thermodynamic theory. The dark energy and matter fields are coupled by their barotropic indexes, which are considered as functions of the ratio between their energy densities. The free parameters of the model are adjusted from the best fits of the Hubble parameter data. A comparison of the viscous model with the non-viscous one is performed. It is shown that the equality of the dark energy and matter density parameters and the decelerated-accelerated transition occur at earlier times when the irreversible processes are present. Furthermore, ...

  12. Bulk viscous cosmological model with interacting dark fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Sobreiro, Octavio A.S., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    We study a cosmological model for a spatially flat Universe whose constituents are a dark energy field and a matter field comprising baryons and dark matter. The constituents are assumed to interact with each other, and a non-equilibrium pressure is introduced to account for irreversible processes. We take the nonequilibrium pressure to be proportional to the Hubble parameter within the framework of a first-order thermodynamic theory. The dark energy and matter fields are coupled by their barotropic indexes, which depend on the ratio between their energy densities. We adjust the free parameters of the model to optimize the fits to the Hubble parameter data. We compare the viscous model with the non-viscous one, and show that the irreversible processes cause the dark-energy and matter-density parameters to become equal and the decelerated-accelerated transition to occur at earlier times. Furthermore, the density and deceleration parameters and the distance modulus have the correct behavior, consistent with a viable scenario of the present status of the Universe . (author)

  13. The inverse-Compton ghost HDF 130 and the giant radio galaxy 6C 0905+3955: matching an analytic model for double radio source evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mocz, Philip; Blundell, Katherine M; Goodall, P T; Chapman, S C; Saikia, D J

    2011-01-01

    We present new GMRT observations of HDF 130, an inverse-Compton (IC) ghost of a giant radio source that is no longer being powered by jets. We compare the properties of HDF 130 with the new and important constraint of the upper limit of the radio flux density at 240 MHz to an analytic model. We learn what values of physical parameters in the model for the dynamics and evolution of the radio luminosity and X-ray luminosity (due to IC scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB)) of a Fanaroff-Riley II (FR II) source are able to describe a source with features (lobe length, axial ratio, X-ray luminosity, photon index and upper limit of radio luminosity) similar to the observations. HDF 130 is found to agree with the interpretation that it is an IC ghost of a powerful double-lobed radio source, and we are observing it at least a few Myr after jet activity (which lasted 5--100 Myr) has ceased. The minimum Lorentz factor of injected particles into the lobes from the hotspot is preferred to be $\\gamma\\sim10^...

  14. Bulk viscosity for pion and nucleon thermal fluctuation in the hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Mohanty, Bedangdas

    2016-01-01

    We have calculated microscopically bulk viscosity of hadronic matter, where equilibrium thermodynamics for all hadrons in medium are described by Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. Considering pions and nucleons as abundant medium constituents, we have calculated their thermal widths, which inversely control the strength of bulk viscosities for respective components and represent their in-medium scattering probabilities with other mesonic and baryonic resonances, present in the medium. Our calculations show that bulk viscosity increases with both temperature and baryon chemical potential, whereas viscosity to entropy density ratio decreases with temperature and with baryon chemical potential, the ratio increases first and then decreases. The decreasing nature of the ratio with temperature is observed in most of the earlier investigations with few exceptions. We find that the temperature dependence of bulk viscosity crucially depends on the structure of the relaxation time. Along the chemical freeze-out line in...

  15. Bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid model and it's asymptotic behavior

    CERN Document Server

    K., Rajagopalan Nair

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have considered a flat FLRW universe with bulk viscous Zel'dovich as the cosmic component. Being considered the bulk viscosity as per the Eckart formalism, we have analyzed the evolution of the Hubble parameter and constrained the model with the Type Ia Supernovae data thus extracting the constant bulk viscous parameter and present Hubble parameter. Further we have analyzed the scale factor, equation of state and deceleration parameter. The model predicts the late time acceleration and is also compatible with the age of the universe as given by the oldest globular clusters. We have also studied the phase-space behavior of the model and found that a universe dominated by bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid is stable. But on the inclusion of radiation component in addition to the Zel'dovich fluid, makes the model unstable. Hence, even though the bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid dominated universe is a feasible one, the model as such failed to predict a prior radiation dominated phase.

  16. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in density dependent quark mass model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J D Anand; N Chandrika Devi; V K Gupta; S Singh

    2000-05-01

    We have studied the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in the density dependent quark mass model (DDQM) and compared results with calculations done earlier in the MIT bag model where , masses were neglected and first order interactions were taken into account. We find that at low temperatures and high relative perturbations, the bulk viscosity is higher by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude while at low perturbations the enhancement is by 1–2 order of magnitude as compared to earlier results. Also the damping time is 2–3 orders of magnitude lower implying that the star reaches stability much earlier than in MIT bag model calculations.

  17. Richard Compton, University of Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Analyst profiles Richard Compton, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and the first and only recipient of both the RSC Medals in Electrochemistry and in Electroanalytical Chemistry.

  18. Thermal and electrical influences from bulk plasma in cathode heating modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tang; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hao; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a numerical calculation is performed for the purpose of estimating the thermal and electrical influences from bulk plasma in cathode heating modeling, in other words researching the necessity of a coupling bulk plasma in near-cathode layer modeling. The proposed model applied in the present work is an improved one from previous work. In this model, the near-cathode region is divided into two parts: the sheath and the ionization layer. The Schottky effect at the cathode surface is considered based on the analytic solution of a 1D sheath model. It is noted that the arc column is calculated simultaneously in the near-cathode region and the cathode bulk. An application is presented for an atmospheric free burning argon arc with arc currents of 50 A-600 A. The modeling results show three interesting points: (1) at the cathode surface, energy transport due to heat conduction of heavy particles and electrons is comparable to total heating flux, no matter whether the arc discharge is performed in a high (400 A) or low current (50 A) situation; (2) the electrical influence from bulk plasma on the cathode heating modeling becomes obvious in a high current situation (>400 A) for the spot mode; (3) the near-cathode layer voltage drop ({{U}\\text{tot}} ) is larger in the diffuse mode than in the spot mode for the same current, which is just the opposite to that for decoupled modeling.

  19. Dispersion Properties of TIRPCF under Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; YU Ding-chen

    2006-01-01

    The dispersion properties in the short wavelength region of total internal reflective photonic crystal fiber(TIRPCF) in Compton scattering have been studied by using the model of the equivalent twin waveguide soliton coupling,dispersion management solitons and effective refractive index. It is shown that the positive dispersion of the cladding waveguide of TIRPCF and the negative dispersion of its core waveguide are quickly increased by the square of the collision non-elastic composition between the electron and photons,and they are lessened by the increase of the electron absorption photon number. Under the one-photon nonlinear Compton scattering,the method of the compensated probing laser diffraction by the phase hole induced by the stationary pumping laser in the cladding waveguide enables the average dispersion value of TIRPCF to be close to zero,and the zero dispersion point quickly shifts to the short wavelength region.

  20. Anisotropic cosmological models with bulk viscosity and particle creation in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandel S; Ram Shri

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of particle creation and bulk viscosity in the evolution of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological models in the framework of Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Particle creation and bulk viscosity are considered as separate irreversible processes. The energy–momentum tensor is modified to accommodate the viscous pressure and creation pressure which is associated with the creation of matter out of gravitational field. A special law of variation of Hubble parameter is applied to obtain exact solutions of field equations in two types of cosmologies, one with power-law expansion and the other with exponential expansion. Cosmological model with power-law expansion has a Big-Bang singularity at time $t = 0$, whereas the model with exponential expansion has no finite singularity. We study bulk viscosity and particle creation in each model in four different cases. The bulk viscosity coefficient is obtained for full causal, Eckart’s and truncated theories. All physical parameters are calculated and thoroughly discussed in both models.

  1. Mechanical relaxation in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass: Analysis based on physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, J. C.; Pelletier, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical relaxation behavior in a Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass is investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis in both temperature and frequency domains. Master curves can be obtained for the storage modulus G' and for the loss modulus G'', confirming the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle. Different models are discussed to describe the main (α) relaxation, e.g., Debye model, Havriliak-Negami (HN) model, Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt (KWW) model, and quasi-point defects (QPDs) model. The main relaxation in bulk metallic glass cannot be described using a single relaxation time. The HN model, the KWW model, and the QPD theory can be used to fit the data of mechanical spectroscopy experiments. However, unlike the HN model and the KWW model, some physical parameters are introduced in QPD model, i.e., atomic mobility and correlation factor, giving, therefore, a new physical approach to understand the mechanical relaxation in bulk metallic glasses.

  2. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  3. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar;

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence...

  4. Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Smits, ECP; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a numerical device model that consistently describes the current-voltage characteristics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. Bimolecular recombination and a temperature- and field-dependent generation mechanism of free charges are incorporated. It is demonstrated

  5. Holographic quantum error-correcting codes: toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Pastawski, Fernando; Yoshida, Beni; Harlow, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of exactly solvable toy models for the AdS/CFT correspondence based on a novel construction of quantum error-correcting codes with a tensor network structure. Our building block is a special type of tensor with maximal entanglement along any bipartition, which gives rise to an isometry from the bulk Hilbert space to the boundary Hilbert space. The entire tensor network is an encoder for a quantum error-correcting code, where the bulk and boundary degrees of freedom may be ...

  6. Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Model With Bulk Viscosity and Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Bianchi type-Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string in the presence of bulk viscosity and magnetic field are presented. To obtain the determinate model it is assumed that there is an equation of state ρ = kλ and the scalar of expansion is proportional to the shear scalar θ∝σ, which leads to a relation between metric potentials B = mCn. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start. In the absence of magnetic field, it reduces to the string model with bulk viscosity that was previously given in the literature.

  7. Bianchi Type Ⅲ Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Models with Variable G and A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Ba-li; Seema Tinker

    2009-01-01

    Bianchi type-Ⅲ bulk viscous barotropic fluid cosmological model with variables G and A is investigated. To obtainthe realistic model, we assume the conditions between the metric potentials A, B, C as A/A = B/B = m1/tnand C/C = m2/tn, P = p - 3ηH, η= ηops, p =γp, 0 γ 1, where p is isotropic pressure, η the coefficient of bulk viscosity, ηo and S the constants, H the Hubble constant, m1= 2m2 where m1 0, m2 0. The solutions obtained lead to inflationary phase and the results obtained match with the observations. The case n = 1 for S = 1 is also discussed, relating the results with the observations.PACS: 98. 80. Hω, 04.50. +h, 98.80. CqSpatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmologi-cal models play a significant role in description of the large scale behaviour of the universe. The choice of anisotropic model in the Einstein system of field equa-tions permits us to obtain cosmological model more general than the Robertson-Walker model. Tikekar and Patel[1] have investigated some exact solutions of massive string for Bianchi type-Ⅲ spacetime in the presence and absence of magnetic field. They have also discussed the behaviour of the model in the ab-sence of magnetic field. Bali and Dave[2] investigated the Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological model with bulk viscosity. Recently Bali and Pradhan[3] investi-gated the Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological models with time-dependent bulk viscosity.

  8. Constraining a matter-dominated cosmological model with bulk viscosity proportional to the Hubble parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We present and constrain a cosmological model where the only component is a pressureless fluid with bulk viscosity as an explanation for the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We study the particular model of a bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter. The model is constrained using the SNe Ia Gold 2006 sample, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) shift parameter R, the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak A and the Second Law of Thermodynamics (SLT). It was found that this model is in agreement with the SLT using only the SNe Ia test. However when the model is constrained using the three cosmological tests together (SNe+CMB+BAO) we found: 1.- The model violates the SLT, 2.- It predicts a value of H_0 \\approx 53 km sec^{-1} Mpc^{-1} for the Hubble constant, and 3.- We obtain a bad fit to data with a \\chi^2_{min} \\approx 532. These results indicate that this model is viable just if the bulk viscosity is triggered in recent times.

  9. Analytical Model for Voltage-Dependent Photo and Dark Currents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A physics-based explicit mathematical model for the external voltage-dependent forward dark current in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is developed by considering Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination and solving the continuity equations for both electrons and holes. An analytical model for the external voltage-dependent photocurrent in BHJ organic solar cells is also proposed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (...

  10. Axially Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Bulk-Viscous Cosmological Models with Time-Dependent and

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nawsad Ali

    2013-09-01

    The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic axially symmetric Bianchi type-I cosmological model with time variable cosmological term in the presence of bulk viscous fluid. The Einstein’s field equations are solved explicitly by time varying deceleration parameter . Consequences of the four cases of phenomenological decay of have been discussed which are consistent with observations. Physical and kinematical parameters of the models are discussed.

  11. Exact solutions of a Flat Full Causal Bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Cornejo-Pérez, O

    2012-01-01

    We study the classical flat full causal bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through the factorization method. The method allows to find some new exact parametric solutions for different values of the viscous parameter $s$. Special attention is given to the well known case $s=1/2$, for which the cosmological model admits scaling symmetries. Also, some exact parametric solutions for $s=1/2$ are obtained through the Lie group method.

  12. Holographic quantum error-correcting codes: Toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando; Harlow, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of exactly solvable toy models for the AdS/CFT correspondence based on a novel construction of quantum error-correcting codes with a tensor network structure. Our building block is a special type of tensor with maximal entanglement along any bipartition, which gives rise to an exact isometry from bulk operators to boundary operators. The entire tensor network is a quantum error-correcting code, where the bulk and boundary degrees of freedom may be identified as logical and physical degrees of freedom respectively. These models capture key features of entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence; in particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and the negativity of tripartite information are obeyed exactly in many cases. That bulk logical operators can be represented on multiple boundary regions mimics the Rindler-wedge reconstruction of boundary operators from bulk operators, realizing explicitly the quantum error-correcting features of AdS/CFT recently proposed by Almheiri et. al in arXiv:1411.70...

  13. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  14. Bianchi Type-Ⅴ Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Model with Variable G and A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Bali; Seema Tinker

    2008-01-01

    @@ We investigate the Bianehi type-Ⅴ bulk viscous barotropic fluid cosmological model with variable gravitational constant G and the cosmological constant A, assuming the condition on metric potential as A/A=B/B=C/C=m/ln, where A, B, and C are functions of time t, while m and n are constants. To obtain the deterministic model, we also assume the relations P= p-3ηH, p =γρ, η = ηoρs, where p is the isotropic pressure, η the bulk viscosity, 0 ≤γ≤1, H the Hubble constant, ηo and s are constants. Various physical aspects of the model are discussed. The case of n = 1 is also discussed to compare the results with the actual universe.

  15. Models for the Brane-Bulk Interaction: Toward Understanding Braneworld Cosmological Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Binétruy, Pierre; Carvalho, Carla

    2004-01-01

    Using some simple toy models, we explore the nature of the brane-bulk interaction for cosmological models with a large extra dimension. We are in particular interested in understanding the role of the bulk gravitons, which from the point of view of an observer on the brane will appear to generate dissipation and nonlocality, effects which cannot be incorporated into an effective (3+1)-dimensional Lagrangian field theoretic description. We explicitly work out the dynamics of several discrete systems consisting of a finite number of degrees of freedom on the boundary coupled to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory subject to a variety of wave equations. Systems both with and without time translation invariance are considered and moving boundaries are discussed as well. The models considered contain all the qualitative feature of quantized linearized cosmological perturbations for a Randall-Sundrum universe having an arbitrary expansion history, with the sole exception of gravitational gauge invariance, which will b...

  16. Multi-beam-bulk model for electron transport during commutation in an optically triggered pseudospark thyratron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Hoyoung; Kushner, Mark J.

    1990-10-01

    The electron energy distribution in low-pressure pulsed power plasma switches is typically not in equilibrium with the local electric field. To simulate electron transport under these conditions a computer model has been developed and has been applied to the optically triggered pseudospark, or back-lit-thyratron (BLT). The model uses many groups of electrons divided into the ``bulk'' and the ``beam''. The bulk is represented by a fluid while the beam electrons are ballistic in nature and have not undergone significant energy-loss collisions after generation. To account for beam electrons being generated at arbitrary locations in the BLT, multiple beams are employed in the model. The commutation phase of switching in the BLT is investigated and the onset of a hollow cathode effect during switching is predicted.

  17. Tevatron constraint on the Kaluza-Klein gluon of the Bulk Randall-Sundrum model

    CERN Document Server

    Guchait, M; Sridhar, K

    2007-01-01

    The Bulk Randall-Sundrum model, where all Standard Model particles except the Higgs are free to propagate in the bulk, predicts the existence of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the gluon with a large branching into top-antitop pairs. We study the production of the lowest KK gluon mode at the Tevatron energy and use the data on the top cross-section from the Run II of Tevatron to put a bound on the mass of the KK gluon. The resulting bound of 800 GeV, while being much smaller than the constraints obtained on the KK gluon mass from flavour-changing neutral currents, is the first, direct collider bound which is independent of the specificities of the model.

  18. Probing bulk viscous matter-dominated models with gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, A.; Bretón, N., E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: nora@fis.cinvestav.mx [Dpto. de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I. P. N., Av. IPN 2508, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we extend the range of consistency of a constant bulk viscosity model to redshifts up to z ∼ 8.1. In this model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum is a viscous fluid with pressure p = −ζθ, where θ is the fluid-expansion scalar and ζ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. Using the sample of 59 high-redshift GRBs reported by Wei (2010), we calibrate GRBs at low redshifts with the Union 2 sample of SNe Ia, thus avoiding the circularity problem. Testing the constant bulk viscosity model with GRBs we found the best fit for the viscosity parameter ζ-tilde in the range 0 < ζ-tilde < 3, so that it be consistent with previous probes; we also determined the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the redshift of transition to accelerated expansion. Besides, we present an updated analysis of the model with CMB5-year data and CMB7-year data, as well as with the baryon acoustic peak BAO. From the statistics with CMB it turns out that the model does not describe in a feasible way to such a far epoch of recombination of the universe, but is in very good concordance for epochs as far as z ∼ 8.1 till present.

  19. Probing bulk viscous matter-dominated models with Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Montiel, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extend the range of consistency of a constant bulk viscosity model to redshifts up to $z\\sim 8.1$. In this model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum is a viscous fluid with pressure $p= -\\zeta \\theta$, where $\\theta$ is the fluid-expansion scalar and $\\zeta$ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. Using the sample of 59 high-redshift GRBs reported by Wei (2010), we calibrate GRBs at low redshifts with the Union 2 sample of SNe Ia, avoiding then the circularity problem. Testing the constant bulk viscosity model with GRBs we found the best fit for the viscosity parameter $\\tilde{\\zeta}$ in the range $0<\\tilde{\\zeta}<3$, being so consistent with previous probes; we also determined the deceleration parameter $q_0$ and the redshift of transition to accelerated expansion. Besides we present an updated analysis of the model with CMB5-year data and CMB7-year data, as well as with the baryon acoustic peak BAO. From the statistics with CMB it turns out that the model does not describe in a fea...

  20. Turbulent Comptonization in Relativistic Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Blaes, Omer M; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent Comptonization, a potentially important damping and radiation mechanism in relativistic accretion flows, is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the physical basis, relative importance, and thermodynamics of turbulent Comptonization. The effects of metal-absorption opacity on the spectral component resulting from turbulent Comptonization is considered as well.

  1. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Mazouz, M; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  2. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mazouz; A. Camsonne; C. Munoz Camacho; C. Ferdi; G. Gavalian; E. Kuchina; M. Amarian; K. A. Aniol; M. Beaumel; H. Benaoum; P. Bertin; M. Brossard; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; R. Feuerbach; J.-M. Fieschi; S. Frullani; M. Garcon; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; J. Gomez; P. Gueye; P.A.M. Guichon; B. Guillon; O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; R. Igarashi; X. Jiang; H.S. Jo; L.J. Kaufman; A. Kelleher; A. Kolarkar; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J.J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; H.-J. Lu; D.J. Margaziotis; Z.-E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R. Michaels; B. Michel; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; M. Potokar; Y. Qiang; R.D. Ransome; J.-S. Real; B. Reitz; Y. Roblin; J. Roche; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; V. Sulkosky; P.E. Ulmer; E. Voutier; K. Wang; L.B. Weinstein; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-12-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  3. Bulk data transfer distributer: a high performance multicast model in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.

    2006-06-01

    A high performance multicast model for the bulk data transfer mechanism in the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Common Software (ACS) is presented. The ALMA astronomical interferometer will consist of at least 50 12-m antennas operating at millimeter wavelength. The whole software infrastructure for ALMA is based on ACS, which is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. To cope with the very strong requirements for the amount of data that needs to be transported by the software communication channels of the ALMA subsystems (a typical output data rate expected from the Correlator is of the order of 64 MB per second) and with the potential CORBA bottleneck due to parameter marshalling/de-marshalling, usage of IIOP protocol, etc., a transfer mechanism based on the ACE/TAO CORBA Audio/Video (A/V) Streaming Service has been developed. The ACS Bulk Data Transfer architecture bypasses the CORBA protocol with an out-of-bound connection for the data streams (transmitting data directly in TCP or UDP format), using at the same time CORBA for handshaking and leveraging the benefits of ACS middleware. Such a mechanism has proven to be capable of high performances, of the order of 800 Mbits per second on a 1Gbit Ethernet network. Besides a point-to-point communication model, the ACS Bulk Data Transfer provides a multicast model. Since the TCP protocol does not support multicasting and all the data must be correctly delivered to all ALMA subsystems, a distributer mechanism has been developed. This paper focuses on the ACS Bulk Data Distributer, which mimics a multicast behaviour managing data dispatching to all receivers willing to get data from the same sender.

  4. A Forecasting Model of Required Number of Wheat Bulk Carriers for Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayoshi Kubo

    2008-01-01

    <正>The ocean transportation of grain bulk carriers is promoted by development of ocean economic.With the development of coastal region,the cargo transportation wi11 become more and more important,especially for the resource such as grain,oil and coal.In this study,a model is built to estimate the number of grain bulk carriers needed for wheat based upon analyzing the relationships between Tons and Ton-miles of Africa wheat transportation.We find that the agricultural policies greatly affect the wheat transportation to Africa.Then,using two scenarios, we predict how many ships are necessary for the maritime transportation of wheat from other places to Africa in the future.We believe that this research is extremely useful to maritime transportation of wheat to Africa.

  5. Spectral properties of Compton inverse radiation: Application of Compton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Compton inverse radiation emitted due to backscattering of laser pulses off the relativistic electrons possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons - in hard x-ray up to gamma-ray energies - because of short wavelength of laser radiation as compared with the classical electromagnetic devices such as undulators. In this report, the possibility of such radiation to monochromatization by means of collimation is studied. Two approaches have been considered for the description of the spectral-angular density of Compton radiation based on the classical field theory and on the quantum electrodynamics. As is shown, both descriptions produce similar total spectra. On the contrary, angular distribution of the radiation is different: the classical approach predicted a more narrow radiation cone. Also proposed and estimated is a method of the `electronic' monochromatization based on the electronic subtraction of the two images produced by the electron beams with slightly different energies. A `proof-of-prin...

  6. Constraining a bulk viscous matter-dominated cosmological model using SNe Ia, CMB and LSS

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, Arturo; Guzmán, F S

    2008-01-01

    We present and constrain a cosmological model which component is a pressureless fluid with bulk viscosity as an explanation for the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We study the particular model of a constant bulk viscosity coefficient \\zeta_m. The possible values of \\zeta_m are constrained using the cosmological tests of SNe Ia Gold 2006 sample, the CMB shift parameter R from the three-year WMAP observations, the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak A from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Law of Thermodynamics (SLT). It was found that this model is in agreement with the SLT using only the SNe Ia test. However when the model is submitted to the three cosmological tests together (SNe+CMB+BAO) the results are: 1.- the model violates the SLT, 2.- predicts a value of H_0 \\approx 53 km sec^{-1} Mpc^{-1} for the Hubble constant, and 3.- we obtain a bad fit to data with a \\chi^2_{min} \\approx 400 (\\chi^2_{d.o.f.} \\approx 2.2). These results indicate that this model is ruled out by t...

  7. Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali

    2010-11-01

    String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.

  8. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaker, Ales [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  9. Pulsar high energy emission due to inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2013-06-15

    We discuss growing evidence that pulsar high energy is emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above ∼ 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-X-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, ∼10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7}, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula.

  10. Rosseland and flux mean opacities for Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Poutanen, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Rosseland mean opacity plays an important role in theories of stellar evolution and X-ray burst models. In the high-temperature regime, when most of the gas is completely ionized, the opacity is dominated by Compton scattering. Our aim here is to critically evaluate previous works on this subject and to compute exact Rosseland mean opacity for Compton scattering in a broad range of temperatures and electron degeneracy parameter. We use relativistic kinetic equations for Compton scattering and compute the photon mean free path as a function of photon energy by solving the corresponding integral equation in the diffusion limit. As a byproduct we also demonstrate the way to compute photon redistribution functions in case of degenerate electrons. We then compute the Rosseland mean opacity as a function of temperature and electron degeneracy. We compare our results to the previous calculations and find a significant difference in the low-temperature regime and strong degeneracy. We find useful analytical expressio...

  11. 78 FR 21037 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A330-200 Airplanes; Bulk Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... unusual design feature associated with the installation of bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartments... supplemental type certificate to install a bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartment in the Airbus Model...

  12. Nuclear compton scattering in the delta resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, R.C. (Departamento de Tecnologia Informatica y Computacion. Universidad de Alicante. Alicante (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    We develop a model in which the Compton amplitude at intermediate energies is split into a resonant and a background part. The resonant amplitude and the imaginary part of the background amplitude are calculated using microscopic many body methods. The background real part is obtained by subtracting the resonant one to total real amplitude-evaluated by means of a dispersion relation at forward angles. Uncertainties remain on how to extrapolate this forward real background amplitude to backward angles and we study the repercussion of these uncertainties in the Compton cross section. (Author) 30 refs.

  13. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  14. Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Canchaya, José G.; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve.

  15. Gravitationally induced electromagnetism at the Compton scale

    CERN Document Server

    Rosquist, K

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that Einstein gravity tends to modify the electric and magnetic fields appreciably at distances of the order of the Compton wavelength. At that distance the gravitational field becomes spin dominated rather than mass dominated. The gravitational field couples to the electromagnetic field via the Einstein-Maxwell equations which in the simplest model causes the electrostatic field of charged spinning particles to acquire an oblate structure relative to the spin direction. A pure Coulomb field is therefore likely to be incompatible with general relativity at the Compton scale. In the simplest model, the magnetic dipole corresponds to the Dirac g-factor, $g=2$. Also, it follows from the form of the electric field that the electric dipole moment vanishes, in agreement with current experimental limits for the electron. Quantitatively, the classical Einstein-Maxwell theory predicts the magnetic and electric dipoles of the electron to an accuracy of about one part in $10^{-3}$ or better. Going to the nex...

  16. SPEIR: A Ge Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K M; Burks, M T; Hull, E L; Craig, W W

    2004-02-11

    The SPEctroscopic Imager for {gamma}-Rays (SPEIR) is a new concept of a compact {gamma}-ray imaging system of high efficiency and spectroscopic resolution with a 4-{pi} field-of-view. The system behind this concept employs double-sided segmented planar Ge detectors accompanied by the use of list-mode photon reconstruction methods to create a sensitive, compact Compton scatter camera.

  17. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  18. Flute-Model Acoustic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Bulk Modulus and Mass Density

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, H C; Chen, H J; Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally constructed a three-dimensional flute-model "molecular" structure acoustic metamaterial(AM)from a periodic array of perforated hollow steel tubes (PHSTs) and investigated its transmission and reflection behaviors in impedance tube system. The AM exhibited a transmission peak and an inverse phase, thus exhibiting the local resonance of the PHSTs. Based on the homogeneous media theory, the effective bulk modulus and mass density of the AM were calculated to be simultaneously negative; the refractive index was also negative. PHST AM slab focusing experiments showed that the medium with a resonant structure exhibited a distinct metamaterial property.

  19. Modeling deformation behavior of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, S.; Liu, G.; Wang, G.; Das, J.; Kim, K. B.; Kühn, U.; Kim, D. H.; Eckert, J.

    2009-09-01

    In the present work we prepared an in situ Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composite derived from the shape memory alloy CuZr. We use a strength model, which considers percolation and a three-microstructural-element body approach, to understand the effect of the crystalline phase on the yield stress and the fracture strain under compressive loading, respectively. The intrinsic work-hardenability due to the martensitic transformation of the crystalline phase causes significant work hardening also of the composite material.

  20. Cooperative Effects of Noise and Coupling on Stochastic Dynamics of a Membrane-Bulk Coupling Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; JIA Ya; YI Ming

    2009-01-01

    Based on a membrane-bulk coupling cell model proposed by Gomez-Marin et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 168303], the cooperative effects of noise and coupling on the stochastic dynamical behavior are investigated, For parameters in a certain region, the oscillation can be induced by the cooperative effect of noise and coupling. Whether considering the coupling or not, corresponding coherence resonance phenomena are observed. Furthermore, the effects of two coupling parameters, cell size L and coupling intensity k, on the noise-induced oscillation of membranes are studied. Contrary effects of noise are found in and out of the deterministic oscillatory regions.

  1. A Model for Prediction of Propulsion Power and Emissions – Tankers and Bulk Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies of tankers and bulk carriers has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity...... is the primary input a proposal for the main dimensions is made. Based on these dimensions and other ship particulars which are determined by the program the necessary installed propulsion power can be calculated. By adjusting the vessel design, i.e. the suggested main dimensions, and varying the speed...

  2. Laser pulsing in linear Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, G. A.; Johnson, E.; Deitrick, K.; Terzić, B.; Kelmar, R.; Hodges, T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Delayen, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Previous work on calculating energy spectra from Compton scattering events has either neglected considering the pulsed structure of the incident laser beam, or has calculated these effects in an approximate way subject to criticism. In this paper, this problem has been reconsidered within a linear plane wave model for the incident laser beam. By performing the proper Lorentz transformation of the Klein-Nishina scattering cross section, a spectrum calculation can be created which allows the electron beam energy spread and emittance effects on the spectrum to be accurately calculated, essentially by summing over the emission of each individual electron. Such an approach has the obvious advantage that it is easily integrated with a particle distribution generated by particle tracking, allowing precise calculations of spectra for realistic particle distributions "in collision." The method is used to predict the energy spectrum of radiation passing through an aperture for the proposed Old Dominion University inverse Compton source. Many of the results allow easy scaling estimates to be made of the expected spectrum.

  3. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela S. [Fairfield University - Department of Physics 1073 North Benson Road, Fairfield, CT 06430, USA; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables over large kinematics regions. Multiple measurements with overlapping kinematic regions allow to perform a quasi-model independent extraction of the Compton form factors, which are GPDs integrals, revealing a 3D image of the nucleon.

  4. Ground calibrations of Nuclear Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Liu, Zhong-Kai; Bandstra, Mark S.; Bellm, Eric C.; Liang, Jau-Shian; Perez-Becker, Daniel; Zoglauer, Andreas; Boggs, Steven E.; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Huang, Minghuey A.; Amman, Mark; Chiang, Shiuan-Juang; Hung, Wei-Che; Lin, Chih-Hsun; Luke, Paul N.; Run, Ray-Shine; Wunderer, Cornelia B.

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear line emission and polarization. The heart of NCT is an array of 12 cross-strip germanium detectors, designed to provide 3D positions for each photon interaction with full 3D position resolution to imaging, effectively reduces background, and enables the measurement of polarization. The keys to Compton imaging with NCT's detectors are determining the energy deposited in the detector at each strip and tracking the gamma-ray photon interaction within the detector. The 3D positions are provided by the orthogonal X and Y strips, and by determining the interaction depth using the charge collection time difference (CTD) between the anode and cathode. Calibrations of the energy as well as the 3D position of interactions have been completed, and extensive calibration campaigns for the whole system were also conducted using radioactive sources prior to our flights from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico, USA in Spring 2009, and from Alice Springs, Australia in Spring 2010. Here we will present the techniques and results of our ground calibrations so far, and then compare the calibration results of the effective area throughout NCT's field of view with Monte Carlo simulations using a detailed mass model.

  5. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R; Weber, S; Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D; Gregori, G; Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R

    2007-10-02

    Compton scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  6. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R J; Weber, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)], E-mail: glenzer1@llnl.gov

    2008-05-15

    Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  7. Yield Improvement and Advanced Defect Control——Driving Forces for Modeling of Bulk Crystal Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Yield improvement and advanced defect control can be identified as the driving forces for modeling of industrial bulk crystal growth. Yield improvement is mainly achieved by upscaling of the whole crystal growth apparatus and increased processing windows with more tolerances for parameter variations. Advanced defect control means on one hand a reduction of the number of deficient crystal defects and on the other hand the formation of beneficial crystal defects with a uniform distribution and well defined concentrations in the whole crystal. This "defect engineering" relates to the whole crystal growth process as well as the following cooling and optional annealing processes, respectively. These topics were illustrated in the paper by examples of modeling and experimental results of bulk growth of silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium phosphide (InP) and calcium fluoride (CaF2). These examples also involve the state of the art of modeling of the most important melt growth techniques, crystal pulling (Czochralski methods) and vertical gradient freeze (Bridgman-type methods).

  8. Bulk metric of brane world models and submanifolds in 6D pseudo-Euclidian space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N

    2010-01-01

    In this short note, five-dimensional brane world models with dS_{4} metric on the branes are discussed. The explicit coordinate transformations, which show the equivalence between the bulk metric of these brane world models and the metric induced on an appropriate submanifolds in the flat six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time, are presented. The cases of the zero and non-zero cosmological constant in the bulk are discussed in detail.

  9. Giant Compton Shifts in Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Iorsh, Ivan; Ginzburg, Pavel; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    We study the Compton scattering of light by free electrons inside a hyperbolic medium. We demonstrate that the unconventional dispersion and local density of states of the electromagnetic modes in such media can lead to a giant Compton shift and dramatic enhancement of the scattering cross section. We develop an universal approach for the study of coupled multi-photon processes in nanostructured media and derive the spectral intensity function of the scattered radiation for realistic metamaterial structures. We predict the Compton shift of the order of a few meVs for the infrared spectrum that is at least one order of magnitude larger than the Compton shift in any other system.

  10. Bulk and surface phase transitions in the three-dimensional O(4) spin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youjin

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the O(4) spin model on the simple-cubic lattice by means of the Wolff cluster algorithm. Using the toroidal boundary condition, we locate the bulk critical point at coupling Kc=0.935856(2) , and determine the bulk thermal magnetic renormalization exponents as yt=1.3375(15) and yh=2.4820(2) , respectively. The universal ratio Q=⟨m2⟩2/⟨m4⟩ is also determined as 0.9142(1). The precision of these estimates significantly improves over that of the existing results. Then, we simulate the critical O(4) model with two open surfaces on which the coupling strength K1 can be varied. At the ordinary transitions, the surface magnetic exponent is determined as yh1(o)=1.0202(12) . Further, we find a so-called special surface transition at κ=K1/K-1=1.258(20) . At this point, the surface thermal exponent yt1(s) is rather close to zero, and we cannot exclude that the corresponding surface transition is Kosterlitz-Thouless-like. The surface magnetic exponent is yh1(s)=1.816(2) .

  11. Bulk and surface phase transitions in the three-dimensional O4 spin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youjin

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the O(4) spin model on the simple-cubic lattice by means of the Wolff cluster algorithm. Using the toroidal boundary condition, we locate the bulk critical point at coupling K(c) = 0.935 856(2), and determine the bulk thermal magnetic renormalization exponents as y(t) = 1.337 5(15) and y(h) = 2.482 0(2), respectively. The universal ratio Q=m(2)(2)/m(4) is also determined as 0.9142(1). The precision of these estimates significantly improves over that of the existing results. Then, we simulate the critical O(4) model with two open surfaces on which the coupling strength K(1) can be varied. At the ordinary transitions, the surface magnetic exponent is determined as y((o))(h1) = 1.020 2(12). Further, we find a so-called special surface transition at (k) = K(1)/K-1 = 1.258(20). At this point, the surface thermal exponent y(s)(t1) is rather close to zero, and we cannot exclude that the corresponding surface transition is Kosterlitz-Thouless-like. The surface magnetic exponent is y((s))/h1 = 1.816(2).

  12. Exciton delocalization incorporated drift-diffusion model for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi Shuai; Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling the charge-generation process is highly important to understand device physics and optimize power conversion efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Free carriers are generated by both ultrafast exciton delocalization and slow exciton diffusion and dissociation at the heterojunction interface. In this work, we developed a systematic numerical simulation to describe the charge-generation process by a modified drift-diffusion model. The transport, recombination, and collection of free carriers are incorporated to fully capture the device response. The theoretical results match well with the state-of-the-art high-performance organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that the increase of exciton delocalization ratio reduces the energy loss in the exciton diffusion-dissociation process, and thus, significantly improves the device efficiency, especially for the short-circuit current. By changing the exciton delocalization ratio, OSC performances are comprehensively investigated under the conditions of short-circuit and open-circuit. Particularly, bulk recombination dependent fill factor saturation is unveiled and understood. As a fundamental electrical analysis of the delocalization mechanism, our work is important to understand and optimize the high-performance OSCs.

  13. Transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton and a resulting model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhenyu

    2007-02-15

    In this thesis we report on the rst results on the transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton. It is shown that this asymmetry can provide one of the rare possibilities to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) E of the nucleon, and thus, through models for E, also to the total angular momentum of u and d quarks in the nucleon. The measurement was performed using the 27.6 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring and the transversely polarized hydrogen target of the HERMES experiment at DESY. The two leading azimuthal amplitudes of the asymmetry are extracted from the HERMES 2002-2004 data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 65.3 pb.1. By comparing the results obtained at HERMES and theoretical predictions based on a phenomenological model of GPDs, we obtain a model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  14. On the Parameterization of Convective Entrainment:Inherent Relationships among Entrainment Parameters in Bulk Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jianning

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the equilibrium entrainment into a shear-free,linearly stratified atmosphere is discussed under the framework of bulk models,namely,the zero-order jump model (ZOM) and the first-order jump model (FOM).The parameterizations for the dimensionless entrainment rate versus the convective Richardson number in the two models are compared.Based on the assumption that the parameterized entrainment rates in ZOM and FOM should be the same,the inherent relationships among the entrainment parameters in the bulk models are revealed.These relationships are supported by tank experiments and large-eddy simulations.The validity of these inherent relationships indicates that,for a convective boundary layer growing into a linearly stratified free atmosphere,the only dominant factors of the growth rate are the turbulent buoyancy in the mixed layer and the stratification in the free atmosphere.In the point of the similarity view,the former is characterized by turbulent temperature and mixing length scales (mixed layer depth),and the latter is characterized by the lapse rate of potential temperature in the free atmosphere.Thus,the commonly-used Richardson number scheme for the parameterization of the entrainment rate is just as an equivalent description.The variability of the total entrainment flux ratio in FOM,which is connected with the entrainment zone thickness,can implicitly describe the effect of the stratification in the free atmosphere,but the entrainment zone thickness is not an independent parameter.These results demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis that there exists a similarity limit in which the mixed layer depth is the only lengthscale.

  15. Modeling the material properties at the onset of damage initiation in bulk potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G.; Feit, Michael D.; Duchateau, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    A model simulating transient optical properties during laser damage in the bulk of KDP/DKDP crystals is presented. The model was developed and tested using as a benchmark its ability to reproduce the well-documented damage initiation behaviors but most importantly, the salient behavior of the wavelength dependence of the damage threshold. The model involves two phases. During phase I, the model assumes a moderate localized initial absorption that is strongly enhanced during the laser pulse via excited state absorption and thermally driven generation of additional point defects in the surrounding material. The model suggests that during a fraction of the pulse duration, the host material around the defect cluster is transformed into a strong absorber that leads to significant increase of the local temperature. During phase II, the model suggests that the excitation pathway consists mainly of one photon absorption events within a quasicontinuum of short-lived vibronic defect states spanning the band gap that was generated after the initial localized heating of the material due to thermal quenching of the excited state lifetimes. The width of the transition (steps) between different number of photons is governed by the instantaneous temperature, which was estimated using the experimental data. The model also suggests that the critical physical parameter prior to initiation of breakdown is the conduction band electron density. This model, employing very few free parameters, for the first time is able to quantitatively reproduce the wavelength dependence of the damage initiation threshold, and thus provides important insight into the physical processes involved.

  16. The bulk, surface and corner free energies of the square lattice Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We use Kaufman’s spinor method to calculate the bulk, surface and corner free energies {f}{{b}},{f}{{s}},{f}{{s}}\\prime ,{f}{{c}} of the anisotropic square lattice zero-field Ising model for the ordered ferromagnetic case. For {f}{{b}},{f}{{s}},{f}{{s}}\\prime our results of course agree with the early work of Onsager, McCoy and Wu. We also find agreement with the conjectures made by Vernier and Jacobsen (VJ) for the isotropic case. We note that the corner free energy f c depends only on the elliptic modulus k that enters the working, and not on the argument v, which means that VJ’s conjecture applies for the full anisotropic model. The only aspect of this paper that is new is the actual derivation of f c, but by reporting all four free energies together we can see interesting structures linking them.

  17. Gravitationally induced electromagnetism at the Compton scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosquist, Kjell [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-05-07

    It is shown that Einstein gravity tends to modify the electric and magnetic fields appreciably at length scales of the order of the Compton wavelength. At that scale the gravitational field becomes spin dominated rather than mass dominated. The gravitational field couples to the electromagnetic field via the Einstein-Maxwell equations which in the simplest model (Kerr-Newman) causes the electrostatic field of charged spinning particles to acquire an oblate structure relative to the spin direction. For electrons and protons, the Coulomb field is therefore likely to be modified by general relativity at the Compton scale. In the Kerr-Newman model, the magnetic dipole is known to correspond to the Dirac g-factor, g 2. Also, the electric dipole moment vanishes, in agreement with current experimental limits for the electron. Quantitatively, the classical Einstein-Maxwell field represented by the Kerr-Newman solution models the magnetic and electric dipoles of the electron to an accuracy of about one part in 10{sup -3} or better taking into account also the anomalous magnetic moment. Going to the next multipole order, one finds for the Kerr-Newman model that the first non-vanishing higher multipole is the electric quadrupole moment which acquires the value -124 b for the electron. Any non-zero value of the electric quadrupole moment for the electron or the proton would be a clear sign of curvature due to the implied violation of rotation invariance. There is also a possible spherical modification of the Coulomb force proportional to r{sup -4}. However, the size of this effect is well below current experimental limits. The corrections to the hydrogen spectrum are expected to be small but possibly detectable.

  18. The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S E; Ryan, J; Aprile, E; Gehrels, N; Kippen, M; Leising, M; Oberlack, U; Wunderer, C; Zych, A; Bloser, P; Harris, M; Hoover, A; Klimenk, A; Kocevski, D; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Novikova, E I; Phlips, B; Polsen, M; Sturner, S; Tournear, D; Weidenspointner, G; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Bildsten, L; Dermer, C; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Starrfield, S; Boggs, Steven E.; Kurfess, James; Ryan, James; Aprile, Elena; Gehrels, Neil; Kippen, Marc; Leising, Mark; Oberlack, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Zych, Allen; Bloser, Peter; Harris, Michael; Hoover, Andrew; Klimenk, Alexei; Kocevski, Dan; Connell, Mark Mc; Milne, Peter; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard; Polsen, Mark; Sturner, Steven; Tournear, Derek; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wulf, Eric; Zoglauer, Andreas; Baring, Matthew; Beacom, John; Bildsten, Lars; Dermer, Charles; Hartmann, Dieter; Hernanz, Margarita; Smith, David; Starrfield, Sumner

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. We present the results of this study, including scientific goals and expected performance, mission design, and technology recommendations.

  19. Bulk magnetization and 1H NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E M; Bud& #x27; ko, S L

    2011-04-28

    Bulk magnetization and ¹H static and magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two magnetically heterogeneous model systems based on laponite (LAP) layered silicate or polystyrene (PS) with low and high proton concentration, respectively, and ferrimagnetic Fe₂O₃ nano- or micro-particles have been studied. In LAP+Fe₂O₃, a major contribution to the NMR signal broadening is due to the dipolar coupling between the magnetic moments of protons and magnetic particles. In PS+Fe₂O₃, due to the higher proton concentration in polystyrene and stronger proton–proton dipolar coupling, an additional broadening is observed, i.e. ¹H MAS NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous systems are sensitive to both proton–magnetic particles and proton–proton dipolar couplings. An increase of the volume magnetization by ~1 emu/cm³ affects the ¹H NMR signal width in a way that is similar to an increase of the proton concentration by ~2×10²²/cm³. ¹H MAS NMR spectra, along with bulk magnetization measurements, allow the accurate determination of the hydrogen concentration in magnetically heterogeneous systems.

  20. Bulk magnetization and 1H NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E. M.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2011-10-01

    Bulk magnetization and 1H static and magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two magnetically heterogeneous model systems based on laponite (LAP) layered silicate or polystyrene (PS) with low and high proton concentration, respectively, and ferrimagnetic Fe2O3 nano- or micro-particles have been studied. In LAP+Fe2O3, a major contribution to the NMR signal broadening is due to the dipolar coupling between the magnetic moments of protons and magnetic particles. In PS+Fe2O3, due to the higher proton concentration in polystyrene and stronger proton-proton dipolar coupling, an additional broadening is observed, i.e. 1H MAS NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous systems are sensitive to both proton-magnetic particles and proton-proton dipolar couplings. An increase of the volume magnetization by ∼1 emu/cm3 affects the 1H NMR signal width in a way that is similar to an increase of the proton concentration by ∼2×1022/cm3. 1H MAS NMR spectra, along with bulk magnetization measurements, allow the accurate determination of the hydrogen concentration in magnetically heterogeneous systems.

  1. Atmospheric stability and turbulence fluxes at Horns Rev—an intercomparison of sonic, bulk and WRF model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct estimations of turbulent fluxes and atmospheric stability were performed from a sonic anemometer at 50 m height on a meteorological mast at the Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea. The stability and flux estimations from the sonic measurements are compared with bulk results from a cup...... anemometer at 15 m height and potential temperature differences between the water and the air above. Surface flux estimations from the advanced weather research and forecast (WRF) model are also validated against the sonic and bulk data. The correlation between the sonic and bulk estimates of friction...

  2. Importance of Compton scattering to radiation spectra of isolated neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V

    2006-01-01

    Model atmospheres of isolated neutron stars with low magnetic field are calculated with Compton scattering taking into account. Models with effective temperatures 1, 3 and 5 MK, with two values of surface gravity log(g)g = 13.9 and 14.3), and different chemical compositions are calculated. Radiation spectra computed with Compton scattering are softer than the computed with Thomson scattering at high energies (E > 5 keV) for hot (T_eff > 1 MK) atmospheres with hydrogen-helium composition. Compton scattering is more significant to hydrogen models with low surface gravity. The emergent spectra of the hottest (T_eff > 3 MK) model atmospheres can be described by diluted blackbody spectra with hardness factors ~ 1.6 - 1.9. Compton scattering is less important for models with solar abundance of heavy elements.

  3. A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanmurthy, P; Dutta, D

    2016-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall~C at Jefferson Lab to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index ($n$). For photon energies in the range of 9 - 46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of $1-n < 1.4 \\times 10^{-8}$. In addition, the absence of sidereal variation over the six month period of the measurement constrains any anisotropies in the speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal standard model extension framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients $\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ}, c_{TX}, \\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{ZX}$, and $c_{TY}$. Although, these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of Lorentz invarianc...

  4. A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Narayan, Amrendra; Dutta, Dipangkar

    2016-11-01

    We report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall C at Jefferson Lab (JLab) to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index (n). For photon energies in the range of 9-46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of 1 - n speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance (LI) using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal Standard Model extension (MSME) framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients κ˜0+Y Z, cTX, κ˜0+ZX and cTY. Although these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of LI. Future parity-violating electron-scattering experiments at JLab will use higher energy electrons enabling better constraints.

  5. Modeling TiO2's refractive index function from bulk to nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Juho-Pertti; Taavitsainen, Veli-Matti; Lamminmäki, Ralf-Johan; Lindholm, Minna; Auvinen, Sami; Alatalo, Matti; Vartiainen, Erik; Haario, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of nanomaterials has become very common. Different nanomaterials are being used in over 1600 consumer products. Nanomaterials have been defined as having at least one dimension in the range of 1-100 nm. Such materials often have unique properties. Despite some warnings of applying bulk optical constants for nano size materials, stated already in 1980s, bulk constants are still commonly used in the light scattering measurements of nano size particles. Titanium dioxide is one of the materials that is manufactured and used as an engineered nanomaterial in increasing quantities. Due to the aforementioned facts, it is quite crucial for successful research and production of nanoparticles to find out the dependence of the refractive index function (RIF) of the material on its crystal size. We have earlier performed several ab initio computations for obtaining the dependence of the RIF of TiO2 on the crystal or on the cluster size, for particles of size up to ca. 2 nm. Extending the calculations to greater sizes has turned out to be infeasible due to the unbearable increase in computational time. However, in this study we show how the crystal-size-dependent-RIF (CS-RIF), for both rutile and anatase can be modeled from measured extinction or turbidity spectra of samples with varying crystal and particle sizes. For computing the turbidity spectrum, we constructed a model including primary crystals whose distributions were parameterized by mean and standard deviation, and also including aggregates consisting of mean sized primary particles, parameterized just by mean aggregate size. Mainly because of the long computing times Mie calculation was used in the computation of extinction spectra. However, in practical process applications, the obtained RIF will be used together with the T-matrix method. We constructed the RIFs used in the model using generalized oscillator model (GOM) as expanded to crystal size dependence. The unknown parameters of the

  6. Analytical Model for Voltage-Dependent Photo and Dark Currents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbahus Saleheen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A physics-based explicit mathematical model for the external voltage-dependent forward dark current in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells is developed by considering Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH recombination and solving the continuity equations for both electrons and holes. An analytical model for the external voltage-dependent photocurrent in BHJ organic solar cells is also proposed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs, carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun’s model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The overall net current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum. The mathematical models are verified by comparing the model calculations with various published experimental results. We analyze the effects of the contact properties, blend compositions, charge carrier transport properties (carrier mobility and lifetime, and cell design on the current-voltage characteristics. The power conversion efficiency of BHJ organic solar cells mostly depends on electron transport properties of the acceptor layer. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport (both mobility and lifetime and dissociation of bound EHPs in organic blend are critically important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the BHJ solar cells.

  7. Modeling the Microstructure Curvature of Boron-Doped Silicon in Bulk Micromachined Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure curvature, or buckling, is observed in the micromachining of silicon sensors because of the doping of impurities for realizing certain electrical and mechanical processes. This behavior can be a key source of error in inertial sensors. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence the buckling value is important in designing MEMS devices. In this study, the curvature in the proof mass of an accelerometer is modeled as a multilayered solid model. Modeling is performed according to the characteristics of the solid diffusion mechanism in the bulk-dissolved wafer process (BDWP based on the self-stopped etch technique. Moreover, the proposed multilayered solid model is established as an equivalent composite structure formed by a group of thin layers that are glued together. Each layer has a different Young’s modulus value and each undergoes different volume shrinkage strain owing to boron doping in silicon. Observations of five groups of proof mass blocks of accelerometers suggest that the theoretical model is effective in determining the buckling value of a fabricated structure.

  8. Laser Pulsing in Linear Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Krafft, Geoffrey; Deitrick, Kirsten; Terzic, Balsa; Kelmar, R; Hodges, Todd; Melnitchouk, W; Delayen, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Previous work on calculating energy spectra from Compton scattering events has either neglected considering the pulsed structure of the incident laser beam, or has calculated these effects in an approximate way subject to criticism. In this paper, this problem has been reconsidered within a linear plane wave model for the incident laser beam. By performing the proper Lorentz transformation of the Klein-Nishina scattering cross section, a spectrum calculation can be created which allows the electron beam energy spread and emittance effects on the spectrum to be accurately calculated, essentially by summing over the emission of each individual electron. Such an approach has the obvious advantage that it is easily integrated with a particle distribution generated by particle tracking, allowing precise calculations of spectra for realistic particle distributions in collision. The method is used to predict the energy spectrum of radiation passing through an aperture for the proposed Old Dominion University inverse...

  9. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akiyama, Masayuki [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Miyaji, Takamitsu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Watson, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  10. X-ray Compton line scan tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Jaenisch, Gerd-Ruediger [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe 8.5 - Mikro-ZfP; Hentschel, Manfred P. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay; Markoetter, Henning; Hilger, Andre; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) (Germany); Toetzke, Christian [Potsdam Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The potentials of incoherent X-ray scattering (Compton) computed tomography (CT) are investigated. The imaging of materials of very different atomic number or density at once is generally a perpetual challenge for X-ray tomography or radiography. In a basic laboratory set-up for simultaneous perpendicular Compton scattering and direct beam attenuation tomography are conducted by single channel photon counting line scans. This results in asymmetric distortions of the projection profiles of the scattering CT data set. In a first approach, corrections of Compton scattering data by taking advantage of rotational symmetry yield tomograms without major geometric artefacts. A cylindrical sample composed of PE, PA, PVC, glass and wood demonstrates similar Compton contrast for all the substances, while the conventional absorption tomogram only reveals the two high order materials. Comparison to neutron tomography reveals astonishing similarities except for the glass component (without hydrogen). Therefore, Compton CT offers the potential to replace neutron tomography, which requires much more efforts.

  11. Measurement of the spin asymmetry of the beam in the polarized virtual Compton scattering on the proton. Study of the nucleon's energy spectra through the QCD-type potential model; Mesure de l'asymetrie de spin de faisceau en diffusion compton virtuelle polarisee sur le proton. Etude du spectre d'energie du nucleon par le modele de potentiel de type QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensafa, I.K

    2006-05-15

    The first part of this work presents the analysis and results of the VCS-SSA (virtual Compton scattering - single spin asymmetry) experiment at MAMI (Mainz). It was carried out with beam energy 883 MeV and longitudinal polarization (about 80%), at virtual photon four-momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2} = 0.35 GeV{sup 2}) to measure the beam asymmetry in the ep {yields} ep{gamma} and ep {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} reactions. The asymmetry obtained in photon (resp. pion) electro-production is between 0-15% (resp. 0-2%). The dispersion relation model for virtual Compton scattering and MAID model (for {pi}{sup 0}) reproduce the amplitude globally but not completely the shape of the asymmetry. Perhaps this discrepancy is due to an imperfect parameterization of some pion production multipoles ({gamma}{sup *}N {yields} {pi}N). The second part is dedicated to the study of the nucleon energy spectrum in ground-state L=0 and excited-state L=1 in the quark model, using the Coulomb + linear potential type (CL) and a relativistic correction. The hyperfine correction is applied to discriminate the nucleon masses. The values of the mass found for the proton and the {delta}(1232) are respectively equal to (968 MeV, 1168 MeV), and the masses of the excited states are between 1564 - 1607 MeV. This part is completed by an application of the CL model to an approximate calculation of generalized polarizabilities of the proton. (author)

  12. A generic tight-binding model for monolayer, bilayer and bulk MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdows Zahid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 is a layered semiconductor which has become very important recently as an emerging electronic device material. Being an intrinsic semiconductor the two-dimensional MoS2 has major advantages as the channel material in field-effect transistors. In this work we determine the electronic structures of MoS2 with the highly accurate screened hybrid functional within the density functional theory (DFT including the spin-orbit coupling. Using the DFT electronic structures as target, we have developed a single generic tight-binding (TB model that accurately produces the electronic structures for three different forms of MoS2 - bulk, bilayer and monolayer. Our TB model is based on the Slater-Koster method with non-orthogonal sp3d5 orbitals, nearest-neighbor interactions and spin-orbit coupling. The TB model is useful for atomistic modeling of quantum transport in MoS2 based electronic devices.

  13. Determining the covering factor of Compton-thick active galactic nuclei with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, M; Stern, D; Arevalo, P; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Craig, W W; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Fuerst, F; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Hickox, R C; Koss, M; LaMassa, S; Puccetti, S; Rivers, E; Vasudevan, R; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting Compton-thick absorption along the line of sight ($N_{H}>1.5\\times10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this Compton-thick fraction is difficult however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays ($>$10 keV), NuSTAR is sensitive to the AGN covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGN observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so called Compton-thick (CT) AGN. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra which predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the Compton-thick gas i...

  14. Vibrationally-Fluidized Granular Flows: Impact and Bulk Velocity Measurements Compared with Discrete Element and Continuum Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnia, Kamyar

    A new laser displacement probe was developed to measure the impact velocities of particles within vibrationally-fluidized beds. The sensor output was also used to measure bulk flow velocity along the probe window and to provide a measure of the media packing. The displacement signals from the laser sensors were analyzed to obtain the probability distribution functions of the impact velocity of the particles. The impact velocity was affected by the orientation of the laser probe relative to the bulk flow velocity, and the density and elastic properties of the granular media. The impact velocities of the particles were largely independent of their bulk flow speed and packing density. Both the local impact and bulk flow velocities within a tub vibratory finisher were predicted using discrete element modelling (DEM) and compared to the measured values for spherical steel media. It was observed that the impact and bulk flow velocities were relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the contact coefficients of friction and restitution. It was concluded that the predicted impact and bulk flow velocities were dependent on the number of layers in the model. Consequently, the final DE model mimicked the key aspects of the experimental setup, including the submerged laser sensor. The DE method predictions of both impact velocity and bulk flow velocity were in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements, with maximum differences of 20% and 30%, respectively. Discrete element modeling of granular flows is effective, but requires large numerical models. In an effort to reduce computational effort, this work presents a finite element (FE) continuum model of a vibrationally-fluidized granular flow. The constitutive equations governing the continuum model were calibrated using the discrete element method (DEM). The bulk flow behavior of the equivalent continuum media was then studied using both Lagrangian and Eulerian FE formulations. The bulk flow velocities predicted

  15. Bulk magnetization and {sup 1}H NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E.M., E-mail: levin@iastate.edu [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory of US DOE (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Iowa, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Bud' ko, S.L. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory of US DOE (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Iowa, IA 50011-3020 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Bulk magnetization and {sup 1}H static and magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two magnetically heterogeneous model systems based on laponite (LAP) layered silicate or polystyrene (PS) with low and high proton concentration, respectively, and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano- or micro-particles have been studied. In LAP+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a major contribution to the NMR signal broadening is due to the dipolar coupling between the magnetic moments of protons and magnetic particles. In PS+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, due to the higher proton concentration in polystyrene and stronger proton-proton dipolar coupling, an additional broadening is observed, i.e. {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous systems are sensitive to both proton-magnetic particles and proton-proton dipolar couplings. An increase of the volume magnetization by {approx}1 emu/cm{sup 3} affects the {sup 1}H NMR signal width in a way that is similar to an increase of the proton concentration by {approx}2x10{sup 22}/cm{sup 3}. {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra, along with bulk magnetization measurements, allow the accurate determination of the hydrogen concentration in magnetically heterogeneous systems. - Highlights: > {sup 1}H NMR and magnetization allow study of dipolar interactions in magnetically heterogeneous systems. > Both the proton-proton and proton-magnetic particle dipolar interactions affect {sup 1}H NMR spectra. > {sup 1}H NMR and magnetization can be used for the accurate determination of the hydrogen concentration.

  16. Gas Transport Parameters for Landfill Final Cover Soil: Measurements and Model Modification by Dry Bulk Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarachchi, P. N.; Kawamoto, K.; Hamamoto, S.; Nagamori, M.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2011-12-01

    for ka than Dp for both fractions. We suggest this is because of compaction effects caused to create well-aligned macropore networks that are available for gas transport through the porous material. Then, the famous predictive models, the water induced linear reduction (WLR) model for Dp and the reference point law (RPL) model for ka were modified with reference point measurements (dry conditions) and model parameters and they correlated linearly to dry bulk density values for both fractions of landfill final cover soil.

  17. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation...

  18. A metabolic model for the 0092 morphotype associated with filamentous bulking problems in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta

    Overgrowth of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to impaired sludge settleability, a condition known as bulking, which is a common operational problem worldwide. The B45 genus-level-taxon, exhibiting the Eikelboom 0092 bulking filament morphotype...

  19. Renormalization Group Flow, Stability, and Bulk Viscosity in a Large N Thermal QCD Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Keshav; Gale, Charles; Richard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet completion of a large N QCD model requires introducing new degrees of freedom at certain scale so that the UV behavior may become asymptotically conformal with no Landau poles and no UV divergences of Wilson loops. These UV degrees of freedom are represented by certain anti-branes arranged on the blown-up sphere of a warped resolved conifold in a way that they are separated from the other set of branes that control the IR behavior of the theory. This separation of the branes and the anti-branes creates instability in the theory. Further complications arise from the curvature of the ambient space. We show that, despite these analytical hurdles, stability may still be achieved by switching on appropriate world-volume fluxes on the branes. The UV degrees of freedom, on the other hand, modify the RG flow in the model. We discuss this in details by evaluating the flow from IR confining to UV conformal. Finally we lay down a calculational scheme to study bulk viscosity which, in turn, would signal t...

  20. Intercomparison of the Charnock and CORE bulk wind stress formulations for coastal ocean modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Brown

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air-sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere-ocean system. In many modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of: the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation; the surface mixed layer; and the generation of wave-surge conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Two wind stress formulae widely used in respectively the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities are studied with focus on an application to the NW region of the UK. Model-observation validation is performed at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP stations in Liverpool Bay, a hypertidal region of freshwater influence with vast intertidal areas. The period of study covers both calm and extreme conditions to fully test the robustness of the 10 m wind stress component of the Common Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE bulk formulae and the Charnock relation. In this coastal application a realistic barotropic-baroclinic simulation of the circulation and surge elevation is setup, demonstrating greater accuracy occurs when using the Charnock relation for surface wind stress.

  1. Bulk-friction modeling of afterslip and the modified Omori law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerberg, L.; Sharp, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    parameter a. We find that a* is typically positive, qualitatively consistent with laboratory observations, although our observations are considerably larger than laboratory values. However, we also find good model fits for a* law suggests that bulk-frictional properties of a fault zone are well described by our simple laboratory-based models, but they would need to change during the seismic cycle for a mainshock instability to recur, unless a mainshock-aftershock sequence were characterized by a process similar to the arrested instabilities possible in two-state-variable systems. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2013-09-28

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate R(c) below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing R(c), and thus good glass-formers possess small values of R(c). We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change R(c) significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ~10(11) K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than R(c) for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability.

  3. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2013-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate Rc below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing Rc, and thus good glass-formers possess small values of Rc. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change Rc significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ˜1011 K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than Rc for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability.

  4. Hidden baryons: The physics of Compton composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frederick J.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of the mass-energy of the Universe appears to be composed of Compton composites. How is it then that these composites are not frequently observed in experiments? This paper addresses this question, and others, by reviewing recent publications that: 1) introduced Compton composites, 2) showed how and where they are formed and 3) explained how they interact with other systems. Though ubiquitous in many physical situations, Compton composites are almost completely hidden in experiments due to their unique interaction characteristics. Still, their presence has been indirectly observed, though not interpreted as such until recently. Looking to the future, direct-detection experiments are proposed that could verify the composites' components. It is with deep sadness that I dedicate this paper to my mentor, collaborator, and friend, Dr. John R. Reitz, who passed away within days of the publication of our paper “Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe”.

  5. Bianchi Type-I String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity and Time-Dependent A term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.Tiwari; S.Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Einstein Geld equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe. Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar £ oc 0; the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar 6 oc cr; and A is proportional to the Hubble parameter A on H. The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.%@@ Einstein field equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe.Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions:the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar ξ∝θ;the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar θ∝σ;and ∧ is proportional to the Hubble parameter ∧∝ H.The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  6. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;

    2014-01-01

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks...... (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D...... of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets...

  7. Comptonization and QPO Origins in Accreting Neutron Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H C; Lee, Hyong C.; Miller, Guy S.

    1997-01-01

    We develop a simple, time-dependent Comptonization model to probe the origins of spectral variability in accreting neutron star systems. In the model, soft ``seed photons'' are injected into a corona of hot electrons, where they are Compton upscattered before escaping as hard X-rays. The model describes how the hard X-ray spectrum varies when the properties of either the soft photon source or the Comptonizing medium undergo small oscillations. Observations of the resulting spectral modulations can determine whether the variability is due to (i) oscillations in the injection of seed photons, (ii) oscillations in the coronal electron density, or (iii) oscillations in the coronal energy dissipation rate. Identifying the origin of spectral variability should help clarify how the corona operates and its relation to the accretion disk. It will also help in finding the mechanisms underlying the various quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in the X-ray outputs of many accreting neutron star and black hole syste...

  8. ORCED: A model to simulate the operations and costs of bulk-power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1998-06-01

    Dramatic changes in the structure and operation of US bulk-power markets require new analytical tools. The authors developed the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to analyze a variety of public-policy issues related to the many changes underway in the US electricity industry. Such issues include: policy and technology options to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production; the effects of electricity trading between high- and low-cost regions on consumers and producers in both regions; the ability of the owners of certain generating units to exercise market power as functions of the transmission link between two regions and the characteristics of the generating units and loads in each region; and the market penetration of new energy-production and energy-use technologies and the effects of their adoption on fuel use, electricity use and costs, and carbon emissions. ORCED treats two electrical systems connected by a single transmission link ORCED uses two load-duration curves to represent the time-varying electricity consumption in each region. The two curves represent peak and offpeak seasons. User specification of demand elasticities permits ORCED to estimate the effects of changes in electricity price, both overall and hour by hour, on overall electricity use and load shapes. ORCED represents the electricity supply in each region with 26 generating units. The two regions are connected by a single transmission link. This link is characterized by its capacity (MW), cost ({cents}/kWh), and losses (%). This report explains the inputs to, outputs from, and operation of ORCED. It also presents four examples showing applications of the model to various public-policy issues related to restructuring of the US electricity industry.

  9. The role of Compton heating in cluster cooling flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L; Pellegrini, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations by Chandra and XMM-Newton demonstrate that the central gas in "cooling flow" galaxy clusters has a mass cooling rate that decreases rapidly with decreasing temperature. This contrasts the predictions of a steady state cooling flow model. On the basis of these observational results, the gas can be in a steady state only if a steady temperature dependent heating mechanism is present; alternatively the gas could be in an unsteady state, i.e., heated intermittently. Intermittent heating can be produced by accretion on the supermassive black hole residing in the central cluster galaxy, via Compton heating. This mechanism can be effective provided that the radiation temperature of the emitted spectrum is higher than the gas temperature. Here we explore whether this heating mechanism can be at the origin of the enigmatic behavior of the hot gas in the central regions of ``cooling flow'' clusters. Although several characteristics of Compton heating appear attractive in this respect, we find that t...

  10. Nucleon Polarizabilities: from Compton Scattering to Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of the nucleon polarizabilities and of their role in nucleon Compton scattering and in hydrogen spectrum. We discuss the basic concepts, the recent lattice QCD calculations and advances in chiral effective-field theory. On the experimental side, we review the ongoing programs aimed to measure the nucleon (scalar and spin) polarizabilities via the Compton scattering processes, with real and virtual photons. A great part of the review is devoted to the general constraints based on unitarity, causality, discrete and continuous symmetries, which result in model-independent relations involving nucleon polarizabilities. We (re-)derive a variety of such relations and discuss their empirical value. The proton polarizability effects are presently the major sources of uncertainty in the assessment of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and hyperfine structure. Recent calculations of these effects are reviewed here in the context of the "proton-radius puzzle". We conclude with summary...

  11. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-10-15

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D) SST model structures and parameters. We identify the critical sources of uncertainty in WWTP models through global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using the Benchmark simulation model No. 1 in combination with first- and second-order 1-D SST models. The results obtained illustrate that the contribution of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets for WWTP model calibration, and propose optimal choice of 1-D SST models under different flow and settling boundary conditions. Additionally, the hydraulic parameters in the second-order SST model are found significant under dynamic wet-weather flow conditions. These results highlight the importance of developing a more mechanistic based flow-dependent hydraulic sub-model in second-order 1-D SST models in the future.

  12. Intercomparison of the Charnock and COARE bulk wind stress formulations for coastal ocean modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air–sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere–ocean system. In most modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation, the surface mixed layer, and the generation of wave-surge conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Two wind stress parameterisations widely used in the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities respectively are studied with focus on an application to the NW region of the UK. Model–observation validation is performed at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler stations in Liverpool Bay, a hypertidal region of freshwater influence (ROFI with vast intertidal areas. The period of study covers both calm and extreme conditions to test the robustness of the 10 m wind stress component of the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE bulk formulae and the standard Charnock relation. In this coastal application a realistic barotropic–baroclinic simulation of the circulation and surge elevation is set-up, demonstrating greater accuracy occurs when using the Charnock relation, with a constant Charnock coefficient of 0.0185, for surface wind stress during this one month period.

  13. Observational constrains on the DGP brane-world model with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jianhua [Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Wang Bin [Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: wangb@fudan.edu.cn; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR 157 73, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: lpapa@central.ntua.gr

    2007-10-18

    Using the data coming from the new 182 Gold type Ia supernova samples, the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the H(z) data, we have performed a statistical joint analysis of the DGP brane-world model with a high curvature Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. Consistent parameters estimations show that the Gauss-Bonnet-induced gravity model is a viable candidate to explain the observed acceleration of our universe.

  14. A Two-Moment Bulk Microphysics Coupled with a Mesoscale Model WRF: Model Description and First Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wenhua; ZHAO Fengsheng; HU Zhijin; FENG Xua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) two-moment bulk microphysics scheme was adopted in this study to investigate the representation of cloud and precipitation processes under different environmental conditions.The scheme predicts the mixing ratio of water vapor as well as the mixing ratios and nnmber concentrations of cloud droplets,rain,ice,snow,and graupel.A new parameterization approach to simulate heterogeneous droplet activation was developed in this scheme.Furthermore,the improved CAMS scheme was coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.1),which made it possible to simulate the microphysics of clouds and precipitation as well as the cloud-aerosol interactions in selected atmospheric condition.The rain event occurring on 27 28 December 2008 in eastern China was simulated using the CAMS scheme and three sophisticated microphysics schemes in the WRF model.Results showed that the simulated 36-h accumulated precipitations were generally agreed with observation data,and the CAMS scheme performed well in the southern area of the nested donain.The radar reflectivity,the averaged precipitation intensity,and the hydrometeor mixing ratios simulated by the CAMS scheme were generally consistent with those from other microphysics schemes.The hydrometeor number concentrations simulated by the CAMS scheme were also close to the experiential values in stratus clouds.The model results suggest that the CAMS scheme performs reasonably well in describing the microphysics of clouds and precipitation in the mesoscale WRF model.

  15. Finite Element Modeling of the Bulk Magnitization of Railroad Wheels to Improve Test Conditions for Magnetoacoustic Residual Stress Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Namkung, M.; Utrata, D.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetoacoustic measurement technique has been used successfully for residual stress measurements in laboratory samples. However, when used to field test samples with complex geometries, such as railroad wheels, the sensitivity of the method declines dramatically. It has been suggested that the decrease in performance may be due, in part, to an insufficient or nonuniform magnetic induction in the test sample. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the test conditions by using finite element modeling to predict the distribution of the induced bulk magnetization of railroad wheels. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain a sufficiently large and uniform bulk magnetization by altering the shape of the electromagnet used in the tests. Consequently, problems associated with bulk magnetization can be overcome, and should not prohibit the magnetoacoustic technique from being used to make residual stress measurements in railroad wheels. We begin by giving a brief overview of the magnetoacoustic technique as it applies to residual stress measurements of railroad wheels. We then define the finite element model used to predict the behavior of the current test configuration along with the nonlinear constitutive relations which we obtained experimentally through measurements on materials typically used to construct both railroad wheels and electromagnets. Finally, we show that by modifying the pole of the electromagnet it is possible to obtain a significantly more uniform bulk magnetization in the region of interest.

  16. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  17. Rosseland and Flux Mean Opacities for Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Juri

    2017-02-01

    Rosseland mean opacity plays an important role in theories of stellar evolution and X-ray burst models. In the high-temperature regime, when most of the gas is completely ionized, the opacity is dominated by Compton scattering. Our aim here is to critically evaluate previous works on this subject and to compute the exact Rosseland mean opacity for Compton scattering over a broad range of temperature and electron degeneracy parameter. We use relativistic kinetic equations for Compton scattering and compute the photon mean free path as a function of photon energy by solving the corresponding integral equation in the diffusion limit. As a byproduct we also demonstrate the way to compute photon redistribution functions in the case of degenerate electrons. We then compute the Rosseland mean opacity as a function of temperature and electron degeneracy and present useful approximate expressions. We compare our results to previous calculations and find a significant difference in the low-temperature regime and strong degeneracy. We then proceed to compute the flux mean opacity in both free-streaming and diffusion approximations, and show that the latter is nearly identical to the Rosseland mean opacity. We also provide a simple way to account for the true absorption in evaluating the Rosseland and flux mean opacities.

  18. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  19. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  20. The Design of Diamond Compton Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hibino, Kinya; Okuno, Shoji; Yajima, Kaori; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takashima, Takeshi; Yokota, Mamoru; Yoshida, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    We have developed radiation detectors using the new synthetic diamonds. The diamond detector has an advantage for observations of "low/medium" energy gamma rays as a Compton telescope. The primary advantage of the diamond detector can reduce the photoelectric effect in the low energy range, which is background noise for tracking of the Compton recoil electron. A concept of the Diamond Compton Telescope (DCT) consists of position sensitive layers of diamond-striped detector and calorimeter layer of CdTe detector. The key part of the DCT is diamond-striped detectors with a higher positional resolution and a wider energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. However, the diamond-striped detector is under development. We describe the performance of prototype diamond detector and the design of a possible DCT evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Assessment of some soil thermal conductivity models via variations in temperature and bulk density at low moisture range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohamad; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza; Fujimaki, Haruyuki

    2016-08-01

    Simulation of heat transfer in soil under steady and unsteady situations requires reliable estimate of soil thermal conductivity (λ) at varying environmental conditions. In the current work several soil thermal conductivity predicting models including I) de Vries, II) Campbell, III) combined de Vries and Campbell and IV) de Vries-Nobre were evaluated for the four soils of coarse sand, sandy loam, loam and clay loam textured at varying in temperature and bulk density at low moisture range. Thermal conductivities measured by the cylindrical probe method served as the reference for models assessment. Results showed that approximately same thermal conductivities obtained by the five methods at low moisture range (θ ≤ 0.05 m3/m3). Also the de Vries and de Vries-Campbell models produced accurate than Campbell and de vries-Nobre models. The accuracy of the two models increased with soil compaction but decreased with temperature rise. Campbell model showed more reliability at higher (311.16 and 321.16 K) temperatures; but its accuracy declined with soil compaction in current work. It seems that assuming needle shape for the soil particles is far away from the reality whereas assuming spherical shapes may be more realistic and produced more satisfactory prediction of thermal conductivity. The compaction would alter particle arrangement and may increase the contact area of particles; and then make them behave more or less spherical shape.it seems thermal conductivity in solid particles increase via increasing in temperature. Since a modified mineral shape factor, g m , was developed as a combination between sphere and needle according to geometric mean particle diameter as well as bulk density and temperature as modifying factors. This factor increased the accuracy of de Vries-Nobre model up to 10.37%. Regarding nonlinear regression model, moisture content, bulk density, temperature and quartz content demonstrated significant effect on soil thermal conductivity in our

  2. Organic solar cells: a rigorous model of the donor-acceptor interface for various bulk heterojunction morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, Adam; Leroy, Yann; Cordan, Anne-Sophie

    2014-02-01

    Theoretical studies of organic solar cells are mostly based on one dimensional models. Despite their accuracy to reproduce most of the experimental trends, they intrinsically cannot correctly integrate the effects of morphology in cells based on a bulk heterojunction structure. Therefore, accounting for these effects requires the development of two dimensional models, in which donor and acceptor domains are explicitly distinct. In this context, we propose an analytical approach, which focuses on the description of the interface between the two domains. Assuming pinned charge transfer states, we rigorously derive the corresponding boundary conditions and explore the differences between this model and other existing models in the literature for various morphologies of the active layer. On one hand, all tested models are equivalent for an ideal interdigitated bulk heterojunction solar cell with a planar donor-acceptor interface, but divergences between the models rise for small sizes of the donor domain. On the other hand, we carried out a comparison on a less ideal case of cell, with a rough interface between the two domains. Simulations with such cells exhibit distinct behaviors for each model. We conclude that the boundary condition for the interface between the materials is of great importance for the study of solar cells with a non-planar interface. The model must account initially for the roughness of the interface.

  3. Compton scattering and nonforward parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, A V

    1998-01-01

    The hard exclusive electroproduction processes provide new information about hadronic structure accumulated in nonforward parton distributions. The NFPD's are universal hybrid functions having the properties of parton densities, hadronic form factors and distribution amplitudes. They give a unified description of various hard exclusive and inclusive reactions. The basic supplier of information about nonforward parton distributions is deeply virtual Compton scattering which offers a remarkable example of Bjorken scaling phenomena in exclusive processes. Wide-angle real Compton scattering is an ideal tool to test angle-dependent scaling laws characteristic for soft overlap mechanism. Hard meson electroproduction is the best candidate to see pQCD hard gluon exchange in exclusive reactions.

  4. Gravitation and Special Relativity from Compton Wave Interactions at the Planck Scale: An Algorithmic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

  5. Study of Compton suppression for use in spent nuclear fuel assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Sarah

    fuel samples because the spectra was recorded from the source in very close proximity to the detector and surrounded by the guard annulus, so the detection probability is very high. Though this configuration is optimal for a Compton suppression system for the measurement of low count rate samples, measurement of high count rate samples in the enclosed arrangement leads to sum peaks in both the suppressed and unsuppressed spectra and losses to photopeak counts in the suppressed spectra. No additional photopeaks were detected using Compton suppression with this geometry. A detector model was constructed that can accurately simulate a Compton suppressed spectral measurement of radiation from spent nuclear fuel using HPGe or LaBr3 detectors. This is the first detector model capable of such an accomplishment. The model uses the Geant4 toolkit coupled with the RadSrc application and it accepts spent fuel composition data in list form. The model has been validated using dissolved ATM fuel samples in the standard, enclosed geometry of the PSU HPGe-CSS. The model showed generally good agreement with both the unsuppressed and suppressed measured fuel sample spectra, however the simulation is more appropriate for the generation of gamma-ray spectra in the beam source configuration. Photopeak losses due to cascade decay emissions in the Compton suppressed spectra were not appropriately managed by the simulation. Compton suppression would be a beneficial addition to NDA process monitoring systems if oriented such that the gamma-ray photons are collimated to impinge the primary detector face as a beam. The analysis has shown that peak losses through accidental coincidences are minimal and the reduction in the Compton continuum allows additional peaks to be resolved. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  6. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  7. Proton Tomography Through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    In this prize talk, I recall some of the history surrounding the discovery of deeply virtual Compton scattering, and explain why it is an exciting experimental tool to obtain novel tomographic pictures of the nucleons at Jefferson Lab 12 GeV facility and the planned Electron-Ion Collider in the United States.

  8. Compton scattering and the complementarity principle

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, G P

    1993-01-01

    We explain briefly why Compton scattering from a crystal gives a featureless continuous x-ray background while Bragg scattering from the same crystal produces sharp diffraction peaks. It is shown that the answer lies at the heart of quantum mechanics, namely the uncertainty and the complementarity principles. (author)

  9. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  10. Electronic structure of hafnium: A Compton profile study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Khera; S Mathur; B L Ahuja

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report the first-ever isotropic Compton profile of hafnium measured at an intermediate resolution, with 661.65 keV -radiation. To compare our experimental data, the theoretical computations have also been carried out within the framework of pseudopotential using CRYSTAL03 code and the renormalized-free-atom (RFA) model. It is found that the present experimental profile is in better agreement with the RFA calculations if the outer electronic configuration is chosen as 5d3.26s0.8. The cohesive energy of Hf is also deduced from the experimental data and is compared with the available data.

  11. Optical inverse Compton emission from clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Shocks around clusters of galaxies accelerate electrons which upscatter the Cosmic Microwave Background photons to higher-energies. We use an analytical model to calculate this inverse Compton (IC) emission, taking into account the effects of additional energy losses via synchrotron and Coulomb scattering. We find that the surface brightness of the optical IC emission increases with redshift and halo mass. The IC emission surface brightness, 32--34~mag~arcsec$^{-2}$, for massive clusters is potentially detectable by the newly developed Dragonfly Telephoto Array.

  12. HEROIC: 3D General Relativistic Radiative Postprocessor with Comptonization for Black Hole Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Ramesh; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Sadowski, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    We describe HEROIC, an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in the short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic MHD simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below ...

  13. Collective dynamics of water in the living cell and in bulk liquid. New physical models and biologcial infereneces

    CERN Document Server

    Preoteasa, Eugen A

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of collective dynamics in water, models built on elementary excitations and long-range electromagnetic interactions in the cell and bulk liquid are presented. Making use of the low effective mass of water coherence domains (CDs), we examined the relevance of simple quantum models to cellular characteristics. A hypothesis of CDs Bose-type condensation, and models of CD in spherical wells with impenetrable and semipenetrable walls, and of an isotropic oscillator consisting of two interacting CDs were investigated. Estimated cellular volumes matched to medium-sized bacteria and small prokaryotes, and to some organelles in eukaryotic cells. Also, the cytotoxic effects of heavy water in eukaryotes were explained. In another approach we proposed a plasmon-like model of hydrogen-oxygen ionic plasma in liquid water. In addition to plasmonic oscillations, the model predicted sound-like non-equilibrium elementary excitations that we called densitons (the sound anomaly of water), the vaporization heat and t...

  14. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Luca

    2007-10-15

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p){gamma} was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q{sup 2}=0.33 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  15. Can a matter-dominated model with constant bulk viscosity drive the accelerated expansion of the universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We test a cosmological model which the only component is a pressureless fluid with a constant bulk viscosity as an explanation for the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We classify all the possible scenarios for the universe according to their past, present and future evolution. We test the viability of the model performing a Bayesian statistical analysis using the Gold 2006 (182 SNe) and ESSENCE + HST (192 SNe) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data sets, imposing the second law of thermodynamics on the dimensionless constant bulk viscous coefficient and comparing the predicted age of the universe with the constraints in the age of the universe coming from the oldest globular clusters. The age of the universe is found to be 15.507 Gyr and 16.501 Gyr using the Gold 2006 and ESSENCE+HST SNe Ia data sets respectively. The best estimated values obtained for this model are similar to those obtained from the LCDM model for H_0 and \\chi^2_{min} using the same SNe Ia data sets and the estimated ages of the un...

  16. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S W; Robertson, D; Polf, J

    2010-11-21

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ∼ 10(-6) to 10(-3) prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy.

  17. Modelling the chemistry of Mn-doped MgO for bulk and (100) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdail, Andrew J; Downing, Christopher A; Keal, Thomas W; Sherwood, Paul; Sokol, Alexey A; Catlow, C Richard A

    2016-10-19

    We have investigated the energetic properties of Mn-doped MgO bulk and (100) surfaces using a QM/MM embedding computational method, calculating the formation energy for doped systems, as well as for surface defects, and the subsequent effect on chemical reactivity. Low-concentration Mn doping is endothermic for isovalent species in the bulk but exothermic for higher oxidation states under p-type conditions, and compensated by electrons going to the Fermi level rather than cation vacancies. The highest occupied dopant Mn 3d states are positioned in the MgO band gap, about 4.2 eV below the vacuum level. Surface Mn-doping is more favourable than subsurface doping, and marginally exothermic on a (100) surface at high O2 pressures. For both types of isovalent Mn-doped (100) surfaces, the formation energy for catalytically important oxygen defects is less than for pristine MgO, with F(0) and F(2+)-centres favoured in n- and p-type conditions, respectively. In addition, F(+)-centres are stabilised by favourable exchange coupling between the Mn 3d states and the vacancy-localised electrons, as verified through calculation of the vertical ionisation potential. The adsorption of CO2 on to the pristine and defective (100) surface is used as a probe of chemical reactivity, with isovalent subsurface Mn dopants mildly affecting reactivity, whereas isovalent surface-positioned Mn strongly alters the chemical interactions between the substrate and adsorbate. The differing chemical reactivity, when compared to pristine MgO, justifies further detailed investigations for more varied oxidation states and dopant species.

  18. Compton scattering on the proton and light nuclei in the Delta-resonance region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O; Kondratyuk, S; Fujiwara, M; Shima, T

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic coupled-channels model for Compton and pion scattering off the nucleon is introduced which is applicable at the lowest energies (polarizabilities) as well as at GeV energies. To introduce the model first the conventional K-matrix approach is discussed to extend this in a following chap

  19. Exploring a matter-dominated model with bulk viscosity to drive the accelerated expansion of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    We explore the viability of a bulk viscous matter-dominated Universe to explain the present accelerated expansion of the Universe. The model is composed by two fluids: a radiation component and a pressureless fluid with bulk viscosity of the form zeta = zeta_0 + zeta_1 H where zeta_0 and zeta_1 are constants and H is the Hubble parameter. The pressureless fluid characterizes both the baryon and dark matter components. We study all the possible scenarios for the Universe according to the values of zeta_0 and zeta_1 analyzing the behavior of the scale factor as well as the curvature scalar and the matter density. On the other hand, we test the model computing the best estimated values of zeta_0 and zeta_1 using the type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and the shift parameter R of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation Anisotropies (CMB) probes. We find that the model fits well to both tests. We find also that from all the possible scenarios for the Universe, the preferred one by the best estimated values of (zeta_0, zeta_1) is ...

  20. Importance of Compton scattering for radiation spectra of isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V

    2007-01-01

    Emergent model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are widely used to fit the observed soft X-ray spectra of different types of isolated neutron stars. We investigate the effect of Compton scattering on the emergent spectra of hot (T_eff > 10^6 K) isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields. In order to compute model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium we solve the radiation transfer equation with the Kompaneets operator. We calculate a set of models with effective temperatures in the range 1 - 5 * 10^6 K, with two values of surface gravity (log g = 13.9 and 14.3) and different chemical compositions. Radiation spectra computed with Compton scattering are softer than those computed without Compton scattering at high energies (E > 5 keV) for light elements (H or He) model atmospheres. The Compton effect is more significant in H model atmospheres and models with low surface gravity. The emergent spectra of the hottest (T_eff > 3 * 10^6 K) model atmospheres can be described by diluted blackb...

  1. Influence of Heat-radiating on Multi-photon Compton Scattering High-energy Electron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; WANG Xin-min

    2007-01-01

    Using the model of the inverse Compton scattering between high-energy electrons and heat-radiation photons, the influence of heat-radiating photons on multi-photon Compton scattering high-energy electrons is studied . The results show that the energy loss, power loss, light resistance and light pressure of the high-energy electron formed by heat radiating are all proportional to the temperature T4 of the vacuum cavity of the electron,the Lorentz factor γ2 of the high-energy electrons, the scattering section of the electron and the number of photons acting at the same time with high-energy electrons. A good method for lessening the energy loss of the high-energy electron by using the one-photon Compton scattering between high-energy electrons and heat radiation photons is proposed.

  2. Modelling bulk surface resistance from MODIS time series data to estimate actual regional evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of actual evapotraspiration by means of Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation requires the knowledge of the so-called 'bulk surface resistance', rc,act, representing the vapour flow resistance through the transpiring crop and evaporating soil surface. The accurate parameterization of rc,act still represents an unexploited topic, especially in the case of heterogeneous land surface. In agro-hydrological applications, the P-M equation commonly used to evaluate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) of a well-watered 'standardized crop' (grass or alfalfa), generally assumes for the bulk surface resistance a value of 70 s m-1. Moreover, specific crop coefficients have to be used to estimate maximum and/or actual evapotranspiration based on ET0. In this paper, a simple procedure for the indirect estimation of rc,act as function of a vegetation index computed from remote acquisition of Land Surface Temperature (LST), is proposed. An application was carried out in an irrigation district located near Castelvetrano, in South-West of Sicily, mainly cultivated with olive groves, in which actual evapotranspiration fluxes were measured during two years (2010-2011) by an Eddy Covariance flux tower (EC). Evapotranspiration measurements allowed evaluating rc,actbased on the numerical inversion of the P-M equation. In the same study area, a large time series of MODIS LST data, characterized by a spatial resolution of 1x1 km and a time step of 8-days, was also acquired for the period from 2000 to 2014. A simple Vegetation Index Temperatures (VTI), with values ranging from 0 to 1, was computed using normalized LST values. Evapotranspiration fluxes measured in 2010 were used to calibrate the relationship between rc,act and VTI, whereas data from 2011 were used for its validation. The preliminary results evidenced that, for the considered crop, an almost constant value of rc,act, corresponding to about 250 s m-1, can be considered typical of periods in which the crop is well

  3. Search for light-speed anisotropies using Compton scattering of high-energy electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Rebreyend, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Based on the high sensitivity of Compton scattering off ultra relativistic electrons, the possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light is investigated. The result discussed in this contribution is based on the gamma-ray beam of the ESRF's GRAAL facility (Grenoble, France) and the search for sidereal variations in the energy of the Compton-edge photons. The absence of oscillations yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 x 10^{-14} at 95 % confidence level on a combination of photon and electron coefficients of the minimal Standard Model Extension (mSME). This new constraint provides an improvement over previous bounds by one order of magnitude.

  4. Determination of the scalar polarizabilities of the proton using beam asymmetry $\\Sigma_{3}$ in Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sokhoyan, V; Mornacchi, E; McGovern, J A; Krupina, N; Afzal, F; Ahrens, J; Akondi, C S; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Beck, R; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Cividini, F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Denig, A; Dieterle, M; Ferretti, M; Gardner, S; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Glowa, D; Gradl, W; Gurevich, G; Hamilton, D; Hornidge, D; Huber, G M; Käser, A; Kashevarov, V L; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Krusche, B; Lensky, V; Linturi, J; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Macrae, R; Manley, D M; Martel, P P; Middleton, D G; Miskimen, R; Mushkarenkov, A; Neiser, A; Oberle, M; Spina, H Ortega; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Paudyal, D; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Polyansky, V; Prakhov, S; Rajabi, A; Rostomyan, T; Sarty, A; Schumann, S; Steffen, O; Strakovsky, I I; Strandberg, B; Strub, T; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Wagner, S; Watts, D P; Wettig, J; Witthauer, L; Werthmüller, D; Wolfes, M; Zana, L

    2016-01-01

    The scalar dipole polarizabilities, $\\alpha_{E1}$ and $\\beta_{M1}$, are fundamental properties related to the internal dynamics of the nucleon. The currently accepted values of the proton polarizabilities were determined by fitting to unpolarized proton Compton scattering cross section data. The measurement of the beam asymmetry $\\Sigma_{3}$ in a certain kinematical range provides an alternative approach to the extraction of the scalar polarizabilities. At the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) the beam asymmetry was measured for Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold for the first time. The results are compared with model calculations and the influence of the experimental data on the extraction of the scalar polarizabilities is determined.

  5. A software package for stellar and solar inverse-Compton emission: Stellarics

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Elena

    2013-01-01

    We present our software to compute gamma-ray emission from inverse-Compton scattering by cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere, as well as in the photospheres of stars. It includes a formulation of modulation in the heliosphere, but it can be used for any user-defined modulation model. Profiles and spectra are output to FITS files in a variety of forms for convenient use. Also included are general-purpose inverse-Compton routines with other features like energy loss rates and emissivity for any user-defined target photon and lepton spectra. The software is publicly available and it is under continuing development.

  6. A software package for Stellar and solar Inverse Compton emission: StellarICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Elena; Strong, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We present our software to compute gamma-ray emission from inverse-Compton scattering by cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere, as well as in the photospheres of stars. It includes a formulation of modulation in the heliosphere, but can be used for any user-defined modulation model. Profiles and spectra are output to FITS files in a variety of forms for convenient use. Also included are general-purpose inverse-Compton routines with other features like energy loss rates and emissivity for any user-defined target photon and lepton spectra. The software is publicly available and it is under continuing development.

  7. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-12-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultrafast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ˜ 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one-temperature regime, 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component. The limits on the 2T emission are far weaker, and in fact it is possible that the observed soft X-ray excess of AGN is partially or fully due to the 2T shock emission. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

  8. Compton reflection in AGN with Simbol-X

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Malzac, J; Petrucci, P O; Shrader, C R; Soldi, S

    2009-01-01

    AGN exhibit complex hard X-ray spectra. Our current understanding is that the emission is dominated by inverse Compton processes which take place in the corona above the accretion disk, and that absorption and reflection in a distant absorber play a major role. These processes can be directly observed through the shape of the continuum, the Compton reflection hump around 30 keV, and the iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. We demonstrate the capabilities of Simbol-X to constrain complex models for cases like MCG-05-23-016, NGC 4151, NGC 2110, and NGC 4051 in short (10 ksec) observations. We compare the simulations with recent observations on these sources by INTEGRAL, Swift and Suzaku. Constraining reflection models for AGN with Simbol-X will help us to get a clear view of the processes and geometry near to the central engine in AGN, and will give insight to which sources are responsible for the Cosmic X-ray background at energies above 20 keV.

  9. Kinetic multi-layer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB): the influence of interfacial transport and bulk diffusion on the oxidation of oleic acid by ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Pfrang, Christian; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have strong effects on climate and public health. Gas-particle interactions can significantly change the physical and chemical properties of aerosols such as toxicity, reactivity, hygroscopicity and radiative properties. Chemical reactions and mass transport lead to continuous transformation and changes in the composition of atmospheric aerosols ("chemical aging"). Resistor model formulations are widely used to describe and investigate heterogeneous reactions and multiphase processes in laboratory, field and model studies of atmospheric chemistry. The traditional resistor models, however, are usually based on simplifying assumptions such as steady state conditions, homogeneous mixing, and limited numbers of non-interacting species and processes. In order to overcome these limitations, Pöschl, Rudich and Ammann have developed a kinetic model framework (PRA framework) with a double-layer surface concept and universally applicable rate equations and parameters for mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface of aerosols and clouds [1]. Based on the PRA framework, we present a novel kinetic multi-layer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reaction at the surface and in the bulk of aerosol particles (KM-SUB) [2]. The model includes reversible adsorption, surface reactions and surface-bulk exchange as well as bulk diffusion and reaction. Unlike earlier models, KM-SUB does not require simplifying assumptions about steady-state conditions and radial mixing. The temporal evolution and concentration profiles of volatile and non-volatile species at the gas-particle interface and in the particle bulk can be modeled along with surface concentrations and gas uptake coefficients. In this study we explore and exemplify the effects of bulk diffusion on the rate of reactive gas uptake for a simple reference system, the ozonolysis of oleic acid particles, in comparison to experimental data and

  10. Validation of a bulk turbulence model with therman images of a point source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.; Moerman, M.M.; Fritz, P.J.; Leeuw, G. de

    1996-01-01

    A model was developed for the prediction of turbulence in the marine surface layer. The model requires standard meteorological values of air temperature, air humidity, wind speed each from any given height from within the surface layer and the sea surface temperature. Internally, the model is contro

  11. Resonant Compton Physics for Magnetar Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Jesse; Gonthier, Peter L.; Eiles, Matthew; Baring, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Various telescopes including RXTE, INTEGRAL, Suzaku, and Fermi have detected steady non-thermal X-ray emission in the 10 - 200 keV band from strongly magnetic neutron stars known as magnetars. Magnetic inverse Compton scattering is believed to be the leading candidate for the production of this intense X-ray radiation. Scattering at ultra-relativistic energies leads to attractive simplifications in the analytics of the magnetic Compton cross section. We have recently addressed such a case by developing compact analytic expressions using correct spin-dependent widths acquired through the implementation of Sokolov & Ternov basis states, focusing specifically on ground-state-ground-state scattering. Compton scattering in magnetar magnetospheres can cool electrons down to mildly relativistic energies. Moreover, soft gamma-ray flaring in magnetars may involve strong Comptonization in expanding clouds of mildly relativistic pairs. Such environs necessitate the development of more general magnetic scattering cross sections, in which the incoming photons acquire substantial incident angles relative to the field in the rest frame of the electron leading to arbitrary Landau excitations of the intermediate and final states. Due to the rapid transitions of the excited-state to the ground-state, the initial electron is still assumed to be in the ground state. The cross sections treat the plethora of harmonic resonances associated with various cyclotron transitions between Landau states. Polarization and spin dependence of the cross section for the four scattering modes is compared to the cross section obtained with spin-averaged widths. We present numerical results to show the comparisons to highlight the role of the spin-dependent widths of the resonances. The findings presented here will have applications to various neutron star problems, including computation of Eddington luminosities and polarization mode-switching rates in transient magnetar fireballs.

  12. Supernova Science with an Advanced Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-04

    advanced Compton telescope would be a powerful astrophysical tool. KEYWORDS: gamma rays:observations - Galaxy: center - supernoae: genearl - ISM: general 1...Radionuclei produced in SNe decay to stable nuclei on various time-scales, generating gamma- and x-ray photons, electrons and positrons. These decay products...Older SNRs must be galactic, but the emission can be detected on decadal- millenial time-scales. SNR studies thus concentrate upon 57Co(122 keV), 22Na

  13. Compton imager using room temperature silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfess, James D.; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2007-08-01

    We have been developing a multi-layer Compton Gamma Ray Imager using position-sensitive, intrinsic silicon detectors. Advantages of this approach include room temperature operation, reduced Doppler broadening, and use of conventional silicon fabrication technologies. We have obtained results on the imaging performance of a multi-layer instrument where each layer consists of a 2×2 array of double-sided strip detectors. Each detector is 63 mm×63 mm×2 mm thick and has 64 strips providing a strip pitch of approximately 0.9 mm. The detectors were fabricated by SINTEF ICT (Oslo Norway) from 100 mm diameter wafers. The use of large arrays of silicon detectors appears especially advantageous for applications that require excellent sensitivity, spectral resolution and imaging such as gamma ray astrophysics, detection of special nuclear materials, and medical imaging. The multiple Compton interactions (three or more) in the low-Z silicon enable the energy and direction of the incident gamma ray to be determined without full deposition of the incident gamma-ray energy in the detector. The performance of large volume instruments for various applications are presented, including an instrument under consideration for NASA's Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission and applications to Homeland Security. Technology developments that could further extend the sensitivity and performance of silicon Compton Imagers are presented, including the use of low-energy (few hundred keV) electron tracking within novel silicon detectors and the potential for a wafer-bonding approach to produce thicker, position-sensitive silicon detectors with an associated reduction of required electronics and instrument cost.

  14. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  15. Effect of many-body interactions on the bulk and interfacial phase behavior of a model colloid-polymer mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Roth, Roland; Fortini, Andrea

    2006-04-01

    We study a model suspension of sterically stabilized colloidal particles and nonadsorbing ideal polymer coils, both in bulk and adsorbed against a planar hard wall. By integrating out the degrees of freedom of the polymer coils, we derive a formal expression for the effective one-component Hamiltonian of the colloids. We employ an efficient Monte Carlo simulation scheme for this mixture based on the exact effective colloid Hamiltonian; i.e., it incorporates all many-body interactions. The many-body character of the polymer-mediated effective interactions between the colloids yields bulk phase behavior and adsorption phenomena that differ substantially from those found for pairwise simple fluids. We determine the phase behavior for size ratios q=sigma(p)/sigma(c)=1, 0.6, and 0.1, where sigma(c) and sigma(p) denote the diameters of the colloids and polymer coils, respectively. For q=1 and 0.6, we find both a fluid-solid and a stable colloidal gas-liquid transition with an anomalously large bulk liquid regime caused by the many-body interactions. We compare the phase diagrams obtained from simulations with the results of the free-volume approach and with direct simulations of the true binary mixture. Although we did not simulate the polymer coils explicitly, we are able to obtain the three partial structure factors and radial distribution functions. We compare our results with those obtained from density functional theory and the Percus-Yevick approximation. We find good agreement between all results for the structure. We also study the mixture in contact with a single hard wall for q=1. Upon approach of the gas-liquid binodal, we find far from the triple point, three layering transitions in the partial wetting regime.

  16. Combined magnetic screen made of Bi-2223 bulk cylinder and YBCO tape rings—Modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomków, Ł.; Ciszek, M.; Chorowski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the measurements with sensitive magnetic field sensors made the issue of magnetic shielding important. The application of high temperature superconductors allows to obtain full shielding in zero field cooling conditions for DC and low frequency magnetic fields by the means of the Meissner effect. However, currently used conventional bulk magnetic shields maintain full shielding only in low magnetic fields—up to approximately 10 mT. In this paper, it is proposed to apply an additional screen made of a coated superconducting tape in order to increase the magnetic field interval of full shielding region. Computer model of such set of screens was created in Matlab and validated experimentally. Improvement of shielding quality was observed experimentally and calculated with the model.

  17. Exploring a matter-dominated model with bulk viscosity to drive the accelerated expansion of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, Arturo; Nucamendi, Ulises, E-mail: avelino@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: ulises@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    We explore the viability of a bulk viscous matter-dominated Universe to explain the present accelerated expansion of the Universe. The model is composed by a pressureless fluid with bulk viscosity of the form ζ = ζ{sub 0}+ζ{sub 1}H where ζ{sub 0} and ζ{sub 1} are constants and H is the Hubble parameter. The pressureless fluid characterizes both the baryon and dark matter components. We study the behavior of the Universe according to this model analyzing the scale factor as well as some curvature scalars and the matter density. On the other hand, we compute the best estimated values of ζ{sub 0} and ζ{sub 1} using the type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) probe. We find that from all the possible scenarios for the Universe, the preferred one by the best estimated values of (ζ{sub 0},ζ{sub 1}) is that of an expanding Universe beginning with a Big-Bang, followed by a decelerated expansion at early times, and with a smooth transition in recent times to an accelerated expansion epoch that is going to continue forever. The predicted age of the Universe is a little smaller than the mean value of the observational constraint coming from the oldest globular clusters but it is still inside of the confidence interval of this constraint. A drawback of the model is the violation of the local second law of thermodynamics in redshifts z∼>1. However, when we assume ζ{sub 1} = 0, the simple model ζ = ζ{sub 0} evaluated at the best estimated value for ζ{sub 0} satisfies the local second law of thermodynamics, the age of the Universe is in perfect agreement with the constraint of globular clusters, and it also has a Big-Bang, followed by a decelerated expansion with the smooth transition to an accelerated expansion epoch in late times, that is going to continue forever.

  18. Modeling bulk canopy resistance from climatic variables for predicting hourly evapotranspiration of maize and buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Shi, Haibin; Hiroki, Oue; Zhang, Chuan; Xue, Zhu; Cai, Bin; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    This study presents models for predicting hourly canopy resistance ( r c) and evapotranspiration (ETc) based on Penman-Monteith approach. The micrometeorological data and ET c were observed during maize and buckwheat growing seasons in 2006 and 2009 in China and Japan, respectively. The proposed models of r c were developed by a climatic resistance ( r *) that depends on climatic variables. Non-linear relationships between r c and r * were applied. The measured ETc using Bowen ratio energy balance method was applied for model validation. The statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between predicted ETc by proposed models and measured ETc for both maize and buckwheat crops. The model for predicting ETc at maize field showed better performance than predicting ETc at buckwheat field, the coefficients of determination were 0.92 and 0.84, respectively. The study provided an easy way for the application of Penman-Monteith equation with only general available meteorological database.

  19. SU(3) Polyakov linear-sigma model: bulk and shear viscosity of QCD matter in finite magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Hussein, T M

    2016-01-01

    Due to off-center relativistic motion of the charged spectators and the local momentum-imbalance of the participants, a short-lived huge magnetic field is likely generated, especially in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In determining the temperature dependence of bulk and shear viscosities of the QCD matter in vanishing and finite magnetic field, we utilize mean field approximation to the SU($3$) Polyakov linear-sigma model (PLSM). We compare between the results from two different approaches; Green-Kubo correlation and Boltzmann master equation with Chapman-Enskog expansion. We find that both approaches have almost identical results, especially in the hadron phase. In the temperature dependence of bulk and shear viscosities relative to thermal entropy at the critical temperature, there is a rapid decrease in the chiral phase-transition and in the critical temperature with increasing magnetic field. As the magnetic field strength increases, a peak appears at the critical temperature ($T_c$). This can be und...

  20. A Compton thick AGN in the barred spiral NGC 4785

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Ricci, C; Asmus, D; Mushotzky, R F; Ueda, Y; Terashima, Y; La Parola, V

    2014-01-01

    We present X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4785. The source is a local Seyfert 2 which has not been studied so far in much detail. It was recently detected with high significance in the 15-60 keV band in the 66 month Swift/BAT all sky survey, but there have been no prior pointed X-ray observations of this object. With Suzaku, we clearly detect the source below 10 keV, and find it to have a flat continuum and prominent neutral iron fluorescence line with equivalent width >~1 keV. Fitting the broadband spectra with physical reflection models shows the source to be a bona fide Compton thick AGN with Nh of at least 2x10^{24} cm^{-2} and absorption-corrected 2-10 keV X-ray power L(2-10) ~ few times 10^{42} erg s^{-1}. Realistic uncertainties on L(2-10) computed from the joint confidence interval on the intrinsic power law continuum photon index and normalization are at least a factor of 10. The local bona fide Compton thick AGN population is highly heterogeneous in terms of WISE mid-...

  1. Detection of inverse Compton scattering in plasma wakefield experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, Simon

    2016-12-15

    Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is the process of scattering of photons and electrons, where the photons gain a part of the electrons energy. In combination with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA), ICS offers a compact MeV γ-ray source. A numerical study of ICS radiation produced in PWA experiments at FLASHForward was performed, using an ICS simulation code and the results from particle-in-cell modelling. The possibility of determining electron beam properties from measurements of the γ-ray source was explored for a wide range of experimental conditions. It was found that information about the electron divergence, the electron spectrum and longitudinal information can be obtained from measurements of the ICS beams for some cases. For the measurement of the ICS profile at FLASHForward, a CsI(Tl) scintillator array was chosen, similar to scintillators used in other ICS experiments. To find a suitable detector for spectrum measurements, an experimental test of a Compton spectrometer at the RAL was conducted. This test showed that a similar spectrometer could also be used at FLASHForward. However, changes to the spectrometer could be needed in order to use the pair production effect. In addition, further studies using Geant4 could lead to a better reconstruction of the obtained data. The studies presented here show that ICS is a promising method to analyse electron parameters from PWA experiments in further detail.

  2. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, Andrei; /Hampton U. /Jefferson Lab; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Carlson, Carl E.; /William-Mary Coll.; Mukherjee, Asmita; /Indian Inst. Tech., Mumbai

    2009-03-31

    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS) {gamma}* {yields} H{bar H}{gamma} in the timelike t = (p{sub H} + p{sub {bar H}}){sup 2} > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} H{bar H}{gamma}. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H{bar H} hadron pairs such as {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, and D{bar D} as well as p{bar p}. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C = - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C = + timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e{sup +} {leftrightarrow} e{sup -} asymmetry. The J = 0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  3. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanaciev,Andrei Afanasev, Stanley J. Brodsky, Carl E. Carlson, Asmita Mukherjee

    2010-02-01

    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS), gamma* to H H-bar gamma, in the timelike t = (p_{H} + p_{H-bar})^2 > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e+ e- to H H-bar gamma. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H H-bar hadron pairs such as pi+ pi-, K+ K-, and D D-bar as well as p p-bar. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C= - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C=+ timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e+ \\leftrightarrow e- asymmetry. The J=0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  4. External inverse-Compton emission from jetted tidal disruption events

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of Swift J1644+57 and J2058+05 show that tidal disruption events (TDEs) can launch relativistic jets. Super-Eddington accretion produces a strong radiation field of order Eddington luminosity. In a jetted TDE, electrons in the jet will inverse-Compton scatter the external radiation field from the accretion disk and wind. Motivated by observations of thermal optical-UV spectra in Swift J2058+05 and several other TDEs, we assume the spectrum of the external radiation field intercepted by the relativistic jet to be blackbody. Hot electrons in the jet scatter this thermal radiation and produce luminosities 10^45-10^48 erg/s in the X/gamma-ray band. This model of thermal plus inverse-Compton radiation is applied to Swift J2058+05. First, we show that the blackbody component in the optical-UV spectrum most likely has its origin in the super-Eddington wind from the disk. Then, using the observed blackbody component as the external radiation field, we show that the X-ray luminosity and spectrum...

  5. Coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry with a kinetic double layer model (K2-SUB: oxidation of oleic acid by ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pfrang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a kinetic double layer model coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (K2-SUB based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007. K2-SUB is applied to a popular model system of atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry: the interaction of ozone with oleic acid. We show that our modelling approach allows de-convoluting surface and bulk processes, which has been a controversial topic and remains an important challenge for the understanding and description of atmospheric aerosol transformation. In particular, we demonstrate how a detailed treatment of adsorption and reaction at the surface can be coupled to a description of bulk reaction and transport that is consistent with traditional resistor model formulations.

    From literature data we have derived a consistent set of kinetic parameters that characterise mass transport and chemical reaction of ozone at the surface and in the bulk of oleic acid droplets. Due to the wide range of rate coefficients reported from different experimental studies, the exact proportions between surface and bulk reaction rates remain uncertain. Nevertheless, the model results suggest an important role of chemical reaction in the bulk and an approximate upper limit of ~10−11 cm2 s−1 for the surface reaction rate coefficient. Sensitivity studies show that the surface accommodation coefficient of the gas-phase reactant has a strong non-linear influence on both surface and bulk chemical reactions. We suggest that K2-SUB may be used to design, interpret and analyse future experiments for better discrimination between surface and bulk processes in the oleic acid-ozone system as well as in other heterogeneous reaction systems of atmospheric relevance.

  6. Applicability of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model to crystallization kinetics of Zr60Al15Ni25 bulk amorphous alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhi-jie; DANG Shu-e; WANG Xiang-hui; LIAN Pei-xia

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami(JMA) model to the crystallization kinetics of Zr60Al15Ni25 bulk amorphous alloy is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) under isochronal and isothermal conditions. A criterion xm, at which a defined function z(x) exhibits the maximum value, is introduced to check the validity of JMA model to the kinetics analysis. The value of xm has a constant of 0.632 for JMA model. It is found that the values of xm at different isothermal annealing temperatures (743, 748, 753 and 758 K) are almost near 0.632, which indicates that the isothermal crystallization kinetics can be modeled by JMA equation. However, the values of xm at different heating rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 K/min) are about 0.52, implying that JMA model is not valid to the isochronal crystallization kinetics. The reason why the JMA model is not valid to the isochronal crystallization kinetics is discussed.

  7. Insights from transport modeling of unusual charge carrier behavior of PDTSiTzTz:PC71BM bulk heterojunction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodyan, Oleksiy; Moench, Sarah; Liang, Kelly; Danielson, Eric; Holliday, Bradley; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-03-01

    Development of hole-transporting copolymers for use in bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) has significantly improved organic solar cell performance. Despite advances on the materials side, the physics of charge carrier transport remains unsettled. Intrigued by its ability to maintain high fill factors in thick active layers, we studied the copolymer poly[2-(5-(4,4-dioctyl-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophen-2-yl)-3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)- 5-(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole] (PDTSiTzTz) blended with PC71BM. Results show mobilities which are carrier-concentration-dependent and characterized by a negative Poole-Frenkel effect. Such behavior is not described by current carrier transport models. Established transport mechanisms like multiple-trap-and-release or variable range hopping yield dependence of mobility on carrier concentration. However, a more basic model like Gaussian distribution model (GDM) is needed to produce the negative Poole-Frenkel effect, though GDM cannot describe carrier-concentration-dependent mobility. We have combined key aspects of existing models to create a unified transport model capable of describing phenomena observed in PDTSiTzTz:PC71BM. This model can be used to address open questions about transport physics of organic BHJ materials. U.S. Department of Energy, Award Number DE-SC0001091.

  8. Bulk meteorological parameters for diagnosing cloudiness in the stochastic cloud forecast model

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Ryan N.

    2006-01-01

    The three dimensional distribution of clouds is of great interest to the Air Force, and to the aviation community in general. The Stochastic Cloud Forecast Model (SCFM) is a novel, global cloud model currently operated at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) which diagnoses cloud cover statistically using a minimal set of predictors from global numerical forecasts. Currently the four predictors are pressure, temperature, vertical velocity, and relative humidity. In this thesis, 330 sets of...

  9. Calculation of Nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering in HERMES Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong-Xue; MAO Ya-Jun; WANG Si-Guang; SUN Bo

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to acquire information of nuclear generalized parton distribution (GPD) H by studying the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) off several nuclear targets at the HERMES group (Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator Measurement of Spin). Two different models are used and developed to demonstrate the leading asymmetry amplitude AsinφLU for coherent-enriched and incoherent-enriched parts with both statistical and systematic uncertainties estimated. It is found that a clear enhancement of ratio of nuclear asymmetry AA,sinφLU to free proton asymmetry AH,sinφLU in the coherent-enriched region is expected by both models, and a decrease of the ratio in incoherent-enriched region; both give the information about nuclear modifications. It is also possible to distinguish between those two models even under the limited statistics.

  10. External Compton Scattering in Blazar Jets and the Location of the Gamma-Ray Emitting Region

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    I study the location of the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein-Nishina regimes, which is highly accurate and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor $\\sim10$. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton-scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad-line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus, and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of $\\gamma$-ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern...

  11. The role of Compton heating on radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Reynolds, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of Compton heating in radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes from a neutral dense medium using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on the relative effects of Compton-heating and photo-heating as a function of the spectral slope {\\alpha}, assuming a power-law spectrum in the energy range of 13.6 eV--100 keV. While Compton heating is dominant only close to the black hole, it can reduce the accretion rate to 0.1 % ($l \\propto \\dot{m}^2$ model)--0.01 % ($l \\propto \\dot{m}$ model) of the Bondi accretion rate when the BH radiation is hard ({\\alpha} ~ 1), where $l$ and $\\dot{m}$ are the luminosity and accretion rate normalised by Eddington rates, respectively. The oscillatory behaviour otherwise typically seen in simulations with {\\alpha} > 1, become suppressed when {\\alpha} ~ 1 only for the $l \\propto \\dot{m}$ model. The relative importance of the Compton heating over photo-heating decreases and the oscillatory behaviour becomes stronger as the spectrum softens. When the...

  12. An analytical model of the mechanical properties of bulk coal under confined stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.X.; Wang, Z.T.; Rudolph, V.; Massarotto, P.; Finley, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an analytical model which can be used to relate the structural parameters of coal to its mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio under a confined stress condition. This model is developed primarily to support process modeling of coalbed methane (CBM) or CO2-enhanced CBM (ECBM) recovery from coal seam. It applied an innovative approach by which stresses acting on and strains occurring in coal are successively combined in rectangular coordinates, leading to the aggregated mechanical constants. These mechanical properties represent important information for improving CBM/ECBM simulations and incorporating within these considerations of directional permeability. The model, consisting of constitutive equations which implement a mechanically consistent stress-strains correlation, can be used as a generalized tool to study the mechanical and fluid behaviors of coal composites. An example using the model to predict the stress-strain correlation of coal under triaxial confined stress by accounting for the elastic and brittle (non-elastic) deformations is discussed. The result shows a good agreement between the prediction and the experimental measurement. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some features of two commercial softwares for the modeling of bulk crystal growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santailler, J. L.; Duffar, T.; Théodore, F.; Boiton, P.; Barat, C.; Angelier, B.; Giacometti, N.; Dusserre, P.; Nabot, J. P.

    1997-10-01

    Two commercial codes, FIDAP and MARC, have been used to model a number of crystal growth processes in collaboration with industrial and research teams. Examples of global and local simulations in the field of heat transfer, hydrodynamics, chemistry and mechanics are given and the results are compared to experimental measurements, with good agreement as a rule. This establishes that such codes can be used to help improve crystal growth processes, while full global transient models still belong to software specifically written in order to model crystal growth. Emphasis is put on the necessity to validate the numerical results by comparison with experiments and to have a clear understanding of the physical laws hidden behind the software.

  14. Modelling of secondary sedimentation under wet-weather and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Performance of SSTs influences the solids inventory in the activated sludge unit and consequently impacts the biological treatment efficiency. Moreover, SSTs limit the maxi......Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Performance of SSTs influences the solids inventory in the activated sludge unit and consequently impacts the biological treatment efficiency. Moreover, SSTs limit......-model in second-order 1-D SST models in the future. A significant part of the thesis was dedicated to the development of a CFD model of a circular conical SST with the open source OpenFOAM CFD toolbox. The focus was mainly on identifying the settling and rheology submodels using data obtained from laboratory...

  15. Modeling and Accomplishment of Loading-and-Unloading Equipment Optimum Allocation System at Bulk Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The configuration of port’s loading-and-unloading equipment is an optimization problem, which endeavors to put limited handling equipment to each operating line to achieve the maximum overall production efficiency. We set up the T-stage decision-making model of loading-and-unloading line equipment configuration by using the method of Multi-stage Decision, and design the algorithm of the mathematical model. Research results in this paper lay the foundation for the development of loading-and-unloading equipment configuration system, and provide scientific basis for the decision of type selection and rational quantity of loading-and-unloading equipment.

  16. Mathematical modeling of degradation for bulk-erosive polymers: applications in tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Qing

    2011-03-01

    The degradation of polymeric biomaterials, which are widely exploited in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems, has drawn significant attention in recent years. This paper aims to develop a mathematical model that combines stochastic hydrolysis and mass transport to simulate the polymeric degradation and erosion process. The hydrolysis reaction is modeled in a discrete fashion by a fundamental stochastic process and an additional autocatalytic effect induced by the local carboxylic acid concentration in terms of the continuous diffusion equation. Illustrative examples of microparticles and tissue scaffolds demonstrate the applicability of the model. It is found that diffusive transport plays a critical role in determining the degradation pathway, whilst autocatalysis makes the degradation size dependent. The modeling results show good agreement with experimental data in the literature, in which the hydrolysis rate, polymer architecture and matrix size actually work together to determine the characteristics of the degradation and erosion processes of bulk-erosive polymer devices. The proposed degradation model exhibits great potential for the design optimization of drug carriers and tissue scaffolds.

  17. Magnetic Forces Investigation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Guideway under Different Lateral Offset with 3D-Model Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic forces of a cylinder shape bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS over a permanent magnet guideway (PMG are studied mathematically. One cylindrical bulk HTS with a diameter of 30 mm and 15 mm in height is used. Two types of PMG are employed for external magnetic fields consideration. The relationship of magnetic forces of bulk HTS under different lateral offsets over PMG is studied with 3D-model finite element method (FEM. The calculation results show that the maximum magnetic levitation force of bulk HTS over PMG is tightly related to the applied magnetic field distribution. For the symmetrical PMG, the maximum magnetic levitation force decreases linearly with the increase of lateral offset of the bulk sample. For the Halbach PMG, when lateral offset changes from 0 mm to 25 mm, the maximum magnetic levitation force increases with the increase of lateral offset of the bulk HTS. When the lateral offset exceeds the center of the Halbach by 25 mm, the maximum levitation force decreases rapidly with the increase of the lateral offset of the bulk sample.

  18. A Compton Suppressed Gamma Ray Counter For Radio Assay of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Rare event searches, such as direct dark matter experiments, require materials with ultra-low levels of natural radioactivity. We present a neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique for assaying metals, specifically titanium used for cryostat construction. Earlier attempts at NAA encountered limitations due to bulk activation via (n, p) reactions, which contributed to large continuum backgrounds due to Compton tails. Our method involves a heavy water shielded exposure to minimize (n,p) reactions and a sodium iodide shielded high purity germanium counter for the gamma ray assay. Preliminary results on assays for U/Th/K contamination in titaniumwill be presented.

  19. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient...... viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through...... and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational...

  20. Can a matter-dominated model with constant bulk viscosity drive the accelerated expansion of the universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, Arturo; Nucamendi, Ulises, E-mail: avelino@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: ulises@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    We test a cosmological model which the only component is a pressureless fluid with a constant bulk viscosity as an explanation for the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We classify all the possible scenarios for the universe predicted by the model according to their past, present and future evolution and we test its viability performing a Bayesian statistical analysis using the SCP ''Union'' data set (307 SNe Ia), imposing the second law of thermodynamics on the dimensionless constant bulk viscous coefficient {zeta}-tilde and comparing the predicted age of the universe by the model with the constraints coming from the oldest globular clusters. The best estimated values found for {zeta}-tilde and the Hubble constant H{sub 0} are: {zeta}-tilde = 1.922{+-}0.089 and H{sub 0} = 69.62{+-}0.59 (km/s)Mpc{sup -1} with a {chi}{sup 2}{sub min} = 314 ({chi}{sup 2}{sub d.o.f} = 1.031). The age of the universe is found to be 14.95{+-}0.42 Gyr. We see that the estimated value of H{sub 0} as well as of {chi}{sup 2}{sub d.o.f} are very similar to those obtained from {Lambda}CDM model using the same SNe Ia data set. The estimated age of the universe is in agreement with the constraints coming from the oldest globular clusters. Moreover, the estimated value of {zeta}-tilde is positive in agreement with the second law of thermodynamics (SLT). On the other hand, we perform different forms of marginalization over the parameter H{sub 0} in order to study the sensibility of the results to the way how H{sub 0} is marginalized. We found that it is almost negligible the dependence between the best estimated values of the free parameters of this model and the way how H{sub 0} is marginalized in the present work. Therefore, this simple model might be a viable candidate to explain the present acceleration in the expansion of the universe.

  1. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-06-01

    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C4F8 inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. CxFy (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C4F8 reaction set used in the model. The C4F8 plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  2. Generation of continental adakitic rocks: Crystallization modeling with variable bulk partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong-Kun; Zheng, Jianping; Zhou, Xiang; Griffin, W. L.

    2017-02-01

    The geochemical signatures (i.e., high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios) of adakitic rocks in continental settings, which are derived from the continental lower crust rather than from subducted slabs, may reflect high-pressure melting in the lower crust or may be inherited from their sources. The North China Craton (NCC) is an ideal place for investigation of this type of adakites due to its ubiquitous distribution. As an example, we explore the petrogenesis of the Jurassic ( 163 Ma) adakitic rocks in western Liaoning, in the NE part of the NCC, using elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analysis and crystallization modeling based on Rhyolite-MELTS. The modeling demonstrates that adakitic signatures can be generated by fractional crystallization of magmas within crust of normal thickness (i.e., 33 km). Partial-melting modeling based on the composition of the lower continental crust shows that only the adakitic rocks from orogenic belts require a thickened crust (i.e., 45 km). We suggest that continental adakitic rocks are not necessarily linked to high-pressure processes and their use as an indicator of thickened/delaminated continental crust should be regarded with caution.

  3. Time-Dependent Synchrotron and Compton Spectra from Jets of Microquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S; Dermer, C D; Boettcher, Markus; Dermer, Charles D.; Gupta, Swati

    2006-01-01

    Jet models for the high-energy emission of Galactic X-ray binary sources have regained significant interest with detailed spectral and timing studies of the X-ray emission from microquasars, the recent detection by the HESS collaboration of very-high-energy gamma-rays from the microquasar LS~5039, and the earlier suggestion of jet models for ultraluminous X-ray sources observed in many nearby galaxies. Here we study the synchrotron and Compton signatures of time-dependent electron injection and acceleration, adiabatic and radiative cooling, and different jet geometries in the jets of Galactic microquasars. Synchrotron, synchrotron-self-Compton, and external-Compton radiation processes with soft photons provided by the companion star and the accretion disk are treated. An analytical solution is presented to the electron kinetic equation for general power-law geometries of the jets for Compton scattering in the Thomson regime. We pay particular attention to predictions concerning the rapid flux and spectral var...

  4. A combined surface and bulk TCAD damage model for the analysis of radiation detectors operating at HL-LHC fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Moscatelli, F.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Bilei, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we present the development and the application of a new TCAD modelling scheme to simulate the effects of radiation damage on silicon radiation detectors at the very high fluence levels expected at High Luminosity LHC (up to 2 × 1016 1MeV n/cm2). In particular, we propose a combined approach for the analysis of the surface effects (oxide charge build-up and interface trap states introduction) as well as bulk effects (deep level traps and/or recombination centers introduction). Experimental measurements have been carried out aiming at: i) extraction from simple test structures of relevant parameters to be included within the TCAD model and ii) validation of the new modelling scheme through comparison with measurements of different test structures (e.g. different technologies) before and after irradiation. The good agreements between experimental measurements and simulation findings foster the suitability of the TCAD modelling approach as a predictive tool for investigating the radiation detector behavior at different fluences and operating conditions. This would allow the design and optimization of innovative 3D and planar silicon detectors for future HL-LHC High Energy Physics experiments.

  5. Compton Scattering and Photo-absorption Sum Rules on Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2012-03-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new ``constituent quark model'' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition we extract the J=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high energy proton data we find that the J=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman. We discuss phenomenological implications of this new result.

  6. Estimation of particle velocity in moving beds based on a flow model for bulk solids. Ryudo model ni motozuita idoso no ryushi sokudo no suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H. (Muroran Inst. of Tech., Hokkaido (Japan)); Honda, Y. (Snow Brand Milk Products Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    Based on a particle flow model (stress-shear strain velocity relational expression) which takes account of the bulk volume expansion effect during shearing deformation of particles, a new estimation method for particle velocity distribution and stress distribution is proposed. The method is applied to a crossflow moving bed and to a moving bed for comparison with the experimental values to examine its validity. The method is further extended to predict the velocity profile and stress profile of moving beds in a vertical tube (countercurrent and concurrent) accompanying gas flow. It is indicated that the bulk volume expansion effect differs according to dimensions. The velocity distribution and the stress distribution of flows in a vertical tube are greatly influenced by the nature of the flow, i.e. whether it is a counterflow or a concurrent flow, and the frictional force of solids on a wall surface increases markedly in a concurrent flow, which induces considerable lag of particle velocity. The parameter which is contained in the model and indicates the bulk volume expansion effect is a function of the particle velocity, and it is almost unaffected by the flow rate of gas moving. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Theoretical Compton profile anisotropies in molecules and solids. VI. Compton profile anisotropies and chemical binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matcha, R.L.; Pettitt, B.M.

    1979-03-15

    An interesting empirical relationship between zero point Compton profile anisotropies ..delta..J (0) and nuclear charges is noted. It is shown that, for alkali halide molecules AB, to a good approximation ..delta..J (0) =N ln(Z/sub b//Z/sub a/).

  8. Non Existence of Shear in Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Models with Bulk Viscosity and Time-Dependent A Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. K. Tiwari; Sonia Sharma

    2011-01-01

    We study the non existence of shear in locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological models with bulk viscosity and variable cosmological term Λ. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar, ε ∝ θ, expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar, θ ∝ σ, and Λ is proportional to the Hubble parameter. The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assumed to be a power function of mass density. The corresponding physical interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.%@@ We study the non existence of shear in locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-M string cosmological models with bulk viscosity and variable cosmological term Λ.Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar, ξ∝θ, expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar, θ∝σ, and A is proportional to the Hubble parameter.The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assumed to be a power function of mass density.The corresponding physical interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  9. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  10. Local modulation of chemoattractant concentrations by single cells: dissection using a bulk-surface computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemoattractant gradients are usually considered in terms of sources and sinks that are independent of the chemotactic cell. However, recent interest has focused on ‘self-generated’ gradients, in which cell populations create their own local gradients as they move. Here, we consider the interplay between chemoattractants and single cells. To achieve this, we extend a recently developed computational model to incorporate breakdown of extracellular attractants by membrane-bound enzymes. Model equations are parametrized, using the published estimates from Dictyostelium cells chemotaxing towards cyclic AMP. We find that individual cells can substantially modulate their local attractant field under physiologically appropriate conditions of attractant and enzymes. This means the attractant concentration perceived by receptors can be a small fraction of the ambient concentration. This allows efficient chemotaxis in chemoattractant concentrations that would be saturating without local breakdown. Similar interactions in which cells locally mould a stimulus could function in many types of directed cell motility, including haptotaxis, durotaxis and even electrotaxis. PMID:27708760

  11. A simple model for calculating the bulk modulus of the mixed ionic crystal: NH4Cl1−xBr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Katsika-Tsigourakou

    2011-10-01

    The ammonium halides are an interesting systems because of their polymorphism and the possible internal rotation of the ammonium ion. The static properties of the mixed ionic crystal NH4Cl1−Br have been recently investigated, using the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law. Here, by using a simple theoretical model, we estimate the bulk modulus of the alloys NH4Cl1−Br, in terms of the bulk modulus of the end members alone. The calculated values are comparable to those deduced from the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law.

  12. Compton profile of tantalum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas Varghese; K M Balakrishna; K Siddappa

    2003-03-01

    The Compton profile of tantalum (Ta) has been measured using IGP type coaxial photon detector. The target atoms were excited by means of 59.54 keV -rays from Am-241. The measurements were carried out on a high purity thin elemental foil. The data were recoreded in a 4 K multichannel analyzer. These data duly corrected for various effects are presented and compared with theoretical and measured values. Best agreement with experiment is found for the 5d36s2 electron configuration.

  13. Cork quality estimation by using Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Luciano, P; Ruggero, A

    2002-01-01

    The quality control of cork stoppers is mandatory in order to guarantee the perfect conservation of the wine. Several techniques have been developed but until now the quality control was essentially related to the status of the external surface. Thus possible cracks or holes inside the stopper will be hidden. In this paper a new technique based on X-ray Compton tomography is described. It is a non-destructive technique that allows one to reconstruct and visualize the cross-section of the cork stopper analyzed, and so to put in evidence the presence of internal imperfections. Some results are reported and compared with visual classification.

  14. Perspective: The Asakura Oosawa model: A colloid prototype for bulk and interfacial phase behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Statt, Antonia [Graduate School of Excellence Material Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-10-14

    In many colloidal suspensions, the micrometer-sized particles behave like hard spheres, but when non-adsorbing polymers are added to the solution a depletion attraction (of entropic origin) is created. Since 60 years the Asakura-Oosawa model, which simply describes the polymers as ideal soft spheres, is an archetypical description for the statistical thermodynamics of such systems, accounting for many features of real colloid-polymer mixtures very well. While the fugacity of the polymers (which controls their concentration in the solution) plays a role like inverse temperature, the size ratio of polymer versus colloid radii acts as a control parameter to modify the phase diagram: when this ratio is large enough, a vapor-liquid like phase separation occurs at low enough colloid packing fractions, up to a triple point where a liquid-solid two-phase coexistence region takes over. For smaller size ratios, the critical point of the phase separation and the triple point merge, resulting in a single two-phase coexistence region between fluid and crystalline phases (of “inverted swan neck”-topology, with possibly a hidden metastable phase separation). Furthermore, liquid-crystalline ordering may be found if colloidal particles of non-spherical shape (e.g., rod like) are considered. Also interactions of the particles with solid surfaces should be tunable (e.g., walls coated by polymer brushes), and interfacial phenomena are particularly interesting experimentally, since fluctuations can be studied in the microscope on all length scales, down to the particle level. Due to its simplicity this model has become a workhorse for both analytical theory and computer simulation. Recently, generalizations addressing dynamic phenomena (phase separation, crystal nucleation, etc.) have become the focus of studies.

  15. UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption studies of model and bulk heterogeneous catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewell, Craig R.

    2002-08-19

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the surface structure of model heterogeneous catalysts in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). UV-Raman spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure of bulk model catalysts in ambient and reaction conditions. The structural information obtained through UV-Raman spectroscopy has been correlated with both the UHV surface analysis and reaction results. The present day propylene and ethylene polymerization catalysts (Ziegler-Natta catalysts) are prepared by deposition of TiCl{sub 4} and a Al(Et){sub 3} co-catalyst on a microporous Mg-ethoxide support that is prepared from MgCl{sub 2} and ethanol. A model thin film catalyst is prepared by depositing metallic Mg on a Au foil in a UHV chamber in a background of TiCl{sub 4} in the gas phase. XPS results indicate that the Mg is completely oxidized to MgCl{sub 2} by TiCl{sub 4} resulting in a thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x}, where x = 2, 3, and 4. To prepare an active catalyst, the thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x} on Au foil is enclosed in a high pressure cell contained within the UHV chamber and exposed to {approx}1 Torr of Al(Et){sub 3}.

  16. Shear and Bulk Viscosities of Quark Matter from Quark-Meson Fluctuations in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E; Krein, Gastão

    2015-01-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear $\\eta$ and bulk $\\zeta$ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-$\\pi$ and quark-$\\sigma$ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses, and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We found a non-trivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios $\\eta/s$ and $\\zeta/s$, where $s$ is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model in the quasi-particle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for $\\eta/s$ has a minimum very close to the conjectured AdS/CFT lower bound, $\\eta/s = 1/4\\pi$.

  17. Shear and bulk viscosities of quark matter from quark-meson fluctuations in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Peixoto, Thiago C.; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão

    2016-04-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear η and bulk ζ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-π and quark-σ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We found a nontrivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios η /s and ζ /s , where s is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the quasiparticle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for η /s has a minimum very close to the quantum lower bound, η /s =1 /4 π .

  18. UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption studies of model and bulk heterogeneous catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewell, Craig Richmond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the surface structure of model heterogeneous catalysts in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). UV-Raman spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure of bulk model catalysts in ambient and reaction conditions. The structural information obtained through UV-Raman spectroscopy has been correlated with both the UHV surface analysis and reaction results. The present day propylene and ethylene polymerization catalysts (Ziegler-Natta catalysts) are prepared by deposition of TiCl4 and a Al(Et)3 co-catalyst on a microporous Mg-ethoxide support that is prepared from MgCl2 and ethanol. A model thin film catalyst is prepared by depositing metallic Mg on a Au foil in a UHV chamber in a background of TiCl4 in the gas phase. XPS results indicate that the Mg is completely oxidized to MgCl2 by TiCl4 resulting in a thin film of MgCl2/TiClx, where x = 2, 3, and 4. To prepare an active catalyst, the thin film of MgCl2/TiClx on Au foil is enclosed in a high pressure cell contained within the UHV chamber and exposed to ~1 Torr of Al(Et)3.

  19. Short-Term Variability of X-rays from Accreting Neutron Star Vela X-1: II. Monte-Carlo Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    We develop a Monte Carlo Comptonization model for the X-ray spectrum of accretion-powered pulsars. Simple, spherical, thermal Comptonization models give harder spectra for higher optical depth, while the observational data from Vela X-1 show that the spectra are harder at higher luminosity. This suggests a physical interpretation where the optical depth of the accreting plasma increases with mass accretion rate. We develop a detailed Monte-Carlo model of the accretion flow, including the effects of the strong magnetic field ($\\sim 10^{12}$ G) both in geometrically constraining the flow into an accretion column, and in reducing the cross section. We treat bulk-motion Comptonization of the infalling material as well as thermal Comptonization. These model spectra can match the observed broad-band {\\it Suzaku} data from Vela X-1 over a wide range of mass accretion rates. The model can also explain the so-called "low state", in which the uminosity decreases by an order of magnitude. Here, thermal Comptonization sh...

  20. Modeling direct band-to-band tunneling: From bulk to quantum-confined semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Ziegler, A.; Luisier, M.; Schenk, A. [Integrated Systems Laboratory ETH Zürich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-06-21

    A rigorous framework to study direct band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in homo- and hetero-junction semiconductor nanodevices is introduced. An interaction Hamiltonian coupling conduction and valence bands (CVBs) is derived using a multiband envelope method. A general form of the BTBT probability is then obtained from the linear response to the “CVBs interaction” that drives the system out of equilibrium. Simple expressions in terms of the one-electron spectral function are developed to compute the BTBT current in two- and three-dimensional semiconductor structures. Additionally, a two-band envelope equation based on the Flietner model of imaginary dispersion is proposed for the same purpose. In order to characterize their accuracy and differences, both approaches are compared with full-band, atomistic quantum transport simulations of Ge, InAs, and InAs-Si Esaki diodes. As another numerical application, the BTBT current in InAs-Si nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors is computed. It is found that both approaches agree with high accuracy. The first one is considerably easier to conceive and could be implemented straightforwardly in existing quantum transport tools based on the effective mass approximation to account for BTBT in nanodevices.

  1. A multiscale coarse-grained polarizable solvent model for handling long tail bulk electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Michel; Borgis, Daniel; Cuniasse, Philippe

    2013-05-15

    A multiscale coarse-grained approach able to handle efficiently the solvation of microscopic solutes in extended chemical environment is described. That approach is able to compute readily and efficiently very long-range solute/solvent electrostatic microscopic interactions, up to the 1-μm scale, by considering a reduced amount of computational resources. All the required parameters are assigned to reproduce available data concerning the solvation of single ions. Such a strategy makes it possible to reproduce with good accuracy the solvation properties concerning simple ion pairs in solution (in particular, the asymptotic behavior of the ion pair potentials of mean force). This new method represents an extension of the polarizable pseudoparticle solvent model, which has been recently improved to account for the main features of hydrophobic effects in liquid water (Masella et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 2664). This multiscale approach is well suited to be used for computing the impact of charge changes in free energy computations, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

  2. Efficient Execution Methods of Pivoting for Bulk Extraction of Entity-Attribute-Value-Modeled Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Frey, Lewis J

    2016-03-01

    Entity-attribute-value (EAV) tables are widely used to store data in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems. Before they can be used by various analytical (e.g., data mining and machine learning) programs, EAV-modeled data usually must be transformed into conventional relational table format through pivot operations. This time-consuming and resource-intensive process is often performed repeatedly on a regular basis, e.g., to provide a daily refresh of the content in a clinical data warehouse. Thus, it would be beneficial to make pivot operations as efficient as possible. In this paper, we present three techniques for improving the efficiency of pivot operations: 1) filtering out EAV tuples related to unneeded clinical parameters early on; 2) supporting pivoting across multiple EAV tables; and 3) conducting multi-query optimization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques through implementation. We show that our optimized execution method of pivoting using these techniques significantly outperforms the current basic execution method of pivoting. Our techniques can be used to build a data extraction tool to simplify the specification of and improve the efficiency of extracting data from the EAV tables in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems.

  3. Atomistic modelling and prediction of glass forming ability in bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Sina

    Atomistic modeling (via molecular dynamics with EAM interaction potentials) was conducted for the detailed investigation of kinetics, thermodynamics, structure, and bonding in Ni-Al and Cu-Zr metallic glasses. This work correlates GFA with the nature of atomic-level bonding and vibrational properties, with results potentially extensible to the Transition Metal -- Transition Metal and Transition Metal -- Metalloid alloy classes in general. As a first step in the development of a liquid-only GFA tuning approach, an automated tool has also been created for the broad compositional sampling of liquid and glassy phase properties in multicomponent (binary, ternary, quaternary) alloy systems. Its application to the Cu-Zr alloy system shows promising results, including the successful identification of the two highest GFA compositions, Cu50Zr50 and Cu64Zr 36. Combined, the findings of this work highlight the critical importance of incorporating more complex alloy-specific information regarding the nature of bonding and ordering at the atomic level into such an approach.

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of flat natural and cultural heritage objects by a Compton scattering modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Prado, Patricio; Nguyen, Mai K.; Dumas, Laurent; Cohen, Serge X.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and interpretation of flat ancient material objects, such as those found in archaeology, paleoenvironments, paleontology, and cultural heritage, have remained a challenging task to perform by means of conventional x-ray tomography methods due to their anisotropic morphology and flattened geometry. To overcome the limitations of the mentioned methodologies for such samples, an imaging modality based on Compton scattering is proposed in this work. Classical x-ray tomography treats Compton scattering data as noise in the image formation process, while in Compton scattering tomography the conditions are set such that Compton data become the principal image contrasting agent. Under these conditions, we are able, first, to avoid relative rotations between the sample and the imaging setup, and second, to obtain three-dimensional data even when the object is supported by a dense material by exploiting backscattered photons. Mathematically this problem is addressed by means of a conical Radon transform and its inversion. The image formation process and object reconstruction model are presented. The feasibility of this methodology is supported by numerical simulations.

  5. The effect of Compton scattering on gamma-ray spectra of the 2005 January 20 flare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chen; Wei-Qun Gan

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about accelerated particles in solar flares,as well as the ambient medium with which these energetic particles interact.The neutron capture line (2.223 MeV),the strongest in the solar gamma-ray spectrum,forms in the deep atmosphere.The energy of these photons can be reduced via Compton scattering.With the fully relativistic GEANT4 toolkit,we have carried out Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of a neutron capture line in solar flares,and applied them to the flare that occurred on 2005 January 20 (X7.1/2B),one of the most powerful gamma-ray flares observed by RHESSI during the 23rd solar cycle.By comparing the fitting results of different models with and without Compton scattering of the neutron capture line,we find that when including the Compton scattering for the neutron capture line,the observed gamma-ray spectrum can be reproduced by a population of accelerated particles with a very hard spectrum (s≤2.3).The Compton effect of a 2.223 MeV line on the spectra is therefore proven to be significant,which influences the time evolution of the neutron capture line flux as well.The study also suggests that the mean vertical depth for neutron capture in hydrogen for this event is about 8 g cm-2.

  6. Relativistic enhancement of the Compton-reflected component in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Compton reflection may be an important process in AGNs, since it provides an improvement over power-law fits to AGN spectra observed by Ginga and can also explain the spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background. The fraction of the total X-ray luminosity which is incident upon a thin steady alpha-disk if the X-rays are produced by inverse-Compton scattering of soft, disk photons off relativistic electrons located above the disk is calculated. This fraction is called the Compton reflection covering factor, f, and it is found that it can range between 0.5 and 0.88. This large range in f, due to a relativistic kinematic effect first calculated in this connection by Ghisellini et al (1991) is sufficient to explain the typical covering (about 0.5) observed in bright AGNs by Ginga as well as the large covering factor (about 0.9) required to explain the cosmic X-ray background in the Compton reflection model.

  7. Influence of critical current density on magnetic force of HTSC bulk above PMR with 3D-modeling numerical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiyun; Qin, Yujie

    2015-09-01

    Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk levitating over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of the H-method coupling with the classical description of the heat conduction equation. The numerical resolving codes are practiced with the help of the finite element program generation system (FEPG) platform using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of HTS bulk. The simulation results show that the heat conduction and the critical current density are tightly relative to the thermal effects of the HTS bulk over the PMG. The heat intensity which responds to the heat loss of the HTS bulk is mainly distributed at the two bottom-corners of the bulk sample.

  8. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  9. Nonlinear X-ray Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, P H; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B; Reis, David A

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a weak linear probe of matter. It is primarily sensitive to the position of electrons and their momentum distribution. Elastic X-ray scattering forms the basis of atomic structural determination while inelastic Compton scattering is often used as a spectroscopic probe of both single-particle excitations and collective modes. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are unique tools for studying matter on its natural time and length scales due to their bright and coherent ultrashort pulses. However, in the focus of an XFEL the assumption of a weak linear probe breaks down, and nonlinear light-matter interactions can become ubiquitous. The field can be sufficiently high that even non-resonant multiphoton interactions at hard X-rays wavelengths become relevant. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions, the simultaneous Compton scattering of two identical photons producing a single photon at nearly twice the photon energy. We measure scattered...

  10. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-12-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  11. Photon Acceleration of Laser-plasma Based on Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; XIE Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional electron density disturbance is studied by using the inelastic collision model of the relativity electron and photon group, the relativity theory, the momentum equation and the continuity equation, which is generated by a driving laser pulse and scattered laser pulse propagating through a tenuous plasma, and the electron density disturbance is closely associated with the incident laser and scattering laser. The electron plasma wave(EPW)is formed by the propagation of the electron density disturbance. Owing to the action of EPW, the increasing of the frequency of the photons in the incident laser pulses that there is a distance with the driving laser pulses is studied by using optical metric. The results show that it is possible that the photon will gain higher energy from the EPW when photon number is decreased and one-photon Compton scattering enters, the photon will be accelerated.

  12. Hybrid coded aperture and Compton imaging using an active mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, L.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)], E-mail: schultz@lanl.gov; Wallace, M.S.; Galassi, M.C.; Hoover, A.S.; Mocko, M.; Palmer, D.M.; Tornga, S.R.; Kippen, R.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hynes, M.V.; Toolin, M.J.; Harris, B.; McElroy, J.E. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Tewksbury, MA (United States); Wakeford, D. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Lanza, R.C.; Horn, B.K.P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Wehe, D.K. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-09-11

    The trimodal imager (TMI) images gamma-ray sources from a mobile platform using both coded aperture (CA) and Compton imaging (CI) modalities. In this paper we will discuss development and performance of image reconstruction algorithms for the TMI. In order to develop algorithms in parallel with detector hardware we are using a GEANT4 [J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, H. Araujo, P.A. Dubois, M. Asai, G. Barrand, R. Capra, S. Chauvie, R. Chytracek, G. Cirrone, G. Cooperman, G. Cosmo, G. Cuttone, G. Daquino, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-53 (1) (2006) 270] based simulation package to produce realistic data sets for code development. The simulation code incorporates detailed detector modeling, contributions from natural background radiation, and validation of simulation results against measured data. Maximum likelihood algorithms for both imaging methods are discussed, as well as a hybrid imaging algorithm wherein CA and CI information is fused to generate a higher fidelity reconstruction.

  13. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Demirchyan, R; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, Erwin; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Göttlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Heuer, R D; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C B; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D K; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pöschl, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S V; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Vujicic, B; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, J; Zohrabyan, H G; Zomer, F

    2005-01-01

    A measurement is presented of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering \\gamma* p \\to \\gamma p made using e^+ p collision data corresponding to a luminosity of 46.5 pb^{-1}, taken with the H1 detector at HERA. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, the invariant mass of the \\gamma* p system, W, and for the first time, differentially in the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex, t, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2. QCD based calculations at next-to-leading order using generalized parton distributions can describe the data, as can colour dipole model predictions.

  14. Results from the Daresbury Compton backscattering X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundy, D. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Priebe, G. [Max Born Institute, Max-Born-Strasse 2A, 12489 Berlin, DE (Germany); Jamison, S.P. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Graham, D.M. [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.J. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Smith, S.L.; Saveliev, Y. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Vassilev, S. [The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Seddon, E.A., E-mail: elaine.seddon@stfc.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-11

    The Daresbury Compton Backscattering X-ray Source uses a high power Ti Sapphire laser interacting in head on geometry with electron bunches in the ALICE energy recovery linear accelerator. X-ray photons with peak energy of 21 keV were generated with the accelerator operating at an energy of 29.6 MeV. The spatial profile of the X-rays emitted near the electron beam axis was measured. The characteristics of the X-ray yield measured as a function of relative timing between the laser pulse and the interacting electron bunch was found to be consistent with the modelled intensity behaviour using measured electron and laser beam parameters.

  15. Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, P.Y.; VCS Collaboration

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10{sup 4} events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10{sup 5}) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, P G; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Gillam, J E; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Oliver, J F; Sala, P R; Solevi, P; Rafecas, M

    2015-01-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the recons...

  17. Two-moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics in the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiangjun; WANG Bin; Xiaohong LIU; Minghuai WANG

    2013-01-01

    A two-moment bulk stratiform microphysics scheme,including recently developed physically-based droplet activation/ice nucleation parameterizations has been implemented into the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL) as an effort to enhance the model's capability to simulate aerosol indirect effects.Unlike the previous one-moment cloud microphysics scheme,the new scheme produces a reasonable representation of cloud particle size and number concentration.This scheme captures the observed spatial variations in cloud droplet number concentrations.Simulated ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus clouds qualitatively agree with in situ observations.The longwave and shortwave cloud forcings are in better agreement with observations.Sensitivity tests show that the column cloud droplet number concentrations calculated from two different droplet activation parameterizations are similar.However,ice crystal number concentration in mixed-phased clouds is sensitive to different heterogeneous ice nucleation formulations.The simulation with high ice crystal number concentration in mixed-phase clouds has less liquid water path and weaker cloud forcing.Furthermore,ice crystal number concentration in cirrus clouds is sensitive to different ice nucleation parameterizations.Sensitivity tests also suggest that the impact of pre-existing ice crystals on homogeneous freezing in old clouds should be taken into account.

  18. The High-Energy Spectra of Accreting Black Holes Observational Evidence for Bulk-Motion Infall

    CERN Document Server

    Shrader, C R; Shrader, Chris; Titarchuk, Lev

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the emergent spectra from accreting black holes, considering in particular the case where the accretion is characterized by relativistic bulk motion. We suggest that such accretion is likely to occur in a wide variety of black hole enviroments, where the strong gravitational field is expected to dominate the pressure forces, and this likely to lead to a characteristic high-energy spectriscopic signature; an extended power tail. It is in the high (soft) state that matter impinging upon the event horizon can be viewed directly, and intrinsic power-law seen. A test of the model is presented using observational data from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, covering 2- 200 keV for recent galactic black hole X-ray nova outbursts.

  19. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in -Ga metal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Panda; N C Mohapatra

    2003-12-01

    Room temperature Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in -Ga metal are calculated in band model. For this purpose, the conduction electron wave functions are determined in a temperature-dependent non-local model potential. The profiles calculated along the crystallographic directions, (100), (010), and (001) are found to be nearly isotropic. This conclusion is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  20. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  1. The Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera of the ASTRO-H Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD)

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Shin; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukuyama, Taro; Furui, Shunya; Genba, Kei; Hagino, Kouichi; Harayama, Astushi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Matsuura, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Goro; Sato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Togo, Atsushi; Tomizuka, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is one of the instrument payloads onboard ASTRO-H, and will cover a wide energy band (60--600 keV) at a background level 10 times better than instruments currently in orbit. The SGD achieves low background by combining a Compton camera scheme with a narrow field-of-view active shield. The Compton camera in the SGD is realized as a hybrid semiconductor detector system which consists of silicon and cadmium telluride (CdTe) sensors. The design of the SGD Compton camera has been finalized and the final prototype, which has the same configuration as the flight model, has been fabricated for performance evaluation. The Compton camera has overall dimensions of 12 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, consisting of 32 layers of Si pixel sensors and 8 layers of CdTe pixel sensors surrounded by 2 layers of CdTe pixel sensors. The detection efficiency of the Compton camera reaches about 15% and 3% for 100 keV and 511 keV gamma rays, respectively. The pixel pitch of the Si and CdTe sensors is 3.2 mm, and ...

  2. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of electron momentum distribution in -Ga metal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Panda; N C Mohapatra

    2002-01-01

    Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in the orthorhombic phase of -Ga metal at low temperature are calculated in the band model for the three crystallographic directions (100), (010), and (001). Unlike the results at room temperature, previously reported by Lengeler, Lasser and Mair, the present results show strong anisotropy in the Compton profiles with the momentum distribution along (001) direction being substantially different from the other two directions. While experimental data on Compton profiles at low temperatures are not available for comparison with theory, the resistivity data in -Ga at low temperature strongly support this anisotropic behaviour. Besides, the electronic heat capacity constant available from both experiment and present calculation suggests that the conduction electron distribution at low temperature in the orthorhombic phase is markedly different from the free-electron-like-distribution at room temperature, thus lending additional support to anisotropic behaviour of Compton profiles. It would be nice to have Compton profiles data from experiment at low temperature for direct comparison with theory. It is hoped that the present work would stimulate enough interest in that direction.

  3. Comptonization signatures in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontera, F.; Farinelli, R.; Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Titarchuk, L. [Dipartimento di Fisicae Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Amati, L.; Landi, R., E-mail: frontera@fe.infn.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We report results of a systematic study of the broadband (2-2000 keV) time-resolved prompt emission spectra of a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with both Wide Field Cameras (WFCs) on board the BeppoSAX satellite and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The main goal of this paper is to test spectral models of the GRB prompt emission that have recently been proposed. In particular, we test a recent photospheric model proposed, i.e., blackbody plus power law, the addition of a blackbody emission to the Band function in the cases in which this function does not fit the data, and a recent Comptonization model. By considering the few spectra for which the simple Band function does not provide a fully acceptable fit to the data, we find a statistically significant better fit by adding a blackbody to this function only in one case. We confirm earlier results found fitting the BATSE spectra alone with a blackbody plus power law. Instead, when the BATSE GRB spectra are joined to those obtained with WFCs (2-28 keV), this model becomes unacceptable in most time intervals in which we subdivide the GRB light curves. We find instead that the Comptonization model is always acceptable, even in the few cases in which the Band function is inconsistent with the data. We discuss the implications of these results.

  4. Electronic properties and Compton profiles of silver iodide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Dashora; Ambica Marwal; K R Soni; B L Ahuja

    2010-06-01

    We have carried out an extensive study of electronic properties of silver iodide in - and -phases. The theoretical Compton profiles, energy bands, density of states and anisotropies in momentum densities are computed using density functional theories. We have also employed full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method to derive the energy bands and the density of states. To compare our theoretical data, isotropic Compton profile measurement on -AgI using 137Cs Compton spectrometer at an intermediate resolution of 0.38 a.u. has been undertaken. The theoretical anisotropies are also interpreted on the basis of energy bands.

  5. Gamma-ray imaging with compton cameras: recent years development

    CERN Document Server

    Hirasawa, M; Shibata, S; Enomoto, S; Yano, Y

    2002-01-01

    Compton cameras can image the distribution of gamma-ray sources with electronic collimation instead of mechanical collimators. It consists of at least two position sensitive detectors. The first detector measures the position and the recoil electron energy of Compton scattering process and the second detector working in coincidence with the first measures the position of the scattered ray. This camera was proposed in the 1970s and since then has been improved in moderate pace until recently. This paper reviews the recent years development on Compton cameras technology. (author)

  6. Universal solvation model based on solute electron density and on a continuum model of the solvent defined by the bulk dielectric constant and atomic surface tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenich, Aleksandr V; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-05-07

    We present a new continuum solvation model based on the quantum mechanical charge density of a solute molecule interacting with a continuum description of the solvent. The model is called SMD, where the "D" stands for "density" to denote that the full solute electron density is used without defining partial atomic charges. "Continuum" denotes that the solvent is not represented explicitly but rather as a dielectric medium with surface tension at the solute-solvent boundary. SMD is a universal solvation model, where "universal" denotes its applicability to any charged or uncharged solute in any solvent or liquid medium for which a few key descriptors are known (in particular, dielectric constant, refractive index, bulk surface tension, and acidity and basicity parameters). The model separates the observable solvation free energy into two main components. The first component is the bulk electrostatic contribution arising from a self-consistent reaction field treatment that involves the solution of the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation for electrostatics in terms of the integral-equation-formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM). The cavities for the bulk electrostatic calculation are defined by superpositions of nuclear-centered spheres. The second component is called the cavity-dispersion-solvent-structure term and is the contribution arising from short-range interactions between the solute and solvent molecules in the first solvation shell. This contribution is a sum of terms that are proportional (with geometry-dependent proportionality constants called atomic surface tensions) to the solvent-accessible surface areas of the individual atoms of the solute. The SMD model has been parametrized with a training set of 2821 solvation data including 112 aqueous ionic solvation free energies, 220 solvation free energies for 166 ions in acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, 2346 solvation free energies for 318 neutral solutes in 91 solvents (90 nonaqueous

  7. Modeling the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk raw milk and the impact of management options for exposure mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulais, Christophe; Wacker, Ron; Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Cheikh, Mohamed Hedi Ben; Peladan, Fabrice

    2011-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causal agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle and other farm ruminants. The potential role of MAP in Crohn's disease in humans and the contribution of dairy products to human exposure to MAP continue to be the subject of scientific debate. The occurrence of MAP in bulk raw milk from dairy herds was assessed using a stochastic modeling approach. Raw milk samples were collected from bulk tanks in dairy plants and tested for the presence of MAP. Results from this analytical screening were used in a Bayesian network to update the model prediction. Of the 83 raw milk samples tested, 4 were positive for MAP by culture and PCR. We estimated that the level of MAP in bulk tanks ranged from 0 CFU/ml for the 2.5th percentile to 65 CFU/ml for the 97.5th percentile, with 95% credibility intervals of [0, 0] and [16, 326], respectively. The model was used to evaluate the effect of measures aimed at reducing the occurrence of MAP in raw milk. Reducing the prevalence of paratuberculosis has less of an effect on the occurrence of MAP in bulk raw milk than does managing clinically infected animals through good farming practices.

  8. Combining Harmonic Generation and Laser Chirping to Achieve High Spectral Density in Compton Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Terzić, Balša; Krafft, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. As a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results to demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. This combination of chirping and h...

  9. Electron Trajectory Reconstruction for Advanced Compton Imaging of Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimley, Brian Christopher

    Gamma-ray imaging is useful for detecting, characterizing, and localizing sources in a variety of fields, including nuclear physics, security, nuclear accident response, nuclear medicine, and astronomy. Compton imaging in particular provides sensitivity to weak sources and good angular resolution in a large field of view. However, the photon origin in a single event sequence is normally only limited to the surface of a cone. If the initial direction of the Compton-scattered electron can be measured, the cone can be reduced to a cone segment with width depending on the uncertainty in the direction measurement, providing a corresponding increase in imaging sensitivity. Measurement of the electron's initial direction in an efficient detection material requires very fine position resolution due to the electron's short range and tortuous path. A thick (650 mum), fully-depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) developed for infrared astronomy has 10.5-mum position resolution in two dimensions, enabling the initial trajectory measurement of electrons of energy as low as 100 keV. This is the first time the initial trajectories of electrons of such low energies have been measured in a solid material. In this work, the CCD's efficacy as a gamma-ray detector is demonstrated experimentally, using a reconstruction algorithm to measure the initial electron direction from the CCD track image. In addition, models of fast electron interaction physics, charge transport and readout were used to generate modeled tracks with known initial direction. These modeled tracks allowed the development and refinement of the reconstruction algorithm. The angular sensitivity of the reconstruction algorithm is evaluated extensively with models for tracks below 480 keV, showing a FWHM as low as 20° in the pixel plane, and 30° RMS sensitivity to the magnitude of the out-of-plane angle. The measurement of the trajectories of electrons with energies as low as 100 keV have the potential to make electron

  10. Local Two-Photon Couplings and the J=0 Fixed Pole in Real and Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2008-12-05

    The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t-dependence of this J = 0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t = 0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1=x form factor can be extracted from high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.

  11. Investigation of Compton profiles of molecular methane and ethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Xu, Long-Quan; Kang, Xu; Liu, Ya-Wei; Ni, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Lin-Fan, E-mail: lfzhu@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: yangke@sinap.ac.cn; Ma, Yong-Peng; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2015-02-28

    The Compton profiles of methane and ethane molecules have been determined at an incident photon energy of 20 keV based on the third generation synchrotron radiation, and the statistical accuracy of 0.2% is achieved near p{sub z} = 0. The density functional theory with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set was used to calculate the Compton profiles of methane and ethane. The present experimental Compton profiles are in better agreement with the theoretical calculations in the whole p{sub z} region than the previous experimental results, which indicates that the present experimental Compton profiles are accurate enough to serve as the benchmark data for methane and ethane molecules.

  12. An optical inverse-Compton hotspot in 3C196?

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J

    2001-01-01

    Several hotspots of FRII radio sources have previously been detected in the X-ray at a flux level consistent with the X-rays being due to inverse-Compton scattering of radio synchrotron photons (`synchrotron self-Compton'), if the magnetic fields in the hotspots are close to their equipartition values. However, the number of hotspots compact and bright enough to exhibit detectable X-ray emission is small, so it is worth searching for synchrotron self-Compton emission in the optical, in spite of the obvious observational difficulties of such an approach. In this note I report on a possible detection of an optical inverse-Compton hotspot in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation of the distant quasar 3C196, at a level which implies a hotspot magnetic field strength close to equipartition if the electrons have a low-energy cutoff around gamma ~ 500.

  13. An optical inverse-Compton hotspot in 3C 196?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2001-07-01

    Several hotspots of FRII radio sources have previously been detected in the X-ray at a flux level consistent with the X-rays being due to inverse-Compton scattering of radio ``synchrotron photons synchrotron self-Compton'', if the magnetic fields in the hotspots are close to their equipartition values. However, the number of hotspots compact and bright enough to exhibit detectable X-ray emission is small, so it is worth searching for synchrotron self-Compton emission in the optical, in spite of the obvious observational difficulties of such an approach. In this note I report on a possible detection of an optical inverse-Compton hotspot in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation of the distant quasar 3C 196, at a level which implies a hotspot magnetic field strength close to equipartition if the electrons have a low-energy cutoff around gamma ~ 500.

  14. Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, G. [GE Security Germany GmbH, Heselstuecken 3, D-22453 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Geoffrey.Harding@ge.com; Harding, E. [University of Muenster, Interdisciplinary Research Training Group ' Societal symbolism in mediaeval and early modern times' (German Research Foundation, DFG), Pferdegasse 3/D-48143 Muenster (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed.

  15. Time-resolved GRB spectra in the complex radiation of synchrotron and Compton processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. G.; Hu, S. M.; Chen, X.; Li, K.; Guo, D. F.; Li, Y. T.; Li, H. Z.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Lin, H. N.; Chang, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Under the steady-state condition, the spectrum of electrons is investigated by solving the continuity equation under the complex radiation of both the synchrotron and Compton processes. The resulted gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectrum is a broken power law in both the fast and slow cooling phases. On the basis of this electron spectrum, the spectral indices of the Band function in four different phases are presented. In the complex radiation frame, the detail investigation on physical parameters reveals that three models can answer the α ˜ -1 problem, which are the synchrotron plus synchrotron self-Compton in the internal and the external shock models, and the synchrotron plus the external Compton processes in the external shock model. A possible marginal to fast cooling phase transition in GRB 080916C is discussed. The time-resolved spectra in different main pulses of GRB 100724B, GRB 100826A and GRB 130606B are investigated. We found that the flux is proportional to the peak energy in almost all main pulses. A significant (5σ) correlation for Fp ˜ Ep is evident the first main pulse of GRB 100826A, and three marginally significant (3σ) correlations Fp ˜ Ep are found in main pulses of GRB 100826A and GRB 130606B. The correlation between spectral index and Ep at 3 ˜ 4σ level are observed in the first main pulse of GRB 100826A. Such correlations are possible explained in the complex radiation scenario.

  16. The intergalactic medium temperature and Compton y parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Trac, H; Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; Trac, Hy

    2004-01-01

    (Abridged) The precision modeling of the thermal Sunyaev Zeldovich (SZ) effect and future high accuracy measurements will provide a powerful way to constrain the thermal history of the universe. In this paper, we combine high resolution adiabatic hydro simulations and analytical models to provide a precision modeling of the gas density weighted temperature $\\bar{T}_g$ and the mean SZ Compton $y$ parameter. Simulation artifacts are quantified and corrected and our analytical model passes tests of various simulations and is able to predict $\\bar{T}_g$ and $\\bar{y}$ to several percent accuracy. For low matter density $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, the present $\\bar{T}_g$ is $0.32 (\\sigma_8/0.84)^{3.05-0.15\\Omega_m}(\\Omega_m/0.268)^{1.28-0.2\\sigma_8} {\\rm keV}$. The mean $y$ parameter is $2.6\\times 10^{-6} (\\sigma_8/0.84)^{4.1-2\\Omega_m}(\\Omega_m/0.268)^{1.28-0.2\\sigma_8}$. The current upper limit of $y<1.5\\times 10^{-5}$ measured by FIRAS has already ruled out combinations of high $\\sigma_8\\ga 1.1$ and high $\\Omega_...

  17. Timelike Compton Scattering - New Theoretical Results and Experimental Possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pire, Bernard; Wagner, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    We review recent progress in the study of timelike Compton scattering (TCS), the crossed process of deeply virtual Compton scattering. We emphasize the need to include NLO corrections to any phenomenological program to extract Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) from near future experimental data. We point out that TCS at high energy should be available through a study of ultraperipheral collisions at RHIC and LHC, opening a window on quark and gluon GPDs at very small skewness.

  18. Complete O(. cap alpha. ) corrections to polarized Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora-T, A.; Stuart, R.G.

    1989-04-01

    General expressions for Compton scattering and its O(..cap alpha..) real and virtual corrections are given for electron and photon beams with arbitrary polarization. The expressions obtained are suitable for use in Monte Carlo simulations of Compton polarimeters planned for polarized e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders. The basis for the calculation are the spinor techniques recently applied to photon and gluon bremsstrahlung. The practical application of these techniques for massive fermions is discussed.

  19. Compton Thick AGN in the 70 Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Akylas, A.; Ranalli, P.; Corral, A.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2016-08-01

    The 70 month Swift/BAT catalogue provides a sensitive view of the extragalactic X-ray sky at hard energies 14-195 keV containing about 800 Active Galactic Nuclei. We explore its content in heavily obscured Compton-thick AGN by combining the BAT (14-195 keV) with the XRT data (0.3-10 keV) at lower energies. We apply a Bayesian methodology using Markov chains to estimate the exact probability distribution of the column density. We find 54 possible Compton-thick sources (from 3 to 100 % probability) translating to a 7% fraction of the total AGN population. We derive an accurate Compton-thick number count distribution taking into account the exact probability of a source being Compton-thick as well as the flux errors. The number density of Compton-thick AGN is critical for the calibration of X-ray background synthesis models. We find that the number count distribution agrees with models that adopt a low intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN (15%) among the total AGN population and a reflected emission of (~5%). Finally, we derive the first parametric luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN in the local universe. The unabsorbed luminosity function can be represented by a double power-law with a break at L* ~2 x 10^42 ergs in the 20-40 keV band. The Compton-thick AGN constitute a substantial fraction of the AGN density at low luminosities (<10^42 erg/s).

  20. Unified ab initio treatment of attosecond photoionization and Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, G. L.; Bondar, D. I.; Patchkovskii, S.; Corkum, P. B.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    2009-10-01

    We present a new theoretical approach to attosecond laser-assisted photo- and Compton ionization. Attosecond x-ray absorption and scattering are described by \\hat{\\mathscr{S}}^{(1,2)} -matrices, which are coherent superpositions of 'monochromatic' \\skew{3}\\hat{S}^{(1,2)} -matrices in a laser-modified Furry representation. Besides refining the existing theory of the soft x-ray photoelectron attosecond streak camera and spectral phase interferometry (ASC and ASPI), we formulate a theory of hard x-ray photoelectron and Compton ASC and ASPI. The resulting scheme has a simple structure and leads to closed-form expressions for ionization amplitudes. We investigate Compton electron interference in the separable Coulomb-Volkov continuum with both Coulomb and laser fields treated non-perturbatively. We find that at laser-field intensities below 1013 Wcm-2 normalized Compton lines almost coincide with the lines obtained in the laser-free regime. At higher intensities, attosecond interferences survive integration over electron momenta, and feature prominently in the Compton lines themselves. We define a regime where the electron ground-state density can be measured with controllable accuracy in an attosecond time interval. The new theory provides a firm basis for extracting photo- and Compton electron phases and atomic and molecular wavefunctions from experimental data.

  1. Dynamic bulk and shear moduli due to grain-scale local fluid flow in fluid-saturated cracked poroelastic rocks: Theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.

  2. Investigating the dynamics of bulk snow density in dry and wet conditions using a one-dimensional model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Michele, C.; Avanzi, F.; Ghezzi, A.; Jommi, C.

    2013-01-01

    The snowpack is a complicated multiphase mixture with mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal properties highly variable during the year in response to climatic forcings. Bulk density is a macroscopic property of the snowpack used, together with snow depth, to quantify the water stored. In seasonal snowp

  3. Compton scattering study on the electronic properties of niobium carbide and niobium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, A.; Chatterjee, A. K.

    2000-02-01

    The electronic structure, experimental Compton profile and the chemical bonding mechanism of niobium carbide and niobium nitride are studied on the basis of the band structure calculations, using a self-consistent, all-electron, linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO) calculation based on density functional theory. Isotropic Compton profiles of niobium carbide have been measured, using a conventional technique based on 59.54 keV gamma-radiation with a solid state detector. The agreement between the experimental and the theoretical momentum density is very good. It is shown that the anisotropies at low momentum are heavily influenced by the particular shape of the Fermi surface. The charge distributions resulting from valence bands in different regions of the unit cell are discussed. The limitations of the rigid band structure model are illustrated and general trends in the chemical bonding are discussed.

  4. Accurate six-band nearest-neighbor tight-binding model for the pi-bands of bulk graphene and graphene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard; Jiang, Xueping; Kharche, Neerav; Zhou, Yu; Nayak, Saroj K

    2011-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the pi-bands of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) requires correctly reproducing asymmetries in the bulk graphene bands as well as providing a realistic model for hydrogen passivation of the edge atoms. The commonly used single-pz orbital approach fails on both these counts. To overcome these failures we introduce a nearest-neighbor, three orbital per atom p/d tight-binding model for graphene. The parameters of the model are fit to first-principles density-functional ...

  5. Accurate Six-Band Nearest-Neighbor Tight-Binding Model for the π-Bands of Bulk Graphene and Graphene Nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard; Jiang, Xueping; Kharche, Neerav; Zhou, Yu; Nayak, Saroj K

    2011-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the ␣-bands of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) requires correctly reproducing asymmetries in the bulk graphene bands as well as providing a realistic model for hydrogen passivation of the edge atoms. The commonly used single-pz orbital approach fails on both these counts. To overcome these failures we introduce a nearest-neighbor, three orbital per atom p/d tight-binding model for graphene. The parameters of the model are fit to first-principles density-functional t...

  6. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  7. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  8. Hydrothermal Habitats: Measurements of Bulk Microbial Elemental Composition, and Models of Hydrothermal Influences on the Evolution of Dwarf Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc Francois Laurent

    Finding habitable worlds is a key driver of solar system exploration. Many solar system missions seek environments providing liquid water, energy, and nutrients, the three ingredients necessary to sustain life. Such environments include hydrothermal systems, spatially-confined systems where hot aqueous fluid circulates through rock by convection. I sought to characterize hydrothermal microbial communities, collected in hot spring sediments and mats at Yellowstone National Park, USA, by measuring their bulk elemental composition. To do so, one must minimize the contribution of non-biological material to the samples analyzed. I demonstrate that this can be achieved using a separation method that takes advantage of the density contrast between cells and sediment and preserves cellular elemental contents. Using this method, I show that in spite of the tremendous physical, chemical, and taxonomic diversity of Yellowstone hot springs, the composition of microorganisms there is surprisingly ordinary. This suggests the existence of a stoichiometric envelope common to all life as we know it. Thus, future planetary investigations could use elemental fingerprints to assess the astrobiological potential of hydrothermal settings beyond Earth. Indeed, hydrothermal activity may be widespread in the solar system. Most solar system worlds larger than 200 km in radius are dwarf planets, likely composed of an icy, cometary mantle surrounding a rocky, chondritic core. I enhance a dwarf planet evolution code, including the effects of core fracturing and hydrothermal circulation, to demonstrate that dwarf planets likely have undergone extensive water-rock interaction. This supports observations of aqueous products on their surfaces. I simulate the alteration of chondritic rock by pure water or cometary fluid to show that aqueous alteration feeds back on geophysical evolution: it modifies the fluid antifreeze content, affecting its persistence over geological timescales; and the

  9. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Mathematical modelling and simulation of solar-assisted drying of bulk farm products; Mathematische Modellierung und Simulation der solar unterstuetzten Trocknung landwirtschaftlicher Schuettgueter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltry, W.; Ziegler, T.; Richter, I.

    1997-04-01

    The report deals with problems associated with the harnessing of solar energy for drying bulk farm products: technical fundamentals, enthalpy diagrams, models for grain drying, experimental investigations, analysis of drying processes, benefits and applications of drying processes, advances. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Bericht behandelt die Probleme der Solarenergienutzung zur Trockung landwirtschaftlicher Massengueter: - Trocknungstechnische Grundlagen - Enthalpie-Diagramme - Modelle zur Koernertrocknung - experimentelle Untersuchungen - Analyse von Trocknungsprozesse - Nutzen und Verwertbarkeit der Trocknungsprozesse - Fortschritte. (HW)

  11. GRB Spectra in the complex of synchrotron and Compton processes

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yunguo; Chen, Xu; Li, Kai; Guo, Di-Fu; Li, Yu-Tong; Li, Huai-Zhen; Lin, Hai-Nan; Chang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Under the steady state condition, the spectrum of electrons is investigated by solving the continuity equation under the complex radiation of both the synchrotron and Compton processes. The resulted GRB spectrum is a broken power law in both the fast and slow cooling phases. On the basis of this electron spectrum, the spectral indices of the Band function in four different phases are presented. In the complex radiation frame, the detail investigation on physical parameters reveals that both the reverse shock photosphere model and the forward shock with strong coupling model can answer the $\\alpha \\sim -1$ problem. A possible marginal to fast cooling phase transition in GRB 080916C is discussed. The time resolved spectra in different pulses of GRB 100724B, GRB 100826A and GRB 130606B are investigated. We found that the flux is proportional to the peak energy in almost all pulses. The phases for different pulses are determined according to the spectral index revolution. We found the strong correlations between ...

  12. Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  13. Assessment model of bulk curing technology based on grey statistic%基于灰色统计的密集烘烤工艺评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 贺帆; 孙永军; 徐成龙; 武圣江; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    为了评价不同烟区标准密集烘烤工艺的烘烤效果,以5个烟区(安徽、河南、湖南、四川、贵州)中部叶为研究对象,分析了烤烟的外观质量、内在化学成分、经济效益以及评吸质量,建立了基于灰色统计的密集烘烤工艺评价模型.结果表明,5个烟区标准烘烤工艺的烘烤效果均达到中等水平,其中安徽、湖南、贵州烟区的烘烤工艺处于第1灰类.5个烟区烘烤工艺水平均达到中等以上水平.%In order to assess the curing effect of bulk curing technology, the middle tobacco leaves from five tobacco-growing areas ( Anhui, Henan, Hunan, Sichuan , Guizhou ) were used as materials to analyze the appearance quality of tobacco leaves, internal chemistry composition, economic benefits, and smoking quality. The technological evaluation model of bulk curing technology was formulated. The results indicated that the bulk curing effect of the technology has all reached a middle level in five tobacco-growing areas, especially in Anhui,Hunan,Guizhou areas,among which the bulk curing technology level was in the first grey categories. The bulk curing technology of the five tobacco areas was all above the medium level.

  14. Compton-thick AGN in the 70-month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey: A Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akylas, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Ranalli, P.; Gkiokas, E.; Corral, A.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2016-10-01

    The 70-month Swift-BAT catalogue provides a sensitive view of the extragalactic X-ray sky at hard energies (>10 keV) containing about 800 active galactic nuclei (AGN). We explore its content in heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN by combining the BAT (14-195 keV) with the lower energy XRT (0.3-10 keV) data. We apply a Bayesian methodology using Markov chains to estimate the exact probability distribution of the column density for each source. We find 53 possible Compton-thick sources (probability range 3-100%) translating to a ~7% fraction of the AGN in our sample. We derive the first parametric luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN. The unabsorbed luminosity function can be represented by a double power law with a break at L⋆ ~ 2 × 1042erg s-1 in the 20-40 keV band. The Compton-thick AGN contribute ~17% of the total AGN emissivity. We derive an accurate Compton-thick number count distribution taking into account the exact probability of a source being Compton-thick and the flux uncertainties. This number count distribution is critical for the calibration of the X-ray background synthesis models, i.e. for constraining the intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN. We find that the number counts distribution in the 14-195 keV band agrees well with our models which adopt a low intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN (~ 12%) among the total AGN population and a reflected emission of ~ 5%. In the extreme case of zero reflection, the number counts can be modelled with a fraction of at most 30% Compton-thick AGN of the total AGN population and no reflection. Moreover, we compare our X-ray background synthesis models with the number counts in the softer 2-10 keV band. This band is more sensitive to the reflected component and thus helps us to break the degeneracy between the fraction of Compton-thick AGN and the reflection emission. The number counts in the 2-10 keV band are well above the models which assume a 30% Compton-thick AGN fraction and zero reflection, while

  15. Compton Heating of the Intergalactic Medium by the Hard X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P; Madau, Piero; Efstathiou, George

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution hydrodynamics simulations of the Ly-alpha forest in cold dark matter dominated cosmologies appear to predict line widths that are substantially narrower than those observed. Here we point out that Compton heating of the intergalactic gas by the hard X-ray background (XRB), an effect neglected in all previous investigations, may resolve this discrepancy. The rate of gain in thermal energy by Compton scattering will dominate over the energy input from hydrogen photoionization if the XRB energy density is 0.2x/ times higher than the energy density of the UV background at a given epoch, where x is the hydrogen neutral fraction in units of 1e-6 and is the mean X-ray photon energy in units of m_ec^2. The numerical integration of the time-dependent rate equations shows that the intergalactic medium approaches a temperature of about 20,000 K at z>3 in popular models for the redshift evolution of the extragalactic background radiation. The importance of Compton heating can be tested experimentally by ...

  16. Inverse-Compton emission from the lobes of 3C 353

    CERN Document Server

    Goodger, J L; Croston, J H; Kassim, N E; Perley, R A

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission due to inverse-Compton scattering of microwave background photons by electrons in the lobes of powerful radio galaxies has now been seen in a large number of objects. Combining an inverse-Compton model for the lobe X-ray emission with information obtained from radio synchrotron emission provides a method of constraining the electron population and magnetic field energy density, which cannot be accomplished using the radio data alone. Using six frequencies of new and archival radio data and new XMM-Newton observations of the Fanaroff & Riley class II radio galaxy 3C353, we show that inverse-Compton emission is detected in the radio lobes of this source at a level consistent with what is seen in other objects. We argue that variations in the X-ray/radio ratio in the brighter eastern lobe require positionally varying magnetic field strength. We also examine the X-ray nucleus and the cluster, Zw 1819.1-0108, spatially and spectrally.

  17. Crater size-frequency distribution measurements and age of the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, K. A.; Zanetti, M.; Jolliff, B.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC) is a 25 × 35 km feature on the lunar farside marked by elevated topography, high albedo, high thorium concentration, and high silica content. Morphologies indicate that the complex is volcanic in origin and compositions indicate that it represents rare silicic volcanism on the Moon. Constraining the timing of silicic volcanism at the complex is necessary to better understand the development of evolved magmas and when they were active on the lunar surface. We employ image analysis and crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements on several locations within the complex and at surrounding impact craters, Hayn (87 km diameter), and Compton (160 km diameter), to determine relative and absolute model ages of regional events. Using CSFD measurements, we establish a chronology dating regional resurfacing events and the earliest possible onset of CBVC volcanism at ∼3.8 Ga, the formation of Compton Crater at 3.6 Ga, likely resurfacing by volcanism at the CBVC at ∼3.5 Ga, and the formation of Hayn Crater at ∼1 Ga. For the CBVC, we find the most consistent results are obtained using craters larger than 300 m in diameter; the small crater population is affected by their approach to an equilibrium condition and by the physical properties of regolith at the CBVC.

  18. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K L

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova's lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an i...

  19. A growth-rate indicator for Compton-thick active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, M; Ballantyne, D R; Baloković, M; Brandt, W N; Chen, C -T; Comastri, A; Farrah, D; Gandhi, P; Harrison, F A; Ricci, C; Stern, D; Walton, D J

    2016-01-01

    Due to their heavily obscured central engines, the growth rate of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is difficult to measure. A statistically significant correlation between the Eddington ratio, {\\lambda}$_{Edd}$, and the X-ray power-law index, {\\Gamma}, observed in unobscured AGN offers an estimate of their growth rate from X-ray spectroscopy (albeit with large scatter). However, since X-rays undergo reprocessing by Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption when the line-of-sight to the central engine is heavily obscured, the recovery of the intrinsic {\\Gamma} is challenging. Here we study a sample of local, predominantly Compton-thick megamaser AGN, where the black hole mass, and thus Eddington luminosity, are well known. We compile results on X-ray spectral fitting of these sources with sensitive high-energy (E> 10 keV) NuSTAR data, where X-ray torus models which take into account the reprocessing effects have been used to recover the intrinsic {\\Gamma} values and X-ray luminosities, L$_...

  20. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E.; Dobbeleir, A.; Vanregemorter, J. [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  1. Higher twist effects in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirnay, Bjoern Michael

    2016-08-01

    In this work we explore the effects of higher twist power corrections on the deeply virtual Compton scattering process. The calculation of the helicity amplitudes for all possible polarization combinations is performed within the framework of QCD operator product expansion. As a result the known accuracy of the amplitudes is improved to include the (kinematic) twist-4 contributions. For the most part the analysis focuses on spin-1/2 targets, the answers for scalar targets conveniently emerge as a byproduct. We investigate the analytical structure of these corrections and prove consistency with QCD factorization. We give an estimation of the numerical impact of the sub-leading twist contributions for proton targets with the help of a phenomenological model for the nonperturbative proton generalized parton distributions. We compare different twist approximations and relate predictions for physical observables to experiments performed by the Hall A, CLAS, HERMES, H1 and ZEUS collaborations. The estimate also includes a numerical study for planned COMPASS-II runs. Throughout the analysis special emphasis is put on the convention dependence induced by finite twist truncation of scattering amplitudes.

  2. Photon flux and spectrum of {gamma}-rays Compton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrillo, V., E-mail: Petrillo@mi.infn.it [INFN Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Bacci, A. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Ben Ali Zinati, R. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Chaikovska, I. [LAL Universite Paris-Sud IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay-Ville (France); Curatolo, C. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Ferrario, M. [LNF, INFN Via E.Fermi, 40 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Maroli, C. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA Via E.Fermi, 45 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Rossi, A.R.; Serafini, L. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Tomassini, P. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Vaccarezza, C. [LNF, INFN Via E.Fermi, 40 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Variola, A. [LAL Universite Paris-Sud IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay-Ville (France)

    2012-11-21

    We analyze the characteristics of the {gamma} radiation produced by Compton back-scattering of a high brightness electron beam produced by a photoinjector and accelerated in a linac up to energies of 360-720 MeV and a laser operated at about 500 nm, by comparing classical and quantum models and codes. The interaction produces {gamma} rays in the range 4.9-18.8 MeV. In view of the application to nuclear resonance fluorescence a relative bandwidth of few 10{sup -3} is needed. The bandwidth is reduced by taking advantage of the frequency-angular correlation typical of the phenomenon and selecting the radiation in an angle of tens of {mu}rads. The foreseen spectral density is 20-6 photons per eV in a single shot, a number that can be increased by developing multi-bunch techniques and laser recirculation. In this way a final value of 10{sup 4} photon per eV per second can be achieved.

  3. Photon flux and spectrum of γ-rays Compton sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Ben Alì Zinati, R.; Chaikovska, I.; Curatolo, C.; Ferrario, M.; Maroli, C.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.; Variola, A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the characteristics of the γ radiation produced by Compton back-scattering of a high brightness electron beam produced by a photoinjector and accelerated in a linac up to energies of 360-720 MeV and a laser operated at about 500 nm, by comparing classical and quantum models and codes. The interaction produces γ rays in the range 4.9-18.8 MeV. In view of the application to nuclear resonance fluorescence a relative bandwidth of few 10-3 is needed. The bandwidth is reduced by taking advantage of the frequency-angular correlation typical of the phenomenon and selecting the radiation in an angle of tens of μrads. The foreseen spectral density is 20-6 photons per eV in a single shot, a number that can be increased by developing multi-bunch techniques and laser recirculation. In this way a final value of 104 photon per eV per second can be achieved.

  4. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Bourne, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ! 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one temperature regime; 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the Inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component, while the limits on the 2T emission are far weaker. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encoura...

  5. Wide Angle Compton Scattering within the SCET factorization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivel Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ~ −t ~ −u are about few GeV2. On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET. Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism.

  6. Realistic simulation of the Space-borne Compton Polarimeter POLAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    POLAR is a compact wide field space-borne detector dedicated for precise measurements of the linear polarization of hard x-rays emitted by transient sources. Its energy range sensitivity is optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). POLAR is developed by an international collaboration of China, Switzerland and Poland. It is planned to be launched into space in 2016 onboard the Chinese space laboratory TG2. The energy range of POLAR spans between 50 keV and 500 keV. POLAR detects gamma rays with an array of 1600 plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 muti-anode PMTs (MAPMTs). Polarization measurements use Compton scattering process and are based on detection of energy depositions in the scintillator bars. Reconstruction of the polarization degree and polarization angle of GRBs requires comparison of experimental modulation curves with realistic simulations of the full instrument response. In this paper we present a method to model and parameterize the detector response including efficiency of the light collection, contributions from crosstalk and non-uniformity of MAPMTs as well as dependency on low energy detection thresholds and noise from readout electronics. The performance of POLAR for determination of polarization is predicted with such realistic simulations and carefully cross-checked with dedicated laboratory tests.

  7. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixie; Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Rondon, Oscar

    2014-09-01

    The applicability of pQCD to exclusive reactions at medium energies is a subject of considerable interest. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. In pQCD, three active quarks and two hard gluons are involved when describing RCS. But the cross sections do not agree with the pQCD predictions. In contrast, a handbag dominance model, involving only one single quark coupling to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs) does a good job of matching the cross section data. A measurement of the longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL was found inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations within the hand-bag mechanism. Further Miller's handbag approach, which including quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD and others which demands that KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ≠ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL has been proposed to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C. This experiment will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  8. Bulk asymptotics of skew-orthogonal polynomials for quartic double well potential and universality in the matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Saugata

    2008-01-01

    We derive bulk asymptotics of skew-orthogonal polynomials (sop) $\\pi^{\\bt}_{m}$, $\\beta=1$, 4, defined w.r.t. the weight $\\exp(-2NV(x))$, $V (x)=gx^4/4+tx^2/2$, $g>0$ and $t 0$, such that $\\epsilon\\leq (m/N)\\leq \\lambda_{\\rm cr}-\\epsilon$, where $\\lambda_{\\rm cr}$ is the critical value which separates sop with two cuts from those with one cut. Simultaneously we derive asymptotics for the recursive coefficients of skew-orthogonal polynomials. The proof is based on obtaining a finite term recursion relation between sop and orthogonal polynomials (op) and using asymptotic results of op derived in \\cite{bleher}. Finally, we apply these asymptotic results of sop and their recursion coefficients in the generalized Christoffel-Darboux formula (GCD) \\cite{ghosh3} to obtain level densities and sine-kernels in the bulk of the spectrum for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles of random matrices.

  9. Thermodynamics of fission products in dispersion fuel designs - first principles modeling of defect behavior in bulk and at interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-yand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nerikar, Pankaj [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanek, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of fission product (Xe, Sr, and Cs) incorporation and segregation in alkaline earth metal oxides, HfO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} oxides, and the MgO/(U, Hf, Ce)O{sub 2} interfaces have been carried out. In the case of UO{sub 2}, the calculations were performed using spin polarization and with a Hubbard U term characterizing the on-sit Coulomb repulsion between the localized 5f electrons. The fission product solution energies in bulk UO{sub 2{+-}x} have been calculated as a function of non-stoichiometry x, and were compared to that in MgO. These calculations demonstrate that the fission product incorporation energies in MgO are higher than in HfO{sub 2}. However, this trend is reversed or reduced for alkaline earth oxides with larger cation sizes. The solution energies of fission products in MgO are substantially higher than in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, except for the case of Sr in the hypostoichiometric case. Due to size effects, the thermodynamic driving force of segregation for Xe and Cs from bulk MgO to the MgO/fluorite interface is strong. However, this driving force is relatively weak for Sr.

  10. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  11. Nonlinear single Compton scattering of an electron wave-packet

    CERN Document Server

    Angioi, A; Di Piazza, A

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a sufficiently intense electromagnetic laser field, an electron can absorb on average a large number of photons from the laser and emit a high-energy one (nonlinear single Compton scattering). The case of nonlinear single Compton scattering by an electron with definite initial momentum has been thoroughly investigated in the literature. Here, we consider a more general initial state of the electron and use a wave-packet obtained as a superposition of Volkov wave functions. In particular, we investigate the energy spectrum of the emitted radiation at fixed observation direction and show that in typical experimental situations the sharply peaked structure of nonlinear single Compton scattering spectra of an electron with definite initial energy is almost completely washed out. Moreover, we show that at comparable uncertainties, the one in the momentum of the incoming electron has a larger impact on the photon spectra at a fixed observation direction than the one on the laser frequency, relate...

  12. GAMCOTE: a prototype for an advanced Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Séréville, N.; Tatischeff, V.; Laurent, P.; Bertoli, W.; Brulin, G.; Dormard, J.-J.; Dosme, N.; Faul, T.; Genolini, B.; Gibelin, L.; Gostojić, A.; Grave, X.; Hamadache, C.; Karkour, N.; Kiener, J.; Lafay, X.; Legay, E.; Limousin, O.; Linget, D.; Maier, D.; Oger, R.; Peyré, J.; Rauly, E.; Rosier, P.; Santos, C.; Torrentó, A.-S.; Le Ven, V.; Wanlin, E.

    2016-07-01

    Astronomy in the MeV gamma-ray band (0.1 - 100 MeV) holds a rich promise for elucidating many fundamental questions concerning the most violent cosmic phenomena. The next generation of gamma-ray space instrument could be a Compton and pair-creation telescope made of two main parts: a silicon tracker optimized for Compton scattering of cosmic gamma rays and a calorimeter that absorbs the scattered photons. We present here the first results of GAMCOTE, a GAMma-ray COmpton TElescope prototype which includes thick double sided silicon strip detectors coupled to a LaBr3:Ce crystal read by a 64 multi-anode photomultiplier tube.

  13. Measurement of radiative Bhabha and quasi-real Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Easo, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palit, S; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Sakar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F; Zilizi, G

    1998-01-01

    We report on a study of radiative Bhabha and quasi-real Compton scattering at centre-of-mass energies between 50~{\\GeV} and 170~{\\GeV} and 20~{\\GeV} and 140~{\\GeV}, respectively, using the L3 detector at LEP. The analysis is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $232.2 \\,\\pb$. A total of 2856 radiative Bhabha and 4641 Compton scattering events are collected. Total and differential cross sections for both reactions are presented and found to be in good agreement with QED expectations. Our measurement of Compton scattering at the highest energies obtained so far is used to derive exclusion limits on the coupling $\\lambda$ for the on-shell production of an excited electron $\\e^{\\star}$ decaying into a $\\gamma\\e$ pair in the mass range $20 \\gev < m_{\\e^{\\star}} < 170 \\gev$.

  14. Electronic structure of CaCO₃: a Compton scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S F; Mohammad, F M; Sahariya, Jagrati; Mund, H S; Bhamu, K C; Ahuja, B L

    2013-02-01

    In the present work, we have studied electron momentum density of CaCO₃ using a Compton scattering technique. The experiment has been performed using a 100 mCi (241)Am (59.54 keV) Compton spectrometer. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of theoretical Compton profiles. To compute the theoretical momentum densities, energy bands and density of states, we have used linear combination of atomic orbitals method as embodied in CRYSTAL09 code. We have used local density approximation, generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and second order GGA (SOGGA) within the frame work of density functional theory. It is seen that the GGA gives a better agreement with the experimental data than other approximations. We have also discussed the energy bands and density of states of CaCO₃.

  15. A nonlinear plasma retroreflector for single pulse Compton backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Gordon, D; Hafizi, B; Helle, M; Penano, J; Ting, A

    2014-01-01

    Compton scattered x-rays can be generated using a configuration consisting of a single, ultra-intense laser pulse, and a shaped gas target. The gas target incorporates a hydrodynamically formed density spike, which nonlinearly scatters the incident pump radiation, to produce a counter-propagating electromagnetic wiggler. This self-generated wiggler field Compton scatters from electrons accelerated in the laser wakefield of the pump radiation. The nonlinear scattering mechanism in the density spike is examined theoretically and numerically in order to optimize the Compton scattered radiation. It is found that narrow-band x-rays are produced by moderate intensity pump radiation incident on the quarter-critical surface of the density spike, while high fluence, broadband x-rays are produced by high intensity pump radiation reflected near the critical surface.

  16. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling cloud microphysics using a two-moments hybrid bulk/bin scheme for use in Titan’s climate models: Application to the annual and diurnal cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgalat, J.; Rannou, P.; Cours, T.; Rivière, E. D.

    2014-03-01

    Microphysical models describe the way aerosols and clouds behave in the atmosphere. Two approaches are generally used to model these processes. While the first approach discretizes processes and aerosols size distributions on a radius grid (bin scheme), the second uses bulk parameters of the size distribution law (its mathematical moments) to represent the evolution of the particle population (moment scheme). However, with the latter approach, one needs to have an a priori knowledge of the size distributions. Moments scheme for Cloud microphysics modeling have been used and enhanced since decades for climate studies of the Earth. Most of the tools are based on Log-Normal law which are suitable for Earth, Mars or Venus. On Titan, due to the fractal structure of the aerosols, the size distributions do not follow a log-normal law. Then using a moment scheme in that case implies to define the description of the size distribution and to review the equations that are widely published in the literature. Our objective is to enable the use of a fully described microphysical model using a moment scheme within a Titan's Global Climate Model. As a first step in this direction, we present here a moment scheme dedicated to clouds microphysics adapted for Titan's atmosphere conditions. We perform comparisons between the two kinds of schemes (bin and moments) using an annual and a diurnal cycle, to check the validity of our moment description. The various forcing produce a time-variable cloud layer in relation with the temperature cycle. We compare the column opacities and the temperature for the two schemes, for each cycles. We also compare more detailed quantities as the opacity distribution of the cloud events at different periods of these cycles. Results show that differences between the two approaches have a small impact on the temperature (less than 1 K) and range between 1% and 10% for haze and clouds opacities. Both models behave in similar way when forced by an annual and

  18. The first demonstration of the concept of “narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinohe, Yuto, E-mail: ichinohe@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Uchida, Yuusuke; Watanabe, Shin [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Edahiro, Ikumi [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hayashi, Katsuhiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohta, Masayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichiro [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Katsuragawa, Miho [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakazawa, Kazuhiro [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Odaka, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiromitsu [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); and others

    2016-01-11

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed on board the ASTRO-H satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60–600 keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75% of the signals from the field-of-view are retained against the background rejection, which clearly demonstrates the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated effective area of 22.8 cm{sup 2} meets the mission requirement even though not all of the operational parameters of the instrument have been fully optimized yet.

  19. The first demonstration of the concept of "narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera"

    CERN Document Server

    Ichinohe, Yuto; Watanabe, Shin; Edahiro, Ikumi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Katsuragawa, Miho; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed onboard the {\\it ASTRO-H} satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60-600~keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10\\% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75\\% of the signal...

  20. The first demonstration of the concept of "narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Yuto; Uchida, Yuusuke; Watanabe, Shin; Edahiro, Ikumi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Katsuragawa, Miho; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed on board the ASTRO-H satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60-600 keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75% of the signals from the field-of-view are retained against the background rejection, which clearly demonstrates the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated effective area of 22.8 cm2 meets the mission requirement even though not all of the operational parameters of the instrument have been fully optimized yet.

  1. Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals using ADM (absorption distribution model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Z M; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K; Adams, J J; Carr, C W

    2010-02-26

    We present an empirical model that describes the experimentally observed laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning behavior in deuterated Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate (DKDP) crystals in a self-consistent way. The model expands on an existing nanoabsorber precursor model and the multi-step absorption mechanism to include two populations of absorbing defects, one with linear absorption and another with nonlinear absorption. We show that this model connects previously uncorrelated small-beam damage initiation probability data to large-beam damage density measurements over a range of ns pulse widths relevant to ICF lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In addition, this work predicts the damage behavior of laser-conditioned DKDP and explains the upper limit to the laser conditioning effect. The ADM model has been successfully used during the commissioning and early operation of the NIF.

  2. AN UPSCATTERING SPECTRAL FORMATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Farinelli, Ruben; Frontera, Filippo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: titarchuk@fe.infn.it, E-mail: ltitarch@gmu.edu, E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-06-20

    We propose a model for the spectral formation of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission, where the phenomenological Band function is usually applied to describe this emission. We suggest that the GRB prompt emission is mainly a result of two upscattering processes. The first process is the Comptonization of relatively cold soft photons of the star off electrons of a hot shell of plasma of temperature T{sub e} of the order of 10{sup 9} K (or kT{sub e} {approx} 100 keV) that moves subrelativistically with the bulk velocity V{sub b} substantially less than the speed of light c. In this phase, the Comptonization parameter Y is high and the interaction between a blackbody-like soft seed photon population and hot electrons leads to formation of a saturated Comptonization spectrum modified by the subrelativistic bulk outflow. The second process is an upscattering of the previously Comptonized spectrum by the plasma outflow once it becomes relativistic. This process gives rise to the high-energy power-law (PL) component above the peak in the EF(E) diagram where F(E) is the energy flux. The latter process can be described by a convolution of the Comptonized spectrum with a broken-PL Green function. Possible physical scenarios for this second upscattering process are discussed. In the framework of our model, we give an interpretation of the Amati relation between the intrinsic spectral peak photon energy and radiated energy or luminosity, and we propose a possible explanation of the GRB temporal variability.

  3. 3D Image Reconstruction from Compton camera data

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchment, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address analytically and numerically the inversion of the integral transform (\\emph{cone} or \\emph{Compton} transform) that maps a function on $\\mathbb{R}^3$ to its integrals over conical surfaces. It arises in a variety of imaging techniques, e.g. in astronomy, optical imaging, and homeland security imaging, especially when the so called Compton cameras are involved. Several inversion formulas are developed and implemented numerically in $3D$ (the much simpler $2D$ case was considered in a previous publication).

  4. A simple configuration setup for compton suppression spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hai, N X; Dien, N N; Tan, V H; Hoa, N D

    2013-01-01

    The fast timing, standard timing and easy timing are popular timing configurations of compton suppression spectroscopy. Such spectroscopes always use a module of coincidence or time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). A compton suppression spectroscopy with semi-timing configuration is presented in this paper. The semi-timing configuration is relatively simple and easy system setup, especially this spectroscopy does not need to use module of coincidence or TAC. The performance of spectroscopy was tested and summarized. The count rate background, full peak efficiency and the ratios of area/background of peaks in suppressed and unsuppressed modes were comparative.

  5. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  6. BSP模型下的并行程序设计与开发%Design and Development of Parallel Programs on Bulk Synchronous Parallel Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖树华; 陆朝俊; 孙永强

    2001-01-01

    The Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model was simply introduced, and the advantage of the parapllel program's design and development on BSP model was discussed. Then it analysed how to design and develop the parallel programs on BSP model and summarized several principles the developer must comply with. At last a useful parallel programming method based on the BSP model was presented: the two phase method of BSP parallel program design. An example was given to illustrate how to make use of the above method and the BSP performance prediction tool.%介绍了BSP(Bulk Synchronous Parallel)模型,讨论了在该模型下进行并行程序设计的优点、并行算法的分析和设计方法及其必须遵守的原则.以两矩阵的乘法为例说明了如何借助BSP并行程序性能预测工具,利用两阶段BSP并行程序设计方法进行BSP并行程序的设计和开发.

  7. Virtual versus Real Nuclear Compton Scattering in the $\\delta$(1232) region

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, A; Oset, E

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the cross section for Virtual Compton Scattering off nuclei in the delta resonance region. We also calculate the background for the process from Coherent Bremsstrahlung in nuclei and explore the regions where the Virtual Compton Scattering cross section dominates. The study also shows that it is possible to extract the cross section for Real Compton Scattering from the Virtual Compton one in a wide range of scattering angles.

  8. Virtual versus real nuclear Compton scattering in the {Delta}(1232) region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, A. [Univ. de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Gomez Tejedor, J.A. [Univ. de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Oset, E. [Univ. de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1997-03-10

    In this paper we calculate the cross section for virtual Compton scattering off nuclei in the delta resonance region. We also calculate the background for the process from coherent bremsstrahlung in nuclei and explore the regions where the virtual Compton scattering cross section dominates. The study also shows that it is possible to extract the cross section for real Compton scattering from the virtual Compton one in a wide range of scattering angles. (orig.).

  9. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-06-15

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  10. Extended dynamic model for ion diffusion in all-vanadium redox flow battery including the effects of temperature and bulk electrolyte transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Rajagopalan; Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K. J.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2014-12-01

    As with all redox flow batteries, the Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB) can suffer from capacity loss as the vanadium ions diffuse at different rates leading to a build-up on one half-cell and dilution on the other. In this paper an extended dynamic model of the vanadium ion transfer is developed including the effect of temperature and bulk electrolyte transfer. The model is used to simulate capacity decay for a range of different ion exchange membranes that are being used in the VRB. The simulations show that Selemion CMV and Nafion 115 membranes have similar behavior where the impact of temperature on capacity loss is highest within the first 100 cycles. The results for Selemion AMV membrane however are seen to be very different where the capacity loss at different temperatures observed to increase linearly with increasing charging/discharging cycles. The model is made more comprehensive by including the effect of bulk electrolyte transfer. A volume change of 19% is observed in each half-cell for Nafion 115 membrane based on the simulation parameters. The effect of this change in volume directly affects concentration, and the characteristics are analyzed for each vanadium species as well as the overall concentration in the half-cells.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECIAL ANTI-COMPTON SPECTROMETER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MICEK, SL; VERHOEF, BAW; DEVOIGT, MJA; BACELAR, JC; VERPLANCKE, J; SCHOTANUS, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of the possibility to build a compact anti-Compton spectrometer consisting of a Ge detector and a cooled BGO suppressor. Monte Carlo calculations were carried out to obtain information about the performance of two different detector configurations. Light output

  12. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  13. Exploring the Dynamics of a Quantum-Mechanical Compton Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandes, Martin; Carretero, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    In 1913, when American physicist Arthur Compton was an undergraduate, he invented a simple way to measure the rotation rate of the Earth with a tabletop-sized experiment. The experiment consisted of a large diameter circular ring of thin glass tubing filled with water and oil droplets. After placing the ring in a plane perpendicular to the surface of the Earth and allowing the fluid mixture of oil and water to come to rest, he then abruptly rotated the ring, flipping it 180 degrees about an axis passing through its own plane. The result of the experiment was that the water acquired a measurable drift velocity due to the Coriolis effect arising from the daily rotation of the Earth about its own axis. Compton measured this induced drift velocity by observing the motion of the oil droplets in the water with a microscope. This device, which is now named after him, is known as a Compton generator. The fundamental research objective of this project is to explore the dynamics of a quantum-mechanical analogue to the classical Compton generator experiment through the use of numerical simulations. We present our preliminary results on this system and the future direction of the project. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI-1053575.

  14. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    1960-01-01

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  15. Compton scattering as a probe for materials investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates into the feasibility of using gamma radiation Compton backscatter spectra as a means of material characterization, with the view to developing a portable, hand held probe for investigative purposes such as searching for illicit substances hidden in wall or car door cavities.

  16. All-optical Compton gamma-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Phuoc, K Ta; Thaury, C; Malka, V; Tafzi, A; Goddet, J P; Shah, R C; Sebban, S; Rousse, A; 10.1038/nphoton.2012.82

    2013-01-01

    One of the major goals of research for laser-plasma accelerators is the realization of compact sources of femtosecond X-rays. In particular, using the modest electron energies obtained with existing laser systems, Compton scattering a photon beam off a relativistic electron bunch has been proposed as a source of high-energy and high-brightness photons. However, laser-plasma based approaches to Compton scattering have not, to date, produced X-rays above 1 keV. Here, we present a simple and compact scheme for a Compton source based on the combination of a laser-plasma accelerator and a plasma mirror. This approach is used to produce a broadband spectrum of X-rays extending up to hundreds of keV and with a 10,000-fold increase in brightness over Compton X-ray sources based on conventional accelerators. We anticipate that this technique will lead to compact, high-repetition-rate sources of ultrafast (femtosecond), tunable (X- through gamma-ray) and low-divergence (~1 degree) photons from source sizes on the order...

  17. Basin-fill Aquifer Modeling with Terrestrial Gravity: Assessing Static Offsets in Bulk Datasets using MATLAB; Case Study of Bridgeport, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlawsky, E. T.; Louie, J. N.; Pohll, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Blakely, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the potential availability of water resources in Eastern California aquifers is of critical importance to making water management policy decisions and determining best-use practices for California, as well as for downstream use in Nevada. Hydrologic well log data can provide valuable information on aquifer capacity, but is often proprietarily inaccessible or economically unfeasible to obtain in sufficient quantity. In the case of basin-fill aquifers, it is possible to make estimates of aquifer geometry and volume using geophysical surveys of gravity, constrained by additional geophysical and geological observations. We use terrestrial gravity data to model depth-to-basement about the Bridgeport, CA basin for application in preserving the Walker Lake biome. In constructing the model, we assess several hundred gravity observations, existing and newly collected. We regard these datasets as "bulk," as the data are compiled from multiple sources. Inconsistencies among datasets can result in "static offsets," or artificial bull's-eye contours, within the gradient. Amending suspect offsets requires the attention of the modeler; picking these offsets by hand can be a time-consuming process when modeling large-scale basin features. We develop a MATLAB script for interpolating the residual Bouguer anomaly about the basin using sparse observation points, and leveling offset points with a user-defined sensitivity. The script is also capable of plotting gravity profiles between any two endpoints within the map extent. The resulting anomaly map provides an efficient means of locating and removing static offsets in the data, while also providing a fast visual representation of a bulk dataset. Additionally, we obtain gridded basin gravity models with an open-source alternative to proprietary modeling tools.

  18. A coupled melt-freeze temperature index approach in a one-layer model to predict bulk volumetric liquid water content dynamics in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water in snow rules runoff dynamics and wet snow avalanches release. Moreover, it affects snow viscosity and snow albedo. As a result, measuring and modeling liquid water dynamics in snow have important implications for many scientific applications. However, measurements are usually challenging, while modeling is difficult due to an overlap of mechanical, thermal and hydraulic processes. Here, we evaluate the use of a simple one-layer one-dimensional model to predict hourly time-series of bulk volumetric liquid water content in seasonal snow. The model considers both a simple temperature-index approach (melt only) and a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach that is able to reconstruct melt-freeze dynamics. Performance of this approach is evaluated at three sites in Japan. These sites (Nagaoka, Shinjo and Sapporo) present multi-year time-series of snow and meteorological data, vertical profiles of snow physical properties and snow melt lysimeters data. These data-sets are an interesting opportunity to test this application in different climatic conditions, as sites span a wide latitudinal range and are subjected to different snow conditions during the season. When melt-freeze dynamics are included in the model, results show that median absolute differences between observations and predictions of bulk volumetric liquid water content are consistently lower than 1 vol%. Moreover, the model is able to predict an observed dry condition of the snowpack in 80% of observed cases at a non-calibration site, where parameters from calibration sites are transferred. Overall, the analysis show that a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach may be a valid solution to predict average wetness conditions of a snow cover at local scale.

  19. The Universe With Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Exact solutions for a model with variable G, A and bulk viscosity areobtained. Inflationary solutions with constant (de Sitter-type) and variable energydensity are found. An expanding anisotropic universe is found to isotropize duringits expansion but a static universe cannot isotropize. The gravitational constant isfound to increase with time and the cosmological constant decreases with time asAo∝t-2.

  20. Short-time Variability of Blazars via Non-linear, Time-dependent Synchrotron-Self Compton Radiative Losses

    CERN Document Server

    Röken, Christian; Schöneberg, Sebastian; Schuppan, Florian

    2016-01-01

    A leptonic one-zone model accounting for the radiation emission of blazars is presented. This model describes multiple successive injections of mono-energetic, ultra-relativistic, interacting electron populations, which are subjected to synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton radiative losses. The electron number density is computed analytically by solving a time-dependent, relativistic transport equation. Moreover, the synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton intensities as well as the corresponding total fluences are explicitly calculated. The lightcurves and fluences are plotted for realistic parameter values, showing that the model can simultaneously explain both the specific short-time variability in the flaring of blazars and the characteristic broad-band fluence behavior.

  1. A crosstalk and non-uniformity correction method for the Compact Space-borne Compton Polarimeter POLAR

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Hualin; Wu, Bobing; Produit, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    POLAR is a space-borne Compton polarimeter desired to measure linear polarization of 50 -- 500 keV gamma rays arriving from prompt emission of of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Reconstruction of energy deposition produced by gamma rays on scintillator bars is required to determine modulation curves, from which the linear polarization can be revealed. However, crosstalk between neighbor scintillator bars and non-uniformities of multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMT) make the energy reconstruction complicated. We present a model to describe relation between recorded energy signal and visible energy deposited (real deposited energy) on detector modules and energy response matrix is de- duced from the model. According to the model, crosstalk and non-uniformities can be corrected by performing a linear transformation of recorded energy de- position with inverse matrix of the response matrix, whose elements can be also obtained by measuring Compton edges and analyzing crosstalk between recorded signal produced by gamma ray...

  2. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, J -P; Bellini, V; Beretta, M; Casano, L; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Gurzadyan, V G; Kashin, A; Knyazyan, S; Lapik, A; Lehnert, R; Sandri, P Levi; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Margarian, A; Mehrabyan, S; Messi, R; Nedorezov, V; Perrin, C; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the ESRF's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropiesrepresenting the first non-threshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal Standard-Model Extension,this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 x 10^{-14} at 95 % confidence level on a combination of the parity-violating photon and electron coefficients

  3. A Holographic Model for Pseudogap in BCS-BEC Crossover (I): Pairing Fluctuations, Double-Trace Deformation and Dynamics of Bulk Bosonic Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Wu, Chaolun

    2016-01-01

    We build a holographic model for the pairing fluctuation pseudogap phase in fermionic high temperature superconductivity/superfluidity based on the BCS-BEC crossover scenario. The pseudogap originates from incoherent Cooper pairing and has been observed in recent cold atom experiments. The strength of Cooper pairing and hence the BCS-BEC crossover is controlled by an effective 4-Fermi interaction and we argue that the double-trace deformation for charged scalar operator is a close analog in large N field theories. We employ the double-trace deformed Abelian Higgs model of holographic superconductors and propose that the incoherent fluctuations of the charged scalar in the bulk is the holographic dual of the fluctuating Cooper pairs. Using a Madelung transformation and the velocity-potential formalism, we develop a quantum fluid dynamics as an effective theory for these bulk fluctuations. The new fluid dynamics takes care of the boundary conditions required by AdS/CFT and encodes the vacuum polarization effect...

  4. Inverse Compton Gamma Rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Dwarf Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayashri Medhi; H. L. Duorah; A. G. Barua; K. Duorah

    2016-09-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are thought to be good candidates for dark matter search due to their high mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. One of the most favored dark matter candidates is the lightest neutralino(neutral $\\chi$ particle) as predicted in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this study, we model the gamma ray emission from dark matter annihilation coming from the nearby dSph galaxies Draco, Segue 1, Ursa Minor and Willman 1, taking into account the contribution from prompt photons and photons produced from inverse Compton scattering off starlight and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by the energetic electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation. We also compute the energy spectra of electrons and positrons from the decay of dark matter annihilation products. Gamma ray spectra and fluxes for both prompt and inverse Compton emission have been calculated for neutralino annihilation over a range of masses and found to be in agreement with the observed data. It has been found that the ultra faint dSph galaxy Segue 1 gives the largest gamma ray flux limits while the lowest gamma ray flux limits has been obtained from Ursa Minor. It is seen that for larger M/L ratio of dwarf galaxies the intensity pattern originating from $e^+e^−-$ pairs scattering off CMB photons is separated by larger amount from that off the starlight photons for the same neutralino mass. As the $e^+e^−-$ energy spectra have an exponential cut off at high energies, this may allow to discriminate some dark matter scenarios from other astrophysical sources. Finally, some more detailed study about the effect of inverse Compton scattering may help constrain the dark matter signature in the dSph galaxies.

  5. Inverse Compton Gamma Rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Jayashri; Duorah, H. L.; Barua, A. G.; Duorah, K.

    2016-09-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are thought to be good candidates for dark matter search due to their high mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. One of the most favored dark matter candidates is the lightest neutralino (neutral χ particle) as predicted in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this study, we model the gamma ray emission from dark matter annihilation coming from the nearby dSph galaxies Draco, Segue 1, Ursa Minor and Willman 1, taking into account the contribution from prompt photons and photons produced from inverse Compton scattering off starlight and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by the energetic electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation. We also compute the energy spectra of electrons and positrons from the decay of dark matter annihilation products. Gamma ray spectra and fluxes for both prompt and inverse Compton emission have been calculated for neutralino annihilation over a range of masses and found to be in agreement with the observed data. It has been found that the ultra faint dSph galaxy Segue 1 gives the largest gamma ray flux limits while the lowest gamma ray flux limits has been obtained from Ursa Minor. It is seen that for larger M/L ratio of dwarf galaxies the intensity pattern originating from e + e - pairs scattering off CMB photons is separated by larger amount from that off the starlight photons for the same neutralino mass. As the e + e - energy spectra have an exponential cut off at high energies, this may allow to discriminate some dark matter scenarios from other astrophysical sources. Finally, some more detailed study about the effect of inverse Compton scattering may help constrain the dark matter signature in the dSph galaxies.

  6. Six-band nearest-neighbor tight-binding model for the π-bands of bulk graphene and graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard; Jiang, Xueping; Kharche, Neerav; Zhou, Yu; Nayak, Saroj

    2012-02-01

    The commonly used single-pz orbital first nearest-neighbor tight-binding model faces two main problems: (i) it fails to reproduce asymmetries in the bulk graphene bands; (ii) it cannot provide a realistic model for hydrogen passivation of the edge atoms. As a result, some armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) are incorrectly predicted as metallic. A new nearest-neighbor, three orbital per atom p/d tight-binding model [1] is built to address these issues. The parameters of the model are fit to bandstructures obtained from first-principles density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation, giving excellent agreement with the ab initio AGNR bands. This model is employed to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of an AGNR MOSFET and the conductance of rough-edge AGNRs, finding significant differences versus the single-pz model. Taken together these results demonstrate the importance of an accurate and computational efficient band structure model for predicting the performance of graphene-based nanodevices. [1] T. B. Boykin, M. Luisier, G. Klimeck, X. Jiang, N. Kharche, Y. Zhou and S. Nayak, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104304 (2011)

  7. Accurate six-band nearest-neighbor tight-binding model for the π-bands of bulk graphene and graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard; Jiang, Xueping; Kharche, Neerav; Zhou, Yu; Nayak, Saroj K.

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of the π-bands of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) requires correctly reproducing asymmetries in the bulk graphene bands, as well as providing a realistic model for hydrogen passivation of the edge atoms. The commonly used single-pz orbital approach fails on both these counts. To overcome these failures we introduce a nearest-neighbor, three orbital per atom p/d tight-binding model for graphene. The parameters of the model are fit to first-principles density-functional theory -based calculations as well as to those based on the many-body Green's function and screened-exchange formalism, giving excellent agreement with the ab initio AGNR bands. We employ this model to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of an AGNR MOSFET and the conductance of rough-edge AGNRs, finding significant differences versus the single-pz model. These results show that an accurate band structure model is essential for predicting the performance of graphene-based nanodevices.

  8. VLBI observations of 3C273 at 22 GHz and 43 GHz ; 2, test of Synchrotron Self-Compton process

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovani, F; McHardy, I M; Valerio, C

    1999-01-01

    The VLBI observations at 22 GHz and 43 GHz of the quasar 3C273 obtained during a multi-frequency campaign in late 1992 in the radio, millimetre and X-ray bands allow us to derive the components' angular sizes, their peak fluxes and turnover frequencies. Lower limits to the Doppler factors have been derived by comparing the observed X-ray fluxes with those predicted by the Synchrotron Self-Compton model. Independent estimates of the Doppler factors were obtained through the assumption of the energy equipartition between the particles and the magnetic field. Of the five components used to model the first two milli-arcseconds of the jet, apart from the core, two components are in equipartition and the remaining two, at larger distances from the core, have large Doppler factors and are mainly responsible for the X-ray emission due to the Synchrotron Self-Compton process.

  9. A New Characterization of the Compton Process in the ULX Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, S; Makishima, K

    2015-01-01

    Attempts were made to construct a unified description of the spectra of ULX (Ultra Luminous X-ray source) objects, including their Power-Law (PL) state and Disk-like state. Among spectral models proposed to explain either state, the present work adopts the one which combines multi-color disk (MCD) emission and its thermal Comptonization (THC). This model was applied to several datasets of ULXs obtained by Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and Nustar. The model well explains all the spectra, regardless of the spectral states, in terms of a cool disk (inner radius temperature of 0.2-0.5 keV) and a cool thick (electron temperature of 1-3 keV, and optical thickness ~10) corona. The fit results can be characterized by two new parameters. One is Q (defined as the electron temerature divided by the inner radius temperature) which describes balance between the Compton cooling and gravitational heating of the coronal electrons, while the other is F, namely, the covering fraction of the MCD by the corona. Here, F is calculated from ...

  10. A new characterization of the Compton process in the ULX spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Makishima, K.

    2016-05-01

    Attempts were made to construct a unified description of the spectra of ULX (Ultra Luminous X-ray source) objects, including their power-law (PL) state and disk-like state. Among spectral models proposed to explain either state, the present work adopts the one which combines multi-color disk (MCD) emission and its thermal Comptonization (THC). This model was applied to several datasets of ULXs obtained by Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and Nustar. The model well explains all the spectra, regardless of the spectral states, in terms of a cool disk (Tin=0.2-0.5 keV) and a cool thick (Te=1-3 keV, τ ˜10) corona. The fit results can be characterized by two new parameters. One is Q≡ Te/Tin which describes the balance between the Compton cooling and gravitational heating of the coronal electrons, while the other is F≡ 1-Fdirect/Ftotal, namely, the covering fraction of the MCD by the corona. Here, Fdirect and Ftotal are the luminosity in the directly-visible disk emission and the total radiation, respectively. Then, the PL-state spectra have been found to show Q˜10 and F˜0.5, while those of the disk-like state Q˜ 3 and F˜1. Thus, the two states are clearly separated in terms of Q and F. The obtained results are employed to argue for their interpretation in terms of high-mass (several tens to several hundreds M⊙) black holes.

  11. Measurements of the Proton Spin Polarizabilities with Double-Polarized Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, P P; Aguar-Bartolome, P; Ahrens, J; Akondi, C S; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Barnes, W; Beck, R; Bernstein, A; Borisov, N; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Cherepnya, S; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Denig, A; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Fil'kov, L V; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gradl, W; Gurevich, G; Barrientos, P Hall; Hamilton, D; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Huber, G M; Jude, T C; Kaeser, A; Kashevarov, V L; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Krusche, B; Lazarev, A; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Mancell, J; Manley, D M; Meyer, W; Middleton, D G; Mushkarenkov, A; Nefkens, B M K; Neganov, A; Nikolaev, A; Oberle, M; Spina, H Ortega; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Polyansky, V; Prakhov, S; Rajabi, A; Reicherz, G; Rostomyan, T; Sarty, A; Schrauf, S; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Steffen, O; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Tiator, L; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Usov, Y; Watts, D P; Witthauer, L; Werthmüller, D; Wolfes, M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to measure the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton scattering. Double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetries on the proton were measured in the $\\Delta(1232)$ region using circularly polarized incident photons and a transversely polarized proton target at the Mainz Microtron. Fits to asymmetry data were performed using a dispersion model calculation and a baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation, and a separation of all four proton spin polarizabilities in the multipole basis was achieved. The analysis based on a dispersion model calculation yields $\\gamma_{E1E1} = -3.5 \\pm 1.2$, $\\gamma_{M1M1}= 3.16 \\pm 0.85$, $\\gamma_{E1M2} = -0.7 \\pm 1.2$, and $\\gamma_{M1E2} = 1.99 \\pm 0.29$, in units of $10^{-4}$ fm$^4$.

  12. Data acquisition and analysis for the energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzin, Murat Kamilevich

    In response to the shortcomings of the Anger camera currently being used in conventional SPECT, particularly the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution, a novel energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera, or the ESCSC, has been proposed. A successful clinical implementation of the ESCSC could revolutionize the field of SPECT. Features of this camera include utilization of silicon and CdZnTe detectors in primary and secondary detector systems, list-mode time stamping data acquisition, modular architecture, and post-acquisition data analysis. Previous ESCSC studies were based on Monte Carlo modeling. The objective of this work is to test the theoretical framework developed in previous studies by developing the data acquisition and analysis techniques necessary to implement the ESCSC. The camera model working in list-mode with time stamping was successfully built and tested thus confirming potential of the ESCSC that was predicted in previous simulation studies. The obtained data were processed during the post-acquisition data analysis based on preferred event selection criteria. Along with the construction of a camera model and proving the approach, the post-acquisition data analysis was further extended to include preferred event weighting based on the likelihood of a preferred event to be a true preferred event. While formulated to show ESCSC capabilities, the results of this study are important for any Compton scatter camera implementation as well as for coincidence data acquisition systems in general.

  13. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF GRB 130427A: EVIDENCE FOR INVERSE COMPTON RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Fu-Wen; He, Hao-Ning; Zhou, Bei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Tam, P. H. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liang, Yun-Feng, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Guangxi 530004 (China)

    2013-10-20

    A nearby superluminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six γ-ray space telescopes (Swift, the Fermi GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)/Large Area Telescope, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE, and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic γ-ray energy release is ∼10{sup 54} erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a redshift z ≤ 0.5. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day, and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is favored for the ∼(95.3, 47.3, 41.4, 38.5, 32) GeV photons arriving at t ∼ (243, 256.3, 610.6, 3409.8, 34366.2) s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external inverse Compton scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., t ∼ 120-260 s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few γ-rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft γ-ray, optical, and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B, and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implications of the null detection of >1 TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube are discussed.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of muon-induced background of an anti-Compton gamma-ray spectrometer placed in a surface and underground laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of cosmic ray muon induced background of an HPGe detector placed inside an anti-Compton shield on the surface and in shallow underground is described. Investigation of several model set-ups revealed some trends useful for design of low-level gamma-ray spectrometers. It has been found that background spectrum of an HPGe detector can be scaled down with the shielding depth. No important difference is observed when the same set-up of the anti-Compton spectrometer is positioned horizontally or vertically. A cosmic-muon rejection factor of at least 40 (at around 1 MeV) can be reached when the anti-Compton suppression is operational. The cosmicmuon background can be reduced to such a level that other background components prevail, like those from the residual contamination of the detector and shield materials and/or from radon, especially for the underground facilities.

  15. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, P. G.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gillam, J. E.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Oliver, J. F.; Sala, P. R.; Solevi, P.; Rafecas, M.

    2015-02-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of

  16. New Estimation of the Spectral Index of High-Energy Cosmic Rays as Determined by the Compton-Getting Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lou, Y.-Q.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, S.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The amplitude of the Compton-Getting (CG) anisotropy contains the power-law index of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum. Based on this relation and using the Tibet air shower array data, we measure the cosmic-ray spectral index to be -3.03 ± 0.55stat ± analysis can be utilized to confirm the astrophysical origin of the "knee" against models for nonstandard hadronic interactions in the atmosphere.

  17. Application of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model with interaction for the determination of the saturation magnetisation, anisotropy field, and mean field interaction in bulk amorphous ferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collocott, S.J., E-mail: stephen.collocott@csiro.a [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    Magnetic hysteresis curves of bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10}, Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 10}Al{sub 10} and Pr{sub 58}Fe{sub 24}Al{sub 18} have been measured in applied magnetic fields up to 9 T at temperatures in the range 10-350 K. The behaviour of the demagnetisation curve in the first quadrant is interpreted using a mean field interaction model as proposed by Callen et al. [Phys. Rev. B 16 (1977) 263], which extends the Stoner-Wohlfarth model [Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 240 (1948) 599] for a random distribution of non-interacting uniaxial grains. Application of the mean field interaction model enables the determination of the saturation magnetisation M{sub s}, anisotropy field H{sub a}, and interaction parameter d, and from these other magnetic parameters, such as the anisotropy constant, K, are deduced. For the three alloys, the temperature dependent behaviour of M{sub s}, H{sub a}, d and K over the range 20-350 K are found to be qualitatively similar, though there are quantitative differences. In all cases M{sub s} increases with decreasing temperature, both H{sub a} and K increase with decreasing temperature, reaching a peak in the range 75-120 K, and then decreasing, and d decreases approximately linearly as the temperature decreases. The physical mechanisms responsible for coercivity in these materials are discussed in the context of random anisotropy and a strong pinning model of domain walls. - Highlights: Magnetic hysteresis curves in bulk amorphous ferromagnets have been measured in fields up to 9 T from 10 to 350 K. The behaviour of the demagnetisation curve in the first quadrant is interpreted using a mean field interaction model. The mean field interaction model is an extension of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. Application of the mean field interaction model enables determination of the anisotropy constant. Physical mechanisms responsible for coercivity are discussed in context of random anisotropy and

  18. Compton scattering in a unitary approach with causality constraints 11.55.Fv; 13.40.Gp; 13.60.Fz; Nucleon-photon vertex; Off-shell form factors; K-matrix formalism; Compton scattering; Dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyuk, S

    2000-01-01

    Pion-loop corrections for Compton scattering are calculated in a novel approach based on the use of dispersion relations in a formalism obeying unitarity. The basic framework is presented, including an application to Compton scattering. In the approach the effects of the non-pole contribution arising from pion dressing are expressed in terms of (half-off-shell) form factors and the nucleon self-energy. These quantities are constructed through the application of dispersion integrals to the pole contribution of loop diagrams, the same as those included in the calculation of the amplitudes through a K-matrix formalism. The prescription of minimal substitution is used to restore gauge invariance. The resulting relativistic-covariant model combines constraints from unitarity, causality, and crossing symmetry.

  19. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  20. A Model For The Optically Triggered Pseudo-Spark Thyratron Using Local Field And Beam-Bulk Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Hoyoung; Kushner, Mark J.

    1989-04-01

    The optically triggered psuedo-spark, also known as the Back-Lit-Thyratron (BLT), is a low pressure plasma switch having an unheated metallic cathode. In this paper, a computer simulation of the BLT is presented consisting of a 2-1/2 dimensional time dependent continuum model for electron and ion transport. The model utilizes both the local field approximation and a beam component for the electron distribution function. We find that switch closure depends critically on the formation of a virtual anode in front of the cathode hole by generation of positive space charge.

  1. Optimization studies of a Compton suppression spectrometer using experimentally validated Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scates, W.; Hartwell, J. K.; Aryaeinejad, R.; McIlwain, M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments associated with room temperature semiconductor detectors and inorganic scintillators suggest that these detectors may be viable alternatives for the primary detector in a Compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The room temperature operation of these detectors allows removal of a substantial amount of material from between primary and secondary detectors, if properly designed and should afford substantially better suppression factors than can be achieved by germanium-based spectrometers. We have chosen to study the optimum properties of a CSS with a LaX 3:Ce scintillator (where X is chloride or bromide) as the primary gamma-ray detector. A Monte Carlo photon transport model is used to determine the optimum geometric properties of this spectrometer. To validate the assumptions and basic design of the Monte Carlo simulations, the energy distribution of a 137Cs point source is measured and simulated for two experimental systems. Comparison of the suppression factors for the measured and simulated data validates the model accuracy. A range of CSS physical parameters are studied to determine optimal detector geometry and to maximize the Compton suppression factor. These physical parameters and their optimum values are discussed.

  2. Soil bulk electrical resistivity and forage ground cover: nonlinear models in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a highly productive and fertility-building forage crop; its performance, can be highly variable as influenced by within-field soil spatial variability. Characterising the relations between soil and forage- variation is important for optimal management. The aim of this work was to model the relationship between soil electrical resistivity (ER and plant productivity in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. field in Southern Italy. ER mapping was accomplished by a multi-depth automatic resistivity profiler. Plant productivity was assessed through normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI at 2 dates. A non-linear relationship between NDVI and deep soil ER was modelled within the framework of generalised additive models. The best model explained 70% of the total variability. Soil profiles at six locations selected along a gradient of ER showed differences related to texture (ranging from clay to sandy-clay loam, gravel content (0 to 55% and to the presence of a petrocalcic horizon. Our results prove that multi-depth ER can be used to localise permanent soil features that drive plant productivity.

  3. Parametric Study of Urban-Like Topographic Statistical Moments Relevant to a Priori Modelling of Bulk Aerodynamic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Iungo, G. Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano; Anderson, William

    2017-02-01

    For a horizontally homogeneous, neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), aerodynamic roughness length, z_0, is the effective elevation at which the streamwise component of mean velocity is zero. A priori prediction of z_0 based on topographic attributes remains an open line of inquiry in planetary boundary-layer research. Urban topographies - the topic of this study - exhibit spatial heterogeneities associated with variability of building height, width, and proximity with adjacent buildings; such variability renders a priori, prognostic z_0 models appealing. Here, large-eddy simulation (LES) has been used in an extensive parametric study to characterize the ABL response (and z_0) to a range of synthetic, urban-like topographies wherein statistical moments of the topography have been systematically varied. Using LES results, we determined the hierarchical influence of topographic moments relevant to setting z_0. We demonstrate that standard deviation and skewness are important, while kurtosis is negligible. This finding is reconciled with a model recently proposed by Flack and Schultz (J Fluids Eng 132:041203-1-041203-10, 2010), who demonstrate that z_0 can be modelled with standard deviation and skewness, and two empirical coefficients (one for each moment). We find that the empirical coefficient related to skewness is not constant, but exhibits a dependence on standard deviation over certain ranges. For idealized, quasi-uniform cubic topographies and for complex, fully random urban-like topographies, we demonstrate strong performance of the generalized Flack and Schultz model against contemporary roughness correlations.

  4. Backward Compton Scattering in Strong Uniform Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, W; Yan, M L; Huang, Wei; Xu, Wang; Yan, Mu-Lin

    2006-01-01

    In strong uniform magnetic field, the vacuum Non-Commutative Plane (NCP) caused by the lowest Landau level(LLL) effect and the QED with NCP (QED-NCP) are studied. Being similar to the theory of Quantum Hall effect, an effective filling factor $f(B)$ is introduced to character the possibility that the electrons stays on LLL. The backward Compton scattering amplitudes of QED-NCP are derived, and the differential cross sections for the process with polarized initial electrons and photons are calculated. The existing Spring-8's data has been analyzed primitively and some hints for QED-NCP effects are shown. We propose to precisely measure the differential cross sections of the backward Compton scattering in perpendicular magnetic field experimentally, which may lead to reveal the effects of QED-NCP. PACS number: 12.20.Ds; 11.10.Nx; 71.70.Di; 73.43.Fj.

  5. The Mathematical Foundations of 3D Compton Scatter Emission Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Truong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical principles of tomographic imaging using detected (unscattered X- or gamma-rays are based on the two-dimensional Radon transform and many of its variants. In this paper, we show that two new generalizations, called conical Radon transforms, are related to three-dimensional imaging processes based on detected Compton scattered radiation. The first class of conical Radon transform has been introduced recently to support imaging principles of collimated detector systems. The second class is new and is closely related to the Compton camera imaging principles and invertible under special conditions. As they are poised to play a major role in future designs of biomedical imaging systems, we present an account of their most important properties which may be relevant for active researchers in the field.

  6. Comparison between electron and neutron Compton scattering studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreh Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare two techniques: Electron Compton Scattering (ECS and neutron Compton scattering (NCS and show that using certain incident energies, both can measure the atomic kinetic energy of atoms in molecules and solids. The information obtained is related to the Doppler broadening of nuclear levels and is very useful for deducing the widths of excited levels in many nuclei in self absorption measurements. A comparison between the atomic kinetic energies measured by the two methods on the same samples is made. Some results are also compared with calculated atomic kinetic energies obtained using the harmonic approximation where the vibrational frequencies were taken from IR/Raman optical measurements. The advantages of the ECS method are emphasized.

  7. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian [Livermore, CA; Vetter, Kai M [Alameda, CA

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  8. Timelike Compton Scattering from JLAB to RHIC and LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pire, B; Wagner, J

    2012-01-01

    Timelike Compton scattering (TCS) i.e. the exclusive photoproduction of a lepton pair with large invariant mass nicely complements the already successful experimental study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). The same Generalized Parton Distributions enter both amplitudes, which offer a promissing way to access the quark and gluon nucleon structure. We review recent progress in this domain, emphasizing the fact that analyticity and factorization properties dictate the relation of the NLO corrections to TCS to those of DVCS. We also stress that data on TCS at high energy should be available soon thanks to the proposed experimental program at JLab at 12 GeV, and that, before the future high energy electron ion colliders become reality, the study of ultraperipheral collisions at the RHIC and LHC may open a window on quark and gluon GPDs at very small skewness. .

  9. Hadronic weak charges and parity-violating forward Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Spiesberger, Hubert

    2016-11-01

    Background: Parity-violating elastic electron-nucleon scattering at low momentum transfer allows one to access the nucleon's weak charge, the vector coupling of the Z -boson to the nucleon. In the Standard Model and at tree level, the weak charge of the proton is related to the weak mixing angle and accidentally suppressed, QWp ,tree=1 -4 sin2θW≈0.07 . Modern experiments aim at extracting QWp at ˜1 % accuracy. Similarly, parity nonconservation in atoms allows to access the weak charge of atomic nuclei. Purpose: We consider a novel class of radiative corrections due to the exchange of two photons, with parity violation in the hadronic/nuclear system. These corrections are prone to long-range interactions and may affect the extraction of sin2θW from the experimental data at the relevant level of precision. Methods: The two-photon exchange contribution to the parity-violating electron-proton scattering amplitude is studied in the framework of forward dispersion relations. We address the general properties of the parity-violating forward Compton scattering amplitude and use relativistic chiral perturbation theory to provide the first field-theoretical proof that it obeys a superconvergence relation. Results: We show that the significance of this new correction increases with the beam energy in parity-violating electron scattering, but the superconvergence relation protects the formal definition of the weak charge as a limit at zero-momentum transfer and zero energy. We evaluate the new correction in a hadronic model with pion loops and the Δ (1232 ) resonance, supplemented with a high-energy contribution. For the kinematic conditions of existing and upcoming experiments we show that two-photon exchange corrections with hadronic or nuclear parity violation do not pose a problem for the interpretation of the data in terms of the weak mixing angle at the present level of accuracy. Conclusions: Two-photon exchange in presence of hadronic or nuclear parity violation

  10. Photon Polarization in Photonic Crystal Fibers under Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; ZHANG Xiao-fu

    2007-01-01

    Using the quantum invariant theory and unitary transformation means, we study the influences of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering on the photon polarization in photonic crystal fibers(PCF). The results show that the photon polarization of the incident photon changes a lot due to scattered optical, and its general geometric phase factor, Hamiton number and evolution operator are definited both by the incident and scattered optical.

  11. Dual color x-rays from Thomson or Compton sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Ferrario, M.; Maroli, C.; Rau, J. V.; Ronsivalle, C.; Serafini, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Venturelli, M.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the possibility of producing two color X or γ radiation by Thomson/Compton back-scattering between a high intensity laser pulse and a two-energy level electron beam, constituted by a couple of beamlets separated in time and/or energy obtained by a photoinjector with comb laser techniques and linac velocity bunching. The parameters of the Thomson source at SPARC_LAB have been simulated, proposing a set of values for a realistic experiments.

  12. Dual color x rays from Thomson or Compton sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Ferrario, M.; Gatti, G.; Maroli, C.; Rau, J. V.; Ronsivalle, C.; Serafini, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Venturelli, M.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze the possibility of producing two-color x or γ radiation by Thomson/Compton backscattering between a high intensity laser pulse and a two-energy level electron beam, constituted by a couple of beamlets separated in time and/or energy obtained by a photoinjector with comb laser techniques and linac velocity bunching. The parameters of the Thomson source at SPARC_LAB have been simulated, proposing a set of realistic experiments.

  13. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  14. 4π FOV compact Compton camera for nuclear material investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Lee, Taewoong

    2011-10-01

    A compact Compton camera with a 4π field of view (FOV) was manufactured using the design parameters optimized with the effective choice of gamma-ray interaction order determined from a Monte Carlo simulation. The camera consisted of six CsI(Na) planar scintillators with a pixelized structure that was coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) consisting of multiple anodes connected to custom-made circuits. The size of the scintillator and each pixel was 4.4×4.4×0.5 and 0.2×0.2×0.5 cm, respectively. The total size of each detection module was only 5×5×6 cm and the distance between the detector modules was approximately 10 cm to maximize the camera performance, as calculated by the simulation. Therefore, the camera is quite portable for examining nuclear materials in areas, such as harbors or nuclear power plants. The non-uniformity of the multi-anode PMTs was corrected using a novel readout circuit. Amplitude information of the signals from the electronics attached to the scintillator-coupled multi-anode PMTs was collected using a data acquisition board (cDAQ-9178), and the timing information was sent to a FPGA (SPARTAN3E). The FPGA picked the rising edges of the timing signals, and compared the edges of the signals from six detection modules to select the coincident signal from a Compton pair only. The output of the FPGA triggered the DAQ board to send the effective Compton events to a computer. The Compton image was reconstructed, and the performance of the 4π FOV Compact camera was examined.

  15. Influences of Uncaptured Electron on Energy Conversion of Photon Compton Scattering in High Power Laser-plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing-hua; HAO Xiao-fei; HAO Dong-shan

    2004-01-01

    Using the single particle theory and the non-flexibility collision model of electron and photon, the influence of the uncaptured electrons on the energy conversion efficiency of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering in the extra stationary laser-plasma is investigated. It shows that in extra stationary laser-plasma,the uncaptured electrons make the Δω of the scattering frequency of the multi-photon Compton fall down with the increases of the incident radiation electron speed,the materials of the incident collision of electron and photon, and the number of the photons which work with the electrons at the same time. Under the modulation of the uncaptured electrons to the laser field, the energy conversion efficiency between electrons and photons will fall down with the increase of the electron incident radiation speed, using the low-power electrons for incident source, the loss can be efficiently reduced.

  16. A Compton scattering study on the Hume-Rothery mechanism of AlCu TM (TM: transition metal) quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, J. T.; Sakurai, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Yokoyama, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Nanao, S.

    2006-08-01

    The electron momentum distributions in icosahedral Al64Cu23Fe13, icosahedral Al63Cu23Ru13 and decagonal Al65Cu15Co20 quasicrystals have been studied using the high-resolution Compton scattering technique. The electron-per-atom ratios (e/a) of the quasicrystals were determined quantitatively for the first time from the Compton profiles. The radii of the Fermi spheres were evaluated from the values of e/a on the basis of the free-electron model. Comparisons between the radius of the Fermi spheres and the size of the quasi-Brillouin zones show that the icosahedral quasicrystals meet the empirical matching condition, while the decagonal quasicrystal does not do this so well. This implies that the Hume-Rothery mechanism works for the formation of the pseudogap near the Fermi level in the icosahedral quasicrystals, although it operates only slightly in the decagonal quasicrystal.

  17. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bogaerts, Annemie [Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2015-06-28

    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. C{sub x}F{sub y} (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C{sub 4}F{sub 8} reaction set used in the model. The C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  18. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  19. The Compton-Schwarzschild relations in higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    In three spatial dimensions, the Compton wavelength $(R_C \\propto M$) and Schwarzschild radius $(R_S \\propto M^{-1}$) are dual under the transformation $M \\rightarrow M_{P}^2/M$, where $M_{P}$ is the Planck mass. This suggests that there is a fundamental link -- termed the Black Hole Uncertainty Principle or Compton-Schwarzschild correspondence -- between elementary particles in the $M M_{P}$ regime. In the presence of $n$ extra dimensions, compactified on some scale $R_E$, one expects $R_S \\propto M^{1/(1+n)}$ for $R < R_E$, which breaks this duality. However, it may be restored in some circumstances because the effective Compton wavelength depends on the form of the $(3+n)$-dimensional wavefunction. If this is spherically symmetric, then one still has $R_C \\propto M^{-1}$, as in the $3$-dimensional case. The effective Planck length is then increased and the Planck mass reduced, allowing the possibility of TeV quantum gravity and black hole production at the LHC. However, if the wave function is pancaked...

  20. Silicon detector for a Compton Camera in Nuclear Medical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D; Jalocha, P; Sowicki, B; Kowal, M; Dulinski, W; Maehlum, G; Nygård, E; Yoshioka, K; Fuster, J A; Lacasta, C; Mikuz, M; Roe, S; Weilhammer, Peter; Hua, C H; Park, S J; Wilderman, S J; Zhang, L; Clinthorne, N H; Rogers, W L

    2001-01-01

    Electronically collimated gamma ca\\-me\\-ras based on Com\\-pton scattering in silicon pad sensors may improve imaging in nuclear medicine and bio-medical research. The work described here concentrates on the silicon pad detector developed for a prototype Compton camera. The silicon pad sensors are read out using low noise VLSI CMOS chips and novel fast triggering chips. Depending on the application a light weight and dense packaging of sensors and its readout electronics on a hybrid is required. We describe the silicon pad sensor and their readout with the newly designed hybrid. %The silicon detector of a Compton camera %may contain up to $10^5$~analogue channels requiring %a fast and low cost data acquisition system. We also describe a modular and low-cost data acquisition system (CCDAQ) based on a digital signal processor which is interfaced to the EPP port of personal computers. Using the CCDAQ and the hybrids energy spectra of gamma-ray photons from technetium ($^{\\rm 99m}_{43}$Tc) and americium ($^{241}_{...

  1. Electronic structure of the palladium hydride studied by compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mizusaki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Hiraoka, N; Itou, M; Sakurai, Y

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen-induced changes in the electronic structure of Pd have been investigated by Compton scattering experiments associated with theoretical calculations. Compton profiles (CPs) of single crystal of Pd and beta phase hydride PdH sub x (x=0.62-0.74) have been measured along the [100], [110] and [111] directions with a momentum resolution of 0.14-0.17 atomic units using 115 keV x-rays. The theoretical Compton profiles have been calculated from the wavefunctions obtained utilizing the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the local density approximation for Pd and stoichiometric PdH. The experimental and the theoretical results agreed well with respect to the difference in the CPs between PdH sub x and Pd, and the anisotropy in the CPs of Pd or PdH sub x. This study provides lines of evidence that upon hydride formation the lowest valance band of Pd is largely modified due to hybridization with H 1s-orbitals and the Fermi energy is raised into the sp-band. (author)

  2. Self consistent modeling of accretion columns in accretion powered pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Sebastian; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We combine three physical models to self-consistently derive the observed flux and pulse profiles of neutron stars' accretion columns. From the thermal and bulk Comptonization model by Becker & Wolff (2006) we obtain seed photon continua produced in the dense inner regions of the accretion column. In a thin outer layer these seed continua are imprinted with cyclotron resonant scattering features calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The observed phase and energy dependent flux corresponding to these emission profiles is then calculated, taking relativistic light bending into account. We present simulated pulse profiles and the predicted dependency of the observable X-ray spectrum as a function of pulse phase.

  3. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farm bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk of bovine origin is suspected of being implicated Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization is considered to reduce the concentration of MAP by at least 4 to 5 log10. This study aimed at estimating the level of MAP in milk at farm level...... super-shedders. At the prevalence of 15%, discarding milk from test positive cows would result in discarding 11% of milk and reduce the MAP level by 80%. The model was relatively simple yet capable of capturing true infection status and associated contributions from milk and feces. Further knowledge...

  4. RXTE, Chandra, and XMM Spectroscopy of the Fe-K Lines and Compton Reflection in Type 1 AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Tahir

    2004-01-01

    This award pertains to an RXTE observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Akn 120. The purpose of the observation was to measure the Fe-K emission line and the Compton reflection continuum with RXTE, simultaneously with Chandra and XMM. Such measurements can severely constrain accretion disk models of the central engine since the Fe-K line emission and Compton reflection are intimately related in terms of the physics of X-ray reprocessing in optically-thick matter. Akn 120 was selected for this study because it is amongst the brightest AGN in its class and has a particularly strong and apparently broad Fe-K emission line. The results could then also be used to lay the ground work for even higher resolution studies with Astro-E2. Unfortunately, the Chandra observation was not performed but a contemporaneous XMM observation was performed by another group of researchers. Those data recently became public and can be compared with the RXTE data. In addition, non-contemporaneous observations with other missions do still provide additional important constraints (for example any non-varying line or continuum emission components can be established and used to reject or preserve various model scenarios). We analyzed the RXTE data and found a strong Fe-K emission line (resolved even with the poor resolution of RXTE), and a strong Compton-reflection continuum (see Fig. l(a)). We found that the results of archival ASCA data on Akn 120 had not been published in the literature so we analyzed the ASCA data too, in order to compare with the new RXTE data. Fig. l(b) shows that the ASCA data also reveal a strong, broad FeK emission line (but the data are not sensitive to the Compton-reflection continuum). We compared our spectral fitting results for the RXTE and ASCA data with the results from XMM and from previous RXTE observations.

  5. Grain opacity and the bulk composition of extrasolar planets. II. An analytical model for the grain opacity in protoplanetary atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, C

    2014-01-01

    Context. We investigate the grain opacity k_gr in the atmosphere of protoplanets. This is important for the planetary mass-radius relation since k_gr affects the H/He envelope mass of low-mass planets and the critical core mass of giant planets. Aims. The goal of this study is to derive an analytical model for k_gr. Methods. Our model is based on the comparison of the timescales of microphysical processes like grain settling in the Stokes and Epstein regime, growth by Brownian motion coagulation and differential settling, grain evaporation, and grain advection due to envelope contraction. With these timescales we derive the grain size, abundance, and opacity. Results. We find that the main growth process is differential settling. In this regime, k_gr has a simple functional form and is given as 27 Q/8 H rho in the Epstein regime and as 2 Q/H rho for Stokes drag. Grain dynamics lead to a typical radial structure of k_gr with high ISM-like values in the top layers but a strong decrease in the deeper parts where...

  6. The NuSTAR view of nearby compton-thick active galactic nuclei: the cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, AND IC 2560

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balokovic´, M.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analyses for three Seyfert 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560, observed by NuSTAR in the 3-79 keV band. The high quality hard X-ray spectra allow detailed modeling of the Compton reflection component for the first time in these sources. Using...

  7. A Monte Carlo estimate for the fraction of thermal Comptonized photons that impinge back on the soft source in neutron star LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-10-01

    In earlier works, it was shown that the energy-dependent soft time lags observed in kHz quasi-periodic oscillations of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries can be explained as being due to Comptonization lags provided a significant fraction (η ˜ 0.2-0.8) of the Comptonized photons impinge back into the soft photon source. Here we use a Monte Carlo scheme to verify if such a fraction is viable or not. In particular we consider three different Comptonizing medium geometries: (i) a spherical shell, (ii) a boundary layer like torus and (iii) a corona on top of an accretion disc. Two sets of spectral parameters corresponding to the `hot' and `cold' seed photon models were explored. The general result of the study is that for a wide range of sizes, the fraction lies within η ˜ 0.3-0.7, and hence compatible with the range required to explain the soft time lags. Since there is a large uncertainty in the range, we cannot concretely rule out any of the geometries or spectral models, but the analysis suggests that a boundary layer type geometry with a `cold' seed spectral model is favoured over an accretion corona model. Better quality data will allow one to constrain the geometry more rigorously. Our results emphasize that there is significant heating of the soft photon source by the Comptonized photons and hence this effect needs to be taken into account for any detailed study of these sources.

  8. Stability analysis of implicit time discretizations for the Compton-scattering Fokker-Planck equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Warsa, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morel, Jim E [TEXAS A& M UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.

  9. A Compton reflection dominated spectrum in a peculiar accreting neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, N; Israel, G L; Matt, G; Zane, S; Segreto, A; Oosterbroek, T; Orlandini, M; Rea, Nanda; Stella, Luigi; Israel, Gian Luca; Matt, Giorgio; Zane, Silvia; Segreto, Alberto; Oosterbroek, Tim

    2005-01-01

    We report on a puzzling event occurred during a long BeppoSAX observation of the slow-rotating binary pulsar GX 1+4. During this event, lasting about 1 day, the source X-ray flux was over a factor 10 lower than normal. The low-energy pulsations disappeared while at higher energies they were shifted in phase. The spectrum taken outside this low-intensity event was well fitted by an absorbed cut-off power law, and exhibited a broad iron line at ~6.5 keV probably due to the blending of the neutral (6.4 keV) and ionised (6.7 keV) K_alpha iron lines. The spectrum during the event was Compton reflection dominated and it showed two narrow iron lines at ~6.4 keV and ~7.0 keV, the latter never revealed before in this source. We also present a possible model for this event in which a variation of the accretion rate thickens a torus-like accretion disc which hides for a while the direct neutron star emission from our line of sight. In this scenario the Compton reflected emission observed during the event is well explain...

  10. Energy Dependent Time Delays of kHz Oscillations due to Thermal Comptonization

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Nagendra

    2014-01-01

    We study the energy dependent photon variability from a thermal Comptonizing plasma that is oscillating at kHz frequencies. In particular, we solve the linearised time dependent Kompaneets equation and consider the oscillatory perturbation to be either in the soft photon source or in the heating rate of the plasma. For each case, we self consistently consider the energy balance of the plasma and the soft photon source. The model incorporates the possibility of a fraction of the Comptonized photons impinging back into the soft photon source. We find that when the oscillation is due to the soft photon source, the variation of the fractional root mean sqaure (r.m.s) is nearly constant with energy and the time-lags are hard. However, for the case when the oscillation is due to variation in the heating rate of the corona, and when a significant fraction of the photons impinge back into the soft photon source, the r.m.s increases with energy and the time lags are soft. As an example, we compare the results with the...

  11. Requirements for a Compton camera for in vivo range verification of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, H.; Priegnitz, M.; Schoene, S.; Schumann, A.; Enghardt, W.; Hueso-González, F.; Pausch, G.; Fiedler, F.

    2017-04-01

    To ensure the optimal outcome of proton therapy, in vivo range verification is highly desired. Prompt γ-ray imaging (PGI) is a possible approach for in vivo range monitoring. For PGI, dedicated detection systems, e.g. Compton cameras, are currently under investigation. The presented paper deals with substantial requirements regarding hardware and software that a Compton camera used in clinical routine has to meet. By means of GEANT4 simulations, we investigate the load on the detectors and the percentage of background expected in a realistic irradiation and we simulate γ-ray detections subsequently used as input data for the reconstruction. By reconstructing events from simulated sources of well-defined geometry, we show that large-area detectors are favourable. We investigate reconstruction results in dependence of the number of events. Finally, an end-to-end test for a realistic patient scenario is presented: starting with a treatment plan, the γ-ray emissions are calculated, the detector response is modelled, and the image reconstruction is performed. By this, the complexity of the system is shown, and requirements and limitations regarding precision and costs are determined.

  12. 基于BEKK方差模型的干散货航运市场间波动溢出效应分析%Analysis of Volatility Spillover Effect Among Dry Bulk Shipping Markets Based on BEKK Variance Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范永辉; 杨华龙; 刘金霞

    2012-01-01

    In view of the interactive relationship among handysize, panamax and capsize dry bulk shipping markets, the dry bulk freight indexes of different vessel types issued by the Baltic Shipping Exchange were employed and the volatility spillover effect among three dry bulk shipping markets of different vessel types was studied by BEKK variance model of multivariate GARCH. It is pointed that capesize dry bulk shipping market has volatility spillover effect on handysize dry bulk shipping market and panamax dry bulk shipping market while handysize dry bulk shipping market and panamax dry bulk shipping market have no volatility spillover effect on capesize dry bulk shipping market, and there is a two-way volatility spillover effect between handysize dry bulk shipping market and panamax dry bulk shipping market. Wald test verified the correctness of above inference. The results can provide references for dry bulk shipping operators to avoid risk of market volatility.%针对灵便型、巴拿马型和海岬型干散货航运市场间的互动关系问题,选取波罗的海干散货运价指数,应用多元广义自回归条件异方差中的BEKK方差分析模型,研究了干散货航运市场间的波动溢出效应.发现海岬型干散货航运市场对灵便型和巴拿马型干散货航运市场存在波动溢出效应,而灵便型和巴拿马型干散货航运市场对海岬型干散货航运市场不存在波动溢出效应,灵便型干散货航运市场和巴拿马型干散货航运市场之间存在双向波动溢出效应,Wald检验验证了上述结论的正确性.从而可为航运经营者规避干散货航运市场波动风险提供决策参考.

  13. Geological evolution of the marine selenium cycle: Insights from the bulk shale δ82/76Se record and isotope mass balance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kristen; Mansoor, Sannan Z.; Mason, Paul R. D.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Bulk δ82/76Se values of representative marine shales from the Paleoarchean to the present day vary between approximately -3 and + 3 ‰ with only local deviations beyond this range. This muted Se isotope variability in the shale record contrasts with the relatively large fractionations associated with abiotic and microbial Se oxyanion reduction seen in experimental studies. Long-term temporal trends in the bulk shale data do not directly correlate with changes in redox conditions of the global ocean, although a minor but significant shift towards more negative formation-averaged δ82/76Se values appears to track oxygenation of the deep ocean at the end of the Proterozoic. We hypothesize that extensive δ82/76Se variability in the shale data was suppressed due to the early emergence of biological assimilatory uptake and the resulting persistence of low seawater Se concentrations, coupled with small authigenic Se outputs throughout most of geological time. In the modern ocean, Se is an essential micronutrient with a relatively short residence time of about 11,500 yrs. The marine Se cycle is dominated by assimilation into biomass and subsequent recycling in the water column and surface sediments, i.e. processes that result in only minimal isotopic fractionation. We suggest that similar processes dominated back through the geological record to Archean times. Our model shows that paleoceanographic information could in principle be extracted from proxy data on the Se isotopic composition of seawater, once isotopic differences can be readily discerned between individual sedimentary Se pools.

  14. Final state interaction and temperature effects in Compton scattering from lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Sternemann, C

    2000-01-01

    of the valence electron Compton profile with increasing temperature. The Compton profile measured at 95 K is above the room temperature profile around the Fermi momentum and below at the Compton peak. No temperature dependence of the core electron contribution to the Compton profile is detected. The temperature effect is confronted with a temperature dependent jellium calculation and with computations utilizing an empirical local pseudopotential, where in the pseudopotential calculation the influence of temperature is considered via the Debye-Waller factor. With respect to the calculations the temperature effect is attributed to the lattice expansion and to the diminishing of the high momentum component contribution to the Compton profile with increasing temperature. This thesis presents measurements of lithium Compton profiles with an incident energy around 9 keV and a momentum space resolution of 0.02 a.u. to investigate the effect of final state interaction and thus to test the validity of the impulse appr...

  15. A Unified Monte Carlo Treatment of Gas-Grain Chemistry for Large Reaction Networks. II. A Multiphase Gas-Surface-Layered Bulk Model

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyunin, A I

    2012-01-01

    The observed gas-phase molecular inventory of hot cores is believed to be significantly impacted by the products of chemistry in interstellar ices. In this study, we report the construction of a full macroscopic Monte Carlo model of both the gas-phase chemistry and the chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. Our model treats icy grain mantles in a layer-by-layer manner, which incorporates laboratory data on ice desorption correctly. The ice treatment includes a distinction between a reactive ice surface and an inert bulk. The treatment also distinguishes between zeroth and first order desorption, and includes the entrapment of volatile species in more refractory ice mantles. We apply the model to the investigation of the chemistry in hot cores, in which a thick ice mantle built up during the previous cold phase of protostellar evolution undergoes surface reactions and is eventually evaporated. For the first time, the impact of a detailed multilayer approach to grain mantle formation on ...

  16. Inefficient Driving of Bulk Turbulence by Active Galactic Nuclei in a Hydrodynamic Model of the Intracluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Christopher S; Schekochihin, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Central jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN) appear to heat the core regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) in cooling-core galaxy clusters and groups, thereby preventing a cooling catastrophe. However, the physical mechanism(s) by which the directed flow of kinetic energy is thermalized throughout the ICM core remains unclear. We examine one widely discussed mechanism whereby the AGN induces subsonic turbulence in the ambient medium, the dissipation of which provides the ICM heat source. Through controlled inviscid 3-d hydrodynamic simulations, we verify that explosive AGN-like events can launch gravity waves (g-modes) into the ambient ICM which in turn decay to volume-filling turbulence. In our model, however, this process is found to be inefficient, with less than 1% of the energy injected by the AGN activity actually ending up in the turbulence of the ambient ICM. This efficiency is an order of magnitude or more too small to explain the observations of AGN-feedback in galaxy clusters and groups with shor...

  17. Monitoring mRNA and protein levels in bulk and in model vesicle-based artificial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nies, Pauline; Canton, Alicia Soler; Nourian, Zohreh; Danelon, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    With rising interest in utilizing cell-free gene expression systems in bottom-up synthetic biology projects, novel labeling tools need to be developed to accurately report the dynamics and performance of the biosynthesis machinery operating in various reaction conditions. Monitoring the transcription activity has been simplified by the Spinach technology, an RNA aptamer that emits fluorescence upon binding to a small organic dye. Recently, we tracked the fluorescence of Spinach-tagged messenger RNA (mRNA) and its translation product the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), both synthesized in the protein synthesis using recombinant elements system from a DNA template. Building on our previous study, we describe here an improved Spinach reporter with modified flanking sequences that confer higher propensity for aptamer folding and, thus, enhanced fluorescence brightness. Hence, the kinetics of mRNA and YFP production could be simultaneously monitored with unprecedented sensitivity. A combination of methodologies, comprising RNA gel analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, absorbance measurements, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, was used to convert fluorescence intensity units into absolute concentrations of transcript and YFP translational product. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the new Spinach construct greatly enhanced mRNA detection when gene expression was confined inside self-assembled lipid vesicles. Therefore, we argue that this assay could be used to evaluate systematically the performance of transcription and translation in model vesicle-based artificial cells.

  18. A magnetic Compton scattering study of NpNiGa{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, S. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)]. E-mail: satoshi@spring8.or.jp; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Itou, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Aoki, D. [Institute for Materials Science, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamamoto, E. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Homma, Y. [Institute for Materials Science, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Haga, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, A. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Science, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2006-05-01

    We have performed the first magnetic Compton scattering study of a transuranium compound, NpNiGa{sub 5}. We have measured magnetic Compton profiles in two magnetic ordered phases of this compound. The magnetic Compton profiles in both ordered phases indicate that ferromagnetic components exist in the ordered phases. The signs of the magnetic effects suggest that the contribution of the 5f electrons of Np atoms is dominant to the total spin moments in the ordered phases.

  19. Spectral signatures of dissipative standing shocks and mass outflow in presence of Comptonization around a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Santanu; Debnath, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Accretion flows having positive specific energy are known to produce outflows and winds which escape to a large distance. According to Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model, centrifugal pressure dominated region of the flow just outside the black hole horizon, with or without shocks, acts as the base of this outflow. Electrons from this region are depleted due to the wind and consequently, energy transfer rate due to inverse Comptonization of low energy photons are affected. Specifically, it becomes easier to cool this region and emerging spectrum is softened. Our main goal is to show spectral softening due to mass outflow in presence of Compton cooling. To achieve this, we modify Rankine-Hugoniot relationships at the shock front when post-shock region suffers mass loss due to winds and energy loss due to inverse Comptonization. We solve two-temperature equations governing an accretion flow around a black hole which include Coulomb exchange between protons and electrons and other major radiative processes...

  20. Specific promoter deacetylation of histone H3 is conserved across mouse models of Huntington's disease in the absence of bulk changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiretti, Deisy; Sempere, Ana; Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Barco, Angel; Valor, Luis M

    2016-05-01

    Defective epigenetic regulation has been postulated as a possible cause for the extensive and premature transcriptional dysregulation observed in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD). In this study, we extended our observations in the N171-82Q mouse strain relating to the limited impact of polyQ pathology on the global histone acetylation to other animal and cellular models of HD, namely the R6/1 and YAC128 strains, striatal-electroporated mice, primary neuronal cultures and stably transfected PC12 cells. In the absence of bulk chromatin changes, we nonetheless documented histone deacetylation events at the transcription start sites (TSS) of genes relevant to neuronal functions (e.g., Rin1, Plk5, Igfbp5, Eomes, and Fos). In some instances, these local deficits were associated with an increased susceptibility to transcriptional dysregulation (e.g., Camk1g and Rasl11b) and the defective trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), another covalent modification of histone tails that is related to active transcription and is also altered in HD. Overall, this study provides further insight into the nature and extent of epigenetic dysregulation in HD pathology.

  1. Test of Lorentz Invarience from Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Narayan, Amrendra

    2015-01-01

    In the recent times, test of Lorentz Invariance has been used as a means to probe theories of physics beyond the standard model, especially those such as extensions to String Theory and Quantum Gravity. Tests of Lorentz invariance could go a long way in setting the stage for possible quantum gravity theories which are beyond the standard model. We describe a simple way of utilizing the polarimeters, which are a critical beam instrument at precision and intensity frontier nuclear physics labs such as Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab (JLab), to limit the dependence of speed of light with the energy of the photons. Furthermore, we also describe a way of limiting directional dependence of speed of light at previously unprecedented levels of precision by studying the sidereal variations. We obtain a limit of MSME parameters: $\\sqrt{\\kappa_X^2 + \\kappa_Y^2} < 2.4 \\times 10^{-17}$ and $\\sqrt{\\left( 2c_{TX} - (\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ} \\right)^2 + \\left( 2c_{TY} - (\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{...

  2. Momentum densities and Compton profiles of alkali-metal atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranab Sarkar; Anupam Sarkar; S N Roy; B Talukdar

    2003-03-01

    It is assumed that the dynamics of valence electrons of alkali-metal atoms can be well accounted for by a quantum-defect theoretic model while the core electrons may be supposed to move in a self-consistent field. This model is used to study the momentum properties of atoms from 3Li to 37Rb. The numerical results obtained for the momentum density, moments of momentum density and Compton profile are found to be in good agreement with the results of more detailed configuration-interaction calculations for the atom 3Li. Similar results for 11Na, 19K and 37Rb are compared with the corresponding Hartree–Fock–Roothaan values only, for want of data from other realistic calculations.

  3. Inverse Compton X-ray Emission from Supernovae with Compact Progenitors: Application to SN2011fe

    CERN Document Server

    Margutti, R; Chomiuk, L; Chevalier, R; Hurley, K; Milisavljevic, D; Foley, R J; Hughes, J P; Slane, P; Fransson, C; Moe, M; Barthelmy, S; Boynton, W; Briggs, M; Connaughton, V; Costa, E; Cummings, J; Del Monte, E; Enos, H; Fellows, C; Feroci, M; Fukazawa, Y; Gehrels, N; Goldsten, J; Golovin, D; Hanabata, Y; Harshman, K; Krimm, H; Litvak, M L; Makishima, K; Marisaldi, M; Mitrofanov, I G; Murakami, T; Ohno, M; Palmer, D M; Sanin, A B; Starr, R; Svinkin, D

    2012-01-01

    We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN2011fe using Swift-XRT, UVOT and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a "normal" SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass loss rate to be lower than 2x10^-9 M_sun/yr (3sigma c.l.) for wind velocity v_w=100 km/s. Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN2011fe and argues against Roche-lobe overflowing subgiants and main sequence secondary stars if >1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (particle density < 150 cm-3) for (2x10^15bulk of material being confined within the binary system or ...

  4. Testing of the BGO Compton-suppression detectors for gammasphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Annan, G.A. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Gammasphere, the national {gamma}-ray facility, when completed will consist of 110 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The bismuth germanate (BGO) Compton-suppression detector system for each Ge detector consists of one tapered hexagonal BGO side shield and one slotted BGO back plug. Due to the geometry of the array, three types of annular shields are required. These types are referred to as B, C and D, and the array consists of 60, 30 and 20 of these units, respectively. Shield types B, C and D have a hexagonal geometry. They are divided into six optically separate sections, each with its own pair of photomultiplier tubes. Argonne assumed responsibility for the procurement and testing of the BGO Compton-suppression units. We received all detectors from the two vendors. In the past year, twenty-four of the B-type detectors were delivered to Stony Brook for evaluation tests. Since the number of crystals to test is quite large (six per detector), we involved undergraduate students working at ANL under the Department of Educational Programs (DEP) in this effort. The quality of students was excellent, and they played a major role in the performance testing of these detectors. Ninety-nine of the hexagonal side shields and 112 backplug detectors were shipped to LBL for use in Gammasphere. The remaining detectors did not meet the performance criteria when they were first delivered and tested and are either at the vendor being repaired or were returned to us for retesting. We anticipate that the remaining detectors will be ready for use in Gammasphere within the next few months.

  5. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  6. Polarization of final electrons in the Compton effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotkin, G.L.; Polityko, S.I.; Serbo, V.G. [Novosibirskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    A final electron polarization is calculated for scattering of a polarized photon by a polarized electron. The electron polarization is obtained in terms of the electron helicity and the transverse polarization vector in an arbitrary frame of reference. As an example, we consider the Compton scattering of high energy electrons off a laser beam in the set-up which is important for future {gamma}{gamma} and {gamma}e colliders. In this case we find that the polarization effects are significant and should be taken into account in calculating multiple electron scattering by a laser beam. (orig.). 10 refs.

  7. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, D J; Aniol, K A; Annand, J R M; Bertin, P Y; Bimbot, L; Bosted, P; Calarco, J R; Camsonne, A; Chang, G C; Chang, T H; Chen, J P; Seonho Choi; Chudakov, E; Danagulyan, A S; Degtyarenko, P; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Egiyan, K; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; Howell, C; Hunyady, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Khandaker, M; Ketikyan, A; Koubarovski, V; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moussiegt, P; Nanda, S; Nathan, A M; Nikolenko, D M; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Paschke, K; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Punjabi, V A; Rachek, Igor A; Radyushkin, A V; Reitz, B; Roché, R; Roedelbronn, M; Ron, G; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Savvinov, N; Shahinyan, A; Shestakov, Yu V; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Stoler, P; Tajima, S; Sulkosky, V; Todor, L; Vlahovic, B; Weinstein, L B; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Voskanyan, H; Xiang, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 (GeV/c)**2 and \\t=-4.0 (GeV/c)**2 via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton and in disagreement with a prediction of pQCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism.

  8. Quantum radiation reaction effects in multiphoton Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Piazza, A; Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Keitel, C H

    2010-11-26

    Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify the quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of the radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.

  9. Two-photon Compton process in pulsed intense laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D

    2012-01-01

    Based on strong-field QED in the Furry picture we use the Dirac-Volkov propagator to derive a compact expression for the differential emission probability of the two-photon Compton process in a pulsed intense laser field. The relation of real and virtual intermediate states is discussed, and the natural regularization of the on-shell contributions due to the finite laser pulse is highlighted. The inclusive two-photon spectrum is two orders of magnitude stronger than expected from a perturbative estimate.

  10. Filtered back-projection algorithm for Compton telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Donald L.

    2008-03-18

    A method for the conversion of Compton camera data into a 2D image of the incident-radiation flux on the celestial sphere includes detecting coincident gamma radiation flux arriving from various directions of a 2-sphere. These events are mapped by back-projection onto the 2-sphere to produce a convolution integral that is subsequently stereographically projected onto a 2-plane to produce a second convolution integral which is deconvolved by the Fourier method to produce an image that is then projected onto the 2-sphere.

  11. Time Projection Compton Spectrometer (TPCS). User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landron, C.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baldwin, G.T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1994-04-01

    The Time Projection Compton Spectrometer (TPCS) is a radiation diagnostic designed to determine the time-integrated energy spectrum between 100 keV -- 2 MeV of flash x-ray sources. This guide is intended as a reference for the routine operator of the TPCS. Contents include a brief overview of the principle of operation, detailed component descriptions, detailed assembly and disassembly procedures, guide to routine operations, and troubleshooting flowcharts. Detailed principle of operation, signal analysis and spectrum unfold algorithms are beyond the scope of this guide; however, the guide makes reference to sources containing this information.

  12. Optimization of the performance of a pixellated germanium Compton camera

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoggali, W.

    2015-01-01

    A planar HPGe Compton camera for nuclear medicine applications that contains 177 pixels of 4 × 4mm2, of which 25 are at the back detector, is being used to image point sources of Cs137, line sources and clinical-like shape distributed sources. Experimental results are obtained to study the e ffects of energy resolution, position sensitivity, and reconstruction algorithms on camera images. Preamplifi ed pulses are digitized for pulse shape analysis using gamma ray tracking GRT4s data acquisiti...

  13. Magnetic Bunch Compression for a Compact Compton Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamage, B. [ODU; Satogata, Todd J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    A compact electron accelerator suitable for Compton source applications is in design at the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University and Jefferson Lab. Here we discuss two options for transverse magnetic bunch compression and final focus, each involving a 4-dipole chicane with M_{56} tunable over a range of 1.5-2.0m with independent tuning of final focus to interaction point $\\beta$*=5mm. One design has no net bending, while the other has net bending of 90 degrees and is suitable for compact corner placement.

  14. A hard X-ray polarimeter utilizing Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, H.; Noma, M.; Niizeki, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a 50-cm-diam prototype of a novel Compton-scattering-type polarimeter for hard X-rays in the energy range 30-100 keV. The characteristics of the prototype polarimeter were investigated for various conditions. It was found that, with polarized X-rays from a simple polarizer, the detection efficiency and the modulation factor of the polarimeter with a 40-mm thick scatterer were 3.2 percent and 0.57 percent, respectively, at about 60 keV.

  15. Compton scattering from chiral dynamics with unitarity and causality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, A.M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lutz, M.F.M., E-mail: m.lutz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Pasquini, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia and INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Proton Compton scattering is analyzed with the chiral Lagrangian. Partial-wave amplitudes are obtained by an analytic extrapolation of subthreshold reaction amplitudes computed in chiral perturbation theory, where the constraints set by electromagnetic-gauge invariance, causality and unitarity are used to stabilize the extrapolation. We present and discuss predictions for various spin observables and polarizabilities of the proton. While for the transition polarizabilities {gamma}{sub E1M2}, {gamma}{sub M1E2} we recover the results of strict chiral perturbation theory, for the diagonal {gamma}{sub E1E1}, {gamma}{sub M1M1} elements we find significant effects from rescattering.

  16. The Construction and Validation of All-Atom Bulk-Phase Models of Amorphous Polymers Using the TIGER2/TIGER3 Empirical Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianfeng; Murthy, Sanjeeva; Latour, Robert A

    2011-07-12

    A new empirical sampling method termed "temperature intervals with global exchange of replicas and reduced radii" (TIGER3) is presented and demonstrated to efficiently equilibrate entangled long-chain molecular systems such as amorphous polymers. The TIGER3 algorithm is a replica exchange method in which simulations are run in parallel over a range of temperature levels at and above a designated baseline temperature. The replicas sampled at temperature levels above the baseline are run through a series of cycles with each cycle containing four stages - heating, sampling, quenching, and temperature level reassignment. The method allows chain segments to pass through one another at elevated temperature levels during the sampling stage by reducing the van der Waals radii of the atoms, thus eliminating chain entanglement problems. Atomic radii are then returned to their regular values and re-equilibrated at elevated temperature prior to quenching to the baseline temperature. Following quenching, replicas are compared using a Metropolis Monte Carlo exchange process for the construction of an approximate Boltzmann-weighted ensemble of states and then reassigned to the elevated temperature levels for additional sampling. Further system equilibration is performed by periodic implementation of the previously developed TIGER2 algorithm between cycles of TIGER3, which applies thermal cycling without radii reduction. When coupled with a coarse-grained modeling approach, the combined TIGER2/TIGER3 algorithm yields fast equilibration of bulk-phase models of amorphous polymer, even for polymers with complex, highly branched structures. The developed method was tested by modeling the polyethylene melt. The calculated properties of chain conformation and chain segment packing agreed well with published data. The method was also applied to generate equilibrated structural models of three increasingly complex amorphous polymer systems: poly(methyl methacrylate), poly

  17. Critical remarks on the electron (positron) beam polarization by Compton scattering on circular polarized laser photons

    CERN Document Server

    Kotkin, G L; Telnov, V I

    2003-01-01

    In a number of papers an attractive method of laser polarization of electrons (positrons) at storage rings or linear colliders have been proposed. We show that these suggestions are incorrect and based on errors in simulation of multiple Compton scattering and in calculation of the Compton spin-flip cross sections. We argue that the equilibrium polarization in this method is zero.

  18. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  19. The Compton Camera - medical imaging with higher sensitivity Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Compton Camera reconstructs the origin of Compton-scattered X-rays using electronic collimation with Silicon pad detectors instead of the heavy conventional lead collimators in Anger cameras - reaching up to 200 times better sensitivity and a factor two improvement in resolution. Possible applications are in cancer diagnosis, neurology neurobiology, and cardiology.

  20. Observation of redshifting and harmonic radiation in inverse Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y.; Pogorelsky, I.; Williams, O.; O'Shea, F.; Barber, S.; Gadjev, I.; Duris, J.; Musumeci, P.; Fedurin, M.; Korostyshevsky, A.; Malone, B.; Swinson, C.; Stenby, G.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Montemagno, M.; Jacob, P.; Zhong, Z.; Polyanskiy, M.; Yakimenko, V.; Rosenzweig, J.

    2015-06-01

    Inverse Compton scattering of laser photons by ultrarelativistic electron beam provides polarized x- to γ -ray pulses due to the Doppler blueshifting. Nonlinear electrodynamics in the relativistically intense linearly polarized laser field changes the radiation kinetics established during the Compton interaction. These are due to the induced figure-8 motion, which introduces an overall redshift in the radiation spectrum, with the concomitant emission of higher order harmonics. To experimentally analyze the strong field physics associated with the nonlinear electron-laser interaction, clear modifications to the angular and wavelength distributions of x rays are observed. The relativistic photon wave field is provided by the ps CO2 laser of peak normalized vector potential of 0.5 laser [M. Babzien et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 054802 (2006)]. The angular spectral characteristics are revealed using K -, L -edge, and high energy attenuation filters. The observation indicates existence of the electrons' longitudinal motion through frequency redshifting understood as the mass shift effect. Thus, the 3rd harmonic radiation has been observed containing on-axis x-ray component that is directly associated with the induced figure-8 motion. These are further supported by an initial evidence of off-axis 2nd harmonic radiation produced in a circularly polarized laser wave field. Total x-ray photon number per pulse, scattered by 65 MeV electron beam of 0.3 nC, at the interaction point is measured to be approximately 109 .

  1. The polarization effect of a laser in multiphoton Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guo-Hua; Lü, Qing-Zheng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Li, Ying-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The multiphoton Compton scattering in a high-intensity laser beam is studied by using the laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics (QED) method, which is a non-perturbative theory for the interaction between a plane electromagnetic field and a charged particle. In order to analyze in the real experimental condition, a Lorentz transformation for the cross section of this process is derived between the laboratory frame and the initial rest frame of electrons. The energy of the scattered photon is analyzed, as well as the cross sections for different laser intensities and polarizations and different electron velocities. The angular distribution of the emitted photon is investigated in a special velocity of the electron, in which for a fixed number of absorbed photons, the electron energy will not change after the scattering in the lab frame. We obtain the conclusion that higher laser intensities suppress few-laser-photon absorption and enhance more-laser-photon absorption. A comparison between different polarizations is also made, and we find that the linearly polarized laser is more suitable to generate nonlinear Compton scattering.

  2. Recent Deuteron Compton Scattering Results and Extracted Neutron Polarizabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers L.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The COMPTON@MAX-lab collaboration has recently published a new measurement of elastic photon scattering from deuterium using tagged photons at the MAX IV Laboratory [1]. The experiment utilized the Tagged Photon Facility at MAX IV and three of the largest NaI(Tl detectors in the world. Correction terms to the cross section were determined via Monte Carlo simulations [2, 3] and were confirmed by comparisons to the well-known 12C(γ,γ12C reaction [4]. These results represent the most extensive data on deuteron Compton scattering ever measured and effectively double the world data set. In addition, the energy range overlaps previous experiments and extends nearly 20 MeV higher where the sensitivity to the polarizabilities is enhanced. As a result, we have obtained the neutron polarizabilities as αn=[11.55 ± 1.25(stat ± 0.2(BSR ± 0.8(th] × 10−4 fm3 and βn=[3.65 ∓ 1.25(stat ± 0.2(BSR ± 0.8(th] × 10−4 fm3, which represents a 30% reduction in the statistical uncertainty.

  3. Compton profile study and electronic properties of tantalum diboride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykar, Veera; Bhamu, K C; Ahuja, B L

    2013-07-01

    We have reported the first-ever experimental Compton profile (CP) of TaB2 using 20 Ci(137)Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed the theoretical CPs using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and Hartree-Fock (HF) within linear combination of the atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. In addition, we have reported energy bands and density of states of TaB2 using LCAO and full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) methods. A real space analysis of CP of TaB2 confirms its metallic character which is in tune with the cross-overs of Fermi level by energy bands and Fermi surface topology. A comparison of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) experimental profiles of isoelectronic TaB2 and NbB2 show more covalent (or less ionic) character of TaB2 than that of NbB2 which is in agreement with available ionicity data.

  4. Status of the inverse Compton backscattering source at Daresbury Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priebe, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gerd.priebe@stfc.ac.uk; Filippetto, D. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Williams, O. [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Physics and Astronomy, CA (United States); Saveliev, Y.M.; Jones, L.B. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Laundy, D.; MacDonald, M.A.; Diakun, G.P. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.J. [Electronic and Physics Department, Dundee University, Nethergate (United Kingdom); Jamison, S.P. [Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Spohr, K.M. [School of Engineering and Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Ter-Avetisyan, S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Hirst, G.J. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Collier, J. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea (United Kingdom); Seddon, E.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Smith, S.L. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-01

    Inverse Compton scattering is a promising method to implement a high-brightness, ultra-short, energy tuneable X-ray source at accelerator facilities and at laser facilities using laser wake-field acceleration. We have developed an inverse Compton X-ray source driven by the multi-10-TW laser installed at Daresbury Laboratory. Polarized X-ray pulses will be generated through the interaction of laser pulses with electron bunches delivered by the energy recovery linac commissioned at the ALICE facility with spectral peaks ranging from 0.4 to 12 A, depending on the electron bunch energy and the scattering geometry. X-ray pulses containing up to 10{sup 7} photons per pulse will be created from head-on collisions, with a pulse duration comparable to the incoming electron bunch length. For transverse collisions the laser pulse transit time defines the X-ray pulse duration. The peak spectral brightness is predicted to be up to 10{sup 21} photon/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% {delta}{lambda}/{lambda}). Called COBALD, this source will be initially used as a short-pulse diagnostic for the ALICE electron beam and will explore the extreme challenges of photon/electron beam synchronization, which is a fundamental requirement for all conventional accelerator and laser wake-field-acceleration-based sources.

  5. Compton Scattering of Quasi-Real Virtual Photons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering of quasi-real virtual photons, gamma e+- -> gamma e+-, is studied with 0.6fb-1 of data collected by the L3 detector at the LEP e+e- collider at centre-of-mass energies root(s')=189-209GeV. About 4500 events produced by the interaction of virtual photons emitted by e+- of one beam with e-+ of the opposite beam are collected for effective centre-of-mass energies of the photon-electron and photon-positron systems in the range from root(s')= 35GeV up to root(s')=175GeV, the highest energy at which Compton scattering was ever probed. The cross sections of the gamma e+- -> gamma e+- process as a function of root(s') and of the rest-frame scattering angle are measured, combined with previous L3 measurements down to root(s')~20GeV, and found to agree with the QED expectations.

  6. Higher-dimensional catastrophes in nonlinear Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Vasily; Seipt, Daniel; Rykovanov, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    The Compton scattering of the light on the accelerated electron beam is a valuable tool for generating tunable wide range X- and γ-radiation.However, the cross-section of the scattering is relatively low. That is, in order to obtain bright X-rays one naturally may consider increasing the intensity of the incident light. Passing to relativistic values of laser intensity significantly changes scattering mechanism. Precise QED analysis of the scattered spectra leads to the study of the corresponding elements of S-matrix. Evaluation is usually performed numerically (except cases of specific pulse shapes and scattering angles). We argue that the problem of extracting the scattered spectra in nonlinear Compton scattering of the pulse can be reformulated in terms of studying properties of projection map of specific surfaces associated to the pulse. They are stable with respect to initial conditions, and the brightest regions of the spectrum appear to be in correspondence with the singularities of the projection map, also known as caustics in pure mathematics, diffraction optics and cosmology. Work was supported by the Helmholtz Association (Helmholtz Young Investigators group VH-NG-1037).

  7. The Effect of Molecular Structure and Environment on the Miscibility and Diffusivity in Polythiophene-Methanofullerene Bulk Heterojunctions: Theory and Modeling with the RISM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Kobryn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although better means to model the properties of bulk heterojunction molecular blends are much needed in the field of organic optoelectronics, only a small subset of methods based on molecular dynamics- and Monte Carlo-based approaches have been hitherto employed to guide or replace empirical characterization and testing. Here, we present the first use of the integral equation theory of molecular liquids in modelling the structural properties of blends of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM with poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and a carboxylated poly(3-butylthiophene (P3BT, respectively. For this, we use the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM with the Universal Force Field (UFF to compute the microscopic structure of blends and obtain insight into the miscibility of its components. Input parameters for RISM, such as optimized molecular geometries and charge distribution of interaction sites, are derived by the Density Functional Theory (DFT methods. We also run Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation to compare the diffusivity of the PCBM in binary blends with P3HT and P3BT, respectively. A remarkably good agreement with available experimental data and results of alternative modelling/simulation is observed for PCBM in the P3HT system. We interpret this as a step in the validation of the use of our approach for organic photovoltaics and support of its results for new systems that do not have reference data for comparison or calibration. In particular, for the less-studied P3BT, our results show that expectations about its performance in binary blends with PCBM may be overestimated, as it does not demonstrate the required level of miscibility and short-range structural organization. In addition, the simulated mobility of PCBM in P3BT is somewhat higher than what is expected for polymer blends and falls into a range typical for fluids. The significance of our predictive multi-scale modelling lies in the insights it offers into nanoscale

  8. Scaling Tests of the Cross Section for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Camacho, C; Mazouz, M; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2006-01-01

    We present the first measurements of \\vec{e}p->epg cross section in the deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region (x_{Bj}=0.36). From JLab E00-110, we extract the imaginary part of the Bethe-Heitler (BH)--DVCS interference terms, to order twist-3 for Q^2 = 1.5, 1.9, and 2.3 GeV^2, and the real part of the BH-DVCS interference terms at Q^2 = 2.3 GeV^2. We present the first model-independent measurement of linear combinations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and GPD integrals up to twist-3 approximation. The validity of this approximation is strongly supported by the absence of Q^2-variation of the extracted terms -- thereby constraining the size of higher twist contributions to our observables.

  9. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, J-P; Moricciani, D; Bellini, V; Beretta, M; Casano, L; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Gurzadyan, V G; Kashin, A; Knyazyan, S; Lapik, A; Lehnert, R; Levi Sandri, P; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Margarian, A; Mehrabyan, S; Messi, R; Nedorezov, V; Perrin, C; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2010-06-18

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropies representing the first nonthreshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal standard-model extension, this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6×10(-14) at 95% confidence level on a combination of the parity-violating photon and electron coefficients (κ(o+))(YZ), (κ(o+))(ZX), c(TX), and c(TY). This new constraint provides an improvement over previous bounds by 1 order of magnitude.

  10. Compton Scattering in Ultra-Strong Magnetic Fields Numerical and Analytical Behavior in the Relativistic Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Gonthier, P L; Baring, M G; Costello, R M; Mercer, C L; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.; Baring, Matthew G.; Costello, Rachel M.; Mercer, Cassandra L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of strong magnetic fields on the Compton scattering of relativistic electrons. Recent studies of upscattering and energy loss by relativistic electrons that have used the non-relativistic, magnetic Thomson cross section for resonant scattering or the Klein-Nishina cross section for non-resonant scattering do not account for the relativistic quantum effects of strong fields ($ > 4 \\times 10^{12}$ G). We have derived a simplified expression for the exact QED scattering cross section for the broadly-applicable case where relativistic electrons move along the magnetic field. To facilitate applications to astrophysical models, we have also developed compact approximate expressions for both the differential and total polarization-dependent cross sections, with the latter representing well the exact total QED cross section even at the high fields believed to be present in environments near the stellar surfaces of Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars. We find that stron...

  11. Compton scattered imaging based on the V-line radon transform and its medical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M K; Regniery, R; Truong, T T; Zaidi, H

    2010-01-01

    The Radon transform (RT) on straight lines deals as mathematical foundation for many tomographic modalities (e.g. Xray scanner, Positron Emission Tomography), using only primary radiation. In this paper, we consider a new RT defined on a pair of half-lines forming a letter V, arising from the modeling a two-dimensional emission imaging process by Compton scattered gamma rays. We establish its analytic inverse, which is shown to support the feasibility of the reconstruction of a two-dimensional image from scattered radiation collected on a one-dimensional collimated camera. Moreover, a filtered back-projection inversion method is also constructed. Its main advantages are algorithmic efficiency and computational rapidity. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the working. To sum up, the V-line RT leads not only to a new imaging principle, but also to a new concept of detector with high energetic resolution capable to collect the scattered radiation.

  12. Radiative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X

    2001-01-01

    Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.

  13. Analysis of the factors that affect photon counts in Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guang; Xiao, Guangyu

    2014-10-30

    Compton scattering has been applied in a variety of fields. The factors that affect Compton scattering have been studied extensively in the literature. However, the factors that affect the measured photon counts in Compton scattering are rarely considered. In this paper, we make a detailed discussion on those factors. First, Compton scattering experiments of some alloy series and powder mixture series are explored. Second, the electron density is researched in terms of atom and lattice constants. Third, the factor of attenuation coefficient is discussed. And then, the active degree of electrons is discussed based on the DFT theory. Lastly, the conclusions are made, that the factors affecting Compton scattering photon counts include mainly electron number density, attenuation coefficient and active degree of electrons.

  14. Densitometry and temperature measurement of combustion gas by X-ray Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Hiroshi, E-mail: sakuraih@gunma-u.ac.jp [Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kawahara, Nobuyuki [Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji [Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Suzuki, Kosuke [Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-02-17

    Measurement of combustion gas by high-energy X-ray Compton scattering is reported. Measurement of combustion gas by high-energy X-ray Compton scattering is reported. The intensity of Compton-scattered X-rays has shown a position dependence across the flame of the combustion gas, allowing us to estimate the temperature distribution of the combustion flame. The energy spectra of Compton-scattered X-rays have revealed a significant difference across the combustion reaction zone, which enables us to detect the combustion reaction. These results demonstrate that high-energy X-ray Compton scattering can be employed as an in situ technique to probe inside a combustion reaction.

  15. DETERMINING THE COVERING FACTOR OF COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightman, M.; Baloković, M.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronoma, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, M. [SNSF Ambizione Fellow, Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); LaMassa, S. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2015-05-20

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N{sub H} > 1.5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N{sub H} measured from 10{sup 24} to 10{sup 26} cm{sup −2}, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f{sub c}, is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosity, L{sub X}, where f{sub c} = (−0.41 ± 0.13)log{sub 10}(L{sub X}/erg s{sup −1})+18.31 ± 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L{sub X} (10{sup 41.5}–10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of L{sub X} as determined by studies of local AGNs with L{sub X} > 10{sup 42.5} erg s{sup −1}.

  16. Synchrotron self-Compton flaring of TeV blazars. I. Linear electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Röken, C.

    2008-01-01

    The vast improvement of the sensitivity of modern ground-based air Cherenkov telescopes, together with the sensitive flux measurements at lower frequencies, requires accurate elaborations of the theoretical radiation models for flaring blazars. Here the flaring of TeV blazars due to the synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) process is considered. We assume that, at the moment t=t_0, a flare in the emission knot occurs due to the instantaneous injection of monoenergetic (E_0) ultrarelativistic electrons. The ultrarelativistic electrons are injected uniformly over the knot volume and at later times are subject to linear synchrotron radiation cooling in a magnetic field whose strength remains constant during the time evolution of the relativistic electrons. The generated synchrotron photons are subject to multiple Thomson-scattering off the cold electrons in the source giving rise to spatial photon diffusion. Optically thick and thin synchrotron radiation intensities and photon density distributions in the emission knot as functions of frequency and time are analytically determined. The synchrotron photons serve as target photons for the SSC process, which is calculated in the optically thin frequency range using the Thomson approximation of the inverse Compton cross section. It is shown that the optically thick part of the synchrotron radiation process provides a negligible contribution to the resulting SSC intensity at all frequencies and times. Because the high-energy TeV photons undergo no elastic multiple Compton scatterings, we neglect the influence of photon diffusion in the calculation of the SSC intensity and fluence distribution with energy. The SSC fluence exhibits a break at E_f=15.8b-1/3 GeV from a ∝ E_s-1/4-power law spectrum at lower photon energies E_t≤ E_s≤ Ef to a ∝ E_s-2[1-(E_s/E_0)7/3]-distribution at high energies E_f≤ E_s≤ E_0. The application to the observed TeV fluence spectrum of the flare of PKS 2155-304 on July 28, 2006 yields δ b-1

  17. A Growth-rate Indicator for Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Masini, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Due to their heavily obscured central engines, the growth rate of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is difficult to measure. A statistically significant correlation between the Eddington ratio, λ Edd, and the X-ray power-law index, Γ, observed in unobscured AGNs offers an estimate of their growth rate from X-ray spectroscopy (albeit with large scatter). However, since X-rays undergo reprocessing by Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption when the line of sight to the central engine is heavily obscured, the recovery of the intrinsic Γ is challenging. Here we study a sample of local, predominantly CT megamaser AGNs, where the black hole mass, and thus Eddington luminosity, are well known. We compile results of the X-ray spectral fitting of these sources with sensitive high-energy (E > 10 keV) NuSTAR data, where X-ray torus models, which take into account the reprocessing effects have been used to recover the intrinsic Γ values and X-ray luminosities, L X. With a simple bolometric correction to L X to calculate λ Edd, we find a statistically significant correlation between Γ and λ Edd (p = 0.007). A linear fit to the data yields Γ = (0.41 ± 0.18)log10 λ Edd + (2.38 ± 0.20), which is statistically consistent with results for unobscured AGNs. This result implies that torus modeling successfully recovers the intrinsic AGN parameters. Since the megamasers have low-mass black holes (M BH ≈ 106-107 M ⊙) and are highly inclined, our results extend the Γ-λ Edd relationship to lower masses and argue against strong orientation effects in the corona, in support of AGN unification. Finally this result supports the use of Γ as a growth-rate indicator for accreting black holes, even for CT AGNs.

  18. Viscous model of lithosphere rheology, stress distribution, integrated strength, and bulk failure: application to and implications from examples of intracratonic rifts and inversion structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, R. A.; Ershov, A.

    2001-12-01

    One way in which theoretical rheological models of the lithosphere can be constrained by geological data is through estimations of the lithosphere's integrated strength. When an applied force exceeds this, then the lithosphere should lose its integrity and undergo irreversible deformation (WLF - "whole lithosphere failure"). The geological expression of this kind of deformational regime is the development of rifts (in extension) and inverted structures (in compression). By considering intracratonic structures rather than marginal ones it is possible to exclude additional extraneous influences and infer the net effect of intraplate stresses. Here, actual intraplate structures are considered in terms of a rheological model in which the non-brittle part of the lithosphere deforms viscously (by creep) in response to applied forces. This is in contrast to conventional estimations of total lithosphere strength based on "yield stress envelopes" in which "ductile" deformation is taken to be time-invariant (plastic). Taking into account the implications of adopting a viscous rheology in place of a plastic one in evaluating the "strength" of the lithosphere, it is necessary to incorporate the time-dependence of stresses, strains and strain rates and also the dependence of the bulk strain rate on the total applied force. This means that the duration of loading of tectonic forces prior to eventual rifting or inversion is also an important model variable. The mechanism that controls strain rate and stress distribution in the lithosphere prior to WLF in the model is one of stress redistribution from ductile deformation zones into elastic ones, as determined by stress relaxation in the former and stress amplification in the latter given an assumed constant applied boundary force. A stable equilibrium regime of deformation occurs when, at each point within the lithosphere, the stress reduction effected by viscous relaxation equals the stress increase effected by the applied force

  19. The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloković, M.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F. A.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Koss, M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Luo, B.; Madejski, G. M.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Markwardt, C. B.; Puccetti, S.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Rivers, E.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-09-30

    We present X-ray spectral analyses for three Seyfert 2 active galactic nuclei, NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560, observed by NuSTAR in the 3-79 keV band. The high quality hard X-ray spectra allow detailed modeling of the Compton reflection component for the first time in these sources. Using quasi-simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift/XRT data, as well as archival XMM-Newton data, we find that all three nuclei are obscured by Compton-thick material with column densities in excess of ~ 5 x 1024 cm-2, and that their X-ray spectra above 3 keV are dominated by reflection of the intrinsic continuum on Compton-thick material. Due to the very high obscuration, absorbed intrinsic continuum components are not formally required by the data in any of the sources. We constrain the intrinsic photon indices and the column density of the reflecting medium through the shape of the reflection spectra. Using archival multi-wavelength data we recover the intrinsic X-ray luminosities consistent with the broadband spectral energy distributions. Our results are consistent with the reflecting medium being an edge-on clumpy torus with a relatively large global covering factor and overall reflection efficiency of the order of 1%. Given the unambiguous confirmation of the Compton-thick nature of the sources, we investigate whether similar sources are likely to be missed by commonly used selection criteria for Compton-thick AGN, and explore the possibility of finding their high-redshift counterparts.

  20. Analysis of the levitation force of pure and starch/polystyrene/MWCNT added bulk MgB2 superconductors using frozen image model under zero field cooling condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of superconducting levitation force between permanent magnet and polycrystalline samples of pure and MgB2 added with starch, polystyrene (PS) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) have been performed under zero field cooling (ZFC) condition at 20 K in both descending and ascending modes. For this, the bulk pellets were synthesized by conventional solid state sintering technique. The XRD data indicate well developed MgB2 phase. However, a decrease in lattice parameter 'a = b' have been observed for doped MgB2 samples. Superconducting transition temperature of MgB2 also decreases with starch/PS/MWCNT addition. Unlike MWCNT, the addition of starch/polystyrene is found to enhance the levitation force of MgB2 superconductor. The levitation force between PM and investigated pellets in ZFC condition is explained well in terms of the updated version of modified frozen image model and the magnetic moment originated due to vertical motion of the superconductors have been estimated. It may be noted that except for MWCNT, addition of starch/PS in MgB2 improves the magnetic moment generated by vertical movement of pure MgB2. However, this improvement is more pronounced for 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2, which indicates more flux trapping and hence better levitation properties in 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2. The vertical stiffness estimated for pure and starch/PS/MWCNT doped MgB2 samples indicate that the levitation force are more sensitive in the region close to the PM.

  1. First-principles modeling of metal (ii) ferrocyanide: electronic property, magnetism, bulk moduli, and the role of C  ≡  N‑ defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung M.; Pham, Tan-Tien; Duy Dat, Vo; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The ferrocyanide structures of transition metals (M) Ti2+, Cr2+, Mn2+, or Co2+ are investigated using a first-principles modeling approach. The crystal structure of cobalt ferrocyanide is found to resemble previous experimental data with good accuracy (~1% error). The considered porous structures possess magnetic moments of 8.00 µ B/cell, 8.00 µ B/cell, 4.00 µ B/cell, and 4.00 µ B/cell given by the [TiFe(CN)6]2‑, [CrFe(CN)6]2‑, [MnFe(CN)6]2‑, and [CoFe(CN)6]2‑ frameworks, respectively. There is only one spin-state occupation at the Fermi level, which leads to the conclusion of semi-metallicity of the four structures. To verify the reliability of the electronic and magnetic properties, linear-response DFT  +  U calculations are performed and establish excellent agreement with the conventional DFT calculations. Then, the mechanical strength is evaluated by estimating the bulk moduli of the four structures, which fall in the range of 114 GPa–133 GPa. Upon the consideration of one C  ≡  N‑ linker defect, the magnetic moments of cobalt ferrocyanide and manganese ferrocyanide rise dramatically to 8 µ B/cell, while that of the titanium structure drops to 6 µ B/cell. In light of the electronic structure evidence, we believe that the low-spin Fe cation nearby the C  ≡  N‑ defect has an indirect effect on spin polarization of the four Co cations in the unit cell.

  2. The Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) balloon project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Sharma, Tejaswita; Legere, Jason S.; Bancroft, Christopher M.; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.; Wright, Alex M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a project to develop new medium-energy gamma-ray instrumentation by constructing and flying a balloon-borne Compton telescope using advanced scintillator materials combined with silicon photomultiplier readouts. There is a need in high-energy astronomy for a medium-energy gamma-ray mission covering the energy range from approximately 0.4 - 20 MeV to follow the success of the COMPTEL instrument on CGRO. We believe that directly building on the legacy of COMPTEL, using relatively robust, low-cost, off-the-shelf technologies, is the most promising path for such a mission. Fortunately, high-performance scintillators, such as Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), Cerium Bromide (CeBr3), and p-terphenyl, and compact readout devices, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), are already commercially available and capable of meeting this need. We have conducted two balloon flights of prototype instruments to test these technologies. The first, in 2011, demonstrated that a Compton telescope consisting of an liquid organic scintillator scattering layer and a LaBr3 calorimeter effectively rejects background under balloon-flight conditions, using time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination. The second, in 2014, showed that a telescope using an organic stilbene crystal scattering element and a LaBr3 calorimeter with SiPM readouts can achieve similar ToF performance. We are now constructing a much larger balloon instrument, an Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) with SiPM readout, with the goal of imaging the Crab Nebula at MeV energies in a one-day flight. We expect a 4σ detection up to 1 MeV in a single transit. We present calibration results of the first detector modules, and updated simulations of the balloon instrument sensitivity. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the energy, timing, and position resolution of this technology are sufficient to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity in the mediumenergy gamma-ray band, were it to be

  3. Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

  4. New estimation of the spectral index of high-energy cosmic rays as determined by the Compton-Getting anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu,; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Fan, C; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren,; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y -Q; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X

    2007-01-01

    The amplitude of the Compton-Getting (CG) anisotropy contains the power-law index of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum. Based on this relation and using the Tibet air-shower array data, we measure the cosmic-ray spectral index to be $-3.03 \\pm 0.55_{stat} \\pm < 0.62_{syst}$ between 6 TeV and 40 TeV, consistent with $-$2.7 from direct energy spectrum measurements. Potentially, this CG anisotropy analysis can be utilized to confirm the astrophysical origin of the ``knee'' against models for non-standard hadronic interactions in the atmosphere.

  5. High duty cycle inverse Compton scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovodenko, A.; Agustsson, R.; Babzien, M.; Campese, T.; Fedurin, M.; Murokh, A.; Pogorelsky, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Rosenzweig, J.; Sakai, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Swinson, C.

    2016-12-01

    Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) is an emerging compact X-ray source technology, where the small source size and high spectral brightness are of interest for multitude of applications. However, to satisfy the practical flux requirements, a high-repetition-rate ICS system needs to be developed. To this end, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of a high peak brightness ICS source operating in a burst mode at 40 MHz. A pulse train interaction has been achieved by recirculating a picosecond CO2 laser pulse inside an active optical cavity synchronized to the electron beam. The pulse train ICS performance has been characterized at 5- and 15- pulses per train and compared to a single pulse operation under the same operating conditions. With the observed near-linear X-ray photon yield gain due to recirculation, as well as noticeably higher operational reliability, the burst-mode ICS offers a great potential for practical scalability towards high duty cycles.

  6. Nonlinear double Compton scattering in the full quantum regime

    CERN Document Server

    Mackenroth, F

    2012-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the process of two photon emission by an electron scattered from a high-intensity laser pulse is presented. The calculations are performed in the framework of strong-field QED and include exactly the presence of the laser field, described as a plane wave. We investigate the full quantum regime of interaction, where photon recoil plays an essential role in the emission process, and substantially alters the emitted photon spectra as compared to those in previously-studied regimes. We provide a semiclassical explanation for such differences, based on the possibility of assigning a trajectory to the electron in the laser field before and after each quantum photon emission. Our numerical results indicate the feasibility of investigating experimentally the full quantum regime of nonlinear double Compton scattering with already available plasma-based electron accelerator and laser technology.

  7. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Beam-Spin Asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Girod, F X; Ball, J; Bedlinskiy, I; Burkert, V D; De Masi, R; Elouadrhiri, L; Garçon, M; Guidal, M; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Kubarovski, V; Kuleshov, S V; MacCormick, M; Niccolai, S; Pogorelko, O; Sabati, F; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Ungaro, M; Zhao, B; Amaryan, M J; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asryan, G; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Blaszczyk, L; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Chen, S; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Coltharp, P; Crabb, D; Credé, V; Dashyan, N; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Goetz, J T; Gonenc, A; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Johnstone, J R; Jüngst, H G; Kalantarians, N; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Kossov, M; Krahn, Z; Kramer, L H; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mattione, P; Mazouz, M; McKinnon, B; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Michel, B; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Nozar, M; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Anefalos Pereira, S; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Sharov, D; Shvedunov, N V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Tur, C; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W

    2007-01-01

    The beam spin asymmetries in the hard exclusive electroproduction of photons on the proton (ep -> epg) were measured over a wide kinematic range and with high statistical accuracy. These asymmetries result from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process and of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Over the whole kinematic range (x_B from 0.11 to 0.58, Q^2 from 1 to 4.8 GeV^2, -t from 0.09 to 1.8 GeV^2), the azimuthal dependence of the asymmetries is compatible with expectations from leading-twist dominance, A = a*sin(phi)/[1+c*cos(phi)]. This extensive set of data can thus be used to constrain significantly the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in the valence quark sector.

  8. Prototype of a single probe Compton camera for laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Takahashi, H.; Sakuma, I.

    2017-02-01

    Image-guided surgery (IGS) is performed using a real-time surgery navigation system with three-dimensional (3D) position tracking of surgical tools. IGS is fast becoming an important technology for high-precision laparoscopic surgeries, in which the field of view is limited. In particular, recent developments in intraoperative imaging using radioactive biomarkers may enable advanced IGS for supporting malignant tumor removal surgery. In this light, we develop a novel intraoperative probe with a Compton camera and a position tracking system for performing real-time radiation-guided surgery. A prototype probe consisting of Ce :Gd3 Al2 Ga3 O12 (GAGG) crystals and silicon photomultipliers was fabricated, and its reconstruction algorithm was optimized to enable real-time position tracking. The results demonstrated the visualization capability of the radiation source with ARM = ∼ 22.1 ° and the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  9. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  10. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson, D.S., E-mail: dsj@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hardie, A. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harkness, L.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Jones, L.L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Jones, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Pucknell, V. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rigby, S.V. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Seller, P. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Slee, M.; Sweeney, A. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point {sup 133}Ba and {sup 57}Co sources located {approx}35mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of {approx}20mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  11. Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Krakauer, D A; Loizides, J H; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Margotti, A; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Bartsch, D; Brock, I; Goers, S; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kind, O; Meyer, U; Paul, E; Rautenberg, J; Renner, R; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Wang, M; Weber, A; Bailey, D S; Brook, N H; Cole, J E; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Wing, M; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Helbich, M; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Ning, Y; Paganis, S; Ren, Z; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Olkiewicz, K; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bold, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, T; Przybycien, M B; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Kotanski, A; Slominski, W; Adler, D; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bloch, I; Borras, K; Chiochia, V; Dannheim, D; Drews, G; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Geiser, A; Göttlicher, P; Gutsche, O; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hillert, S; Kahle, B; Kowalski, H; Kramberger, G; Labes, H; Lelas, D; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Moritz, M; Nguyen, C N; Notz, D; Petrucci, M C; Polini, A; Raval, A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Stoesslein, U; Wessoleck, H; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, A; Benen, A; Coppola, N; Bell, M; Bussey, P J; Doyle, A T; Glasman, C; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, I O; Gialas, I; Bodmann, B; Carli, T; Holm, U; Klimek, K; Krumnack, N; Lohrmann, E; Milite, M; Salehi, H; Stonjek, S; Wick, K; Ziegler, A; Collins-Tooth, C; Foudas, C; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Tapper, A D; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Lim, H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Vázquez, M; Barbi, M; Corriveau, F; Gliga, S; Lainesse, J; Padhi, S; Stairs, D G; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Danilov, P; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korzhav--, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Maddox, E; Pellegrino, A; Schagen, S; Tiecke, H G; Velthuis, J J; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Br mmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Ling, T Y; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cottrell, A; Devenish, R C E; Ferrando, J; Grzelak, G; Patel, S; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Garfagnini, A; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Parenti, A; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Heaphy, E A; Metlica, F; Oh, B Y; Saull, P R B; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Heusch, C A; Park, I H; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Gabareen, A; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Kuze, M; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Kagawa, S; Kohno, T; Tawara, T; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Matsuzawa, K; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Ferrero, M I; Monaco, V; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Mirea, A; Butterworth, J M; Gwenlan, C; Hall-Wilton, R; Jones, T W; Lightwood, M S; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Sztuk, J; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Eisenberg, Y; Gladilin, L K; Hochman, D; Riveline, U; Karshon, M; Kcira, D; Lammers, S; Li, L; Reeder, D D; Savin, A A; Smith, W H; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S; Straub, P B; Bhadra, S; Catterall, C D; Fourletov, S; Hartner, G; Menary, S R; Soares, M; Standage, J

    2003-01-01

    The cross section for deeply virtual Compton scattering in the reaction ep -> e gamma p has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using integrated luminosities of 95.0 pb-1 of e+p and 16.7 pb-1 of e-p collisions. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of the exchanged-photon virtuality, Q2, and the centre-of-mass energy, W, of the gamma*p system in the region 5

  12. FPGA-based data acquisition system for a Compton camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdan, K.; Çonka-Nurdan, T.; Besch, H. J.; Freisleben, B.; Pavel, N. A.; Walenta, A. H.

    2003-09-01

    A data acquisition (DAQ) system with custom back-plane and custom readout boards has been developed for a Compton camera prototype. The DAQ system consists of two layers. The first layer has units for parallel high-speed analog-to-digital conversion and online data pre-processing. The second layer has a central board to form a general event trigger and to build the data structure for the event. This modularity and the use of field programmable gate arrays make the whole DAQ system highly flexible and adaptable to modified experimental setups. The design specifications, the general architecture of the Trigger and DAQ system and the implemented readout protocols are presented in this paper.

  13. A Compton camera prototype for prompt gamma medical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirolf P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compton camera prototype for a position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays from proton-induced nuclear reactions is being developed in Garching. The detector system allows to track the Comptonscattered electrons. The camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation absorber crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors acting as scatterers. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has been characterized with radioactive sources. Online commissioning measurements were performed with a pulsed deuteron beam at the Garching Tandem accelerator and with a clinical proton beam at the OncoRay facility in Dresden. The determination of the interaction point of the photons in the monolithic crystal was investigated.

  14. Laser pulse-shape dependence of Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Alexander I; Shibata, Takuya; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Compton scattering of short and ultra short (sub-cycle) laser pulses off mildly relativistic electrons is considered within a QED framework. The temporal shape of the pulse is essential for the differential cross section as a function of the energy of the scattered photon at fixed observation angle. The partly integrated cross section is sensitive to the non-linear dynamics resulting in a large enhancement of the cross section for short and, in particular, for ultra-short flat-top pulse envelopes which can reach several orders of magnitude, as compared with the case of a long pulse. Such effects can be studied experimentally and must be taken into account in Monte-Carlo/transport simulations of %$e^+e^-$ pair production in the interaction of electrons and photons in a strong laser field.

  15. MPGDs in Compton imaging with liquid-xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Duval; Herve, Carduner; Jean-Pierre, Cussonneau; Jacob, Lamblin; Patrick, Le Ray; Eric, Morteau; Tugdual, Oger; Jean-Sebastien, Stutzmann; Dominique, Thers

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of radiation with liquid xenon, inducing both scintillation and ionization signals, is of particular interest for Compton-sequences reconstruction. We report on the development and recent results of a liquid-xenon time-projection chamber, dedicated to a novel nuclear imaging technique named "3 gamma imaging". In a first prototype, the scintillation is detected by a vacuum photomultiplier tube and the charges are collected with a MICROMEGAS structure; both are fully immersed in liquid xenon. In view of the final large-area detector, and with the aim of minimizing dead-zones, we are investigating a gaseous photomultiplier for recording the UV scintillation photons. The prototype concept is presented as well as preliminary results in liquid xenon. We also present soft x-rays test results of a gaseous photomultiplier prototype made of a double Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) at normal temperature and pressure conditions.

  16. Fast cooling of bunches in compton storage rings*

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    We propose an enhancement of laser radiative cooling by utilizing laser pulses of small spatial and temporal dimensions, which interact only with a fraction of an electron bunch circulating in a storage ring. We studied the dynamics of such electron bunch when laser photons scatter off the electrons at a collision point placed in a section with nonzero dispersion. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling’, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering where the laser spot size is larger than the electron beam; and the synchrotron oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped within one synchrotron period, so that this method can support the rapid successive injection of many bunches in longitudinal phase space for stacking purposes. Results of extensive simulations are presented for the performance optimization of Compton gamma-ray sources and damping rings.

  17. Gamma-ray Explosion in Multiple Compton Scattering Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Z; Shou, Y R; Qiao, B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Bulanov, S S; Chen, C E; He, X T; Yan, X Q

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray explosion from near critical density (NCD) target irradiated by four symmetrical imploding laser pulses is numerically investigated. With peak intensities about $10^{23}$ W/cm$^2$, the laser pulses boost electron energy through direct laser acceleration, while pushing them inward with the ponderomotive force. After backscattering with counter-propagating laser, the accelerated electron will be trapped in the optical lattice or the electromagnetic standing waves (SW) created by the coherent overlapping of the laser pulses, and meanwhile emit gamma-ray photon in Multiple Compton Scattering regime, where electron acts as a medium to transfer energy from laser to gamma-ray. The energy conversion rate from laser pulses to gamma-ray can be as high as around 50\\%. It may become one of the most efficient gamma-ray sources in laboratory.

  18. A Compton polarimeter for Parametric X-radiation

    CERN Document Server

    They, J; Kotthaus, R; Pugachev, D

    2001-01-01

    A compact 90 deg.-Compton scatter polarimeter has been developed to be used for energy resolved linear polarization analysis of Parametric X-radiation (PXR) in the energy range below 10 keV. The polarimeter employs thermoelectrically cooled silicon drift detectors. The polarization sensitivity and instrumental asymmetries of the polarimeter have been studied with synchrotron radiation at energies from 6 to 11 keV. The analyzing power is close to unity in agreement with expectations and Monte Carlo simulation results. Instrumental asymmetries of a few percent have been measured and corrected with residual statistical uncertainties of O (10 sup - sup 3). The orientation of the polarization plane is determined to be within 4 m.

  19. A Compton camera application for the GAMOS GEANT4-based framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, L.J., E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Arce, P. [Department of Basic Research, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Judson, D.S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dormand, J.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Sampson, J.A.; Scraggs, D.P.; Sweeney, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-11

    Compton camera systems can be used to image sources of gamma radiation in a variety of applications such as nuclear medicine, homeland security and nuclear decommissioning. To locate gamma-ray sources, a Compton camera employs electronic collimation, utilising Compton kinematics to reconstruct the paths of gamma rays which interact within the detectors. The main benefit of this technique is the ability to accurately identify and locate sources of gamma radiation within a wide field of view, vastly improving the efficiency and specificity over existing devices. Potential advantages of this imaging technique, along with advances in detector technology, have brought about a rapidly expanding area of research into the optimisation of Compton camera systems, which relies on significant input from Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper, the functionality of a Compton camera application that has been integrated into GAMOS, the GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations, is described. The application simplifies the use of GEANT4 for Monte-Carlo investigations by employing a script based language and plug-in technology. To demonstrate the use of the Compton camera application, simulated data have been generated using the GAMOS application and acquired through experiment for a preliminary validation, using a Compton camera configured with double sided high purity germanium strip detectors. Energy spectra and reconstructed images for the data sets are presented.

  20. Studies of inverse-Compton emission in the Crab Nebula and the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faolain de Bhroithe, Anna

    This thesis concerns the study of inverse-Compton emission from two astrophysical sources. The first object, 1ES 1959+650, is a nearby active galactic nucleus. This source was observed as part of the VERITAS blazar monitoring programme in the hopes of detecting it in the midst of a dramatic flaring event. Over the course of these monitoring observations which span four years, a significant detection of the source in its low state was accumulated. The spectral energy distribution of this source was analysed from optical to VHE and was modelled with a synchrotron self-Compton model with an additional external Compton component. The parameters obtained cannot be fully explained by first-order Fermi acceleration at parallel shocks, and instead may suggest particle acceleration at oblique subluminal shocks, or that 1ES 1959+650 may consist of an inhomogeneous jet with a fast inner spine and slower-moving outer cocoon. The second source is the famous Crab Nebula, for years considered the standard candle of X-ray to VHE gamma-ray astronomy. VERITAS observed the Crab Nebula during the recent flare of the high-energy synchrotron component of the source in March 2013. No enhanced VHE emission was detected, but the observations facilitated the calculation of upper limits on any extra VHE spectral component emerging during the flare. A wealth of archival VHE Crab Nebula data also exists, spanning many years. An extended VHE data set of the source from 2000 to 2013 was compiled from Whipple 10m Telescope and VERITAS observations. This data set was searched for short-term flaring activity, but no evidence of this behaviour was found. A slight decrease in the long-term flux of the nebula was detected in the VERITAS data in 2011. This could possibly be correlated with increasing instability of the aerosol content of the local atmosphere around the VERITAS site.

  1. Geological evolution of the marine selenium cycle : Insights from the bulk shale δ82/76Se record and isotope mass balance modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Kirsten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823791; Mansoor, Sannan Z.; Mason, Paul R D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829331; Johnson, Thomas M.; Van Cappellen, Philippe|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829366

    2016-01-01

    Bulk δ82/76Se values of representative marine shales from the Paleoarchean to the present day vary between approximately -3 and +3‰ with only local deviations beyond this range. This muted Se isotope variability in the shale record contrasts with the relatively large fractionations associated with a

  2. Compton suppressed LaBr{sub 3} detection system for use in nondestructive spent fuel assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, S., E-mail: BenderESarah@gmail.com; Heidrich, B.; Ünlü, K.

    2015-06-01

    Current methods for safeguarding and accounting for spent nuclear fuel in reprocessing facilities are extremely resource and time intensive. The incorporation of autonomous passive gamma-ray detectors into the procedure could make the process significantly less burdensome. In measured gamma-ray spectra from spent nuclear fuel, the Compton continuum from dominant fission product photopeaks obscure the lower energy lines from other isotopes. The application of Compton suppression to gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel may reduce this effect and allow other less intense, lower energy peaks to be detected, potentially improving the accuracy of multivariate analysis algorithms. Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel using HPGe, LaBr{sub 3}, and NaI(Tl) primary detectors were performed. Irradiated fuel was measured in two configurations: as intact fuel elements viewed through a collimator and as feed solutions in a laboratory to simulate the measurement of a dissolved process stream. These two configurations allowed the direct assessment and quantification of the differences in measured gamma-ray spectra from the application of Compton suppression. In the first configuration, several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling times from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using the three collimated Compton suppression systems. In the second geometry, Compton suppressed measurements of two samples of Approved Test Material commercial fuel elements were recorded inside the guard detector annulus to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Compton suppression was found to improve measured gamma-ray spectra of spent fuel for multivariate analysis by notably lowering the Compton continuum from dominant photopeaks such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 140}La, due to scattered interactions in the detector, which allowed more spectral features to be resolved

  3. A Diphoton Resonance from Bulk RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Recent LHC data hints at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to Higges and to any other Standard Model particles are so far too low to be detected. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. We argue that if the state is a scalar, some form of sequestering is likely to be necessary to naturally explain the suppressed scalar-Higgs interactions. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  4. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  5. Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using ultrashort laser-Compton-scattered gamma-ray pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Y; Toyokawa, H; Kuroda, R; Yamamoto, N; Adachi, M; Tanaka, S; Katoh, M

    2013-05-01

    High-energy ultrashort gamma-ray pulses can be generated via laser Compton scattering with 90° collisions at the UVSOR-II electron storage ring. As an applied study of ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, a new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed. Ultrashort gamma-ray pulses with a maximum energy of 6.6 MeV and pulse width of 2.2 ps created positrons throughout bulk lead via pair production. Annihilation gamma rays were detected by a BaF2 scintillator mounted on a photomultiplier tube. A positron lifetime spectrum was obtained by measuring the time difference between the RF frequency of the electron storage ring and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. We calculated the response of the BaF2 scintillator and the time jitter caused by the variation in the total path length of the ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, annihilation gamma rays, and scintillation light using a Monte Carlo simulation code. The positron lifetime for bulk lead was successfully measured.

  6. Relationship between Scattered Photon Counts and Concentrations of Some Saline Solutions in Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Guang; ZHOU Shang-Qi; HAN Zhong; CHEN Shuang-Kou

    2007-01-01

    Compton scattering saline solution was researched.Firstly according to the Compton scattering theory the linear relationship between the concentration and the scattered photon counts was obtained.And then it was proved by Compton scattering experiments for some solutions.According to those experiments, it was found that the slope was decreased when the atomic number of the cation was increased for alkali metal chloride solutions and alkaline-earth metal chloride solutions.Based on those relationships,a new method was promoted with which to measure the concentration of saline solution untouched the measured solution.

  7. On the bremsstrahlung background correction to the high-energy Compton spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mathur; B L Ahuja

    2005-07-01

    A methodology for bremsstrahlung (BS) background correction to extract a true Compton profile in high-energy Compton scattering experiments is presented. The BS background profiles for Hg, computed within the Born approximation, are estimated for different values of incident energy. It is seen for the first time that the BS background contribution in high-energy Compton profile experiments like those employing third generation synchrotron radiation sources comes out to be significant and non-linear. Further, it is found that the incorporation of BS correction in data reduction of such an experiment performed on Hg at 662 keV energy helps in reconciliation of theory and experiment.

  8. High flux, narrow bandwidth compton light sources via extended laser-electron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, V P

    2015-01-13

    New configurations of lasers and electron beams efficiently and robustly produce high flux beams of bright, tunable, polarized quasi-monoenergetic x-rays and gamma-rays via laser-Compton scattering. Specifically, the use of long-duration, pulsed lasers and closely-spaced, low-charge and low emittance bunches of electron beams increase the spectral flux of the Compton-scattered x-rays and gamma rays, increase efficiency of the laser-electron interaction and significantly reduce the overall complexity of Compton based light sources.

  9. Prospects for Detecting a Cosmic Bulk Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin; Garnavich, Peter M.; Mathews, Grant James

    2015-01-01

    The ΛCDM model is based upon a homogeneous, isotropic space-time leading to uniform expansion with random peculiar velocities caused by local gravitation perturbations. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation evidences a significant dipole moment in the frame of the Local Group. This motion is usually explained with the Local Group's motion relative to the background Hubble expansion. An alternative explanation, however, is that the dipole moment is the result of horizon-scale curvature remaining from the birth of space-time, possibly a result of quantum entanglement with another universe. This would appear as a single velocity (a bulk flow) added to all points in space. These two explanations differ observationally on cosmic distance scales (z > 0.1). There have been many differing attempts to detect a bulk flow, many with no detectable bulk flow but some with a bulk flow velocity as large as 1000 km/s. Here we report on a technique based upon minimizing the scatter around the expected cosine distribution of the Hubble redshift residuals with respect to angular distance on the sky. That is, the algorithm searches for a directional dependence of Hubble residuals. We find results consistent with most other bulk flow detections at z Type Ia Supernovae to be ~0.01, whereas the current error (~0.2.) is more than an order of magnitude too large for the detection of bulk flow beyond z~0.05.

  10. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  11. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  12. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  13. The evolution of the Compton thick fraction and the nature of obscuration for AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the results from the X-ray spectral analysis of high-z AGN in the CDFS, making use of the new 4Ms data set and new X-ray spectral models from Brightman & Nandra, which account for Compton scattering and the geometry of the circumnuclear material. Our goals are to ascertain to what extent the torus paradigm of local AGN is applicable at earlier epochs and to evaluate the evolution of the Compton thick fraction (f_CT) with z, important for XRB synthesis models and understanding the accretion history of the universe. In addition to the torus models, we measure the fraction of scattered nuclear light, f_scatt known to be dependant on covering factor of the circumnuclear materal, and use this to aid in our understanding of its geometry. We find that the covering factor of the circumnuclear material is correlated with NH, and as such the most heavily obscured AGN are in fact also the most geometrically buried. We come to these conclusions from the result that f_scatt decreases as NH increa...

  14. Modeling and Design of AlN Based SAW Device and Effect of Reflected Bulk Acoustic Wave Generated in the Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the effect of generation and reflection of bulk acoustic waves (BAWs on the performance surface acoustic wave (SAW device using finite element method (FEM simulation is carried out. A SAW delay line structure using Aluminum Nitride (AlN substrate is simulated. The dimension of the device is kept in the range of the 42  22.5 m in order to analyze the effect in MEMS devices. The propagation of the bulk wave in all the direction of the substrate is studied and analyzed. Since BAW reflect from the bottom of the SAW device and interfere with the receiving IDTs. The output of the SAW device is greatly affected by the interference of the BAW with SAWs in the device. Thus in SAW devices, BAW needed to be considered before designing the device.

  15. Nucleon Spin-Averaged Forward Virtual Compton Tensor at Large $Q^2$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard J. [TRIUMF; Paz, Gil [Wayne State U.

    2016-11-29

    The nucleon spin-averaged forward virtual Compton tensor determines important physical quantities such as electromagnetically-induced mass differences of nucleons, and two-photon exchange contributions in hydrogen spectroscopy. It depends on two kinematic variables: $\

  16. Nucleon spin-averaged forward virtual Compton tensor at large $Q^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The nucleon spin-averaged forward virtual Compton tensor determines important physical quantities such as electromagnetically-induced mass differences of nucleons, and two-photon exchange contributions in hydrogen spectroscopy. It depends on two kinematic variables: $\

  17. Double Compton and Cyclo-Synchrotron in Super-Eddington Disks, Magnetized Coronae, and Jets

    CERN Document Server

    McKinney, Jonathan C; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    We present an extension to the general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic code HARMRAD to account for emission and absorption by thermal cyclo-synchrotron, double Compton, bremsstrahlung, low-temperature OPAL opacities as well as Thomson and Compton scattering. We approximate the radiation field as a Bose-Einstein distribution and evolve it using the radiation number-energy-momentum conservation equations in order to track photon hardening. We perform various simulations to study how these extensions affect the radiative properties of magnetically-arrested disks accreting at Eddington to super-Eddington rates. We find that double Compton dominates bremsstrahlung in the disk within a radius of $r\\sim 15r_g$ (gravitational radii) at a hundred times the Eddington accretion rate, and within smaller radii at lower accretion rates. Double Compton and cyclo-synchrotron regulate radiation and gas temperatures in the corona, while cyclo-synchrotron regulates temperatures in the jet. Interestingly, as the accre...

  18. Properties of Differential Scattering Section Based on Multi-photon Nonlinear Compton Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Properties of damping electrons in collision with photons based on multi-photon nonlinear Compton effect are investigated. The expressions of the differential scattering section are derived. Several useful conclusions are drawn.

  19. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  20. The synchrotron-self-Compton spectrum of relativistic blast waves at large Y

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, M

    2015-01-01

    Recent analyses of multiwavelength light curves of gamma-ray bursts afterglows point to values of the magnetic turbulence well below the canonical $\\sim1\\,$\\% of equipartition, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a micro-turbulence generated in the shock precursor, which then decays downstream of the shock front through collisionless damping. As a direct consequence, the Compton parameter $Y$ can take large values in the blast. In the presence of decaying micro-turbulence and/or as a result of the Klein-Nishina suppression of inverse Compton cooling, the $Y$ parameter carries a non-trivial dependence on the electron Lorentz factor, which modifies the spectral shape of the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. This paper provides detailed calculations of this synchrotron-self-Compton spectrum in this large $Y$ regime, accounting for the possibility of decaying micro-turbulence. It calculates the expected temporal and spectral indices $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ customarily defined by $F_\