WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk comptonization model

  1. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  2. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  3. Spectral evolution of bright NS LMXBs with INTEGRAL: an application of the thermal plus bulk Comptonization model

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, L I; Farinelli, R; Kuulkers, E; Rodriguez, J; Hannikainen, D; Savolainen, P; Piraino, S; Bazzano, A; Santangelo, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate in a physical and quantitative way the spectral evolution of bright Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (NS LMXBs), with special regard to the transient hard X-ray tails. We analyzed INTEGRAL data for five sources (GX 5-1, GX 349+2, GX 13+1, GX 3+1, GX 9+1) and built broad-band X-ray spectra from JEM-X1 and IBIS/ISGRI data. For each source, X-ray spectra from different states were fitted with the recently proposed model compTB. The spectra have been fit with a two-compTB model. In all cases the first compTB describes the dominant part of the spectrum that we interpret as thermal Comptonization of soft seed photons ( 1 keV), likely from the neutron star and the innermost part of the system, the Transition Layer, are Comptonized by matter in a converging flow. The presence and nature of this second compTB component (be it a pure blackbody or Comptonized) are related to the inner local accretion rate which can influence the transient behaviour of the hard tail: high values...

  4. Compton scattering in the Endpoint Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dagaonkar, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    We use the Endpoint model for exclusive hadronic processes to study Compton scattering of the proton. The parameters of the Endpoint model are fixed using the data for $F_1$ and the ratio of Pauli and Dirac form factors ($F_2/F_1$) and then used to get numerical predictions for the differential scattering cross section. We studied the Compton scattering at fixed $\\theta_{CM}$ in the $s \\sim t \\gg \\Lambda_{QCD}$ limit and at fixed $s$ much larger than $t$ limit. We observed that the calculations in the Endpoint Model give a good fit with experimental data in both regions.

  5. Non-thermal photon production via bulk comptonization at supernova shock breakout

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    We investigate roles of the bulk comptonization process in the propagation of thermal photons emitted at the shock breakout of a supernova explosion. We use a hydrodynamical model based on a self-similar solution for the shock breakout. The propagation of photons is treated by a Monte-Carlo technique. Results of the simulations successfully reproduce the power-law spectrum observed by X-ray observations for XRF 080109/SN 2008D, if a mildly relativistic shock velocity is assumed. Effects of some radiative processes, photoionization, radiative recombination, and free-free absorption on the propagation of emitted photons are also investigated. It is found that none of them hardly changes the spectrum regarding the progenitor stars of type Ib or Ic supernovae. Light curves calculated under the assumption of a spherical explosion indicate that the progenitor radius is required to be $/sim 10^{13}$ cm.

  6. Variation of bulk Lorentz factor in AGN jets due to Compton rocket in a complex photon field

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillaume, Thomas; Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei are among the most powerful objects in the universe. In these objects, most of the emission comes from relativistic jets getting their power from the accretion of matter onto supermassive black holes. However, despite the number of studies, a jet's acceleration to relativistic speeds is still poorly understood. It is widely known that jets contain relativistic particles that emit radiation through several physical processes, one of them being the inverse Compton scattering of photons coming from external sources. In the case of a plasma composed of electrons and positrons continuously heated by the turbulence, inverse Compton scattering can lead to relativistic bulk motions through the Compton rocket effect. We investigate this process and compute the resulting bulk Lorentz factor in the complex photon field of an AGN composed of several external photon sources. We consider various sources here: the accretion disk, the dusty torus, and the broad line region. We take their geo...

  7. Influence of an AGN complex photon field on the jet bulk Lorentz factor through Compton rocket effect

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillaume, Thomas; Henri, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    AGNs jets are known to display relativistic motion on parsec scales but the accelerating mechanism as well as the exact bulk Lorentz factor of the flow are still a matter of discussion. Under certain assumptions, a plasma can be accelerated to relativistic speeds through the Compton rocket effect. Here, we study this effect and the resulting bulk Lorentz factor in the complex environment of an AGN including various external sources. This is the proceedings to the IAU Symposium 313.

  8. On the inverse Compton scattering model of radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, G J; Liu Jian Fei; Han, J L; Zhang, B

    2000-01-01

    Some characteristics of the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model are reviewed. At least the following properties of radio pulsars can be reproduced in the model: core or central emission beam, one or two hollow emission cones, different emission heights of these components, diverse pulse profiles at various frequencies, linear and circular polarization features of core and cones.

  9. Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for PSR B2319+60

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. G. Wang; M. Lv

    2011-03-01

    Using the multifrequency radio profiles of pulsar PSR B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained.

  10. The limitations of resonant Compton scattering as a gamma-ray burst model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant Compton upscattering is commended as a mechanism that produces a hard gamma-ray spectrum while suppressing X-rays. This model, however, has severe physical and observational limitations. Effective X-ray suppression places a lower limit on the electron density; above this limit X-rays scatter multiple times, so the single-scattering approximation of this mechanism is invalid. Multiple scattering produces a spectrum that is much harder than the single-scattering spectrum. As the Thomson optical depth of a power-law electron beam approaches unity, photon spawning commences at a high rate and physically invalidates the underlying electron distribution. The Compton upscattering model is therefore only valid over a narrow range of electron densities. An observational consequence of this model is the absence of the third cyclotron resonance. Resonant scattering produces gamma-rays that propagate nearly along the magnetic field. The resonant cross section of the third harmonic, which is strongly angle dependent, falls below the Compton continuum for these gamma rays. The observation of a third cyclotron resonance in a gamma-ray burst spectrum would eliminate resonant Compton scattering as a gamma-ray burst process.

  11. Deeply virtual Compton scattering in a relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzenberg, T.

    2007-09-15

    This thesis is mainly concerned with a model calculation for generalized parton distributions (GPDs). We calculate vectorial- and axial GPDs for the N{yields}N and N{yields}{delta} transition in the framework of a light front quark model. This requires the elaboration of a connection between transition amplitudes and GPDs. We provide the first quark model calculations for N{yields}{delta} GPDs. The examination of transition amplitudes leads to various model independent consistency relations. These relations are not exactly obeyed by our model calculation since the use of the impulse approximation in the light front quark model leads to a violation of Poincare covariance. We explore the impact of this covariance breaking on the GPDs and form factors which we determine in our model calculation and find large effects. The reference frame dependence of our results which originates from the breaking of Poincare covariance can be eliminated by introducing spurious covariants. We extend this formalism in order to obtain frame independent results from our transition amplitudes. (orig.)

  12. Generalized parton distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering in Color Glass Condensate model

    OpenAIRE

    Goeke, K.; Guzey, V.; Siddikov, M.

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of the Color Glass Condensate model, we evaluate quark and gluon Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) and the cross section of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) in the small-$x_{B}$ region. We demonstrate that the DVCS cross section becomes independent of energy in the limit of very small $x_{B}$, which clearly indicates saturation of the DVCS cross section. Our predictions for the GPDs and the DVCS cross section at high-energies can be tested at the future Elec...

  13. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on nucleons and nuclei in generalized vector meson dominance model

    CERN Document Server

    Göke, K; Siddikov, M

    2008-01-01

    We consider Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) on nucleons and nuclei in the framework of generalized vector meson dominance (GVMD) model. We demonstrate that the GVMD model provides a good description of the HERA data on the dependence of the proton DVCS cross section on Q^2, W (at Q^2=4 GeV^2) and t. At Q^2 = 8 GeV^2, the soft W-behavior of the GVMD model somewhat underestimates the W-dependence of the DVCS cross section due to the hard contribution not present in the GVMD model. We estimate 1/Q^2 power-suppressed corrections to the DVCS amplitude and the DVCS cross section and find them large. We also make predictions for the nuclear DVCS amplitude and cross section in the kinematics of the future Electron-Ion Collider. We predict significant nuclear shadowing, which matches well predictions of the leading-twist nuclear shadowing in DIS on nuclei.

  14. An inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model of pulsar emission II. frequency behavior of pulse profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, G J; Zhang, B; Han, J L

    2001-01-01

    The shapes of pulse profiles, especially their variations with respect to observing frequencies, are very important to understand emission mechanisms of pulsars, while no previous attempt has been made in interpreting the complicated phenomenology. In this paper, we present theoretical simulations for the integrated pulse profiles and their frequency evolution within the framework of the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model proposed by Qiao (1988) and Qiao & Lin (1998). Using the phase positions of the pulse components predicted by the ``beam-frequency figure'' of the ICS model, we present Gaussian fits to the multi-frequency pulse profiles for some pulsars. It is shown that the model can reproduce various types of the frequency evolution behaviors of pulse profiles observed.

  15. Testing one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton models with spectral energy distributions of Mrk 421

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Qianqian; Zhang, Pengfei; Yin, Qian-Qing; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    We test one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models with high-quality multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) data of Mrk 421. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to fit twelve day-scale SEDs of Mrk 421 with one-zone SSC models. Three types of electron energy distribution (EED), a log-parabola (LP) EED, a power-law log-parabola (PLLP) EED and a broken power-law (BPL) EED, are assumed in fits. We find that the one-zone SSC model with the PLLP EED provides successful fits to all the twelve SEDs. However, the one-zone SSC model with the LP and BPL EEDs fail to provide acceptable fits to the highest energy X-ray data or GeV data in several states. We therefore conclude that the one-zone SSC model works well in explaining the SEDs of Mrk 421, and the PLLP EED is preferred over the LP and BPL EEDs for Mrk 421 during the flare in March 2010. We derive magnetic field $B'\\sim0.01$\\ G, Doppler factor $\\delta_{\\rm D}\\sim$30--50, and the curvature parameter of EED $r\\sim1$--$10$ in the model wi...

  16. Model-Based Detection of Radioactive Contraband for Harbor Defense Incorporating Compton Scattering Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Breitfeller, E F; Guidry, B L; Verbeke, J M; Axelrod, M A; Sale, K E; Meyer, A M

    2010-03-02

    The detection of radioactive contraband is a critical problem is maintaining national security for any country. Photon emissions from threat materials challenge both detection and measurement technologies especially when concealed by various types of shielding complicating the transport physics significantly. This problem becomes especially important when ships are intercepted by U.S. Coast Guard harbor patrols searching for contraband. The development of a sequential model-based processor that captures both the underlying transport physics of gamma-ray emissions including Compton scattering and the measurement of photon energies offers a physics-based approach to attack this challenging problem. The inclusion of a basic radionuclide representation of absorbed/scattered photons at a given energy along with interarrival times is used to extract the physics information available from the noisy measurements portable radiation detection systems used to interdict contraband. It is shown that this physics representation can incorporated scattering physics leading to an 'extended' model-based structure that can be used to develop an effective sequential detection technique. The resulting model-based processor is shown to perform quite well based on data obtained from a controlled experiment.

  17. Spectral Modeling of the Comptonized Continua of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars: Recent Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael T.; Becker, P. A.; Marcu, D.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Wood, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    We are undertaking a program to analyze the X-ray spectra of the accretion flows onto strongly magnetic neutron stars in high mass binary systems such as Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. These accreting pulsars typically have X-ray spectra consisting of broad Comptonized cutoff power-laws. Current theory suggests these X-ray spectra result from the impact of the high-velocity magnetically channeled plasma accretion flows onto the surfaces of the neutron stars. The flows have such high energy density that shocks developing in the plasmas can be radiation-dominated. These X-ray pulsars often, but not always, show cyclotron resonant scattering features implying neutron star surface magnetic field strengths above 10^12 G. Over the past few years a number of studies have reported both positive and negative correlations of the cyclotron line energy centroids with X-ray luminosity in a number of pulsars. However, the detailed analysis of the cyclotron line centroids suffers from the lack of a robust model for the Comptonized X-ray continuum upon which the cyclotron lines are superposed. We discuss in this presentation our progress in developing tools for the analysis of the X-ray spectra formed in these systems. The range of parameter conditions presented by the many known real accreting pulsar systems substantially exceeds that of the limited set of pulsars on which the original analytic model of Becker and Wolff (2007) was validated. In the high temperature optically thick plasmas, the processes of bremsstrahlung emission from the hot plasma, black body emission from a thermal mound near the neutron star surface, and cyclotron emission from electrons in the first Landau excited state, all contribute to the total local photon population in the shock structure. We discuss our strategy for numerically accounting for the relative contribution to the full X-ray spectrum made by each of these physical processes. Solving for the integrated spectrum involves numerical

  18. MODELING THE Fe K LINE PROFILES IN TYPE I ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH A COMPTON-THICK DISK WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatum, M. M.; Turner, T. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sim, S. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Miller, L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Reeves, J. N.; Patrick, A. R. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Long, K. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We have modeled a small sample of Seyfert galaxies that were previously identified as having simple X-ray spectra with little intrinsic absorption. The sources in this sample all contain moderately broad components of Fe K-shell emission and are ideal candidates for testing the applicability of a Compton-thick accretion disk wind model to active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission components. Viewing angles through the wind allow the observer to see the absorption signature of the gas, whereas face-on viewing angles allow the observer to see the scattered light from the wind. We find that the Fe K emission line profiles are well described with a model of a Compton-thick accretion disk wind of solar abundances, arising tens to hundreds of gravitational radii from the central black hole. Further, the fits require a neutral component of Fe K{alpha} emission that is too narrow to arise from the inner part of the wind, and likely comes from a more distant reprocessing region. Our study demonstrates that a Compton-thick wind can have a profound effect on the observed X-ray spectrum of an AGN, even when the system is not viewed through the flow.

  19. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  20. A Joint Model Of X-ray And Infrared Backgrounds. II. Compton-Thick AGN Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the abundance of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) based on our joint model of X-ray and infrared backgrounds. At L_{rest 2-10 keV} > 10^42 erg/s, the CT AGN density predicted by our model is a few 10^-4 Mpc^-3 from z=0 up to z=3. CT AGN with higher luminosity cuts (> 10^43, 10^44 & 10^45 erg/s) peak at higher z and show a rapid increase in the number density from z=0 to z~2-3. The CT to all AGN ratio appears to be low (2-5%) at f_{2-10keV} > 10^-15 erg/s/cm^2 but rises rapidly toward fainter flux levels. The CT AGN account for ~ 38% of the total accreted SMBH mass and contribute ~ 25% of the cosmic X-ray background spectrum at 20 keV. Our model predicts that the majority (90%) of luminous and bright CT AGN (L_{rest 2-10 keV} > 10^44 erg/s or f_{2-10keV} > 10^-15 erg/s/cm^2) have detectable hot dust 5-10 um emission which we associate with a dusty torus. The fraction drops for fainter objects, to around 30% at L_{rest 2-10 keV} > 10^42 erg/s or f_{2-10keV} > 10^-17 erg/s/cm^2. Ou...

  1. Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor

  2. A pedagogic model for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with quark-hadron duality

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin; Close, Frank E; Zhao, Qiang

    2002-01-01

    We show how quark-hadron duality can emerge for the valence spin averaged structure functions, and for the non-forward distributions of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering. Novel factorisations of the non-forward amplitudes are proposed. Some implications for large angle scattering and deviations from the quark counting rules are illustrated.

  3. Bianchi-Type Ⅱ String Cosmological Models with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi-type Ⅱ string cosmological models with bulk viscosity are obtained, where an equation of state, p = kλ, and a relation between metric potentials, R = ASn, are adopted. The physical features of the models are also discussed. In special cases the model reduces to the string models without viscosity that was previously given in the literatures.

  4. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtain a determinate model, an equation of state ρ=kλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy density is ζ∝ρ1/2.

  5. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtaina determinate model, an equation of state p = κλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. Thephysical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuouslyexpanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy densityis ζ∝1 p1/2.

  6. Singularities and Entropy in Bulk Viscosity Dark Energy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟新河; 窦旭

    2011-01-01

    In this paper bulk viscosity is introduced to describe the effects of cosmic non-perfect fluid on the cosmos evolution and to build the unified dark energy (DE) with (dark) matter models. Also we derive a general relation between the bulk viscosity form and Hubble parameter that can provide a procedure for the viscosity DE model building. Especially, a redshift dependent viscosity parameter ζ ∝ λ0 +λ1(1 +z)n proposed in the previous work [X.H. Meng and X. Dou, Commun. Theor. Phys. B2 (2009) 377] is investigated extensively in this present work. Further more we use the recently released supernova dataset (the Constitution dataset) to constrain the model parameters. In order to differentiate the proposed concrete dark energy models from the well known ACDM model, statefinder diagnostic method is applied to this bulk viscosity model, as a complementary to the Om parameter diagnostic and the deceleration parameter analysis performed by us before. The DE model evolution behavior and tendency are shown in the plane of the statefinder diagnostic parameter pair {τ, s} as axes where the fixed point represents the A CDM model The possible singularity property in this bulk viscosity cosmology is also discussed to which we can conclude that in the different parameter regions chosen properly, this concrete viscosity DE model can have various late evolution behaviors and the late time singularity could be avoided. We also calculate the cosmic entropy in the bulk viscosity dark energy frame, and find that the total entropy in the viscosity DE model increases monotonously with respect to the scale factor evolution, thus this monotonous increasing property can indicate an arrow of time in the universe evolution, though the quantum version of the arrow of time is still very puzzling.

  7. Relativistic Accretion Mediated by Turbulent Comptonization

    OpenAIRE

    Socrates, Aristotle

    2008-01-01

    Black hole and neutron star accretion flows display unusually high levels of hard coronal emission in comparison to all other optically thick, gravitationally bound, turbulent astrophysical systems. Since these flows sit in deep relativistic gravitational potentials, their random bulk motions approach the speed of light, therefore allowing turbulent Comptonization to be an important effect. We show that the inevitable production of hard X-ray photons results from turbulent Comptonization in t...

  8. Constraining the fraction of Compton-thick AGN in the Universe by modelling the diffuse X-ray background spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Akylas, A; Georgantopoulos, I; Brightman, M; Nandra, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates what constraints can be placed on the fraction of Compton-thick (CT) AGN in the Universe from the modeling of the spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background (XRB). We present a model for the synthesis of the XRB that uses as input a library of AGN X-ray spectra generated by the Monte Carlo simulations described by Brightman & Nandra. This is essential to account for the Compton scattering of X-ray photons in a dense medium and the impact of that process on the spectra of obscured AGN. We identify a small number of input parameters to the XRB synthesis code which encapsulate the minimum level of uncertainty in reconstructing the XRB spectrum. These are the power-law index and high energy cutoff of the intrinsic X-ray spectra of AGN, the level of the reflection component in AGN spectra and the fraction of CT AGN in the Universe. We then map the volume of the space allowed to these parameters by current observations of the XRB spectrum in the range 3-100 keV. One of the least constraine...

  9. Time-dependent simulations of emission from FSRQ PKS1510-089: multiwavelength variability of external Compton and SSC models

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus

    2012-01-01

    [abridged] We present results of modeling the SED and multiwavelength variability of the bright FSRQ PKS1510-089 with our time-dependent multizone Monte Carlo/Fokker-Planck code (Chen et al. 2001). As primary source of seed photons for inverse Compton scattering, we consider radiation from the broad line region (BLR), from the molecular torus, and the local synchrotron radiation (SSC). Different scenarios are assessed by comparing simulated light curves and SEDs with one of the best flares by PKS1510-089, in March 2009. The time-dependence of our code and its correct handling of light travel time effects allow us to fully take into account the effect of the finite size of the active region, and in turn to fully exploit the information carried by time resolved observed SEDs, increasingly available since the launch of Fermi. We confirm that the spectrum adopted for the external radiation has an important impact on the modeling of the SED, in particular for the lower energy end of the Compton component, observed...

  10. Classical model for bulk-ensemble NMR quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Schack, R.; Caves, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present a classical model for bulk-ensemble NMR quantum computation: the quantum state of the NMR sample is described by a probability distribution over the orientations of classical tops, and quantum gates are described by classical transition probabilities. All NMR quantum computing experiments performed so far with three quantum bits can be accounted for in this classical model. After a few entangling gates, the classical model suffers an exponential decrease of the measured signal, whe...

  11. Hierarchical Bulk Synchronous Parallel Model and Performance Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Linpeng; SUNYongqiang; YUAN Wei

    1999-01-01

    Based on the framework of BSP, aHierarchical Bulk Synchronous Parallel (HBSP) performance model isintroduced in this paper to capture the performance optimizationproblem for various stages in parallel program development and toaccurately predict the performance of a parallel program byconsidering factors causing variance at local computation and globalcommunication. The related methodology has been applied to several realapplications and the results show that HBSP is a suitable model foroptimizing parallel programs.

  12. Relativistic Accretion Mediated by Turbulent Comptonization

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle

    2008-01-01

    Black hole and neutron star accretion flows display unusually high levels of hard coronal emission in comparison to all other optically thick, gravitationally bound, turbulent astrophysical systems. Since these flows sit in deep relativistic gravitational potentials, their random bulk motions approach the speed of light, therefore allowing turbulent Comptonization to be an important effect. We show that the inevitable production of hard X-ray photons results from turbulent Comptonization in the limit where the turbulence is trans-sonic and the accretion power approaches the Eddington Limit. In this regime, the turbulent Compton y-parameter approaches unity and the turbulent Compton temperature is a significant fraction of the electron rest mass energy, in agreement with the observed phenomena.

  13. The desorptivity model of bulk soil-water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Available models of bulk evaporation from a bare-surfaced soil are difficult to apply to field conditions where evaporation is complicated by two main factors: rate-limiting climatic conditions and redistribution of soil moisture following infiltration. Both factors are included in the "desorptivity model', wherein the evaporation rate during the second stage (the soil-limiting stage) of evaporation is related to the desorptivity parameter, A. Analytical approximations for A are presented. The approximations are independent of the surface soil moisture. However, calculations using the approximations indicate that both soil texture and soil moisture content at depth significantly affect A. Because the moisture content at depth decreases in time during redistribution, it follows that the A parameter also changes with time. Consequently, a method to calculate a representative value of A was developed. When applied to field data, the desorptivity model estimated cumulative evaporation well. The model is easy to calculate, but its usefulness is limited because it requires an independent estimate of the time of transition between the first and second stages of evaporation. The model shows that bulk evaporation after the transition to the second stage is largely independent of climatic conditions.

  14. Does Bulk Viscosity Create a Viable Unified Dark Matter Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Baojiu

    2009-01-01

    We investigate in detail the possibility that a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity can replace the need for separate dark matter and dark energy in cosmological models. With suitable choices of model parameters, we show that the background cosmology in this model can mimic that of a LCDM Universe to high precision. However, as the cosmic expansion goes through the decelerating-accelerating transition, the density perturbations in this fluid are rapidly damped out. We show that,although this does not significantly affect structure formation in baryonic matter, it makes the gravitational potential decay rapidly at late times, leading to modifications in predictions of cosmological observables such as the CMB power spectrum and weak lensing. This model of unified dark matter is thus difficult to reconcile with astronomical observations. We also clarify the differences with respect to other unified dark matter models where the fluid is barotropic, i.e., p=p(rho), such as the (generalized) Chaplygin gas mo...

  15. Applications of Compton scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Guang; ZHOU Shang-qi; HAN Zhong; CHEN Shuang-kou

    2006-01-01

    Compton scattering is used very widely. In this article, we depict an overall picture for its applications which are based on two basic theories. The first is the electron densitometry theory related to electron density. According to this theory its applications are in two fields: one is Compton scatter densitometry (CSD), the other is Compton scatter imaging (CSI). The second technique involves the electron momentum distribution and Compton profile. Applications of this technique are mainly the Compton profile analysis (CPA) and the Compton profile or the electron momentum distribution in physics and chemistry.Future research fields are suggested according to the current situation and limits of this technique and a promising prospect is unfolded.

  16. Bulk Universality and Related Properties of Hermitian Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pastur, L

    2007-01-01

    We give a new proof of universality properties in the bulk of spectrum of the hermitian matrix models, assuming that the potential that determines the model is globally $C^{2}$ and locally $C^{3}$ function (see Theorem \\ref{t:U.t1}). The proof as our previous proof in \\cite{Pa-Sh:97} is based on the orthogonal polynomial techniques but does not use asymptotics of orthogonal polynomials. Rather, we obtain the $sin$-kernel as a unique solution of a certain non-linear integro-differential equation that follows from the determinant formulas for the correlation functions of the model. We also give a simplified and strengthened version of paper \\cite{BPS:95} on the existence and properties of the limiting Normalized Counting Measure of eigenvalues. We use these results in the proof of universality and we believe that they are of independent interest.

  17. Comparison of recombination models in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombination in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is the key loss mechanism, and it directly affects characteristic parameters such as power conversion efficiency, short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor. However, which recombination mechanism dominates the loss in organic materials is unclear at present. In this work, we simulate state-of-art BHJ solar cells using five recombination models, including direct recombination, Langevin recombination, charge transfer state recombination, trap-assisted recombination, and recombination via tail. All processes are strongly dependent on charge carrier mobility and exhibit a similar recombination distribution in active layer. For high mobilities, all models present a similar behavior along with the increased mobilities, whereas, there are slight differences in open-circuit voltage between trap/tail model and other ones at lower mobilities, resulting from the interaction between photo-carriers and dark-carriers

  18. Compton tomography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubsky, Victor; Romanoov, Volodymyr; Shoemaker, Keith; Patton, Edward Matthew; Jannson, Tomasz

    2016-02-02

    A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.

  19. Inverse Compton Scattering Model for X-ray Emission of the Gamma-ray Binary LS 5039

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Masaki S

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model for the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 in which the X-ray emission is due to the inverse Compton (IC) process instead of the synchrotron radiation. Although the synchrotron model has been discussed in previous studies, it requires a strong magnetic field which leads to a severe suppression of the TeV gamma-ray flux in conflict with H.E.S.S. observations. In this paper, we calculate the IC emission by low energy electrons (\\gamma_e \\lesssim 10^3) in the Thomson regime. We find that IC emission of the low energy electrons can explain the X-ray flux and spectrum observed with Suzaku if the minimum Lorentz factor of injected electrons \\gamma_min is around 10^3. In addition, we show that the Suzaku light curve is well reproduced if \\gamma_min varies in proportion to the Fermi flux when the distribution function of injected electrons at higher energies is fixed. We conclude that the emission from LS 5039 is well explained by the model with the IC emission from electrons whose injection properties are d...

  20. Non-LTE Models and Theoretical Spectra of Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. Effects of Compton Scattering and Metal Opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, I; Krolik, J H; Agol, E; Hubeny, Ivan; Blaes, Omer; Krolik, Julian H.

    2001-01-01

    We extend our models of the vertical structure and emergent radiation field of accretion disks around supermassive black holes described in previous papers of this series. Our models now include both a self-consistent treatment of Compton scattering and the effects of continuum opacities of the most important metal species (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, Ni). With these new effects incorporated, we compute the predicted spectrum from black holes accreting at nearly the Eddington luminosity (L/L_Edd = 0.3) and central masses of 10^6, 10^7, and 10^8 M_sun. We also consider two values of the Shakura-Sunyaev alpha parameter, 0.1 and 0.01. Although it has little effect when M > 10^8 M_sun, Comptonization grows in importance as the central mass decreases and the central temperature rises. It generally produces an increase in temperature with height in the uppermost layers of hot atmospheres. Compared to models with coherent electron scattering, Comptonized models have enhanced EUV/soft X-ray emission, but they...

  1. The continuous similarity model of bulk soil-water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The continuous similarity model of evaporation is described. In it, evaporation is conceptualized as a two stage process. For an initially moist soil, evaporation is first climate limited, but later it becomes soil limited. During the latter stage, the evaporation rate is termed evaporability, and mathematically it is inversely proportional to the evaporation deficit. A functional approximation of the moisture distribution within the soil column is also included in the model. The model was tested using data from four experiments conducted near Phoenix, Arizona; and there was excellent agreement between the simulated and observed evaporation. The model also predicted the time of transition to the soil limited stage reasonably well. For one of the experiments, a third stage of evaporation, when vapor diffusion predominates, was observed. The occurrence of this stage was related to the decrease in moisture at the surface of the soil. The continuous similarity model does not account for vapor flow. The results show that climate, through the potential evaporation rate, has a strong influence on the time of transition to the soil limited stage. After this transition, however, bulk evaporation is independent of climate until the effects of vapor flow within the soil predominate.

  2. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modelling of dilute bubbly bulk boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During evaporation the geometric shape of the vapour is not described using thermodynamics. In bubbly flows the bubble shape is considered spheric with small diameters and changing into various shapes upon growth. The heat and mass transfer happens at the interfacial area. The forces acting on the bubbles depend on the bubble diameter and shape. In this work the prediction of the bubble diameter and/or bubble number density in bulk boiling was considered outside the vicinity of the heat input area. Thus the boiling effects that happened inside the nearly saturated bulk were under investigation. This situation is relevant for nuclear safety analysis concerning a stagnant coolant in the spent fuel pool. In this research project a new experimental set-up to investigate was built. The experimental set-up consists of an instrumented, partly transparent, high and slender boiling container for visual observation. The direct visual observation of the boiling phenomena is necessary for the identification of basic mechanisms, which should be incorporated in the simulation model. The boiling process has been recorded by means of video images and subsequently was evaluated by digital image processing methods, and by that data concerning the characteristics of the boiling process were generated for the model development and validation. Mechanistic modelling is based on the derivation of relevant mechanisms concluded from observation, which is in line with physical knowledge. In this context two mechanisms were identified; the growth/-shrink mechanism (GSM) of the vapour bubbles and sudden increases of the bubble number density. The GSM was implemented into the CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX using the CFX Expression Language (CEL) by calculation of the internal bubble pressure using the Young-Laplace-Equation. This way a hysteresis is realised as smaller bubbles have an increased internal pressure. The sudden increases of the bubble number density are explainable by liquid super

  3. Induced Compton Scattering by Relativistic Electrons in Magnetized Astrophysical Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincell, Mark William

    1994-01-01

    The effects of stimulated scattering on high brightness temperature radiation are studied in two important contexts. In the first case, we assume that the radiation is confined to a collimated beam traversing a relativistically streaming magnetized plasma. When the plasma is cold in the bulk frame, stimulated scattering is only significant if the angle between the photon motion and the plasma velocity is less than gamma^{-1} , where gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor. Under the assumption that the center of the photon beam is parallel to the bulk motion, we calculate the scattering rate as a function of the angular spread of the beam and gamma. Magnetization changes the photon recoil, without which stimulated scattering has no effect. It also introduces a strong dependence on frequency and polarization: if the photon frequency matches the electron cyclotron frequency, the scattering rate of photons polarized perpendicular to the magnetic field can be substantially enhanced relative to Thomson, and if the photon frequency is much less than the cyclotron frequency the scattering is suppressed. Applying these calculations to pulsars, we find that stimulated scattering of the radio beam in the magnetized wind believed to exist outside the light cylinder can substantially alter the spectrum and polarization state of the radio signal. We suggest that the scattering rate is so high in some pulsars that the ability of the radio signal to penetrate the pulsar magnetosphere requires modification of either the conventional model of the magnetosphere or assumptions about the effects of stimulated scattering upon a beam. In the second case, we present a model of the radio emission from synchrotron self-absorbed sources, including the effects of induced Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in the source. Order of magnitude estimates show that stimulated scattering becomes the dominant absorption process when (kTB/m ec^2)tau_{T }_sp{~}> 0.1. Numerical simulations

  4. Probabilistic models and numerical calculation of system matrix and sensitivity in list-mode MLEM 3D reconstruction of Compton camera images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Voichita; Lojacono, Xavier; Hilaire, Estelle; Krimmer, Jochen; Testa, Etienne; Dauvergne, Denis; Magnin, Isabelle; Prost, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the system matrix and the sensitivity for iterative reconstruction in Compton camera imaging. Proposed models and numerical calculation strategies are compared through the influence they have on the three-dimensional reconstructed images. The study attempts to address four questions. First, it proposes an analytic model for the system matrix. Second, it suggests a method for its numerical validation with Monte Carlo simulated data. Third, it compares analytical models of the sensitivity factors with Monte Carlo simulated values. Finally, it shows how the system matrix and the sensitivity calculation strategies influence the quality of the reconstructed images.

  5. Bulk Density Adjustment of Resin-Based Equivalent Material for Geomechanical Model Test

    OpenAIRE

    Pengxian Fan; Haozhe Xing; Linjian Ma; Kaifeng Jiang; Mingyang Wang; Zechen Yan; Xiang Fang

    2015-01-01

    An equivalent material is of significance to the simulation of prototype rock in geomechanical model test. Researchers attempt to ensure that the bulk density of equivalent material is equal to that of prototype rock. In this work, barite sand was used to increase the bulk density of a resin-based equivalent material. The variation law of the bulk density was revealed in the simulation of a prototype rock of a different bulk density. Over 300 specimens were made for uniaxial compression test....

  6. Neutron Compton Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Neutron Compton scattering measurements have the potential to provide direct information about atomic momentum distributions and adiabatic energy surfaces in condensed matter. First applied to measuring the condensate fraction in superfluid helium, the technique has recently been extended to study a variety of classical and quantum liquids and solids. This article reviews the theoretical background for the interpretation of neutron Compton scattering, with emphasis on studies of solids.

  7. Turbulent Comptonization in Black Hole Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Blaes, Omer M; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer

    2004-01-01

    In the inner-most regions of radiation pressure supported accretion disks, the turbulent magnetic pressure may greatly exceed that of the gas. If this is the case, it is possible for bulk Alfvenic motions driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to surpass the electron thermal velocity. Bulk rather than thermal Comptonization may then be the dominant radiative process which mediates gravitational energy release. For sufficiently large turbulent stresses, we show that turbulent Comptonization produces a significant contribution to the far-UV and X-ray emission of black hole accretion disks. The existence of this spectral component provides a means of obtaining direct observational constraints on the nature of the turbulence itself. We describe how this component may affect the spectral energy distributions and variability properties of X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei.

  8. Theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Poutanen, Juri; Vurm, Indrek

    2010-01-01

    Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, and relativistic jets, clusters of galaxies as well as the early Universe. In most of the calculations it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation, or anisotropic source of seed so...

  9. Compton Scattering on the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Scholten, O

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic coupled-channels model for Compton and pion scattering off the nucleon is introduced which is applicable at the lowest energies (polarizabilities) as well as at GeV energies. To introduce the model first the conventional K-matrix approach is discussed to extend this in a following chapter to the "Dressed K-Matrix" model. The latter approach restores causality, or analyticity, of the amplitude to a large extent. In particular, crossing symmetry, gauge invariance and unitarity are satisfied. The extent of violation of analyticity (causality) is used as an expansion parameter.

  10. Bulk viscosity from the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insufficiency of ideal fluid dynamics to reproduce certain expected results threw light on the necessity of dissipative effects. The viscosity coefficients give an estimate of the hydrodynamical evolution of fluid dissipative processes. Not only do they provide information about the deviation of the system from ideal hydrodynamics, they also give us a picture of the fluid dynamics and critical phenomena. In this work we concentrate on the effects of bulk viscosity. Bulk viscosity bears essential significance like in the context of violation of scale invariance. Now, the smallness of sound velocity being directly related to the former, it becomes obvious that bulk viscosity will show a peak-like nature in the critical region. Bulk viscosity manifests itself by an addition of the diagonal term πδij to the stress tensor Tij in the local rest frame. In this work we take resort to the Kubo formalism which relates viscosity coefficients to the correlation functions of the energy-momentum (E-M) tensor

  11. HERMES impact for the access of Compton form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerički, K.; Müller, D.; Murray, M.

    2014-07-01

    We utilize the DVCS asymmetry measurements of the HERMES collaboration for access to Compton form factors in the deeply virtual regime and to generalized parton distributions. In particular, the (almost) complete measurement of DVCS observables allows us to map various asymmetries into the space of Compton form factors, where we still rely in this analysis on dominance of twist-two associated Compton form factors. We compare this one-to-one map with local Compton form factor fits and a model dependent global fit.

  12. HERMES impact for the access of Compton form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kumericki, Kresimir; Murray, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    We utilize the DVCS asymmetry measurements of the HERMES collaboration for access to Compton form factors in the deeply virtual regime and to generalized parton distributions. In particular, the (almost) complete measurement of DVCS observables allows us to map various asymmetries into the space of Compton form factors, where we still rely in this analysis on dominance of twist-two associated Compton form factors. We compare this one-to-one map with local Compton form factor fits and a model dependent global fit.

  13. Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Anjali

    2004-09-01

    Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field together with physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  14. Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...

  15. A smooth and differentiable bulk-solvent model for macromolecular diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for modeling the bulk solvent in macromolecular diffraction data based on Babinet’s principle is presented. The proposed models offer the advantage of differentiability with respect to atomic coordinates. Inclusion of low-resolution data in macromolecular crystallography requires a model for the bulk solvent. Previous methods have used a binary mask to accomplish this, which has proven to be very effective, but the mask is discontinuous at the solute–solvent boundary (i.e. the mask value jumps from zero to one) and is not differentiable with respect to atomic parameters. Here, two algorithms are introduced for computing bulk-solvent models using either a polynomial switch or a smoothly thresholded product of Gaussians, and both models are shown to be efficient and differentiable with respect to atomic coordinates. These alternative bulk-solvent models offer algorithmic improvements, while showing similar agreement of the model with the observed amplitudes relative to the binary model as monitored using R, Rfree and differences between experimental and model phases. As with the standard solvent models, the alternative models improve the agreement primarily with lower resolution (>6 Å) data versus no bulk solvent. The models are easily implemented into crystallographic software packages and can be used as a general method for bulk-solvent correction in macromolecular crystallography

  16. Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helene Fonvieille

    2003-05-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering off the proton: {gamma}^+p --> {gamma}p is a new field of investigation of nucleon structure. Several dedicated experiments have been performed at low c.m. energy and various momentum transfers, yielding specific information on the proton. This talk reviews the concept of nucleon Generalized Polarizabilities and the present experimental status.

  17. Theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Poutanen, Juri

    2010-01-01

    Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, and relativistic jets, clusters of galaxies as well as the early Universe. In most of the calculations it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation, or anisotropic source of seed soft photons. We develop here an analytical theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic distribution of electrons that can simplify significantly the calculations. Assuming that the electron angular distribution can be represented by a second order polynomial over cosine of some angle (dipole and quadrupole anisotropy), we integrate the exact Klein-Nishina cross-section over the angles. Exact analytical and approximate formulae valid for any photon and electron energies are derived for the redistribution functions describin...

  18. Prediction of Filamentous Sludge Bulking using a State-based Gaussian Processes Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Qilin; Huang, Daoping

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge process has been widely adopted to remove pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, stable operation of activated sludge process is often compromised by the occurrence of filamentous bulking. The aim of this study is to build a proper model for timely diagnosis and prediction of filamentous sludge bulking in an activated sludge process. This study developed a state-based Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model to monitor the filamentous sludge bulking related parameter, sludge volume index (SVI), in such a way that the evolution of SVI can be predicted over multi-step ahead. This methodology was validated with SVI data collected from one full-scale WWTP. Online diagnosis and prediction of filamentous bulking sludge with real-time SVI prediction was tested through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed methodology was capable of predicting future SVIs with good accuracy, thus providing sufficient time for predicting and controlling filamentous sludge bulking. PMID:27498888

  19. Prediction of Filamentous Sludge Bulking using a State-based Gaussian Processes Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Qilin; Huang, Daoping

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge process has been widely adopted to remove pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, stable operation of activated sludge process is often compromised by the occurrence of filamentous bulking. The aim of this study is to build a proper model for timely diagnosis and prediction of filamentous sludge bulking in an activated sludge process. This study developed a state-based Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model to monitor the filamentous sludge bulking related parameter, sludge volume index (SVI), in such a way that the evolution of SVI can be predicted over multi-step ahead. This methodology was validated with SVI data collected from one full-scale WWTP. Online diagnosis and prediction of filamentous bulking sludge with real-time SVI prediction was tested through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed methodology was capable of predicting future SVIs with good accuracy, thus providing sufficient time for predicting and controlling filamentous sludge bulking. PMID:27498888

  20. Randall-Sundrum model with {lambda}<0 and bulk brane viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: joel.saavedra@ucv.cl

    2008-04-17

    We study the effect of the inclusion of bulk brane viscosity on brane world (BW) cosmology in the framework of the Eckart's theory, we focus in the Randall-Sundrum model with negative tension on the brane.

  1. Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model in the presence of bulk stress with varying $\\Lambda$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V G METE; A S NIMKAR; V D ELKAR

    2016-10-01

    Cylindrically symmetric non-static space–time is investigated in the presence of bulk stress given by Landau and Lifshitz. To get a solution, a supplementary condition between metric potentials is used. The viscosity coefficient of the bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density whereas the coefficient of shear viscosity is considered as proportional to the scale of expansion in the model. Also some physical and geometrical properties of the model are discussed.

  2. Bulk Density Adjustment of Resin-Based Equivalent Material for Geomechanical Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An equivalent material is of significance to the simulation of prototype rock in geomechanical model test. Researchers attempt to ensure that the bulk density of equivalent material is equal to that of prototype rock. In this work, barite sand was used to increase the bulk density of a resin-based equivalent material. The variation law of the bulk density was revealed in the simulation of a prototype rock of a different bulk density. Over 300 specimens were made for uniaxial compression test. Test results indicated that the substitution of quartz sand by barite sand had no apparent influence on the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of the specimens but can increase the bulk density, according to the proportional coarse aggregate content. An ideal linearity was found in the relationship between the barite sand substitution ratio and the bulk density. The relationship between the bulk density and the usage of coarse aggregate and barite sand was also presented. The test results provided an insight into the bulk density adjustment of resin-based equivalent materials.

  3. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Gow, Travis K; King, Benjamin J; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe-Ducheyne, Christine; Kida, Masatoshi; Dall, Ole M; Krhut, Jan; Zvara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile. PMID:27688751

  4. Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity in General Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    The Bianchi type-Ⅲcosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are studied. To obtain a determinate solution, it is assumed that the coefficient of bulk viscosity is a power function of the scalar of expansion ζ = kθm and the shear scalar is proportional to scalar of expansion σ∝θ, which leads to the relation between metric potentials B = Cn. The physical features of the model are also discussed. It is found that the power index mhas significant influence on the string model. There is a "big bang" start in the model when m ≤ 1 but there is no the big-bang start when m > 1. In the special case m = 0, the model reduces to the string model of constant coefficient of bulk viscosity that was the result previously given in the literature.

  5. Electro-thermo-mechanical model for bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Eduard; Collado, Carlos; Mateu, Jordi; Orloff, Nathan D; Aigner, Robert; Booth, James C

    2013-11-01

    We present the electro-thermo-mechanical constitutive relations, expanded up to the third order, for a BAW resonator. The relations obtained are implemented into a circuit model, which is validated with extensive linear and nonlinear measurements. The mathematical analysis, along with the modeling, allows us to identify the dominant terms, which are the material temperature derivatives and two intrinsic nonlinear terms, and explain, for the first time, all observable effects in a BAW resonator by use of a unified physical description. Moreover, the terms that are responsible for the second-harmonic generation and the frequency shift with dc voltage are shown to be the same. PMID:24158294

  6. Higher-dimensional cosmological model with variable gravitational constant and bulk viscosity in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; R V Deshpande; T Singh

    2004-11-01

    We have studied five-dimensional homogeneous cosmological models with variable and bulk viscosity in Lyra geometry. Exact solutions for the field equations have been obtained and physical properties of the models are discussed. It has been observed that the results of new models are well within the observational limit.

  7. Bulk Randall-Sundrum models, electroweak precision tests, and the 125 GeV Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abhishek M.; Sridhar, K.; Vempati, Sudhir K.

    2016-04-01

    We present up-to-date electroweak fits of various Randall-Sundrum (RS) models. We consider the bulk RS, deformed RS, and the custodial RS models. For the bulk RS case we find the lightest Kaluza-Klein (KK) mode of the gauge boson to be ˜8 TeV , while for the custodial case it is ˜3 TeV . The deformed model is the least fine-tuned of all which can give a good fit for KK masses <2 TeV depending on the choice of the model parameters. We also comment on the fine-tuning in each case.

  8. A commuting network model: going to the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, Floriana; Huet, Sylvie; Espinosa, Omar Baqueiro

    2011-01-01

    The influence of commuting in socio-economic dynamics increases constantly. Analysing and modelling the networks formed by commuters to help decision-making regarding the land-use has become crucial. This paper presents a simple spatial interaction simulated model with only one parameter. The proposed algorithm considers each individual who wants to commute, starting from their living place to all their workplaces. It decides where the location of the workplace following the classical rule inspired from the gravity law consisting in a compromise between the job offers and the distance to the jobs. The further away the job offer is, the more important it must be in order to be considered. Inversely, only the quantity of offers is important for the decision when these offers are close. The paper also presents a comparative analysis of the structure of the commuting networks of the four European regions to which we apply our model. The model is calibrated and validated on these regions. Results from the analysis...

  9. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, K. J.; Miracle, D. B.; Ferry, M.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural de...

  10. Bulk viscous cosmological model with interacting dark fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Sobreiro, Octavio A.S., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    We study a cosmological model for a spatially flat Universe whose constituents are a dark energy field and a matter field comprising baryons and dark matter. The constituents are assumed to interact with each other, and a non-equilibrium pressure is introduced to account for irreversible processes. We take the nonequilibrium pressure to be proportional to the Hubble parameter within the framework of a first-order thermodynamic theory. The dark energy and matter fields are coupled by their barotropic indexes, which depend on the ratio between their energy densities. We adjust the free parameters of the model to optimize the fits to the Hubble parameter data. We compare the viscous model with the non-viscous one, and show that the irreversible processes cause the dark-energy and matter-density parameters to become equal and the decelerated-accelerated transition to occur at earlier times. Furthermore, the density and deceleration parameters and the distance modulus have the correct behavior, consistent with a viable scenario of the present status of the Universe . (author)

  11. Bulk viscosity for pion and nucleon thermal fluctuation in the hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Mohanty, Bedangdas

    2016-01-01

    We have calculated microscopically bulk viscosity of hadronic matter, where equilibrium thermodynamics for all hadrons in medium are described by Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. Considering pions and nucleons as abundant medium constituents, we have calculated their thermal widths, which inversely control the strength of bulk viscosities for respective components and represent their in-medium scattering probabilities with other mesonic and baryonic resonances, present in the medium. Our calculations show that bulk viscosity increases with both temperature and baryon chemical potential, whereas viscosity to entropy density ratio decreases with temperature and with baryon chemical potential, the ratio increases first and then decreases. The decreasing nature of the ratio with temperature is observed in most of the earlier investigations with few exceptions. We find that the temperature dependence of bulk viscosity crucially depends on the structure of the relaxation time. Along the chemical freeze-out line in...

  12. Development of accurate contact force models for use with Discrete Element Method (DEM) modelling of bulk fruit handling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dintwa, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with the development of accurate, simplified and validated contact force models for the discrete element modelling (DEM) of fruit bulk handling systems. The DEM is essentially a numerical technique to model a system of particles interacting with one another and with the system boundaries through collisions. The specific area of application envisaged is in postharvest agriculture, where DEM could be used in simulation of many unit operations with bulk fruit,...

  13. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in density dependent quark mass model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J D Anand; N Chandrika Devi; V K Gupta; S Singh

    2000-05-01

    We have studied the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in the density dependent quark mass model (DDQM) and compared results with calculations done earlier in the MIT bag model where , masses were neglected and first order interactions were taken into account. We find that at low temperatures and high relative perturbations, the bulk viscosity is higher by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude while at low perturbations the enhancement is by 1–2 order of magnitude as compared to earlier results. Also the damping time is 2–3 orders of magnitude lower implying that the star reaches stability much earlier than in MIT bag model calculations.

  14. Anisotropic cosmological models with bulk viscosity and particle creation in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandel S; Ram Shri

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of particle creation and bulk viscosity in the evolution of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological models in the framework of Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Particle creation and bulk viscosity are considered as separate irreversible processes. The energy–momentum tensor is modified to accommodate the viscous pressure and creation pressure which is associated with the creation of matter out of gravitational field. A special law of variation of Hubble parameter is applied to obtain exact solutions of field equations in two types of cosmologies, one with power-law expansion and the other with exponential expansion. Cosmological model with power-law expansion has a Big-Bang singularity at time $t = 0$, whereas the model with exponential expansion has no finite singularity. We study bulk viscosity and particle creation in each model in four different cases. The bulk viscosity coefficient is obtained for full causal, Eckart’s and truncated theories. All physical parameters are calculated and thoroughly discussed in both models.

  15. Compton polarimetry revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the average polarisation asymmetry from the Klein–Nishina differential cross-section on free electrons at rest. As expected from the expression for the asymmetry, the average asymmetry is found to decrease like the inverse of the incident photon energy asymptotically at high energy. We then compute a simple estimator of the polarisation fraction that makes optimal use of all the kinematic information present in an event final state, by the use of “moments” method, and we compare its statistical power to that of a simple fit of the azimuthal distribution. In contrast to polarimetry with pair creation, for which we obtained an improvement by a factor of larger than two in a previous work, here for Compton scattering the improvement is only of 10–20%

  16. Compton polarimetry revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    I compute the average polarisation asymmetry from the Klein-Nishina differential cross section on free electrons at rest. As expected from the expression for the asymmetry, the average asymmetry is found to decrease like the inverse of the incident photon energy asymptotically at high energy. I then compute a simple estimator of the polarisation fraction that makes optimal use of all the kinematic information present in an event final state, by the use of "moments" method, and I compare its statistical power to that of a simple fit of the azimuthal distribution. In contrast to polarimetry with pair creation, for which I obtained an improvement by a factor of larger than two in a previous work, here for Compton scattering the improvement is only of 10-20 %.

  17. Exact solutions of a Flat Full Causal Bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo-Pérez, O.; Belinchón, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the classical flat full causal bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through the factorization method. The method shows that there exists a relationship between the viscosity parameter $s$ and the parameter $\\gamma$ entering the equations of state of the model. Also, the factorization method allows to find some new exact parametric solutions for different values of the viscous parameter $s$. Special attention is given to the well known case $s=1/2$, for which the cosmological model adm...

  18. Quark mass density- and temperature- dependent model for bulk strange quark matter

    OpenAIRE

    al, Yun Zhang et.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the quark mass density-dependent model can not be used to explain the process of the quark deconfinement phase transition because the quark confinement is permanent in this model. A quark mass density- and temperature-dependent model in which the quark confinement is impermanent has been suggested. We argue that the vacuum energy density B is a function of temperature. The dynamical and thermodynamical properties of bulk strange quark matter for quark mass density- and temper...

  19. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar;

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence...

  20. An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell-bulk

  1. Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Model With Bulk Viscosity and Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Bianchi type-Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string in the presence of bulk viscosity and magnetic field are presented. To obtain the determinate model it is assumed that there is an equation of state ρ = kλ and the scalar of expansion is proportional to the shear scalar θ∝σ, which leads to a relation between metric potentials B = mCn. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start. In the absence of magnetic field, it reduces to the string model with bulk viscosity that was previously given in the literature.

  2. Computations of Compton scattering redistribution function in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Madej, J; Majczyna, A; Należyty, M

    2016-01-01

    Compton scattering is the dominant opacity source in hot neutron stars, accretion disks around black holes and hot coronae. We present here a set of numerical expressions of the Compton scattering redistribution functions for unpolarized radiation, which are more exact than the widely used Kompaneets equation. This paper fulfills three goals: 1. We have organized three existing algorithms into a form ready to use in radiative transfer and model atmosphere codes. 2. We present the correct algorithm derived first by Guilbert (1981). 3. We modify the exact algorithm by Suleimanov et al. (2012) in order to use it for the scattering in a very wide spectral range from hard X- rays to radio waves. We present sample computations of the Compton scattering redistribution functions in thermal plasma at temperatures corresponding to the atmospheres of bursting neutron stars and hot intergalactic medium. Our formulae are also useful to the study Compton scattering of unpolarised microwave background radiation in hot intra...

  3. Bianchi Type Ⅲ Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Models with Variable G and A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Ba-li; Seema Tinker

    2009-01-01

    Bianchi type-Ⅲ bulk viscous barotropic fluid cosmological model with variables G and A is investigated. To obtainthe realistic model, we assume the conditions between the metric potentials A, B, C as A/A = B/B = m1/tnand C/C = m2/tn, P = p - 3ηH, η= ηops, p =γp, 0 γ 1, where p is isotropic pressure, η the coefficient of bulk viscosity, ηo and S the constants, H the Hubble constant, m1= 2m2 where m1 0, m2 0. The solutions obtained lead to inflationary phase and the results obtained match with the observations. The case n = 1 for S = 1 is also discussed, relating the results with the observations.PACS: 98. 80. Hω, 04.50. +h, 98.80. CqSpatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmologi-cal models play a significant role in description of the large scale behaviour of the universe. The choice of anisotropic model in the Einstein system of field equa-tions permits us to obtain cosmological model more general than the Robertson-Walker model. Tikekar and Patel[1] have investigated some exact solutions of massive string for Bianchi type-Ⅲ spacetime in the presence and absence of magnetic field. They have also discussed the behaviour of the model in the ab-sence of magnetic field. Bali and Dave[2] investigated the Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological model with bulk viscosity. Recently Bali and Pradhan[3] investi-gated the Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological models with time-dependent bulk viscosity.

  4. Vacuum Expectation Value Profiles of the Bulk Scalar Field in the Generalized Randall-Sundrum Model

    CERN Document Server

    Tofighi, A; Farokhtabar, A

    2015-01-01

    In the generalized Randall-Sundrum warped brane-world model the cosmological constant induced on the visible brane can be positive or negative. In this paper we investigate profiles of vacuum expectation value of the bulk scalar field under general Dirichlet andNeumann boundary conditions in the generalized warped brane-worldmodel.We showthat the VEVprofiles generally depend on the value of the brane cosmological constant. We find that the VEV profiles of the bulk scalar field for a visible brane with negative cosmological constant and positive tension are quite distinct fromthose of Randall-Sundrum model. In addition we show that the VEV profiles for a visible brane with large positive cosmological constant are also different from those of the Randall- Sundrum model.We also verify that Goldberger andWise mechanism can work under nonzero Dirichlet boundary conditions in the generalized Randall-Sundrum model.

  5. Axially Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Bulk-Viscous Cosmological Models with Time-Dependent and

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nawsad Ali

    2013-09-01

    The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic axially symmetric Bianchi type-I cosmological model with time variable cosmological term in the presence of bulk viscous fluid. The Einstein’s field equations are solved explicitly by time varying deceleration parameter . Consequences of the four cases of phenomenological decay of have been discussed which are consistent with observations. Physical and kinematical parameters of the models are discussed.

  6. Holographic quantum error-correcting codes: toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastawski, Fernando; Yoshida, Beni; Harlow, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2015-06-01

    We propose a family of exactly solvable toy models for the AdS/CFT correspondence based on a novel construction of quantum error-correcting codes with a tensor network structure. Our building block is a special type of tensor with maximal entanglement along any bipartition, which gives rise to an isometry from the bulk Hilbert space to the boundary Hilbert space. The entire tensor network is an encoder for a quantum error-correcting code, where the bulk and boundary degrees of freedom may be identified as logical and physical degrees of freedom respectively. These models capture key features of entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence; in particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and the negativity of tripartite information are obeyed exactly in many cases. That bulk logical operators can be represented on multiple boundary regions mimics the Rindlerwedge reconstruction of boundary operators from bulk operators, realizing explicitly the quantum error-correcting features of AdS/CFT recently proposed in [1].

  7. Holographic quantum error-correcting codes: Toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando; Harlow, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of exactly solvable toy models for the AdS/CFT correspondence based on a novel construction of quantum error-correcting codes with a tensor network structure. Our building block is a special type of tensor with maximal entanglement along any bipartition, which gives rise to an exact isometry from bulk operators to boundary operators. The entire tensor network is a quantum error-correcting code, where the bulk and boundary degrees of freedom may be identified as logical and physical degrees of freedom respectively. These models capture key features of entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence; in particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and the negativity of tripartite information are obeyed exactly in many cases. That bulk logical operators can be represented on multiple boundary regions mimics the Rindler-wedge reconstruction of boundary operators from bulk operators, realizing explicitly the quantum error-correcting features of AdS/CFT recently proposed by Almheiri et. al in arXiv:1411.70...

  8. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  9. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  10. Bianchi Type-Ⅴ Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Model with Variable G and A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Bali; Seema Tinker

    2008-01-01

    @@ We investigate the Bianehi type-Ⅴ bulk viscous barotropic fluid cosmological model with variable gravitational constant G and the cosmological constant A, assuming the condition on metric potential as A/A=B/B=C/C=m/ln, where A, B, and C are functions of time t, while m and n are constants. To obtain the deterministic model, we also assume the relations P= p-3ηH, p =γρ, η = ηoρs, where p is the isotropic pressure, η the bulk viscosity, 0 ≤γ≤1, H the Hubble constant, ηo and s are constants. Various physical aspects of the model are discussed. The case of n = 1 is also discussed to compare the results with the actual universe.

  11. Tevatron constraint on the Kaluza-Klein gluon of the Bulk Randall-Sundrum model

    CERN Document Server

    Guchait, M; Sridhar, K

    2007-01-01

    The Bulk Randall-Sundrum model, where all Standard Model particles except the Higgs are free to propagate in the bulk, predicts the existence of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the gluon with a large branching into top-antitop pairs. We study the production of the lowest KK gluon mode at the Tevatron energy and use the data on the top cross-section from the Run II of Tevatron to put a bound on the mass of the KK gluon. The resulting bound of 800 GeV, while being much smaller than the constraints obtained on the KK gluon mass from flavour-changing neutral currents, is the first, direct collider bound which is independent of the specificities of the model.

  12. Probing bulk viscous matter-dominated models with gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, A.; Bretón, N., E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: nora@fis.cinvestav.mx [Dpto. de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I. P. N., Av. IPN 2508, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we extend the range of consistency of a constant bulk viscosity model to redshifts up to z ∼ 8.1. In this model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum is a viscous fluid with pressure p = −ζθ, where θ is the fluid-expansion scalar and ζ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. Using the sample of 59 high-redshift GRBs reported by Wei (2010), we calibrate GRBs at low redshifts with the Union 2 sample of SNe Ia, thus avoiding the circularity problem. Testing the constant bulk viscosity model with GRBs we found the best fit for the viscosity parameter ζ-tilde in the range 0 < ζ-tilde < 3, so that it be consistent with previous probes; we also determined the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the redshift of transition to accelerated expansion. Besides, we present an updated analysis of the model with CMB5-year data and CMB7-year data, as well as with the baryon acoustic peak BAO. From the statistics with CMB it turns out that the model does not describe in a feasible way to such a far epoch of recombination of the universe, but is in very good concordance for epochs as far as z ∼ 8.1 till present.

  13. Probing bulk viscous matter-dominated models with Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Montiel, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extend the range of consistency of a constant bulk viscosity model to redshifts up to $z\\sim 8.1$. In this model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum is a viscous fluid with pressure $p= -\\zeta \\theta$, where $\\theta$ is the fluid-expansion scalar and $\\zeta$ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. Using the sample of 59 high-redshift GRBs reported by Wei (2010), we calibrate GRBs at low redshifts with the Union 2 sample of SNe Ia, avoiding then the circularity problem. Testing the constant bulk viscosity model with GRBs we found the best fit for the viscosity parameter $\\tilde{\\zeta}$ in the range $0<\\tilde{\\zeta}<3$, being so consistent with previous probes; we also determined the deceleration parameter $q_0$ and the redshift of transition to accelerated expansion. Besides we present an updated analysis of the model with CMB5-year data and CMB7-year data, as well as with the baryon acoustic peak BAO. From the statistics with CMB it turns out that the model does not describe in a fea...

  14. The LAL Compton program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL), Orsay, France, has launched an R and D program that involves optical Fabry-Perot resonators and high-power fibre lasers. This program is a part of the global effort aiming at the design of a polarized positron source for the next linear collider (ILC or CLIC). At the same time an important effort is devoted to the possible applications of this technology at lower energy for medical and industrial applications. In this framework, collaboration was started between different French laboratories (RadioThomX project) and industrial partners to study the feasibility of a low-energy machine that should provide a high X-ray flux (∼1012-1013 X s-1 at 50 keV in the 10% energy bandwidth). In both high and low-energy studies, the designs are based on the possibility to increase the average flux by a high collision repetition frequency. Different options are explored at present. In the following, we will give an overview of the LAL activities, the physics contexts and the possible applications of the high average power Fabry-Perot technology applied to Compton scattering experiments.

  15. Compton Scattering by the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Galler, G; Kondratev, R; Massone, A M; Wolf, S; Ahrens, J; Arends, H J; Beck, R; Camen, M; Capitani, G P; Grabmayr, P; Hall, S J; Härter, F; Hehl, T; Jennewein, P; Kossert, K; Lvov, A I; Molinari, C; Ottonello, P; Peise, J; Preobrajenskij, I; Proff, S; Robbiano, A; Sanzone, M; Schumacher, M; Schmitz, M; Wissmann, F

    2001-01-01

    Compton scattering by the proton has been measured over a wide range covering photon energies 250 MeV < E_\\gamma < 800 MeV and photon scattering angles 30^0 < \\theta^{lab}_\\gamma < 150^0, using the tagged-photon facility at MAMI (Mainz) and the large-acceptance arrangement LARA. The data are in good agreement with the dispersion theory based on the SAID-SM99K parameterization of photo-meson amplitudes. From the subset of data between 280 and 360 MeV the resonance pion-photoproduction amplitudes were evaluated leading to the multipole E2/M1 ratio EMR(340 MeV) =(-1.6 \\pm 0.4(stat+syst) \\pm 0.2(model)%. From all data below 455 MeV the proton's backward spin polarizability was determined to be \\gamma_\\pi=(-37.9 \\pm 0.6(stat+syst) \\pm 3.5(model))x10^{-4}fm^4.

  16. Bulk data transfer distributer: a high performance multicast model in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.

    2006-06-01

    A high performance multicast model for the bulk data transfer mechanism in the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Common Software (ACS) is presented. The ALMA astronomical interferometer will consist of at least 50 12-m antennas operating at millimeter wavelength. The whole software infrastructure for ALMA is based on ACS, which is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. To cope with the very strong requirements for the amount of data that needs to be transported by the software communication channels of the ALMA subsystems (a typical output data rate expected from the Correlator is of the order of 64 MB per second) and with the potential CORBA bottleneck due to parameter marshalling/de-marshalling, usage of IIOP protocol, etc., a transfer mechanism based on the ACE/TAO CORBA Audio/Video (A/V) Streaming Service has been developed. The ACS Bulk Data Transfer architecture bypasses the CORBA protocol with an out-of-bound connection for the data streams (transmitting data directly in TCP or UDP format), using at the same time CORBA for handshaking and leveraging the benefits of ACS middleware. Such a mechanism has proven to be capable of high performances, of the order of 800 Mbits per second on a 1Gbit Ethernet network. Besides a point-to-point communication model, the ACS Bulk Data Transfer provides a multicast model. Since the TCP protocol does not support multicasting and all the data must be correctly delivered to all ALMA subsystems, a distributer mechanism has been developed. This paper focuses on the ACS Bulk Data Distributer, which mimics a multicast behaviour managing data dispatching to all receivers willing to get data from the same sender.

  17. A Forecasting Model of Required Number of Wheat Bulk Carriers for Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayoshi Kubo

    2008-01-01

    <正>The ocean transportation of grain bulk carriers is promoted by development of ocean economic.With the development of coastal region,the cargo transportation wi11 become more and more important,especially for the resource such as grain,oil and coal.In this study,a model is built to estimate the number of grain bulk carriers needed for wheat based upon analyzing the relationships between Tons and Ton-miles of Africa wheat transportation.We find that the agricultural policies greatly affect the wheat transportation to Africa.Then,using two scenarios, we predict how many ships are necessary for the maritime transportation of wheat from other places to Africa in the future.We believe that this research is extremely useful to maritime transportation of wheat to Africa.

  18. Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali

    2010-11-01

    String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.

  19. Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Canchaya, José G.; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve.

  20. Turbulent Comptonization in Relativistic Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Blaes, Omer M; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent Comptonization, a potentially important damping and radiation mechanism in relativistic accretion flows, is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the physical basis, relative importance, and thermodynamics of turbulent Comptonization. The effects of metal-absorption opacity on the spectral component resulting from turbulent Comptonization is considered as well.

  1. Forecasting spot prices in bulk shipping using multivariate and univariate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Geomelos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs an applied econometric study concerning forecasting spot prices in bulk shipping in both markets of tankers and bulk carriers in a disaggregated level. This research is essential, as spot market is one of the most volatile markets and there is a great uncertainty about the future development of spot prices. This uncertainty could be reduced by using estimates of ex-post and ex-ante forecasts. Econometric analysis focuses in the comparison of different econometric models from two important categories of econometrics: (1 multivariate models (VAR and VECM and (2 univariate time series models (ARIMA, GARCH and E-GARCH in order to derive the best predicting model for each ship type. Also, forecasts can be modified to yield an improved performance of forecasting accuracy via the theory of combining methods. Ex-post and ex-ante forecasts are estimated on the basis of best predicting model’s performance. Results show that the combining methodology can reduce even more the forecasting errors. The results of empirical analysis could also be useful from the specialization, identification, estimation, and evaluation of previous econometric models’ point of view. Also, ex-ante forecasts, which are taking into consideration the present economic crisis, can be used for the formation of efficient economic policy from decision-makers of shipping industry reducing even more spot markets’ risk.

  2. Cooperative Effects of Noise and Coupling on Stochastic Dynamics of a Membrane-Bulk Coupling Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; JIA Ya; YI Ming

    2009-01-01

    Based on a membrane-bulk coupling cell model proposed by Gomez-Marin et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 168303], the cooperative effects of noise and coupling on the stochastic dynamical behavior are investigated, For parameters in a certain region, the oscillation can be induced by the cooperative effect of noise and coupling. Whether considering the coupling or not, corresponding coherence resonance phenomena are observed. Furthermore, the effects of two coupling parameters, cell size L and coupling intensity k, on the noise-induced oscillation of membranes are studied. Contrary effects of noise are found in and out of the deterministic oscillatory regions.

  3. Modeling deformation behavior of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, S.; Liu, G.; Wang, G.; Das, J.; Kim, K. B.; Kühn, U.; Kim, D. H.; Eckert, J.

    2009-09-01

    In the present work we prepared an in situ Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composite derived from the shape memory alloy CuZr. We use a strength model, which considers percolation and a three-microstructural-element body approach, to understand the effect of the crystalline phase on the yield stress and the fracture strain under compressive loading, respectively. The intrinsic work-hardenability due to the martensitic transformation of the crystalline phase causes significant work hardening also of the composite material.

  4. Power-law Tails from Dynamical Comptonization in Converging Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Turolla, R; Titarchuk, L G; Turolla, Roberto; Zane, Silvia; Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    The effects of bulk motion comptonization on the spectral formation in a converging flow onto a black hole are investigated. The problem is tackled by means of both a fully relativistic, angle-dependent transfer code and a semi-analytical, diffusion-approximation method. We find that a power-law high-energy tail is a ubiquitous feature in converging flows and that the two approaches produce consistent results at large enough accretion rates, when photon diffusion holds. Our semi-analytical approach is based on an expansion in eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. Contrary to previous investigations based on the same method we find that, although the power-law tail at really large energies is always dominated by the flatter spectral mode, the slope of the hard X-ray portion of the spectrum is dictated by the second mode and it approaches Gamma=3 at large accretion rate, irrespective of the model parameters. The photon index in the tail is found to be largely independent on the spatial distribution of soft ...

  5. Power-Law Tails from Dynamical Comptonization in Converging Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, Roberto; Zane, Silvia; Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-09-01

    The effects of bulk motion Comptonization on the spectral formation in a converging flow onto a black hole are investigated. The problem is tackled by means of both a fully relativistic, angle-dependent transfer code and a semianalytical, diffusion approximation method. We find that a power-law high-energy tail is a ubiquitous feature in converging flows and that the two approaches produce consistent results at large enough accretion rates when photon diffusion holds. Our semianalytical approach is based on an expansion in eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. Contrary to previous investigations based on the same method, we find that although the power-law tail at extremely large energies is always dominated by the flatter spectral mode, the slope of the hard X-ray portion of the spectrum is dictated by the second mode and it approaches Γ=3 at large accretion rates, irrespective of the model parameters. The photon index in the tail is found to be largely independent on the spatial distribution of soft seed photons when the accretion rate is either quite low (~10). On the other hand, the spatial distribution of source photons controls the photon index at intermediate accretion rates, when Γ switches from the first to the second mode. Our analysis confirms that a hard tail with photon index Γ<3 is produced by the upscattering of primary photons onto infalling electrons if the central object is a black hole.

  6. Polarization Measurements with Compton Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, A.; O'Neill, T. J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Dixon, D. D.; Tumer, T. O.; White, R. S.; Zych, A. D.

    1994-12-01

    The response of the Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE) instrument to polarized celestial gamma rays above 300 keV is presented. TIGRE uses multilayers of silicon strip detectors both as a gamma-ray converter and to track Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs up to 100 MeV. For Compton events, the direction and energy of the Compton scattered gamma ray are measured with arrays of small CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors. A small balloon prototype instrument is being constructed that has a high absolute detection efficiency of 10% and a sensitivity of 100 milliCrabs for an exposure of 12 hours. The prototype's sensitivity to polarized gamma radiation has been calculated with the MCNP detector simulation code which was modified to include the polarization dependence of the Klein-Nishina formula. Polarized events and unpolarized source events with background are combined to simulate an observation of the Crab Nebula and pulsar. TIGRE's polarization modulation factor varies from 0.17 to 0.42 depending on the energy and Compton scatter angle cuts that are used. With 12 hours of observation on the Crab, polarized gamma radiation can be detected down to the level of about 10%. Potential celestial sources of polarized gamma-ray emission will be discussed.

  7. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Mazouz, M; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  8. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mazouz; A. Camsonne; C. Munoz Camacho; C. Ferdi; G. Gavalian; E. Kuchina; M. Amarian; K. A. Aniol; M. Beaumel; H. Benaoum; P. Bertin; M. Brossard; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; R. Feuerbach; J.-M. Fieschi; S. Frullani; M. Garcon; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; J. Gomez; P. Gueye; P.A.M. Guichon; B. Guillon; O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; R. Igarashi; X. Jiang; H.S. Jo; L.J. Kaufman; A. Kelleher; A. Kolarkar; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J.J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; H.-J. Lu; D.J. Margaziotis; Z.-E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R. Michaels; B. Michel; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; M. Potokar; Y. Qiang; R.D. Ransome; J.-S. Real; B. Reitz; Y. Roblin; J. Roche; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; V. Sulkosky; P.E. Ulmer; E. Voutier; K. Wang; L.B. Weinstein; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-12-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  9. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D((rvec e), e'γ)X cross section measured at Q2=1.9 GeV2 and xB=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to Eq, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced

  10. Measurement of the spin asymmetry of the beam in the polarized virtual Compton scattering on the proton. Study of the nucleon's energy spectra through the QCD-type potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this work presents the analysis and results of the VCS-SSA (virtual Compton scattering - single spin asymmetry) experiment at MAMI (Mainz). It was carried out with beam energy 883 MeV and longitudinal polarization (about 80%), at virtual photon four-momentum transfer squared (Q2 = 0.35 GeV2) to measure the beam asymmetry in the ep → epγ and ep → epπ0 reactions. The asymmetry obtained in photon (resp. pion) electro-production is between 0-15% (resp. 0-2%). The dispersion relation model for virtual Compton scattering and MAID model (for π0) reproduce the amplitude globally but not completely the shape of the asymmetry. Perhaps this discrepancy is due to an imperfect parameterization of some pion production multipoles (γ*N → πN). The second part is dedicated to the study of the nucleon energy spectrum in ground-state L=0 and excited-state L=1 in the quark model, using the Coulomb + linear potential type (CL) and a relativistic correction. The hyperfine correction is applied to discriminate the nucleon masses. The values of the mass found for the proton and the Δ(1232) are respectively equal to (968 MeV, 1168 MeV), and the masses of the excited states are between 1564 - 1607 MeV. This part is completed by an application of the CL model to an approximate calculation of generalized polarizabilities of the proton. (author)

  11. Modelling of secondary sedimentation under wet-weather and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Performance of SSTs influences the solids inventory in the activated sludge unit and consequently impacts the biological treatment efficiency. Moreover, SSTs limit the maxi......Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Performance of SSTs influences the solids inventory in the activated sludge unit and consequently impacts the biological treatment efficiency. Moreover, SSTs limit...... model was further used in the last study of this thesis to model the impact of filamentous bulking on the sludge distribution and transport in SSTs by calibrating the rheology and settling sub-models to measurements of sludge with high and low filamentous bacteria content....

  12. Bulk metric of brane world models and submanifolds in 6D pseudo-Euclidian space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N

    2010-01-01

    In this short note, five-dimensional brane world models with dS_{4} metric on the branes are discussed. The explicit coordinate transformations, which show the equivalence between the bulk metric of these brane world models and the metric induced on an appropriate submanifolds in the flat six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time, are presented. The cases of the zero and non-zero cosmological constant in the bulk are discussed in detail.

  13. Magnetic fields end-face effect investigation of HTS bulk over PMG with 3D-modeling numerical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yujie; Lu, Yiyun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the magnetic fields end-face effect of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) is researched with 3D-modeling numerical method. The electromagnetic behavior of the bulk is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The framework is formulated by the magnetic field vector method (H-method). A superconducting levitation system composed of one rectangular HTS bulk and one infinite long PMG is successfully investigated using the proposed method. The simulation results show that for finite geometrical HTS bulk, even the applied magnetic field is only distributed in x-y plane, the magnetic field component Hz which is along the z-axis can be observed interior the HTS bulk.

  14. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  15. Blazar Studies with GLAST: Synchro-Compton Analysis of Flat Spectr um Radio Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D; Krug, Hannah; Boettcher, Markus

    2008-01-01

    We extend a method for modeling synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton radiations in blazar jets to include external Compton processes. The basic model assumption is that the blazar radio through soft X-ray flux is nonthermal synchrotron radiation emitted by isotropically-distributed electrons in the randomly directed magnetic field of outflowing relativistic blazar jet plasma. Thus the electron distribution is given by the synchrotron spectrum, depending only on the Doppler factor and mean magnetic field, given that the comoving emission region size scale. Generalizing the approach of Georganopoulos, Kirk, and Mastichiadis (2001) to arbitrary anisotropic target radiation fields, we use the electron spectrum implied by the synchrotron component to derive accurate Compton-scattered $\\gamma$-ray spectra throughout the Thomson and Klein-Nishina regimes for external Compton scattering (ECS) processes. We derive and calculate accurate $\\gamma$-ray spectra produced by relativistic electrons that Compton-scatter (...

  16. Modeling the material properties at the onset of damage initiation in bulk potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G.; Feit, Michael D.; Duchateau, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    A model simulating transient optical properties during laser damage in the bulk of KDP/DKDP crystals is presented. The model was developed and tested using as a benchmark its ability to reproduce the well-documented damage initiation behaviors but most importantly, the salient behavior of the wavelength dependence of the damage threshold. The model involves two phases. During phase I, the model assumes a moderate localized initial absorption that is strongly enhanced during the laser pulse via excited state absorption and thermally driven generation of additional point defects in the surrounding material. The model suggests that during a fraction of the pulse duration, the host material around the defect cluster is transformed into a strong absorber that leads to significant increase of the local temperature. During phase II, the model suggests that the excitation pathway consists mainly of one photon absorption events within a quasicontinuum of short-lived vibronic defect states spanning the band gap that was generated after the initial localized heating of the material due to thermal quenching of the excited state lifetimes. The width of the transition (steps) between different number of photons is governed by the instantaneous temperature, which was estimated using the experimental data. The model also suggests that the critical physical parameter prior to initiation of breakdown is the conduction band electron density. This model, employing very few free parameters, for the first time is able to quantitatively reproduce the wavelength dependence of the damage initiation threshold, and thus provides important insight into the physical processes involved.

  17. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaker, Ales [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  18. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ales Psaker

    2005-12-31

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  19. Rosseland and flux mean opacities for Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Poutanen, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Rosseland mean opacity plays an important role in theories of stellar evolution and X-ray burst models. In the high-temperature regime, when most of the gas is completely ionized, the opacity is dominated by Compton scattering. Our aim here is to critically evaluate previous works on this subject and to compute exact Rosseland mean opacity for Compton scattering in a broad range of temperatures and electron degeneracy parameter. We use relativistic kinetic equations for Compton scattering and compute the photon mean free path as a function of photon energy by solving the corresponding integral equation in the diffusion limit. As a byproduct we also demonstrate the way to compute photon redistribution functions in case of degenerate electrons. We then compute the Rosseland mean opacity as a function of temperature and electron degeneracy. We compare our results to the previous calculations and find a significant difference in the low-temperature regime and strong degeneracy. We find useful analytical expressio...

  20. Spectral properties of Compton inverse radiation: Application of Compton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Compton inverse radiation emitted due to backscattering of laser pulses off the relativistic electrons possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons - in hard x-ray up to gamma-ray energies - because of short wavelength of laser radiation as compared with the classical electromagnetic devices such as undulators. In this report, the possibility of such radiation to monochromatization by means of collimation is studied. Two approaches have been considered for the description of the spectral-angular density of Compton radiation based on the classical field theory and on the quantum electrodynamics. As is shown, both descriptions produce similar total spectra. On the contrary, angular distribution of the radiation is different: the classical approach predicted a more narrow radiation cone. Also proposed and estimated is a method of the `electronic' monochromatization based on the electronic subtraction of the two images produced by the electron beams with slightly different energies. A `proof-of-prin...

  1. Nuclear compton scattering in the delta resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, R.C. (Departamento de Tecnologia Informatica y Computacion. Universidad de Alicante. Alicante (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    We develop a model in which the Compton amplitude at intermediate energies is split into a resonant and a background part. The resonant amplitude and the imaginary part of the background amplitude are calculated using microscopic many body methods. The background real part is obtained by subtracting the resonant one to total real amplitude-evaluated by means of a dispersion relation at forward angles. Uncertainties remain on how to extrapolate this forward real background amplitude to backward angles and we study the repercussion of these uncertainties in the Compton cross section. (Author) 30 refs.

  2. Generalized Parton Distributions from Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Guidal, M

    2009-01-01

    The HERMES collaboration has recently published a set of (correlated) beam charge, beam spin and target spin relative asymmetries for the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering process. This reaction allows in principle to access the Generalized Parton Distributions of the nucleon. We have fitted, in the QCD leading-order and leading-twist handbag approximation, but in a model independent way, this set of data and we report our results for the extracted Compton Form Factors. In particular, we are able to extract constrains on the $H$ GPD.

  3. Generalized parton distributions from deeply virtual compton scattering at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidal, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay (France); Moutarde, H. [Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-10-15

    The HERMES Collaboration has recently published a set of (correlated) beam charge, beam spin and target spin asymmetries for the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. This reaction allows in principle to access the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. We have fitted, in the QCD leading-order and leading-twist handbag approximation, but in a model-independent way, this set of data and we report our results for the extracted Compton form factors. In particular, we are able to extract constrains on the H GPD. (orig.)

  4. Anisotropic Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Model in a Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. K. Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatially homogeneous, anisotropic, and tilted Bianchi type-VI0 model is investigated in a new scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1986 when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one-dimensional cosmic strings. Exact solution of the highly nonlinear field equations is obtained using the following plausible physical conditions: (i scalar expansion of the space-time which is proportional to the shear scalar, (ii the barotropic equations of state for pressure and energy density, and (iii a special law of variation for Hubble’s parameter proposed by Berman (1983. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

  5. The importance of entrainment and bulking on debris flow runout modeling: examples from the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, F.; McArdell, B. W.; Huggel, C.; Vieli, A.

    2015-11-01

    This study describes an investigation of channel-bed entrainment of sediment by debris flows. An entrainment model, developed using field data from debris flows at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, was incorporated into the existing RAMMS debris-flow model, which solves the 2-D shallow-water equations for granular flows. In the entrainment model, an empirical relationship between maximum shear stress and measured erosion is used to determine the maximum potential erosion depth. Additionally, the average rate of erosion, measured at the same field site, is used to constrain the erosion rate. The model predicts plausible erosion values in comparison with field data from highly erosive debris flow events at the Spreitgraben torrent channel, Switzerland in 2010, without any adjustment to the coefficients in the entrainment model. We find that by including bulking due to entrainment (e.g., by channel erosion) in runout models a more realistic flow pattern is produced than in simulations where entrainment is not included. In detail, simulations without entrainment show more lateral outflow from the channel where it has not been observed in the field. Therefore the entrainment model may be especially useful for practical applications such as hazard analysis and mapping, as well as scientific case studies of erosive debris flows.

  6. Auroral signatures of Bursty Bulk Flows from magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echim, M.; de Keyser, J. M.; Roth, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between bursty bulk flows (BBFs) in the magnetospheric tail and the activation of auroral forms is well established from satellite and ground-based observations. Starting from a self-consistent description of BBFs based on a Vlasov equilibrium we provide a quantitative evaluation of the associated auroral effects by using a quasi-stationary magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling model. The self-consistent BBF model is based on a kinetic description of a 1-D plasma slab moving in background plasma and electromagnetic field. The model considers two exact constants of motion and one adiabatic invariant (the magnetic moment). It solves the coupled Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations in one spatial dimension (perpendicular to the BBFs plasma bulk velocity and the main magnetic field) assuming the BBF is a 1D structure elongated in the direction of the background magnetic field. The BBF model provides the self-consistent profile of Φm, the electric potential, showing the formation of convergent electric fields at the dawnward flank of the Earth-ward oriented BBFs. It has been shown that magnetospheric convergent electric fields drive field-aligned (FA) potential drops, FA currents and electron precipitation and acceleration. A stationary MI coupling model developed for discontinuity-like magnetospheric generators with convergent electric fields developed earlier is adapted to describe the coupling between the BBFs and the auroral ionosphere. The kernel of the MI coupling model is the condition of current continuity at the topside ionosphere, from which we compute the electric potential in the ionosphere for a given Φm. The MI coupling model is based on a Knight-type current-voltage relationship and a height-integrated conductivity model that depends on the energy deposited in the ionosphere by precipitating electrons. We show that the convergent electric field formed at the flanks of the BBF drive a FA potential drop and downward electron acceleration

  7. GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION INDUCED BY COLD ELECTRONS VIA COMPTON PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhe; Jiang Yunguo; Lin Hainan, E-mail: changz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangyg@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: linhn@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2013-05-20

    The polarization measurement is an important tool to probe the prompt emission mechanism in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The synchrotron photons can be scattered by cold electrons in the outflow via Compton scattering (CS) processes. The observed polarization depends on both the photon energy and the viewing angle. With the typical bulk Lorentz factor {Gamma} {approx} 200, photons with energy E > 10 MeV tend to have smaller polarization than photons with energy E < 1 MeV. At the right viewing angle, i.e., {theta} {approx} {Gamma}{sup -1}, the polarization achieves its maximal value, and the polarization angle changes 90 Degree-Sign relative to the initial polarization direction. Thus, the synchrotron radiation plus CS model can naturally explain the 90 Degree-Sign change of the polarization angle in GRB 100826A.

  8. Inverse Compton light curves of blazars under non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Blazars exhibit flares with a doubling time scale on the order of minutes. Such rapid flares are theoretically challenging and several {models} have been put forward to explain the fast variability. In this paper we continue the discussion concerning the effects of non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling. In previous papers we were able to show that the non-linearity{, introduced by a time-dependent electron injection,} has severe consequences for both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the monochromatic synchrotron light curve. The non-linear cooling introduces novel breaks in the SED, which are usually explained by complicated underlying electron distributions, while the much faster cooling of the SSC process {causes significant differences in the synchrotron light curves}. In this paper we calculate the inverse Compton light curves, taking into account both the SSC and the external Compton process. The light curves are calculated from the monochromatic intensities by intro...

  9. Atmospheric stability and turbulence fluxes at Horns Rev—an intercomparison of sonic, bulk and WRF model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct estimations of turbulent fluxes and atmospheric stability were performed from a sonic anemometer at 50 m height on a meteorological mast at the Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea. The stability and flux estimations from the sonic measurements are compared with bulk results from a cup...... anemometer at 15 m height and potential temperature differences between the water and the air above. Surface flux estimations from the advanced weather research and forecast (WRF) model are also validated against the sonic and bulk data. The correlation between the sonic and bulk estimates of friction...

  10. The Compton polarimeter at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to measure the degree of transverse polarization of the stored electron beam in the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA a compton polarimeter is built up. The measurement is based on the polarization dependent cross section for the compton scattering of circular polarized photons off polarized electrons. Using a high power laser beam and detecting the scattered photons a measuring time of two minutes with a statistical error of 5% is expected from numerical simulations. The design and the results of a computer controlled feedback system to enhance the laser beam stability at the interaction point in ELSA are presented. The detection of the scattered photons is based on a lead converter and a silicon-microstrip detector. The design and test results of the detector module including readout electronic and computer control are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Modeling TiO2's refractive index function from bulk to nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Juho-Pertti; Taavitsainen, Veli-Matti; Lamminmäki, Ralf-Johan; Lindholm, Minna; Auvinen, Sami; Alatalo, Matti; Vartiainen, Erik; Haario, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of nanomaterials has become very common. Different nanomaterials are being used in over 1600 consumer products. Nanomaterials have been defined as having at least one dimension in the range of 1-100 nm. Such materials often have unique properties. Despite some warnings of applying bulk optical constants for nano size materials, stated already in 1980s, bulk constants are still commonly used in the light scattering measurements of nano size particles. Titanium dioxide is one of the materials that is manufactured and used as an engineered nanomaterial in increasing quantities. Due to the aforementioned facts, it is quite crucial for successful research and production of nanoparticles to find out the dependence of the refractive index function (RIF) of the material on its crystal size. We have earlier performed several ab initio computations for obtaining the dependence of the RIF of TiO2 on the crystal or on the cluster size, for particles of size up to ca. 2 nm. Extending the calculations to greater sizes has turned out to be infeasible due to the unbearable increase in computational time. However, in this study we show how the crystal-size-dependent-RIF (CS-RIF), for both rutile and anatase can be modeled from measured extinction or turbidity spectra of samples with varying crystal and particle sizes. For computing the turbidity spectrum, we constructed a model including primary crystals whose distributions were parameterized by mean and standard deviation, and also including aggregates consisting of mean sized primary particles, parameterized just by mean aggregate size. Mainly because of the long computing times Mie calculation was used in the computation of extinction spectra. However, in practical process applications, the obtained RIF will be used together with the T-matrix method. We constructed the RIFs used in the model using generalized oscillator model (GOM) as expanded to crystal size dependence. The unknown parameters of the

  12. A mechanistic model for understanding pH effect on phosphorus availability in rhizosphere and bulk soil

    OpenAIRE

    Devau, Nicolas; Le Cadre, Edith; Hinsinger, Philippe; Gérard, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    While most studies have tried to assess phosphorus bioavailability based on phosphorus availability determined in the bulk soil, we question this approach which does not account for changes of P availability that occur in the rhizosphere. In this study, we combined the extraction of soil inorganic phosphorus (P) with CaCl2 or water and geochemical modelling in order to unravel the variations of P availability in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum L.) over a ...

  13. A Non-Relativistic Look at the Compton Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Steve; Giri, Sandeep; Zakrasek, Nicholas; Affatigato, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In a usual modern physics class the Compton effect is used as the pedagogical model for introducing relativity into quantum effects. The shift in photon wavelengths is usually introduced and derived using special relativity. Indeed, this works well for explaining the effect. However, in the senior author's class one of the student coauthors…

  14. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  15. Modeling the Microstructure Curvature of Boron-Doped Silicon in Bulk Micromachined Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure curvature, or buckling, is observed in the micromachining of silicon sensors because of the doping of impurities for realizing certain electrical and mechanical processes. This behavior can be a key source of error in inertial sensors. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence the buckling value is important in designing MEMS devices. In this study, the curvature in the proof mass of an accelerometer is modeled as a multilayered solid model. Modeling is performed according to the characteristics of the solid diffusion mechanism in the bulk-dissolved wafer process (BDWP based on the self-stopped etch technique. Moreover, the proposed multilayered solid model is established as an equivalent composite structure formed by a group of thin layers that are glued together. Each layer has a different Young’s modulus value and each undergoes different volume shrinkage strain owing to boron doping in silicon. Observations of five groups of proof mass blocks of accelerometers suggest that the theoretical model is effective in determining the buckling value of a fabricated structure.

  16. A size-dependent constitutive model of bulk metallic glasses in the supercooled liquid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Di; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Mao; Wang, Xinyun; Tang, Na; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Size effect is of great importance in micro forming processes. In this paper, micro cylinder compression was conducted to investigate the deformation behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in supercooled liquid region with different deformation variables including sample size, temperature and strain rate. It was found that the elastic and plastic behaviors of BMGs have a strong dependence on the sample size. The free volume and defect concentration were introduced to explain the size effect. In order to demonstrate the influence of deformation variables on steady stress, elastic modulus and overshoot phenomenon, four size-dependent factors were proposed to construct a size-dependent constitutive model based on the Maxwell-pulse type model previously presented by the authors according to viscosity theory and free volume model. The proposed constitutive model was then adopted in finite element method simulations, and validated by comparing the micro cylinder compression and micro double cup extrusion experimental data with the numerical results. Furthermore, the model provides a new approach to understanding the size-dependent plastic deformation behavior of BMGs.

  17. Analytical Model for Voltage-Dependent Photo and Dark Currents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbahus Saleheen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A physics-based explicit mathematical model for the external voltage-dependent forward dark current in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells is developed by considering Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH recombination and solving the continuity equations for both electrons and holes. An analytical model for the external voltage-dependent photocurrent in BHJ organic solar cells is also proposed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs, carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun’s model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The overall net current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum. The mathematical models are verified by comparing the model calculations with various published experimental results. We analyze the effects of the contact properties, blend compositions, charge carrier transport properties (carrier mobility and lifetime, and cell design on the current-voltage characteristics. The power conversion efficiency of BHJ organic solar cells mostly depends on electron transport properties of the acceptor layer. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport (both mobility and lifetime and dissociation of bound EHPs in organic blend are critically important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the BHJ solar cells.

  18. Ground calibrations of Nuclear Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Liu, Zhong-Kai; Bandstra, Mark S.; Bellm, Eric C.; Liang, Jau-Shian; Perez-Becker, Daniel; Zoglauer, Andreas; Boggs, Steven E.; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Huang, Minghuey A.; Amman, Mark; Chiang, Shiuan-Juang; Hung, Wei-Che; Lin, Chih-Hsun; Luke, Paul N.; Run, Ray-Shine; Wunderer, Cornelia B.

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear line emission and polarization. The heart of NCT is an array of 12 cross-strip germanium detectors, designed to provide 3D positions for each photon interaction with full 3D position resolution to imaging, effectively reduces background, and enables the measurement of polarization. The keys to Compton imaging with NCT's detectors are determining the energy deposited in the detector at each strip and tracking the gamma-ray photon interaction within the detector. The 3D positions are provided by the orthogonal X and Y strips, and by determining the interaction depth using the charge collection time difference (CTD) between the anode and cathode. Calibrations of the energy as well as the 3D position of interactions have been completed, and extensive calibration campaigns for the whole system were also conducted using radioactive sources prior to our flights from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico, USA in Spring 2009, and from Alice Springs, Australia in Spring 2010. Here we will present the techniques and results of our ground calibrations so far, and then compare the calibration results of the effective area throughout NCT's field of view with Monte Carlo simulations using a detailed mass model.

  19. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R; Weber, S; Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D; Gregori, G; Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R

    2007-10-02

    Compton scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  20. TU-A-9A-03: Development and Verification of a Forward Model That Assists in Iterative Post-Processing Algorithms Used to Reduce Blur in Compton Backscatter Imaging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, B; Gilland, D; Hintenlang, D; Doxsee, K; Bova, F [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI), the source and detector reside on the same side of the patient. We previously demonstrated the applicability of CBI systems for medical purposes using an industrial system. To assist in post-processing images from a CBI system, a forward model based on radiation absorption and scatter principles has been developed. Methods: The forward model was developed in C++ using raytracing to track particles. The algorithm accepts phantoms of any size and resolution to calculate the fraction of incident photons scattered back to the detector, and can perform these calculations for any detector geometry and source specification. To validate the model, results were compared to MCNP-X, which is a Monte Carlo based simulation software, for various combinations of source specifications, detector geometries, and phantom compositions. Results: The model verified that the backscatter signal to the detector was based on three interaction probabilities: a) attenuation of photons going into the phantom, b) Compton scatter of photons toward the detector, and c) attenuation of photons coming out of the phantom. The results from the MCNP-X simulations and the forward model varied from 1 to 5%. This difference was less than 1% for energies higher than 30 keV, but was up to 4% for lower energies. At 50 keV, the difference was less than 1% for multiple detector widths and for both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Conclusion: As part of the optimization of a medical CBI system, an efficient and accurate forward model was constructed in C++ to estimate the output of CBI system. The model characterized individual components contributing to CBI output and increased computational efficiency over Monte Carlo simulations. It is now used in the development of novel post-processing algorithms that reduce image blur by reversing undesired contribution from outside the region of interest.

  1. TU-A-9A-03: Development and Verification of a Forward Model That Assists in Iterative Post-Processing Algorithms Used to Reduce Blur in Compton Backscatter Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI), the source and detector reside on the same side of the patient. We previously demonstrated the applicability of CBI systems for medical purposes using an industrial system. To assist in post-processing images from a CBI system, a forward model based on radiation absorption and scatter principles has been developed. Methods: The forward model was developed in C++ using raytracing to track particles. The algorithm accepts phantoms of any size and resolution to calculate the fraction of incident photons scattered back to the detector, and can perform these calculations for any detector geometry and source specification. To validate the model, results were compared to MCNP-X, which is a Monte Carlo based simulation software, for various combinations of source specifications, detector geometries, and phantom compositions. Results: The model verified that the backscatter signal to the detector was based on three interaction probabilities: a) attenuation of photons going into the phantom, b) Compton scatter of photons toward the detector, and c) attenuation of photons coming out of the phantom. The results from the MCNP-X simulations and the forward model varied from 1 to 5%. This difference was less than 1% for energies higher than 30 keV, but was up to 4% for lower energies. At 50 keV, the difference was less than 1% for multiple detector widths and for both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Conclusion: As part of the optimization of a medical CBI system, an efficient and accurate forward model was constructed in C++ to estimate the output of CBI system. The model characterized individual components contributing to CBI output and increased computational efficiency over Monte Carlo simulations. It is now used in the development of novel post-processing algorithms that reduce image blur by reversing undesired contribution from outside the region of interest

  2. Transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton and a resulting model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhenyu

    2007-02-15

    In this thesis we report on the rst results on the transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton. It is shown that this asymmetry can provide one of the rare possibilities to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) E of the nucleon, and thus, through models for E, also to the total angular momentum of u and d quarks in the nucleon. The measurement was performed using the 27.6 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring and the transversely polarized hydrogen target of the HERMES experiment at DESY. The two leading azimuthal amplitudes of the asymmetry are extracted from the HERMES 2002-2004 data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 65.3 pb.1. By comparing the results obtained at HERMES and theoretical predictions based on a phenomenological model of GPDs, we obtain a model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  3. A generic tight-binding model for monolayer, bilayer and bulk MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdows Zahid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 is a layered semiconductor which has become very important recently as an emerging electronic device material. Being an intrinsic semiconductor the two-dimensional MoS2 has major advantages as the channel material in field-effect transistors. In this work we determine the electronic structures of MoS2 with the highly accurate screened hybrid functional within the density functional theory (DFT including the spin-orbit coupling. Using the DFT electronic structures as target, we have developed a single generic tight-binding (TB model that accurately produces the electronic structures for three different forms of MoS2 - bulk, bilayer and monolayer. Our TB model is based on the Slater-Koster method with non-orthogonal sp3d5 orbitals, nearest-neighbor interactions and spin-orbit coupling. The TB model is useful for atomistic modeling of quantum transport in MoS2 based electronic devices.

  4. Locally Rotationally Symmetric Bianchi Type-Ⅱ Magnetized String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscous Fluid in General Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atul Tyagi; Keerti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    @@ The locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-Ⅱ magnetized string cosmological model with bulk viscous fluid is investigated.The magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along the x-axis.Thus the magnetic field is in the y-z plane and F23 is the only non-vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor Fib.To obtain the deterministic model in terms of cosmic time t, we have assumed the condition ξθ=const, where ξ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity and θ is the expansion in the model.

  5. Vibrationally-Fluidized Granular Flows: Impact and Bulk Velocity Measurements Compared with Discrete Element and Continuum Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnia, Kamyar

    A new laser displacement probe was developed to measure the impact velocities of particles within vibrationally-fluidized beds. The sensor output was also used to measure bulk flow velocity along the probe window and to provide a measure of the media packing. The displacement signals from the laser sensors were analyzed to obtain the probability distribution functions of the impact velocity of the particles. The impact velocity was affected by the orientation of the laser probe relative to the bulk flow velocity, and the density and elastic properties of the granular media. The impact velocities of the particles were largely independent of their bulk flow speed and packing density. Both the local impact and bulk flow velocities within a tub vibratory finisher were predicted using discrete element modelling (DEM) and compared to the measured values for spherical steel media. It was observed that the impact and bulk flow velocities were relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the contact coefficients of friction and restitution. It was concluded that the predicted impact and bulk flow velocities were dependent on the number of layers in the model. Consequently, the final DE model mimicked the key aspects of the experimental setup, including the submerged laser sensor. The DE method predictions of both impact velocity and bulk flow velocity were in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements, with maximum differences of 20% and 30%, respectively. Discrete element modeling of granular flows is effective, but requires large numerical models. In an effort to reduce computational effort, this work presents a finite element (FE) continuum model of a vibrationally-fluidized granular flow. The constitutive equations governing the continuum model were calibrated using the discrete element method (DEM). The bulk flow behavior of the equivalent continuum media was then studied using both Lagrangian and Eulerian FE formulations. The bulk flow velocities predicted

  6. Bulk-friction modeling of afterslip and the modified Omori law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerberg, L.; Sharp, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    parameter a. We find that a* is typically positive, qualitatively consistent with laboratory observations, although our observations are considerably larger than laboratory values. However, we also find good model fits for a* < 0 when data correspond to Omori exponents less than 1. A modification of the stability analysis by Rice and Ruina (1983) [Stability of steady frictional slipping. J. Appl. Mech. 50, 343-349] indicates that a* < 0 is not a consequence of our assumption regarding state-variable evolution. A consistent interpretation of a* < 0 in terms of laboratory models appears to be that the data are from later portions of processes better characterized by two-state-variable friction models. a* < 0 is explained by assuming that our data cannot resolve the co-seismic evolution of a short-length-scale state variable to a velocity-weakening state; our parameterization leads to an apparent negative instantaneous viscosity. We estimate the largest critical slip distance associated with afterslip to be ???1-10 cm, consistent with other estimates for near-surface materials. We assume that our observed large values for a* reflect the fact that our model ignores the geometrical complexities of three-dimensional stresses in fractured crustal materials around a fault zone with frictional stresses that vary on a fault surface. Our one-dimensional model parameters reflect spatially averaged, bulk, stress and frictional properties of a fault zone, where we clearly cannot specify the details of the averaging process. Our analysis of Omori's law suggests that bulk-frictional properties of a fault zone are well described by our simple laboratory-based models, but they would need to change during the seismic cycle for a mainshock instability to recur, unless a mainshock-aftershock sequence were characterized by a process similar to the arrested instabilities possible in two-state-variable systems. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells: Parameter stability and photocurrent transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausermann, Roger; Knapp, Evelyne; Moos, Michael; Reinke, Nils; Flatz, Thomas; Ruhstaller, Beat

    2010-03-01

    An opto-electronic device model for organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells is presented (setfos by fluxim). First, the optical in-coupling into a multilayer stack is calculated. From the photon absorption profile a charge-transfer (CT) exciton profile is derived. These CT-excitons are then dissociated according to the Onsager-Braun model. The resulting motion of electrons and holes is modeled considering both drift and diffusion. We analyze measurements on P3HT:PCBM based solar cells and derive a set of parameter values, including values for CT-exciton dissociation. The experiments are well described and the stability of the parameters under various conditions is tested. This includes the simulation of current-voltage curves, the dependence of the short-circuit current on the layer thickness, and transient photo-currents. It is shown that simulating the transient photo-current is particularly helpful in determining the values of electron and hole mobility. This highlights the need to measure transient photo-currents to extract device parameters such as mobilities and CT-exciton dissociation constants.[4pt] J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104507 (2009)

  8. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.;

    2009-01-01

    are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance...... not include microbiology-related solids separation problems....

  9. Intercomparison of the Charnock and CORE bulk wind stress formulations for coastal ocean modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Brown

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air-sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere-ocean system. In many modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of: the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation; the surface mixed layer; and the generation of wave-surge conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Two wind stress formulae widely used in respectively the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities are studied with focus on an application to the NW region of the UK. Model-observation validation is performed at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP stations in Liverpool Bay, a hypertidal region of freshwater influence with vast intertidal areas. The period of study covers both calm and extreme conditions to fully test the robustness of the 10 m wind stress component of the Common Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE bulk formulae and the Charnock relation. In this coastal application a realistic barotropic-baroclinic simulation of the circulation and surge elevation is setup, demonstrating greater accuracy occurs when using the Charnock relation for surface wind stress.

  10. A model for calculating the errors of 2D bulk analysis relative to the true 3D bulk composition of an object, with application to chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C.

    2007-09-01

    Certain problems in Geosciences require knowledge of the chemical bulk composition of objects, such as, for example, minerals or lithic clasts. This 3D bulk chemical composition (bcc) is often difficult to obtain, but if the object is prepared as a thin or thick polished section a 2D bcc can be easily determined using, for example, an electron microprobe. The 2D bcc contains an error relative to the true 3D bcc that is unknown. Here I present a computer program that calculates this error, which is represented as the standard deviation of the 2D bcc relative to the real 3D bcc. A requirement for such calculations is an approximate structure of the 3D object. In petrological applications, the known fabrics of rocks facilitate modeling. The size of the standard deviation depends on (1) the modal abundance of the phases, (2) the element concentration differences between phases and (3) the distribution of the phases, i.e. the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the object considered. A newly introduced parameter " τ" is used as a measure of this homogeneity/heterogeneity. Accessory phases, which do not necessarily appear in 2D thin sections, are a second source of error, in particular if they contain high concentrations of specific elements. An abundance of only 1 vol% of an accessory phase may raise the 3D bcc of an element by up to a factor of ˜8. The code can be queried as to whether broad beam, point, line or area analysis technique is best for obtaining 2D bcc. No general conclusion can be deduced, as the error rates of these techniques depend on the specific structure of the object considered. As an example chondrules—rapidly solidified melt droplets of chondritic meteorites—are used. It is demonstrated that 2D bcc may be used to reveal trends in the chemistry of 3D objects.

  11. Spectral properties of Compton inverse radiation: Application of Compton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulyak, Eugene; Urakawa, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Compton inverse radiation emitted due to backscattering of laser pulses off the relativistic electrons possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons - in hard x-ray up to gamma-ray energies - because of short wavelength of laser radiation as compared with the classical electromagnetic devices such as undulators. In this report, the possibility of such radiation to monochromatization by means of collimation is studied. Two approaches have been considered for the description of the spectral-angular density of Compton radiation based on the classical field theory and on the quantum electrodynamics. As is shown, both descriptions produce similar total spectra. On the contrary, angular distribution of the radiation is different: the classical approach predicted a more narrow radiation cone. Also proposed and estimated is a method of the 'electronic' monochromatization based on the electronic subtraction of the two images produced by the electron beams with slightly different energies. A 'proof-of-principle' experiment of this method is proposed for the LUXC facility of KEK (Japan).

  12. An analytical model for analyzing the current-voltage characteristics of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnab, Salman M.; Kabir, M. Z., E-mail: kabir@encs.concordia.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Blvd. de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2014-01-21

    An analytical model for analyzing the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is developed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs), carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun's model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The charge carrier concentrations and hence the photocurrent are calculated by solving the carrier continuity equation for both holes and electrons in the organic layer. The overall load current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum and voltage dependent forward dark current. The model is verified by published experimental results. The efficiency of the P3HT:PCBM based solar cells critically depends on the dissociation of bound EHPs. On the other hand, cells made of a blend of the conjugated polymer (PCDTBT) with the soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM) show nearly unity dissociation efficiency, and their cell efficiency strongly depends on the charge collection efficiency. The effects of carrier lifetimes on the performance of PCDTBT solar cells have also been studied. The model is also used to investigate the effect of titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer (at the back contact) on the J-V characteristics of PCDTBT solar cells. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport in PCDTBT:PCBM blend and dissociation of bound EHPs in P3HT:PCBM blend are extremely important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the respective BHJ solar cells.

  13. Toward the Standard Population Synthesis Model of the X-Ray Background: Evolution of X-Ray Luminosity and Absorption Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei Including Compton-thick Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-01

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ~ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  14. Measurement of the spin asymmetry of the beam in the polarized virtual Compton scattering on the proton. Study of the nucleon's energy spectra through the QCD-type potential model; Mesure de l'asymetrie de spin de faisceau en diffusion compton virtuelle polarisee sur le proton. Etude du spectre d'energie du nucleon par le modele de potentiel de type QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensafa, I.K

    2006-05-15

    The first part of this work presents the analysis and results of the VCS-SSA (virtual Compton scattering - single spin asymmetry) experiment at MAMI (Mainz). It was carried out with beam energy 883 MeV and longitudinal polarization (about 80%), at virtual photon four-momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2} = 0.35 GeV{sup 2}) to measure the beam asymmetry in the ep {yields} ep{gamma} and ep {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} reactions. The asymmetry obtained in photon (resp. pion) electro-production is between 0-15% (resp. 0-2%). The dispersion relation model for virtual Compton scattering and MAID model (for {pi}{sup 0}) reproduce the amplitude globally but not completely the shape of the asymmetry. Perhaps this discrepancy is due to an imperfect parameterization of some pion production multipoles ({gamma}{sup *}N {yields} {pi}N). The second part is dedicated to the study of the nucleon energy spectrum in ground-state L=0 and excited-state L=1 in the quark model, using the Coulomb + linear potential type (CL) and a relativistic correction. The hyperfine correction is applied to discriminate the nucleon masses. The values of the mass found for the proton and the {delta}(1232) are respectively equal to (968 MeV, 1168 MeV), and the masses of the excited states are between 1564 - 1607 MeV. This part is completed by an application of the CL model to an approximate calculation of generalized polarizabilities of the proton. (author)

  15. Optical modeling of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells based on squarine dye as electron donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potentiality of a squarine dye (Sq1) for using as electron donor component in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ) has been studied from the optical point of view. The soluble n-type fullerene, (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61MB) was chosen as acceptor. Optical modelling based on transfer matrix method was carried out to predict and improve photovoltaic performance of a BHJ device with blended Sq1/PC61MB active layer. The dependence of the absorption and the calculated maximum short circuit photocurrent (Jscmax) on the thickness of the active layer (dact), was investigated for two weight ratios of Sq1 and PC61MB. Thus, the optimal dact was calculated to be about 100 nm, which provides an efficient overlapping of the total absorption with solar spectrum in the range between 580 and 900 nm. Besides, it is found that the insertion of ZnO or C60 spacer layer shifts Jscmax peak to lower dact and significantly enhances Jscmax for active layers with dact < 50 nm, which is mainly due to improved light absorption by a factor of 5 to 10. Simultaneously, for dact <100 nm the optical effect of inserted PEDOT:PSS hole transporting layer is negligible

  16. Optical modeling of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells based on squarine dye as electron donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitova, S.; Stoyanova, D.; Dikova, J.; Kandinska, M.; Vasilev, A.; Angelova, S.

    2014-12-01

    The potentiality of a squarine dye (Sq1) for using as electron donor component in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ) has been studied from the optical point of view. The soluble n-type fullerene, (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61MB) was chosen as acceptor. Optical modelling based on transfer matrix method was carried out to predict and improve photovoltaic performance of a BHJ device with blended Sq1/PC61MB active layer. The dependence of the absorption and the calculated maximum short circuit photocurrent (Jscmax) on the thickness of the active layer (dact), was investigated for two weight ratios of Sq1 and PC61MB. Thus, the optimal dact was calculated to be about 100 nm, which provides an efficient overlapping of the total absorption with solar spectrum in the range between 580 and 900 nm. Besides, it is found that the insertion of ZnO or C60 spacer layer shifts Jscmax peak to lower dact and significantly enhances Jscmax for active layers with dact < 50 nm, which is mainly due to improved light absorption by a factor of 5 to 10. Simultaneously, for dact <100 nm the optical effect of inserted PEDOT:PSS hole transporting layer is negligible.

  17. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;

    2014-01-01

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks...... (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D...... of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets...

  18. X-ray Compton line scan tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Jaenisch, Gerd-Ruediger [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe 8.5 - Mikro-ZfP; Hentschel, Manfred P. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay; Markoetter, Henning; Hilger, Andre; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) (Germany); Toetzke, Christian [Potsdam Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The potentials of incoherent X-ray scattering (Compton) computed tomography (CT) are investigated. The imaging of materials of very different atomic number or density at once is generally a perpetual challenge for X-ray tomography or radiography. In a basic laboratory set-up for simultaneous perpendicular Compton scattering and direct beam attenuation tomography are conducted by single channel photon counting line scans. This results in asymmetric distortions of the projection profiles of the scattering CT data set. In a first approach, corrections of Compton scattering data by taking advantage of rotational symmetry yield tomograms without major geometric artefacts. A cylindrical sample composed of PE, PA, PVC, glass and wood demonstrates similar Compton contrast for all the substances, while the conventional absorption tomogram only reveals the two high order materials. Comparison to neutron tomography reveals astonishing similarities except for the glass component (without hydrogen). Therefore, Compton CT offers the potential to replace neutron tomography, which requires much more efforts.

  19. Bianchi Type-I String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity and Time-Dependent A term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.Tiwari; S.Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Einstein Geld equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe. Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar £ oc 0; the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar 6 oc cr; and A is proportional to the Hubble parameter A on H. The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.%@@ Einstein field equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe.Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions:the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar ξ∝θ;the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar θ∝σ;and ∧ is proportional to the Hubble parameter ∧∝ H.The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  20. Collective dynamics of water in the living cell and in bulk liquid. New physical models and biological inferences

    OpenAIRE

    Preoteasa, Eugen A.; Apostol, Marian V.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of collective dynamics in water, models built on elementary excitations and long-range electromagnetic interactions in the cell and bulk liquid are presented. Making use of the low effective mass of water coherence domains (CDs), we examined the relevance of simple quantum models to cellular characteristics. A hypothesis of CDs Bose-type condensation, and models of CD in spherical wells with impenetrable and semipenetrable walls, and of an isotropic oscillator consisting of two i...

  1. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-10-15

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D) SST model structures and parameters. We identify the critical sources of uncertainty in WWTP models through global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using the Benchmark simulation model No. 1 in combination with first- and second-order 1-D SST models. The results obtained illustrate that the contribution of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets for WWTP model calibration, and propose optimal choice of 1-D SST models under different flow and settling boundary conditions. Additionally, the hydraulic parameters in the second-order SST model are found significant under dynamic wet-weather flow conditions. These results highlight the importance of developing a more mechanistic based flow-dependent hydraulic sub-model in second-order 1-D SST models in the future. PMID:25003213

  2. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-10-15

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D) SST model structures and parameters. We identify the critical sources of uncertainty in WWTP models through global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using the Benchmark simulation model No. 1 in combination with first- and second-order 1-D SST models. The results obtained illustrate that the contribution of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets for WWTP model calibration, and propose optimal choice of 1-D SST models under different flow and settling boundary conditions. Additionally, the hydraulic parameters in the second-order SST model are found significant under dynamic wet-weather flow conditions. These results highlight the importance of developing a more mechanistic based flow-dependent hydraulic sub-model in second-order 1-D SST models in the future.

  3. Intercomparison of the Charnock and COARE bulk wind stress formulations for coastal ocean modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air–sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere–ocean system. In most modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation, the surface mixed layer, and the generation of wave-surge conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Two wind stress parameterisations widely used in the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities respectively are studied with focus on an application to the NW region of the UK. Model–observation validation is performed at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler stations in Liverpool Bay, a hypertidal region of freshwater influence (ROFI with vast intertidal areas. The period of study covers both calm and extreme conditions to test the robustness of the 10 m wind stress component of the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE bulk formulae and the standard Charnock relation. In this coastal application a realistic barotropic–baroclinic simulation of the circulation and surge elevation is set-up, demonstrating greater accuracy occurs when using the Charnock relation, with a constant Charnock coefficient of 0.0185, for surface wind stress during this one month period.

  4. Observational constrains on the DGP brane-world model with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jianhua [Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Wang Bin [Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: wangb@fudan.edu.cn; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR 157 73, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: lpapa@central.ntua.gr

    2007-10-18

    Using the data coming from the new 182 Gold type Ia supernova samples, the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the H(z) data, we have performed a statistical joint analysis of the DGP brane-world model with a high curvature Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. Consistent parameters estimations show that the Gauss-Bonnet-induced gravity model is a viable candidate to explain the observed acceleration of our universe.

  5. A Two-Moment Bulk Microphysics Coupled with a Mesoscale Model WRF: Model Description and First Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wenhua; ZHAO Fengsheng; HU Zhijin; FENG Xua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) two-moment bulk microphysics scheme was adopted in this study to investigate the representation of cloud and precipitation processes under different environmental conditions.The scheme predicts the mixing ratio of water vapor as well as the mixing ratios and nnmber concentrations of cloud droplets,rain,ice,snow,and graupel.A new parameterization approach to simulate heterogeneous droplet activation was developed in this scheme.Furthermore,the improved CAMS scheme was coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.1),which made it possible to simulate the microphysics of clouds and precipitation as well as the cloud-aerosol interactions in selected atmospheric condition.The rain event occurring on 27 28 December 2008 in eastern China was simulated using the CAMS scheme and three sophisticated microphysics schemes in the WRF model.Results showed that the simulated 36-h accumulated precipitations were generally agreed with observation data,and the CAMS scheme performed well in the southern area of the nested donain.The radar reflectivity,the averaged precipitation intensity,and the hydrometeor mixing ratios simulated by the CAMS scheme were generally consistent with those from other microphysics schemes.The hydrometeor number concentrations simulated by the CAMS scheme were also close to the experiential values in stratus clouds.The model results suggest that the CAMS scheme performs reasonably well in describing the microphysics of clouds and precipitation in the mesoscale WRF model.

  6. A simple scanner for Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Castellano, A

    2002-01-01

    A first generation CT-scanner was designed and constructed to carry out Compton images. This CT-scanner is composed of a 80 kV, 5 mA X-ray tube and a NaI(Tl) X-ray detector; the tube is strongly collimated, generating a X-ray beam of 2 mm diameter, whilst the detector is not collimated to collect Compton photons from the whole irradiated cylinder. The performances of the equipment were tested contemporaneous transmission and Compton images.

  7. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  8. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  9. Power handling of the bulk tungsten divertor row at JET: First measurements and comparison to the GTM thermal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Ph., E-mail: ph.mertens@fz-juelich.de [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Coenen, J.W. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Devaux, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jachmich, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Balboa, I.; Matthews, G.F.; Riccardo, V. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sieglin, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tanchuk, V. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); SINTEZ Scientific Technical Centre, D.V. Efremov SRIEA, RUS-196641, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Terra, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Experiments related to the design of bulk tungsten divertor tiles for JET were performed along with extensive modelling. • Temperatures measured in the torus are in good agreement with the model. Some characteristic times show stronger deviations. • Those deviations have no incidence on the highest temperatures reached. • The experimental behaviour of the bulk W tiles is close to design values in a wide range of operational parameters. • The conclusions apply up to deposited energy densities around 30 MJ/m{sup 2}. -- Abstract: The design of the tile assemblies of the bulk tungsten divertor row in JET was improved in the course of several experiments as far as the power and energy performances are concerned: many prototypes were exposed to high heat fluxes in several electron and ion beam facilities during the development phase. These experiments were carried out in parallel with extensive modelling of the complete tungsten tile assembly in the so-called Global Thermal Model (GTM). The goal was to understand the heat flow from the plasma-facing surface through the supporting structure down to the base plate of the JET MkII divertor sufficiently to be able to later interpret operational data from the torus. Temperatures measured in the torus are in good agreement (−10/+15%) with the model. Some characteristic times show stronger deviations, with no incidence on the highest temperature at all times.

  10. Power handling of the bulk tungsten divertor row at JET: First measurements and comparison to the GTM thermal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experiments related to the design of bulk tungsten divertor tiles for JET were performed along with extensive modelling. • Temperatures measured in the torus are in good agreement with the model. Some characteristic times show stronger deviations. • Those deviations have no incidence on the highest temperatures reached. • The experimental behaviour of the bulk W tiles is close to design values in a wide range of operational parameters. • The conclusions apply up to deposited energy densities around 30 MJ/m2. -- Abstract: The design of the tile assemblies of the bulk tungsten divertor row in JET was improved in the course of several experiments as far as the power and energy performances are concerned: many prototypes were exposed to high heat fluxes in several electron and ion beam facilities during the development phase. These experiments were carried out in parallel with extensive modelling of the complete tungsten tile assembly in the so-called Global Thermal Model (GTM). The goal was to understand the heat flow from the plasma-facing surface through the supporting structure down to the base plate of the JET MkII divertor sufficiently to be able to later interpret operational data from the torus. Temperatures measured in the torus are in good agreement (−10/+15%) with the model. Some characteristic times show stronger deviations, with no incidence on the highest temperature at all times

  11. On the line-shape analysis of Compton profiles and its application to neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, G.; Krzystyniak, M.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical properties of Compton profiles are used in order to simplify the analysis of neutron Compton scattering experiments. In particular, the possibility to fit the difference of Compton profiles is discussed as a way to greatly decrease the level of complexity of the data treatment, making the analysis easier, faster and more robust. In the context of the novel method proposed, two mathematical models describing the shapes of differenced Compton profiles are discussed: the simple Gaussian approximation for harmonic and isotropic local potential, and an analytical Gauss-Hermite expansion for an anharmonic or anisotropic potential. The method is applied to data collected by VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS neutron and muon pulsed source (UK) on Copper and Aluminium samples at ambient and low temperatures.

  12. Comptonization and QPO Origins in Accreting Neutron Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H C; Lee, Hyong C.; Miller, Guy S.

    1997-01-01

    We develop a simple, time-dependent Comptonization model to probe the origins of spectral variability in accreting neutron star systems. In the model, soft ``seed photons'' are injected into a corona of hot electrons, where they are Compton upscattered before escaping as hard X-rays. The model describes how the hard X-ray spectrum varies when the properties of either the soft photon source or the Comptonizing medium undergo small oscillations. Observations of the resulting spectral modulations can determine whether the variability is due to (i) oscillations in the injection of seed photons, (ii) oscillations in the coronal electron density, or (iii) oscillations in the coronal energy dissipation rate. Identifying the origin of spectral variability should help clarify how the corona operates and its relation to the accretion disk. It will also help in finding the mechanisms underlying the various quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in the X-ray outputs of many accreting neutron star and black hole syste...

  13. Hidden baryons: The physics of Compton composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frederick J.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of the mass-energy of the Universe appears to be composed of Compton composites. How is it then that these composites are not frequently observed in experiments? This paper addresses this question, and others, by reviewing recent publications that: 1) introduced Compton composites, 2) showed how and where they are formed and 3) explained how they interact with other systems. Though ubiquitous in many physical situations, Compton composites are almost completely hidden in experiments due to their unique interaction characteristics. Still, their presence has been indirectly observed, though not interpreted as such until recently. Looking to the future, direct-detection experiments are proposed that could verify the composites' components. It is with deep sadness that I dedicate this paper to my mentor, collaborator, and friend, Dr. John R. Reitz, who passed away within days of the publication of our paper “Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe”.

  14. A New Kinetic Equation for Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rybicki, G B

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic equation for Compton scattering is given that differs from the Kompaneets equation in several significant ways. By using an inverse differential operator this equation allows treatment of problems for which the radiation field varies rapidly on the scale of the width of the Compton kernel. This inverse operator method describes, among other effects, the thermal Doppler broadening of spectral lines and continuum edges, and automatically incorporates the process of Compton heating/cooling. It is well adapted for inclusion into a numerical iterative solution of radiative transfer problems. The equivalent kernel of the new method is shown to be a positive function and with reasonable accuracy near the intitial frequency, unlike the Kompaneets kernel, which is singular and not wholly positive. It is shown that iterates of the inverse operator kernel can be easily calculated numerically, and a simple summation formula over these iterates is derived that can be efficiently used to compute Comptonized spect...

  15. Compton effect: interacting particles or interacting waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, O F

    2005-01-01

    Traditional textbook explanations of the Compton effect treat the photon electron interaction as a particle collision. This explanation is a pedagogical disaster, implying that sometimes interactions are particle-like whereas quantum mechanics always demands that they be wave-like; a photon wavefunction evolves according to a wave equation until its collapse at measurement. If this is so why then does the classical radiation wave equation fail to predict the Compton effect? We address these issues and propose a clearer explanation.

  16. Compton shift and de Broglie frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering is usually explained in terms of the relativistic mass and momentum. Here, a mathematically equivalent and simple non-relativistic interpretation shows that the Compton frequency shift is equal to the de Broglie frequency associated with the moving charged particle (e.g., an electron). In this work, the moving electron is considered as a particle and the electromagnetic energy associated with it is shown to be proportional to the de Broglie frequency. This energy is release...

  17. CP-violation in Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Gorchtein, Mikhail

    2008-01-01

    I consider Compton scattering off the nucleon in the presence of $CP$ violation. I construct the Compton tensor which possesses these features and consider low energy expansion (LEX) of the corresponding amplitudes. It allows to separate out the Born contribution which only depends on the static properties of the nucleon, such as the electric charge, the mass, the magnetic moment, and the electric dipole moment (EDM). I introduce new structure constants, the $T$-odd nucleon polarizabilities w...

  18. Radiative corrections to pion Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, N.(Physik Department T39, Technische Universität München, Garching, D-85747, Germany); Friedrich, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the one-photon loop radiative corrections to charged pion Compton scattering, $\\pi^- \\gamma \\to \\pi^- \\gamma $. Ultraviolet and infrared divergencies are both treated in dimensional regularization. Analytical expressions for the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha)$ corrections to the invariant Compton scattering amplitudes, $A(s,u)$ and $B(s,u)$, are presented for 11 classes of contributing one-loop diagrams. Infrared finiteness of the virtual radiative corrections is achieved (in the standard way...

  19. The role of Compton heating in cluster cooling flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L; Pellegrini, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations by Chandra and XMM-Newton demonstrate that the central gas in "cooling flow" galaxy clusters has a mass cooling rate that decreases rapidly with decreasing temperature. This contrasts the predictions of a steady state cooling flow model. On the basis of these observational results, the gas can be in a steady state only if a steady temperature dependent heating mechanism is present; alternatively the gas could be in an unsteady state, i.e., heated intermittently. Intermittent heating can be produced by accretion on the supermassive black hole residing in the central cluster galaxy, via Compton heating. This mechanism can be effective provided that the radiation temperature of the emitted spectrum is higher than the gas temperature. Here we explore whether this heating mechanism can be at the origin of the enigmatic behavior of the hot gas in the central regions of ``cooling flow'' clusters. Although several characteristics of Compton heating appear attractive in this respect, we find that t...

  20. A general extrudate bulk density model for both twin-screw and single-screw extruder extrusion cooking processes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Høeg Hansen, Jonas; Tolderlund Rasmussen, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    Effects of extrusion parameters and raw materials on extrudate expansion are respectively investigated in a twin-screw extruder and a single-screw extruder extrusion cooking experiments for fish feed, wheat, and oat & wheat mixture processing. A new phenomenological model is proposed to correlated extrudate bulk density, extrusion parameters and raw material changes based on the experimental results. The average absolute deviation (AAD) of the correlation is 2.2% for fish feed extrusion in th...

  1. DFT modelling of bulk-modulated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Latessa, L.; Pecchia, A.; Di Carlo, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report density-functional theory (DFT), atomistic simulations of the non-equilibrium transport properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Results have been obtained within a self-consistent approach based on the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) scheme. Our attention has been focused on a new kind of devices, the so called bulk-modulated CNTFETs. Recent experimental realizations \\cite{Chen,Lin_condMat} have shown that such devices can exhibit excellent perf...

  2. Mesoscopic discrete element modelling of cohesive powders for bulk handling applications

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Many powders and particulate solids are stored and handled in large quantities across various industries. These solids often encounter handling and storage difficulties that are caused by the material cohesion. The cohesive strength of a bulk material is a function of its past consolidation stress. For example, high material cohesive strength as a result from high storage stresses in a silo can cause ratholing problems during discharge. Therefore, it is essential to consider th...

  3. Calibration of DEM models for granular materials using bulk physical tests

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Mical William

    2010-01-01

    From pharmaceutical powders to agricultural grains, a great proportion of the materials handled in industrial situations are granular or particulate in nature. The variety of stesses that the matierals may experience and the resulting bulk behaviours may be complex. In agricultural engineering, a better understanding into agricultural processes such as seeding, harvesting, transporting and storing will help to improve the handling of agricultural grains with optimised solutions. A detailed un...

  4. Assessment of some soil thermal conductivity models via variations in temperature and bulk density at low moisture range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohamad; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza; Fujimaki, Haruyuki

    2016-08-01

    Simulation of heat transfer in soil under steady and unsteady situations requires reliable estimate of soil thermal conductivity (λ) at varying environmental conditions. In the current work several soil thermal conductivity predicting models including I) de Vries, II) Campbell, III) combined de Vries and Campbell and IV) de Vries-Nobre were evaluated for the four soils of coarse sand, sandy loam, loam and clay loam textured at varying in temperature and bulk density at low moisture range. Thermal conductivities measured by the cylindrical probe method served as the reference for models assessment. Results showed that approximately same thermal conductivities obtained by the five methods at low moisture range (θ ≤ 0.05 m3/m3). Also the de Vries and de Vries-Campbell models produced accurate than Campbell and de vries-Nobre models. The accuracy of the two models increased with soil compaction but decreased with temperature rise. Campbell model showed more reliability at higher (311.16 and 321.16 K) temperatures; but its accuracy declined with soil compaction in current work. It seems that assuming needle shape for the soil particles is far away from the reality whereas assuming spherical shapes may be more realistic and produced more satisfactory prediction of thermal conductivity. The compaction would alter particle arrangement and may increase the contact area of particles; and then make them behave more or less spherical shape.it seems thermal conductivity in solid particles increase via increasing in temperature. Since a modified mineral shape factor, g m , was developed as a combination between sphere and needle according to geometric mean particle diameter as well as bulk density and temperature as modifying factors. This factor increased the accuracy of de Vries-Nobre model up to 10.37%. Regarding nonlinear regression model, moisture content, bulk density, temperature and quartz content demonstrated significant effect on soil thermal conductivity in our

  5. Modeling H, Na, and K diffusion in plagioclase feldspar by relating point defect parameters to bulk properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Shan, Shuangming; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen and alkali ion diffusion in plagioclase feldspars is important to study the evolution of the crust and the kinetics of exsolution and ion-exchange reactions in feldspars. Using the available PVT equation of state of feldspars, we show that the diffusivities of H and alkali in plagioclase feldspars as a function of temperature can be successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data through a thermodynamic model that interconnects point defect parameters with bulk properties. Our calculated diffusion coefficients of H, Na, and K well agree with experimental ones when uncertainties are considered. Additional point defect parameters such as activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume are also predicted. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of feldspars inferred from our predicted diffusivities of H, Na, and K through the Nernst-Einstein equation is compared with previous experimental data.

  6. Three-dimensional theory of weakly nonlinear Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.; Hartemann, F. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear effects are known to occur in light sources when the wiggler parameter, or normalized 4-potential, A =e√-AμAμ /m0c, approaches unity. In this paper, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A if the fractional bandwidth of the undulator, Δϕ-1, is sufficiently small and satisfies the condition A2Δϕ ˜1. Consequences for the spectral brightness of Compton scattering light sources are outlined. Compton and Thomson scattering theories are compared with the Klein-Nishina cross-section formula to highlight differences in the case of narrow band gamma-ray operation. A weakly nonlinear Compton scattering theory is developed in one (plane wave) and three (local plane wave approximation) dimensions. Analytical models are presented and benchmarked against numerical calculations solving the Lorentz force equation with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. Finally, narrow band gamma-ray spectra are calculated for realistic laser and electron beams.

  7. Kinetic multi-layer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB: the influence of interfacial transport and bulk diffusion on the oxidation of oleic acid by ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shiraiwa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reaction at the surface and in the bulk of aerosol particles (KM-SUB. The model is based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007, and it includes reversible adsorption, surface reactions and surface-bulk exchange as well as bulk diffusion and reaction. Unlike earlier models, KM-SUB does not require simplifying assumptions about steady-state conditions and radial mixing. The temporal evolution and concentration profiles of volatile and non-volatile species at the gas-particle interface and in the particle bulk can be modeled along with surface concentrations and gas uptake coefficients.

    In this study we explore and exemplify the effects of bulk diffusion on the rate of reactive gas uptake for a simple reference system, the ozonolysis of oleic acid particles, in comparison to experimental data and earlier model studies. We demonstrate how KM-SUB can be used to interpret and analyze experimental data from laboratory studies, and how the results can be extrapolated to atmospheric conditions. In particular, we show how interfacial and bulk transport, i.e., surface accommodation, bulk accommodation and bulk diffusion, influence the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Sensitivity studies suggest that in fine air particulate matter oleic acid and compounds with similar reactivity against ozone (carbon-carbon double bonds can reach chemical lifetimes of many hours only if they are embedded in a (semi-solid matrix with very low diffusion coefficients (≤10−10 cm2 s−1. Depending on the complexity of the investigated system, unlimited numbers of volatile and non-volatile species and chemical reactions can be flexibly added and treated with KM-SUB. We propose and intend to pursue the application of KM-SUB as a basis for the development of a detailed master mechanism of aerosol

  8. Kinetic multi-layer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB: the influence of interfacial transport and bulk diffusion on the oxidation of oleic acid by ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shiraiwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reaction at the surface and in the bulk of aerosol particles (KM-SUB. The model is based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (Pöschl et al., 2007, and it includes reversible adsorption, surface reactions and surface-bulk exchange as well as bulk diffusion and reaction. Unlike earlier models, KM-SUB does not require simplifying assumptions about steady-state conditions and radial mixing. The temporal evolution and concentration profiles of volatile and non-volatile species at the gas-particle interface and in the particle bulk can be modeled along with surface concentrations and gas uptake coefficients.

    In this study we explore and exemplify the effects of bulk diffusion on the rate of reactive gas uptake for a simple reference system, the ozonolysis of oleic acid particles, in comparison to experimental data and earlier model studies. We demonstrate how KM-SUB can be used to interpret and analyze experimental data from laboratory studies, and how the results can be extrapolated to atmospheric conditions. In particular, we show how interfacial transport and bulk transport, i.e., surface accommodation, bulk accommodation and bulk diffusion, influence the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Sensitivity studies suggest that in fine air particulate matter oleic acid and compounds with similar reactivity against ozone (C=C double bonds can reach chemical lifetimes of multiple hours only if they are embedded in a (semi-solid matrix with very low diffusion coefficients (≤10−10 cm2 s−1.

    Depending on the complexity of the investigated system, unlimited numbers of volatile and non-volatile species and chemical reactions can be flexibly added and treated with KM-SUB. We propose and intend to pursue the application of KM-SUB as a basis for the development of a detailed master mechanism of

  9. g-2 of the muon in SUSY Models with Gauge Multiplets in the Bulk of Extra-Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Enqvist, Kari; Huitu, K; Enqvist, Kari; Gabrielli, Emidio; Huitu, Katri

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the supersymmetric contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (a_\\mu) in the framework of pure and gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation models, and gaugino mediation models. In the last two models the gauge multiplets propagate in the higher dimensional bulk, providing a natural mechanism for solving the problem of negative squared slepton masses present in the pure anomaly mediation models. In the light of the new BNL results for a_\\mu, we found that the pure and gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation models are almost excluded by the BNL constraints at 2\\sigma level when combined with CLEO constraints on b->sg at 90 % of C.L. In contrast, the gaugino mediation models provide extensive regions in the SUSY parameter space where both of these constraints are satisfied.

  10. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  11. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  12. Toward the Standard Population Synthesis Model of the X-Ray Background: Evolution of X-Ray Luminosity and Absorption Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei Including Compton-Thick Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hasinger, Guenther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    We present the most up-to-date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5--2 keV) and/or hard ($>2$ keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count-rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broad band spectra of AGNs including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity and redshift dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at $z \\sim 1-3$ is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity dependent density evolution model gives much better description...

  13. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  14. Collective dynamics of water in the living cell and in bulk liquid. New physical models and biologcial infereneces

    CERN Document Server

    Preoteasa, Eugen A

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of collective dynamics in water, models built on elementary excitations and long-range electromagnetic interactions in the cell and bulk liquid are presented. Making use of the low effective mass of water coherence domains (CDs), we examined the relevance of simple quantum models to cellular characteristics. A hypothesis of CDs Bose-type condensation, and models of CD in spherical wells with impenetrable and semipenetrable walls, and of an isotropic oscillator consisting of two interacting CDs were investigated. Estimated cellular volumes matched to medium-sized bacteria and small prokaryotes, and to some organelles in eukaryotic cells. Also, the cytotoxic effects of heavy water in eukaryotes were explained. In another approach we proposed a plasmon-like model of hydrogen-oxygen ionic plasma in liquid water. In addition to plasmonic oscillations, the model predicted sound-like non-equilibrium elementary excitations that we called densitons (the sound anomaly of water), the vaporization heat and t...

  15. Bulk and boundary critical behaviour of thin and thick domain walls in the two-dimensional Potts model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometrical critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Q-state Potts model is usually studied in terms of the Fortuin–Kasteleyn (FK) clusters, or their surrounding loops. In this paper we study a quite different geometrical object: the spin clusters, defined as connected domains where the spin takes a constant value. Unlike the usual loops, the domain walls separating different spin clusters can cross and branch. Moreover, they come in two versions, 'thin' or 'thick', depending on whether they separate spin clusters of different or identical colours. For these reasons their critical behaviour is different from, and richer than, those of FK clusters. We develop a transfer matrix technique enabling the formulation and numerical study of spin clusters even when Q is not an integer. We further identify geometrically the crossing events which give rise to conformal correlation functions. We study the critical behaviour both in the bulk, and at a boundary with free, fixed, or mixed boundary conditions. This leads to infinite series of fundamental critical exponents, hl1-l2,2l1 in the bulk and h1+2(l1-l2),1+4l1 at the boundary, valid for 0 ≤ Q ≤ 4, that describe the insertion of l1 thin and l2 thick domain walls. We argue that these exponents imply that the domain walls are 'thin' and 'thick' also in the continuum limit. A special case of the bulk exponents is derived analytically from a massless scattering approach

  16. Some Magnetized Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Models in Cylindrically Symmetric Inhomogeneous Universe with Variable A-Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anirudh Pradhan

    2009-01-01

    Some cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous viscous fluid string cosmological models with magnetic field and cosmological term A varying with time are investigated.To get the deterministic solution, it has been assumed that the expansion (θ) in the model is proportional to the eigen value σ 1/2 of the shear tensor σij.The value of cosmological constant for the model is found to be small and positive, which is supported by the results from recent supernovae Ⅰa observations.The effect of bulk viscosity is to produce a change in perfect fluid and hence exhibits essential influence on the character of the solution.The physical and geometric properties of the models are also discussed in presence and absence of magnetic field.

  17. The Design of Diamond Compton Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hibino, Kinya; Okuno, Shoji; Yajima, Kaori; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takashima, Takeshi; Yokota, Mamoru; Yoshida, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    We have developed radiation detectors using the new synthetic diamonds. The diamond detector has an advantage for observations of "low/medium" energy gamma rays as a Compton telescope. The primary advantage of the diamond detector can reduce the photoelectric effect in the low energy range, which is background noise for tracking of the Compton recoil electron. A concept of the Diamond Compton Telescope (DCT) consists of position sensitive layers of diamond-striped detector and calorimeter layer of CdTe detector. The key part of the DCT is diamond-striped detectors with a higher positional resolution and a wider energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. However, the diamond-striped detector is under development. We describe the performance of prototype diamond detector and the design of a possible DCT evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S; Celiktas, C

    2007-11-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60Co and 137Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. PMID:17703943

  19. Gravitation and Special Relativity from Compton Wave Interactions at the Planck Scale: An Algorithmic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

  20. On Thermal Comptonization in e+- Pair Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Ghisellini, Gabriele; Haardt, Francesco

    1994-01-01

    We study $e^{\\pm}$ pair plasmas in pair equilibrium, which emit high energy radiation by thermal Comptonization of soft photons. We find that the maximum luminosity to size ratio of the source (i.e. the compactness) depends not only on the hot plasma temperature, but also on the spectral index of the resulting Comptonized spectrum. In the observationally interesting range, sources of same compactness can be hotter if their spectrum is steeper. Instruments observing in the 50--500 keV energy r...

  1. Compton shift and de Broglie frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Heyrovska, R

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering is usually explained in terms of the relativistic mass and momentum. Here, a mathematically equivalent and simple non-relativistic interpretation shows that the Compton frequency shift is equal to the de Broglie frequency associated with the moving charged particle (e.g., an electron). In this work, the moving electron is considered as a particle and the electromagnetic energy associated with it is shown to be proportional to the de Broglie frequency. This energy is released when its motion is arrested, as for example on a diffraction screen, where it causes the observed interfernce patterns. Thus, electrons transport electromagnetic energy from a source to a sink.

  2. Proton polarizabilities from polarized Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the low-energy expansion of polarized Compton scattering off the proton. We show that the leading non-Born contribution to the beam asymmetry of low-energy Compton scattering is given by the magnetic polarizability alone, the electric polarizability cancels out. Based on this fact we propose to determine the magnetic dipole polarizability of the proton from the beam asymmetry. Computing the higher-order (recoil) effects of polarizabilities on beam asymmetry, we show that they are suppressed in forward kinematics. We also present the low-energy expansion of doubly-polarized observables, from which the spin polarizabilities can be extracted.

  3. Modelling bulk surface resistance from MODIS time series data to estimate actual regional evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of actual evapotraspiration by means of Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation requires the knowledge of the so-called 'bulk surface resistance', rc,act, representing the vapour flow resistance through the transpiring crop and evaporating soil surface. The accurate parameterization of rc,act still represents an unexploited topic, especially in the case of heterogeneous land surface. In agro-hydrological applications, the P-M equation commonly used to evaluate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) of a well-watered 'standardized crop' (grass or alfalfa), generally assumes for the bulk surface resistance a value of 70 s m-1. Moreover, specific crop coefficients have to be used to estimate maximum and/or actual evapotranspiration based on ET0. In this paper, a simple procedure for the indirect estimation of rc,act as function of a vegetation index computed from remote acquisition of Land Surface Temperature (LST), is proposed. An application was carried out in an irrigation district located near Castelvetrano, in South-West of Sicily, mainly cultivated with olive groves, in which actual evapotranspiration fluxes were measured during two years (2010-2011) by an Eddy Covariance flux tower (EC). Evapotranspiration measurements allowed evaluating rc,actbased on the numerical inversion of the P-M equation. In the same study area, a large time series of MODIS LST data, characterized by a spatial resolution of 1x1 km and a time step of 8-days, was also acquired for the period from 2000 to 2014. A simple Vegetation Index Temperatures (VTI), with values ranging from 0 to 1, was computed using normalized LST values. Evapotranspiration fluxes measured in 2010 were used to calibrate the relationship between rc,act and VTI, whereas data from 2011 were used for its validation. The preliminary results evidenced that, for the considered crop, an almost constant value of rc,act, corresponding to about 250 s m-1, can be considered typical of periods in which the crop is well

  4. Constraints on the $\\tilde{H}$ Generalized Parton Distribution from Deep Virtual Compton Scattering Measured at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Guidal, M

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the longitudinally polarized proton target asymmetry data of the Deep Virtual Compton process recently published by the HERMES collaboration in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions. We have fitted these new data in a largely model-independent fashion and the procedure results in numerical constraints on the $\\tilde{H}_\\mathrm{Im}$ Compton Form Factor. We present its $t-$ and $\\xi-$ dependencies. We also find improvement on the determination of two other Compton Form Factors, $H_\\mathrm{Re}$ and $H_\\mathrm{Im}$.

  5. Constraints on the H{sup -tilde} generalized parton distribution from deep virtual Compton scattering measured at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidal, M., E-mail: guidal@ipno.in2p3.f [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay, F-91405 (France)

    2010-09-20

    We have analyzed the longitudinally polarized proton target asymmetry data of the Deep Virtual Compton process recently published by the HERMES Collaboration in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions. We have fitted these new data in a largely model-independent fashion and the procedure results in numerical constraints on the H{sup -tilde} {sub Im} Compton Form Factor. We present its t- and {xi}-dependencies. We also find improvement on the determination of two other Compton Form Factors, H{sub Re} and H{sub Im}.

  6. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung are calculated from electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the...

  7. Study of Compton suppression for use in spent nuclear fuel assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Sarah

    fuel samples because the spectra was recorded from the source in very close proximity to the detector and surrounded by the guard annulus, so the detection probability is very high. Though this configuration is optimal for a Compton suppression system for the measurement of low count rate samples, measurement of high count rate samples in the enclosed arrangement leads to sum peaks in both the suppressed and unsuppressed spectra and losses to photopeak counts in the suppressed spectra. No additional photopeaks were detected using Compton suppression with this geometry. A detector model was constructed that can accurately simulate a Compton suppressed spectral measurement of radiation from spent nuclear fuel using HPGe or LaBr3 detectors. This is the first detector model capable of such an accomplishment. The model uses the Geant4 toolkit coupled with the RadSrc application and it accepts spent fuel composition data in list form. The model has been validated using dissolved ATM fuel samples in the standard, enclosed geometry of the PSU HPGe-CSS. The model showed generally good agreement with both the unsuppressed and suppressed measured fuel sample spectra, however the simulation is more appropriate for the generation of gamma-ray spectra in the beam source configuration. Photopeak losses due to cascade decay emissions in the Compton suppressed spectra were not appropriately managed by the simulation. Compton suppression would be a beneficial addition to NDA process monitoring systems if oriented such that the gamma-ray photons are collimated to impinge the primary detector face as a beam. The analysis has shown that peak losses through accidental coincidences are minimal and the reduction in the Compton continuum allows additional peaks to be resolved. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. CONSTRAINING THE BULK LORENTZ FACTOR OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OUTFLOW IN THE MAGNETIC-DOMINATED JET MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhe; Lin Hainan; Jiang Yunguo, E-mail: changz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: linhn@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangyg@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-10

    Recent observations by the Fermi-LAT showed that there are delayed arrivals of GeV photons relative to the onset of MeV photons in some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In order to avoid a large optical depth, the minimal value of the Lorentz factor has been estimated to be higher than 1000 in some of the brightest bursts. In this paper, we present a detailed calculation of the time delay between the MeV and GeV photons in the framework of the magnetic-dominated jet model. We find that the time delay strongly depends on the saturated bulk Lorentz factor of the jet. Inspired by this fact, we use this model to calculate the Lorentz factors of the four brightest Fermi bursts. The results indicate that the Lorentz factors are much smaller than those obtained from the 'single-zone' scenario. The short burst GRB 090510 has a minimal Lorentz factor of 385, while the three long bursts, GRB 080916c, GRB 090902b, and GRB 090926, have almost the same Lorentz factors with an average value near 260. Another interesting result is that, for long bursts, GeV photons are emitted after the bulk Lorentz factor saturates. For the short GRB, however, MeV and GeV photons are emitted at the same phase, i.e., either in the expansion phase or in the coasting phase.

  9. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  10. Proton Tomography Through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    In this prize talk, I recall some of the history surrounding the discovery of deeply virtual Compton scattering, and explain why it is an exciting experimental tool to obtain novel tomographic pictures of the nucleons at Jefferson Lab 12 GeV facility and the planned Electron-Ion Collider in the United States.

  11. On Uncertainty of Compton Backscattering Process

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, X H

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty of Compton backscattering process is studied by virtue of analytical formulas, and the special effects of variant energy spread and energy drift on the systematic uncertainty estimation are also studied with Monte Carlo sampling technique. These quantitative conclusions are especially important for the understanding the uncertainty of beam energy measurement system.

  12. Compton Scattering Sources and Applications at LLNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Felicie; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.; Bayramian, A.; Betts, S. M.; Cross, R. R.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M.; Shverdin, M. Y.; Wu, S. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Scarpetti, R.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2010-11-01

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV γ-ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented.

  13. Compton scattering and the complementarity principle

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, G P

    1993-01-01

    We explain briefly why Compton scattering from a crystal gives a featureless continuous x-ray background while Bragg scattering from the same crystal produces sharp diffraction peaks. It is shown that the answer lies at the heart of quantum mechanics, namely the uncertainty and the complementarity principles. (author)

  14. The compton effect: transition to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the Compton effect at the end of 1922 was a decisive event in the transition to the new quantum mechanics of 1925-1926 because it stimulated physicists to examine anew the fundamental problem of the interaction between radiation and matter. I first discuss Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and why physicists greeted it with extreme skepticism, despite Robert A. Millikan's confirmation of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. I then follow in some detail the experimental and theoretical research program that Arthur Holly Compton pursued between 1916 and 1922 at the University of Minnesota, the Westinghouse Lamp Company, the Cavendish Laboratory, and Washington University that culminated in his discovery of the Compton effect. Surprisingly, Compton was not influenced directly by Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis, in contrast to Peter Debye and H.A. Kramers, who discovered the quantum theory of scattering independently. I close by discussing the most significant response to that discovery, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory of 1924, its experimental refutation, and its influence on the emerging new quantum mechanics. (orig.)

  15. XRF 050406 late-time flattening: an inverse Compton component?

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, A.; Piro, L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate for possible evidence of inverse Compton (IC) emission in the X-ray afterglow of XRF 050406. In the framework of the standard fireball model, we show how the late-time flattening observed in the X-ray light curve between \\~10^{4} s and ~10^{6} s can be explained in a synchrotron-plus-IC scenario, when the IC peak frequency crosses the X-ray band. We thus conclude that the appearance of an IC component above the synchrotron one at late times successfully accounts for these X-ray...

  16. Optical inverse Compton emission from clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Shocks around clusters of galaxies accelerate electrons which upscatter the Cosmic Microwave Background photons to higher-energies. We use an analytical model to calculate this inverse Compton (IC) emission, taking into account the effects of additional energy losses via synchrotron and Coulomb scattering. We find that the surface brightness of the optical IC emission increases with redshift and halo mass. The IC emission surface brightness, 32--34~mag~arcsec$^{-2}$, for massive clusters is potentially detectable by the newly developed Dragonfly Telephoto Array.

  17. Electronic structure of hafnium: A Compton profile study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Khera; S Mathur; B L Ahuja

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report the first-ever isotropic Compton profile of hafnium measured at an intermediate resolution, with 661.65 keV -radiation. To compare our experimental data, the theoretical computations have also been carried out within the framework of pseudopotential using CRYSTAL03 code and the renormalized-free-atom (RFA) model. It is found that the present experimental profile is in better agreement with the RFA calculations if the outer electronic configuration is chosen as 5d3.26s0.8. The cohesive energy of Hf is also deduced from the experimental data and is compared with the available data.

  18. Gluon-initiated production of a Kaluza-Klein gluon in a bulk Randall-Sundrum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanach, Benjamin C.; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Skittrall, Jordan P.; Sridhar, K.

    2010-03-01

    In the Bulk Randall-Sundrum model, the Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge bosons are the primary signatures. In particular, the search for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitation of the gluon at hadron colliders is of great importance in testing this model. At the leading order in QCD, the production of this KK-gluon proceeds only via qbar q -initial states. We study the production of KK-gluons from gluon initial states at next-to-leading order in QCD. We find that, even after including the sub-dominant KK-gluon loops at this order, the next-to-leading order (NLO) cross-section is tiny compared to the leading order cross-section and unlikely to impact the searches for this resonance at hardon colliders.

  19. Gluon-initiated production of a Kaluza-Klein gluon in a Bulk Randall-Sundrum model

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B C; Skittrall, J P; Sridhar, K

    2009-01-01

    In the Bulk Randall-Sundrum model, the Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge bosons are the primary signatures. In particular, the search for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitation of the gluon at hadron colliders is of great importance in testing this model. At the leading order in QCD, the production of this KK-gluon proceeds only via q qbar-initial states. We study the production of KK-gluons from gluon initial states at next-to-leading order in QCD. We find that, even after including the sub-dominant KK-gluon loops at this order, the next-to-leading order (NLO) cross-section is tiny compared to the leading order cross-section and unlikely to impact the searches for this resonance at hardon colliders.

  20. Combined magnetic screen made of Bi-2223 bulk cylinder and YBCO tape rings—Modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomków, Ł.; Ciszek, M.; Chorowski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the measurements with sensitive magnetic field sensors made the issue of magnetic shielding important. The application of high temperature superconductors allows to obtain full shielding in zero field cooling conditions for DC and low frequency magnetic fields by the means of the Meissner effect. However, currently used conventional bulk magnetic shields maintain full shielding only in low magnetic fields—up to approximately 10 mT. In this paper, it is proposed to apply an additional screen made of a coated superconducting tape in order to increase the magnetic field interval of full shielding region. Computer model of such set of screens was created in Matlab and validated experimentally. Improvement of shielding quality was observed experimentally and calculated with the model.

  1. Effect of excess electrons on hexagonal close-packed Mg and the model clusters for bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the effect of excess electrons on hexagonal close-packed Mg and the model clusters explained by an inflation process using density functional theory-based calculations, in order to understand the role of conduction electron concentration in Mg-based bulk metallic glasses. We find the volume expansion and distortion to a higher c/a ratio in the negative charge state. The increase in the values corresponding to the c/a ratio is also observed in the model clusters. In the density of states at the equilibrium cell parameters expanded by charging, the pseudogap near the Fermi level by s-p mixing becomes small and a spiky structure appears

  2. Modeling bulk canopy resistance from climatic variables for predicting hourly evapotranspiration of maize and buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Shi, Haibin; Hiroki, Oue; Zhang, Chuan; Xue, Zhu; Cai, Bin; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    This study presents models for predicting hourly canopy resistance ( r c) and evapotranspiration (ETc) based on Penman-Monteith approach. The micrometeorological data and ET c were observed during maize and buckwheat growing seasons in 2006 and 2009 in China and Japan, respectively. The proposed models of r c were developed by a climatic resistance ( r *) that depends on climatic variables. Non-linear relationships between r c and r * were applied. The measured ETc using Bowen ratio energy balance method was applied for model validation. The statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between predicted ETc by proposed models and measured ETc for both maize and buckwheat crops. The model for predicting ETc at maize field showed better performance than predicting ETc at buckwheat field, the coefficients of determination were 0.92 and 0.84, respectively. The study provided an easy way for the application of Penman-Monteith equation with only general available meteorological database.

  3. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Luca

    2007-10-15

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p){gamma} was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q{sup 2}=0.33 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  4. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p)γ was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q2=0.33 (GeV/c)2. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  5. SU(3) Polyakov linear-sigma model: bulk and shear viscosity of QCD matter in finite magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Hussein, T M

    2016-01-01

    Due to off-center relativistic motion of the charged spectators and the local momentum-imbalance of the participants, a short-lived huge magnetic field is likely generated, especially in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In determining the temperature dependence of bulk and shear viscosities of the QCD matter in vanishing and finite magnetic field, we utilize mean field approximation to the SU($3$) Polyakov linear-sigma model (PLSM). We compare between the results from two different approaches; Green-Kubo correlation and Boltzmann master equation with Chapman-Enskog expansion. We find that both approaches have almost identical results, especially in the hadron phase. In the temperature dependence of bulk and shear viscosities relative to thermal entropy at the critical temperature, there is a rapid decrease in the chiral phase-transition and in the critical temperature with increasing magnetic field. As the magnetic field strength increases, a peak appears at the critical temperature ($T_c$). This can be und...

  6. Coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry with a kinetic double layer model (K2-SUB: oxidation of oleic acid by ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pfrang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a kinetic double layer model coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (K2-SUB based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007. K2-SUB is applied to a popular model system of atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry: the interaction of ozone with oleic acid. We show that our modelling approach allows de-convoluting surface and bulk processes, which has been a controversial topic and remains an important challenge for the understanding and description of atmospheric aerosol transformation. In particular, we demonstrate how a detailed treatment of adsorption and reaction at the surface can be coupled to a description of bulk reaction and transport that is consistent with traditional resistor model formulations.

    From literature data we have derived a consistent set of kinetic parameters that characterise mass transport and chemical reaction of ozone at the surface and in the bulk of oleic acid droplets. Due to the wide range of rate coefficients reported from different experimental studies, the exact proportions between surface and bulk reaction rates remain uncertain. Nevertheless, the model results suggest an important role of chemical reaction in the bulk and an approximate upper limit of ~10−11 cm2 s−1 for the surface reaction rate coefficient. Sensitivity studies show that the surface accommodation coefficient of the gas-phase reactant has a strong non-linear influence on both surface and bulk chemical reactions. We suggest that K2-SUB may be used to design, interpret and analyse future experiments for better discrimination between surface and bulk processes in the oleic acid-ozone system as well as in other heterogeneous reaction systems of atmospheric relevance.

  7. Boundary states and broken bulk symmetries in W A(r) minimal models

    CERN Document Server

    Caldeira, Alexandre F

    2004-01-01

    We study the boundary states of (p', p) rational conformal field theories having a W symmetry of the type A(r) using the multi-component free-field formalism. The classification of primary fields for these models given in the literature is shown to be incomplete; we give the correct classification by demanding modular covariance and show that the resulting modular S matrix satisfies all the necessary conditions. Basis states satisfying the boundary conditions are found in the form of coherent states and as expected we find that W violating states can be found for all these models. We construct consistent physical boundary for all the rank 2 (p+1, p) models (of which the already known case of the 3-state Potts model is the simplest example) and find that the W violating sector possesses a direct analogue of the Verlinde formula.

  8. Band-gap shrinkage calculations and analytic model for strained bulk InGaAsP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Michael J.

    2015-02-01

    Band-gap shrinkage is an important effect in semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers. In the former it leads to an increase in the lasing wavelength and in the latter an increase in the gain peak wavelength as the bias current is increased. The most common model used for carrier-density dependent band-gap shrinkage is a cube root dependency on carrier density, which is strictly only true for high carrier densities and low temperatures. This simple model, involves a material constant which is treated as a fitting parameter. Strained InGaAsP material is commonly used to fabricate polarization insensitive semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Most mathematical models for SOAs use the cube root bandgap shrinkage model. However, because SOAs are often operated over a wide range of drive currents and input optical powers leading to large variations in carrier density along the amplifier length, for improved model accuracy it is preferable to use band-gap shrinkage calculated from knowledge of the material bandstructure. In this letter the carrier density dependent band-gap shrinkage for strained InGaAsP is calculated by using detailed non-parabolic conduction and valence band models. The shrinkage dependency on temperature and both tensile and compressive strain is investigated and compared to the cube root model, for which it shows significant deviation. A simple power model, showing an almost square-root dependency, is derived for carrier densities in the range usually encountered in InGaAsP laser diodes and SOAs.

  9. Band-gap shrinkage calculations and analytic model for strained bulk InGaAsP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band-gap shrinkage is an important effect in semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers. In the former it leads to an increase in the lasing wavelength and in the latter an increase in the gain peak wavelength as the bias current is increased. The most common model used for carrier-density dependent band-gap shrinkage is a cube root dependency on carrier density, which is strictly only true for high carrier densities and low temperatures. This simple model, involves a material constant which is treated as a fitting parameter. Strained InGaAsP material is commonly used to fabricate polarization insensitive semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Most mathematical models for SOAs use the cube root bandgap shrinkage model. However, because SOAs are often operated over a wide range of drive currents and input optical powers leading to large variations in carrier density along the amplifier length, for improved model accuracy it is preferable to use band-gap shrinkage calculated from knowledge of the material bandstructure. In this letter the carrier density dependent band-gap shrinkage for strained InGaAsP is calculated by using detailed non-parabolic conduction and valence band models. The shrinkage dependency on temperature and both tensile and compressive strain is investigated and compared to the cube root model, for which it shows significant deviation. A simple power model, showing an almost square-root dependency, is derived for carrier densities in the range usually encountered in InGaAsP laser diodes and SOAs. (paper)

  10. Bulk meteorological parameters for diagnosing cloudiness in the stochastic cloud forecast model

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Ryan N.

    2006-01-01

    The three dimensional distribution of clouds is of great interest to the Air Force, and to the aviation community in general. The Stochastic Cloud Forecast Model (SCFM) is a novel, global cloud model currently operated at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) which diagnoses cloud cover statistically using a minimal set of predictors from global numerical forecasts. Currently the four predictors are pressure, temperature, vertical velocity, and relative humidity. In this thesis, 330 sets of...

  11. An analytical model of the mechanical properties of bulk coal under confined stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.X.; Wang, Z.T.; Rudolph, V.; Massarotto, P.; Finley, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an analytical model which can be used to relate the structural parameters of coal to its mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio under a confined stress condition. This model is developed primarily to support process modeling of coalbed methane (CBM) or CO2-enhanced CBM (ECBM) recovery from coal seam. It applied an innovative approach by which stresses acting on and strains occurring in coal are successively combined in rectangular coordinates, leading to the aggregated mechanical constants. These mechanical properties represent important information for improving CBM/ECBM simulations and incorporating within these considerations of directional permeability. The model, consisting of constitutive equations which implement a mechanically consistent stress-strains correlation, can be used as a generalized tool to study the mechanical and fluid behaviors of coal composites. An example using the model to predict the stress-strain correlation of coal under triaxial confined stress by accounting for the elastic and brittle (non-elastic) deformations is discussed. The result shows a good agreement between the prediction and the experimental measurement. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Some features of two commercial softwares for the modeling of bulk crystal growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santailler, J. L.; Duffar, T.; Théodore, F.; Boiton, P.; Barat, C.; Angelier, B.; Giacometti, N.; Dusserre, P.; Nabot, J. P.

    1997-10-01

    Two commercial codes, FIDAP and MARC, have been used to model a number of crystal growth processes in collaboration with industrial and research teams. Examples of global and local simulations in the field of heat transfer, hydrodynamics, chemistry and mechanics are given and the results are compared to experimental measurements, with good agreement as a rule. This establishes that such codes can be used to help improve crystal growth processes, while full global transient models still belong to software specifically written in order to model crystal growth. Emphasis is put on the necessity to validate the numerical results by comparison with experiments and to have a clear understanding of the physical laws hidden behind the software.

  13. Bulk transfer protocols on satellite link - Study within the OSI reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, I.

    Since satellite systems, such as TELECOM1 in France, are available for data transmission, new protocols need to be designed to fit the requirements of satellite communication systems and to offer specific facilities to the users. The main features of these new transmission protocols, as they have been specified by NADIR studies, are described. Next, the reasons for choosing to study these protocols within the OSI Reference Model are explained. A detailed study about introducing the protocol mechanisms described above in the OSI Reference model layers is then presented. Different approaches are presented, and the solutions studied are appraised in terms of efficiency, and of conformity to the OSI Reference Model. Finally, the experiments planned by NADIR are mentionned.

  14. Modeling and Accomplishment of Loading-and-Unloading Equipment Optimum Allocation System at Bulk Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The configuration of port’s loading-and-unloading equipment is an optimization problem, which endeavors to put limited handling equipment to each operating line to achieve the maximum overall production efficiency. We set up the T-stage decision-making model of loading-and-unloading line equipment configuration by using the method of Multi-stage Decision, and design the algorithm of the mathematical model. Research results in this paper lay the foundation for the development of loading-and-unloading equipment configuration system, and provide scientific basis for the decision of type selection and rational quantity of loading-and-unloading equipment.

  15. Influence of Heat-radiating on Multi-photon Compton Scattering High-energy Electron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; WANG Xin-min

    2007-01-01

    Using the model of the inverse Compton scattering between high-energy electrons and heat-radiation photons, the influence of heat-radiating photons on multi-photon Compton scattering high-energy electrons is studied . The results show that the energy loss, power loss, light resistance and light pressure of the high-energy electron formed by heat radiating are all proportional to the temperature T4 of the vacuum cavity of the electron,the Lorentz factor γ2 of the high-energy electrons, the scattering section of the electron and the number of photons acting at the same time with high-energy electrons. A good method for lessening the energy loss of the high-energy electron by using the one-photon Compton scattering between high-energy electrons and heat radiation photons is proposed.

  16. A graphical tool for an analytical approach of scattering photons by the Compton effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannavino, Francisco A., E-mail: scannavino@usp.br [Embrapa Agricultural Instrumentation Center, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Physics Institute of Sao Carlos-IFSC, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Cruvinel, Paulo E., E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br [Embrapa Agricultural Instrumentation Center, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Physics Institute of Sao Carlos-IFSC, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    The photons scattered by the Compton effect can be used to characterize the physical properties of a given sample due to the influence that the electron density exerts on the number of scattered photons. However, scattering measurements involve experimental and physical factors that must be carefully analyzed to predict uncertainty in the detection of Compton photons. This paper presents a method for the optimization of the geometrical parameters of an experimental arrangement for Compton scattering analysis, based on its relations with the energy and incident flux of the X-ray photons. In addition, the tool enables the statistical analysis of the information displayed and includes the coefficient of variation (CV) measurement for a comparative evaluation of the physical parameters of the model established for the simulation.

  17. A graphical tool for an analytical approach of scattering photons by the Compton effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannavino, Francisco A.; Cruvinel, Paulo E.

    2012-05-01

    The photons scattered by the Compton effect can be used to characterize the physical properties of a given sample due to the influence that the electron density exerts on the number of scattered photons. However, scattering measurements involve experimental and physical factors that must be carefully analyzed to predict uncertainty in the detection of Compton photons. This paper presents a method for the optimization of the geometrical parameters of an experimental arrangement for Compton scattering analysis, based on its relations with the energy and incident flux of the X-ray photons. In addition, the tool enables the statistical analysis of the information displayed and includes the coefficient of variation (CV) measurement for a comparative evaluation of the physical parameters of the model established for the simulation.

  18. Magnetic Forces Investigation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Guideway under Different Lateral Offset with 3D-Model Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic forces of a cylinder shape bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS over a permanent magnet guideway (PMG are studied mathematically. One cylindrical bulk HTS with a diameter of 30 mm and 15 mm in height is used. Two types of PMG are employed for external magnetic fields consideration. The relationship of magnetic forces of bulk HTS under different lateral offsets over PMG is studied with 3D-model finite element method (FEM. The calculation results show that the maximum magnetic levitation force of bulk HTS over PMG is tightly related to the applied magnetic field distribution. For the symmetrical PMG, the maximum magnetic levitation force decreases linearly with the increase of lateral offset of the bulk sample. For the Halbach PMG, when lateral offset changes from 0 mm to 25 mm, the maximum magnetic levitation force increases with the increase of lateral offset of the bulk HTS. When the lateral offset exceeds the center of the Halbach by 25 mm, the maximum levitation force decreases rapidly with the increase of the lateral offset of the bulk sample.

  19. Search for light-speed anisotropies using Compton scattering of high-energy electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Rebreyend, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Based on the high sensitivity of Compton scattering off ultra relativistic electrons, the possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light is investigated. The result discussed in this contribution is based on the gamma-ray beam of the ESRF's GRAAL facility (Grenoble, France) and the search for sidereal variations in the energy of the Compton-edge photons. The absence of oscillations yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 x 10^{-14} at 95 % confidence level on a combination of photon and electron coefficients of the minimal Standard Model Extension (mSME). This new constraint provides an improvement over previous bounds by one order of magnitude.

  20. Compton Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartemann, F V; Gibson, D J; Brown, W J; Rousse, A; Phuoc, K T; Pukhov, A

    2005-10-19

    Recent laser wakefield acceleration experiments have demonstrated the generation of femtosecond, nano-Coulomb, low emittance, nearly monokinetic relativistic electron bunches of sufficient quality to produce bright, tunable, ultrafast x-rays via Compton scattering. Design parameters for a proof-of-concept experiment are presented using a three-dimensional Compton scattering code and a laser-plasma interaction particle-in-cell code modeling the wakefield acceleration process; x-ray fluxes exceeding 10{sup 22} s{sup -1} are predicted, with a peak brightness > 10{sup 20} photons/(mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x s x 0.1% bandwidth).

  1. A software package for stellar and solar inverse-Compton emission: Stellarics

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Elena

    2013-01-01

    We present our software to compute gamma-ray emission from inverse-Compton scattering by cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere, as well as in the photospheres of stars. It includes a formulation of modulation in the heliosphere, but it can be used for any user-defined modulation model. Profiles and spectra are output to FITS files in a variety of forms for convenient use. Also included are general-purpose inverse-Compton routines with other features like energy loss rates and emissivity for any user-defined target photon and lepton spectra. The software is publicly available and it is under continuing development.

  2. A software package for Stellar and solar Inverse Compton emission: StellarICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Elena; Strong, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We present our software to compute gamma-ray emission from inverse-Compton scattering by cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere, as well as in the photospheres of stars. It includes a formulation of modulation in the heliosphere, but can be used for any user-defined modulation model. Profiles and spectra are output to FITS files in a variety of forms for convenient use. Also included are general-purpose inverse-Compton routines with other features like energy loss rates and emissivity for any user-defined target photon and lepton spectra. The software is publicly available and it is under continuing development.

  3. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient...... viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through...... and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational...

  4. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-12-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultrafast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ˜ 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one-temperature regime, 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component. The limits on the 2T emission are far weaker, and in fact it is possible that the observed soft X-ray excess of AGN is partially or fully due to the 2T shock emission. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

  5. Compton reflection in AGN with Simbol-X

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Malzac, J; Petrucci, P O; Shrader, C R; Soldi, S

    2009-01-01

    AGN exhibit complex hard X-ray spectra. Our current understanding is that the emission is dominated by inverse Compton processes which take place in the corona above the accretion disk, and that absorption and reflection in a distant absorber play a major role. These processes can be directly observed through the shape of the continuum, the Compton reflection hump around 30 keV, and the iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. We demonstrate the capabilities of Simbol-X to constrain complex models for cases like MCG-05-23-016, NGC 4151, NGC 2110, and NGC 4051 in short (10 ksec) observations. We compare the simulations with recent observations on these sources by INTEGRAL, Swift and Suzaku. Constraining reflection models for AGN with Simbol-X will help us to get a clear view of the processes and geometry near to the central engine in AGN, and will give insight to which sources are responsible for the Cosmic X-ray background at energies above 20 keV.

  6. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  7. Local modulation of chemoattractant concentrations by single cells: dissection using a bulk-surface computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemoattractant gradients are usually considered in terms of sources and sinks that are independent of the chemotactic cell. However, recent interest has focused on ‘self-generated’ gradients, in which cell populations create their own local gradients as they move. Here, we consider the interplay between chemoattractants and single cells. To achieve this, we extend a recently developed computational model to incorporate breakdown of extracellular attractants by membrane-bound enzymes. Model equations are parametrized, using the published estimates from Dictyostelium cells chemotaxing towards cyclic AMP. We find that individual cells can substantially modulate their local attractant field under physiologically appropriate conditions of attractant and enzymes. This means the attractant concentration perceived by receptors can be a small fraction of the ambient concentration. This allows efficient chemotaxis in chemoattractant concentrations that would be saturating without local breakdown. Similar interactions in which cells locally mould a stimulus could function in many types of directed cell motility, including haptotaxis, durotaxis and even electrotaxis. PMID:27708760

  8. Non Existence of Shear in Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Models with Bulk Viscosity and Time-Dependent A Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. K. Tiwari; Sonia Sharma

    2011-01-01

    We study the non existence of shear in locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological models with bulk viscosity and variable cosmological term Λ. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar, ε ∝ θ, expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar, θ ∝ σ, and Λ is proportional to the Hubble parameter. The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assumed to be a power function of mass density. The corresponding physical interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.%@@ We study the non existence of shear in locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-M string cosmological models with bulk viscosity and variable cosmological term Λ.Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar, ξ∝θ, expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar, θ∝σ, and A is proportional to the Hubble parameter.The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assumed to be a power function of mass density.The corresponding physical interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  9. Symmetry breaking in a bulk-surface reaction-diffusion model for signalling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätz, Andreas; Röger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Signalling molecules play an important role for many cellular functions. We investigate here a general system of two membrane reaction-diffusion equations coupled to a diffusion equation inside the cell by a Robin-type boundary condition and a flux term in the membrane equations. A specific model of this form was recently proposed by the authors for the GTPase cycle in cells. We investigate here a putative role of diffusive instabilities in cell polarization. By a linearized stability analysis, we identify two different mechanisms. The first resembles a classical Turing instability for the membrane subsystem and requires (unrealistically) large differences in the lateral diffusion of activator and substrate. On the other hand, the second possibility is induced by the difference in cytosolic and lateral diffusion and appears much more realistic. We complement our theoretical analysis by numerical simulations that confirm the new stability mechanism and allow us to investigate the evolution beyond the regime where the linearization applies.

  10. Perspective: The Asakura Oosawa model: A colloid prototype for bulk and interfacial phase behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Statt, Antonia [Graduate School of Excellence Material Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-10-14

    In many colloidal suspensions, the micrometer-sized particles behave like hard spheres, but when non-adsorbing polymers are added to the solution a depletion attraction (of entropic origin) is created. Since 60 years the Asakura-Oosawa model, which simply describes the polymers as ideal soft spheres, is an archetypical description for the statistical thermodynamics of such systems, accounting for many features of real colloid-polymer mixtures very well. While the fugacity of the polymers (which controls their concentration in the solution) plays a role like inverse temperature, the size ratio of polymer versus colloid radii acts as a control parameter to modify the phase diagram: when this ratio is large enough, a vapor-liquid like phase separation occurs at low enough colloid packing fractions, up to a triple point where a liquid-solid two-phase coexistence region takes over. For smaller size ratios, the critical point of the phase separation and the triple point merge, resulting in a single two-phase coexistence region between fluid and crystalline phases (of “inverted swan neck”-topology, with possibly a hidden metastable phase separation). Furthermore, liquid-crystalline ordering may be found if colloidal particles of non-spherical shape (e.g., rod like) are considered. Also interactions of the particles with solid surfaces should be tunable (e.g., walls coated by polymer brushes), and interfacial phenomena are particularly interesting experimentally, since fluctuations can be studied in the microscope on all length scales, down to the particle level. Due to its simplicity this model has become a workhorse for both analytical theory and computer simulation. Recently, generalizations addressing dynamic phenomena (phase separation, crystal nucleation, etc.) have become the focus of studies.

  11. A simple model for calculating the bulk modulus of the mixed ionic crystal: NH4Cl1−xBr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Katsika-Tsigourakou

    2011-10-01

    The ammonium halides are an interesting systems because of their polymorphism and the possible internal rotation of the ammonium ion. The static properties of the mixed ionic crystal NH4Cl1−Br have been recently investigated, using the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law. Here, by using a simple theoretical model, we estimate the bulk modulus of the alloys NH4Cl1−Br, in terms of the bulk modulus of the end members alone. The calculated values are comparable to those deduced from the three-body potential model (TDPM) by applying Vegard’s law.

  12. Stochastic Electrodynamics and the Compton effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the main qualitative features of the Compton effect are tried to be described within the realm of Classical Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED). It is found indications that the combined action of the incident wave (frequency ω), the radiation reaction force and the zero point fluctuating electromagnetic fields of SED, are able to given a high average recoil velocity v/c=α/(1+α) to the charged particle. The estimate of the parameter α gives α ∼ ℎω/mc2 where 2Πℎ is the constant and mc2 is the rest energy of the particle. It is verified that this recoil is just that necessary to explain the frequency shift, observed in the scattered radiation as due to a classical double Doppler shift. The differential cross section for the radiation scattered by the recoiling charge using classical electromagnetism also calculated. The same expression as obtained by Compton in his fundamental work of 1923 is found. (author)

  13. Compton scattering tomography in soil compaction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, F. A.; Cruvinel, P. E.

    2003-06-01

    Compton scattering imaging technique is investigated as a possible tool in soil density distribution mapping for agricultural purposes. In Compton scattering tomography, the number of photons that had been inelastically scattered from a well-defined volume of a sample is employed as a non-destructive technique to display soil density distribution. Images are also shown, of soil samples, at two closely related densities. Good contrast is recorded between the various inserts and their host matrix. Line scans through the images showed good contrast resolution, shape and edge definition. Spatial resolution could be enhanced by the use of a focussing collimator on the detector. This will also serve to increase the solid angle subtended at the detector by the scattering volume, with a possible reduction in counting time at the same precision level.

  14. CP-violation in Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gorchtein, Mikhail

    2008-01-01

    I consider Compton scattering off the nucleon in the presence of $CP$ violation. I construct the Compton tensor which possesses these features and consider low energy expansion (LEX) of the corresponding amplitudes. It allows to separate out the Born contribution which only depends on the static properties of the nucleon, such as the electric charge, the mass, the magnetic moment, and the electric dipole moment (EDM). I introduce new structure constants, the $T$-odd nucleon polarizabilities which parametrize the unknown non-Born part. These constants describe the response of the $T$-violating content of the nucleon to the external quasistatic electromagnetic field. As an estimate, I provide a HBChPT calculation for these new polarizabilities and discuss the implications for the experiment.

  15. Electron distributions in nonlinear Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Boca, Madalina; Dinu, Victor; Florescu, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Based on quantum theory, we investigate the distribution of the electrons scattered in nonlinear Compton effect by an electromagnetic plane wave. Deviations of the final electron momentum from its initial value are solely due to quantum effects. The monochromatic case, examined in detail, reveals features of the electron distribution, useful in the understanding of the pulsed plane wave case for particular intensity and electron energy regimes. The graphs displayed focus on the case of head-o...

  16. Compton scattering gamma-ray source optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemann, Frederic; Wu, Sheldon; Albert, Félicie; Barty, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of a bright relativistic electron beam with an intense laser pulse via Compton scattering can generate tunable gamma-rays for precision nuclear photonics applications. The properties of the gamma-ray phase space will be outlined, in relation with the 6D electron bunch and 6D laser pulse phase space, along with collimation, nonlinear effects and other sources of spectral broadening. Optimization strategies will be outlines within the context of nuclear photonics applications.

  17. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Facing Nonforward Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Applications of perturbative QCD to deeply virtual Compton scattering process require a generalization of usual parton distributions for the case when long-distance information is accumulated in nonforward matrix elements of quark and gluon operators. We discuss two types of functions parametrizing such matrix elements: double distributions F(x,y;t) and nonforward distribution functions \\cal F_\\zeta (X;t) and also their relation to usual parton densities f(x).

  18. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  19. Shear and Bulk Viscosities of Quark Matter from Quark-Meson Fluctuations in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E; Krein, Gastão

    2015-01-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear $\\eta$ and bulk $\\zeta$ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-$\\pi$ and quark-$\\sigma$ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses, and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We found a non-trivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios $\\eta/s$ and $\\zeta/s$, where $s$ is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model in the quasi-particle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for $\\eta/s$ has a minimum very close to the conjectured AdS/CFT lower bound, $\\eta/s = 1/4\\pi$.

  20. Shear and bulk viscosities of quark matter from quark-meson fluctuations in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Peixoto, Thiago C.; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão

    2016-04-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear η and bulk ζ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-π and quark-σ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We found a nontrivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios η /s and ζ /s , where s is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the quasiparticle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for η /s has a minimum very close to the quantum lower bound, η /s =1 /4 π .

  1. UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption studies of model and bulk heterogeneous catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewell, Craig R.

    2002-08-19

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the surface structure of model heterogeneous catalysts in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). UV-Raman spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure of bulk model catalysts in ambient and reaction conditions. The structural information obtained through UV-Raman spectroscopy has been correlated with both the UHV surface analysis and reaction results. The present day propylene and ethylene polymerization catalysts (Ziegler-Natta catalysts) are prepared by deposition of TiCl{sub 4} and a Al(Et){sub 3} co-catalyst on a microporous Mg-ethoxide support that is prepared from MgCl{sub 2} and ethanol. A model thin film catalyst is prepared by depositing metallic Mg on a Au foil in a UHV chamber in a background of TiCl{sub 4} in the gas phase. XPS results indicate that the Mg is completely oxidized to MgCl{sub 2} by TiCl{sub 4} resulting in a thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x}, where x = 2, 3, and 4. To prepare an active catalyst, the thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x} on Au foil is enclosed in a high pressure cell contained within the UHV chamber and exposed to {approx}1 Torr of Al(Et){sub 3}.

  2. The Fermion Mass Hierarchy in Models with Warped Extra Dimensions and a Bulk Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological implications of allowing the Higgs to propagate in both AdS${}_5$ and a class of asymptotically AdS spaces are considered. Without tuning, the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs is peaked towards the IR tip of the space and hence such a scenario still offers a potential resolution to the gauge-hierarchy problem. When the exponent of the Higgs VEV is approximately two and one assumes order one Yukawa couplings, then the fermion Dirac mass term is found to range from $\\sim 10^{-5}$ eV to $\\sim 200$ GeV in approximate agreement with the observed fermion masses. However, this result is sensitive to the exponent of the Higgs VEV, which is a free parameter. This paper offers a number of phenomenological and theoretical motivations for considering an exponent of two to be the optimal value. In particular, the exponent is bounded from below by the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and the requirement that the dual theory resolves the gauge hierarchy problem. While, in the model considered, if...

  3. Modelling of ICRF heating in DEMO with special emphasis on bulk ion heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, Dani, E-mail: daniel.gallart@bsc.es [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Mantsinen, Mervi [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona (Spain); Kazakov, Yevgen [Laboratory for Plasma Physics LPP-ERM/KMS, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    Ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating is one of the auxiliary heating schemes presently envisaged for ITER and DEMO. In this paper we analyse the potential of ICRF waves to heat the fuel ions in DEMO. Our analysis is carried out for the DEMO1 Reference Scenario from October 2013 (B = 6.8 T, I = 18.6 MA, R = 9.25 m, a = 2.64 m) optimized for a maximum pulse length of 2.3 hrs using the ICRF modelling codes PION and TORIC. We focus on second harmonic heating of tritium and fundamental minority heating of {sup 3}He ions (with a few percent of {sup 3}He) in a 50%:50% D-T plasma. The dependence of the ICRF characteristics and the ICRF-accelerated ions on the ICRF and plasma parameters is investigated, giving special attention to the DEMO design point at a core plasma temperature of 30 keV and an electron density of 1.2·10{sup 20} m{sup −3}.

  4. Atomistic modelling and prediction of glass forming ability in bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Sina

    Atomistic modeling (via molecular dynamics with EAM interaction potentials) was conducted for the detailed investigation of kinetics, thermodynamics, structure, and bonding in Ni-Al and Cu-Zr metallic glasses. This work correlates GFA with the nature of atomic-level bonding and vibrational properties, with results potentially extensible to the Transition Metal -- Transition Metal and Transition Metal -- Metalloid alloy classes in general. As a first step in the development of a liquid-only GFA tuning approach, an automated tool has also been created for the broad compositional sampling of liquid and glassy phase properties in multicomponent (binary, ternary, quaternary) alloy systems. Its application to the Cu-Zr alloy system shows promising results, including the successful identification of the two highest GFA compositions, Cu50Zr50 and Cu64Zr 36. Combined, the findings of this work highlight the critical importance of incorporating more complex alloy-specific information regarding the nature of bonding and ordering at the atomic level into such an approach.

  5. A multiscale coarse-grained polarizable solvent model for handling long tail bulk electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Michel; Borgis, Daniel; Cuniasse, Philippe

    2013-05-15

    A multiscale coarse-grained approach able to handle efficiently the solvation of microscopic solutes in extended chemical environment is described. That approach is able to compute readily and efficiently very long-range solute/solvent electrostatic microscopic interactions, up to the 1-μm scale, by considering a reduced amount of computational resources. All the required parameters are assigned to reproduce available data concerning the solvation of single ions. Such a strategy makes it possible to reproduce with good accuracy the solvation properties concerning simple ion pairs in solution (in particular, the asymptotic behavior of the ion pair potentials of mean force). This new method represents an extension of the polarizable pseudoparticle solvent model, which has been recently improved to account for the main features of hydrophobic effects in liquid water (Masella et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 2664). This multiscale approach is well suited to be used for computing the impact of charge changes in free energy computations, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. PMID:23382002

  6. Structure analysis of the virtual Compton scattering amplitude at low energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsel, D.; Knöchlein, G.; Korchin, A. Yu.; Metz, A.; Scherer, S.

    1997-01-01

    Published in: Phys. Rev. C 57 (1998) 941-952 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We analyze virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the nucleon at low energies in a covariant, model-independent formalism. We define a set of invariant functions which, for

  7. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Voutier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by th...

  8. Radiative corrections to pion Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the one-photon loop radiative corrections to charged pion Compton scattering, π-γ→π-γ. Ultraviolet and infrared divergencies are both treated in dimensional regularization. Analytical expressions for the O(α) corrections to the invariant Compton scattering amplitudes, A(s,u) and B(s,u), are presented for 11 classes of contributing one-loop diagrams. Infrared finiteness of the virtual radiative corrections is achieved (in the standard way) by including soft photon radiation below an energy cut-off λ, and its relation to the experimental detection threshold is discussed. We find that the radiative corrections are maximal in backward directions, reaching e.g. -2.4% for a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=4mπ and λ=5MeV. Furthermore, we extend our calculation of the radiative corrections by including the leading pion structure effect (at low energies) in form of its electric and magnetic polarizability difference, απ-βπ≅6x10-4fm3. We find that this structure effect does not change the relative size and angular dependence of the radiative corrections to pion Compton scattering. Our results are particularly relevant for analyzing the COMPASS experiment at CERN which aims at measuring the pion electric and magnetic polarizabilities with high statistics using the Primakoff effect

  9. External inverse-Compton emission from jetted tidal disruption events

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of Swift J1644+57 and J2058+05 show that tidal disruption events (TDEs) can launch relativistic jets. Super-Eddington accretion produces a strong radiation field of order Eddington luminosity. In a jetted TDE, electrons in the jet will inverse-Compton scatter the external radiation field from the accretion disk and wind. Motivated by observations of thermal optical-UV spectra in Swift J2058+05 and several other TDEs, we assume the spectrum of the external radiation field intercepted by the relativistic jet to be blackbody. Hot electrons in the jet scatter this thermal radiation and produce luminosities 10^45-10^48 erg/s in the X/gamma-ray band. This model of thermal plus inverse-Compton radiation is applied to Swift J2058+05. First, we show that the blackbody component in the optical-UV spectrum most likely has its origin in the super-Eddington wind from the disk. Then, using the observed blackbody component as the external radiation field, we show that the X-ray luminosity and spectrum...

  10. A Compton thick AGN in the barred spiral NGC 4785

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Ricci, C; Asmus, D; Mushotzky, R F; Ueda, Y; Terashima, Y; La Parola, V

    2014-01-01

    We present X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4785. The source is a local Seyfert 2 which has not been studied so far in much detail. It was recently detected with high significance in the 15-60 keV band in the 66 month Swift/BAT all sky survey, but there have been no prior pointed X-ray observations of this object. With Suzaku, we clearly detect the source below 10 keV, and find it to have a flat continuum and prominent neutral iron fluorescence line with equivalent width >~1 keV. Fitting the broadband spectra with physical reflection models shows the source to be a bona fide Compton thick AGN with Nh of at least 2x10^{24} cm^{-2} and absorption-corrected 2-10 keV X-ray power L(2-10) ~ few times 10^{42} erg s^{-1}. Realistic uncertainties on L(2-10) computed from the joint confidence interval on the intrinsic power law continuum photon index and normalization are at least a factor of 10. The local bona fide Compton thick AGN population is highly heterogeneous in terms of WISE mid-...

  11. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, Andrei; /Hampton U. /Jefferson Lab; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Carlson, Carl E.; /William-Mary Coll.; Mukherjee, Asmita; /Indian Inst. Tech., Mumbai

    2009-03-31

    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS) {gamma}* {yields} H{bar H}{gamma} in the timelike t = (p{sub H} + p{sub {bar H}}){sup 2} > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} H{bar H}{gamma}. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H{bar H} hadron pairs such as {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, and D{bar D} as well as p{bar p}. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C = - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C = + timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e{sup +} {leftrightarrow} e{sup -} asymmetry. The J = 0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  12. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanaciev,Andrei Afanasev, Stanley J. Brodsky, Carl E. Carlson, Asmita Mukherjee

    2010-02-01

    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS), gamma* to H H-bar gamma, in the timelike t = (p_{H} + p_{H-bar})^2 > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e+ e- to H H-bar gamma. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H H-bar hadron pairs such as pi+ pi-, K+ K-, and D D-bar as well as p p-bar. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C= - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C=+ timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e+ \\leftrightarrow e- asymmetry. The J=0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  13. A new telescope for wide-band gamma-ray astronomy: The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuemer, O. Tuemay; Ait-Ouamer, Farid; Blair, Scott C.; Case, Gary L.; O'Neill, Brendan P.; O'Neill, Terrence J.; White, R. Stephen; Zych, Allen D.

    1994-06-01

    A new prototype gamma-ray telescope is described which is sensitive from 0.3 to 30 MeV as a Compton telescope and to 100 MeV as a pair detector. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) uses multilayers of silicon strip detectors as a Compton gamma-ray converter. Recoil electrons are tracked with the silicon strip detectors, and their energy losses and directions are measured. The direction and energy of the Compton-scattered gamma rays are measured with CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors. Thus unique directions and energies are found for each incident gamma ray for the first time and without the background of overlapping rings. SCRT is the first Compton telescope to image the gamma-ray sky directly. It can also detect electron-positron pairs from gamma rays above 5 MeV, extending SCRT's sensitivity to above 100 MeV. Typical resolutions are 3% (FWHM) in energy at 2 MeV and 0.5 deg (1 sigma) in angle. The proposed prototype SCRT instrument has a sensitive area of 650 sq cm, a detection efficiency of 3%, a size reduction by about an order of magnitude, and a sensitivity of 15 millicrab for a typical Compton Observatory exposure. SCRT can also measure the polarization of the incident gamma rays, especially at low energies and large scattered angles. Simulation calculations and a discussion of results with a laboratory model are presented.

  14. Levitation Force Investigation of Bulk HTSC Above Halbach PMG with Different Cross-Section Physical Dimensions by 3D-Modeling Numerical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiyun; Liu, Guoliang; Qin, Yujie

    2014-10-01

    The levitation force of a bulk high temperature superconductor (HTSC) over Halbach permanent magnet guideways (PMG) with different cross-section configuration is studied by numerical method. The Halbach PMG is composed of three host permanent magnets (HPMs) and two slave permanent magnets (SPMs). One cylindrical bulk HTSC with a diameter of 30 mm and height of 15 mm is used. The 3D-modeling is formulated by the H-method. The numerical resolving codes are practiced using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of bulk HTSC. By the method, the influence of the cross-section physical dimensions of Halbach PMG on the levitation forces of bulk HTSC levitated above the PMG is studied. The simulation results show that increasing the width of SPM ( can enhance the bulk HTSC levitation performance immediately under the condition of keeping the ratio of ( : the width of HPM) to between 1.6 and 1.8, the ratio of td (the height of the PMG) to between 1.2 and 1.4. By the method, the bulk HTSC better levitation performance can be expected.

  15. Two-moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics in the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiangjun; WANG Bin; Xiaohong LIU; Minghuai WANG

    2013-01-01

    A two-moment bulk stratiform microphysics scheme,including recently developed physically-based droplet activation/ice nucleation parameterizations has been implemented into the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL) as an effort to enhance the model's capability to simulate aerosol indirect effects.Unlike the previous one-moment cloud microphysics scheme,the new scheme produces a reasonable representation of cloud particle size and number concentration.This scheme captures the observed spatial variations in cloud droplet number concentrations.Simulated ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus clouds qualitatively agree with in situ observations.The longwave and shortwave cloud forcings are in better agreement with observations.Sensitivity tests show that the column cloud droplet number concentrations calculated from two different droplet activation parameterizations are similar.However,ice crystal number concentration in mixed-phased clouds is sensitive to different heterogeneous ice nucleation formulations.The simulation with high ice crystal number concentration in mixed-phase clouds has less liquid water path and weaker cloud forcing.Furthermore,ice crystal number concentration in cirrus clouds is sensitive to different ice nucleation parameterizations.Sensitivity tests also suggest that the impact of pre-existing ice crystals on homogeneous freezing in old clouds should be taken into account.

  16. External Compton Scattering in Blazar Jets and the Location of the Gamma-Ray Emitting Region

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    I study the location of the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein-Nishina regimes, which is highly accurate and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor $\\sim10$. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton-scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad-line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus, and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of $\\gamma$-ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern...

  17. The determination of the efficiency of a Compton suppressed HPGe detector using Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, A L; Heijnis, H; Fierro, D; Reinhard, M I

    2012-04-01

    A Compton suppressed high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector is well suited to the analysis of low levels of radioactivity in environmental samples. The difference in geometry, density and composition of environmental calibration standards (e.g. soil) can contribute to excessive experimental uncertainty to the measured efficiency curve. Furthermore multiple detectors, like those used in a Compton suppressed system, can add complexities to the calibration process. Monte Carlo simulations can be a powerful complement in calibrating these types of detector systems, provided enough physical information on the system is known. A full detector model using the Geant4 simulation toolkit is presented and the system is modelled in both the suppressed and unsuppressed mode of operation. The full energy peak efficiencies of radionuclides from a standard source sample is calculated and compared to experimental measurements. The experimental results agree relatively well with the simulated values (within ∼5 - 20%). The simulations show that coincidence losses in the Compton suppression system can cause radionuclide specific effects on the detector efficiency, especially in the Compton suppressed mode of the detector. Additionally since low energy photons are more sensitive to small inaccuracies in the computational detector model than high energy photons, large discrepancies may occur at energies lower than ∼100 keV. PMID:22304994

  18. The role of Compton heating on radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Reynolds, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of Compton heating in radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes from a neutral dense medium using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on the relative effects of Compton-heating and photo-heating as a function of the spectral slope {\\alpha}, assuming a power-law spectrum in the energy range of 13.6 eV--100 keV. While Compton heating is dominant only close to the black hole, it can reduce the accretion rate to 0.1 % ($l \\propto \\dot{m}^2$ model)--0.01 % ($l \\propto \\dot{m}$ model) of the Bondi accretion rate when the BH radiation is hard ({\\alpha} ~ 1), where $l$ and $\\dot{m}$ are the luminosity and accretion rate normalised by Eddington rates, respectively. The oscillatory behaviour otherwise typically seen in simulations with {\\alpha} > 1, become suppressed when {\\alpha} ~ 1 only for the $l \\propto \\dot{m}$ model. The relative importance of the Compton heating over photo-heating decreases and the oscillatory behaviour becomes stronger as the spectrum softens. When the...

  19. Calculation of Nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering in HERMES Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the possibility to acquire information of nuclear generalized parton distribution (GPD) H by studying the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) of several nuclear targets at the HERMES group (Hadron–Electron Ring Accelerator Measurement of Spin). Two different models are used and developed to demonstrate the leading asymmetry amplitude ALUsinØ for coherent-enriched and incoherent-enriched parts with both statistical and systematic uncertainties estimated. It is found that a clear enhancement of ratio of nuclear asymmetry ALUA,sinø to free proton asymmetry ALUH,sinø in the coherent-enriched region is expected by both models, and a decrease of the ratio in incoherent-enriched region; both give the information about nuclear modifications. It is also possible to distinguish between those two models even under the limited statistics

  20. Calculation of Nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering in HERMES Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong-Xue; MAO Ya-Jun; WANG Si-Guang; SUN Bo

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to acquire information of nuclear generalized parton distribution (GPD) H by studying the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) off several nuclear targets at the HERMES group (Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator Measurement of Spin). Two different models are used and developed to demonstrate the leading asymmetry amplitude AsinφLU for coherent-enriched and incoherent-enriched parts with both statistical and systematic uncertainties estimated. It is found that a clear enhancement of ratio of nuclear asymmetry AA,sinφLU to free proton asymmetry AH,sinφLU in the coherent-enriched region is expected by both models, and a decrease of the ratio in incoherent-enriched region; both give the information about nuclear modifications. It is also possible to distinguish between those two models even under the limited statistics.

  1. ILC Beam Energy Measurement by means of Laser Compton Backscattering

    OpenAIRE

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H. J.; Viti, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered $\\gamma$-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitiv...

  2. A Compton Suppressed Gamma Ray Counter For Radio Assay of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Rare event searches, such as direct dark matter experiments, require materials with ultra-low levels of natural radioactivity. We present a neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique for assaying metals, specifically titanium used for cryostat construction. Earlier attempts at NAA encountered limitations due to bulk activation via (n, p) reactions, which contributed to large continuum backgrounds due to Compton tails. Our method involves a heavy water shielded exposure to minimize (n,p) reactions and a sodium iodide shielded high purity germanium counter for the gamma ray assay. Preliminary results on assays for U/Th/K contamination in titaniumwill be presented.

  3. Short-Term Variability of X-rays from Accreting Neutron Star Vela X-1: II. Monte-Carlo Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    We develop a Monte Carlo Comptonization model for the X-ray spectrum of accretion-powered pulsars. Simple, spherical, thermal Comptonization models give harder spectra for higher optical depth, while the observational data from Vela X-1 show that the spectra are harder at higher luminosity. This suggests a physical interpretation where the optical depth of the accreting plasma increases with mass accretion rate. We develop a detailed Monte-Carlo model of the accretion flow, including the effects of the strong magnetic field ($\\sim 10^{12}$ G) both in geometrically constraining the flow into an accretion column, and in reducing the cross section. We treat bulk-motion Comptonization of the infalling material as well as thermal Comptonization. These model spectra can match the observed broad-band {\\it Suzaku} data from Vela X-1 over a wide range of mass accretion rates. The model can also explain the so-called "low state", in which the uminosity decreases by an order of magnitude. Here, thermal Comptonization sh...

  4. Time-Dependent Synchrotron and Compton Spectra from Jets of Microquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S; Dermer, C D; Boettcher, Markus; Dermer, Charles D.; Gupta, Swati

    2006-01-01

    Jet models for the high-energy emission of Galactic X-ray binary sources have regained significant interest with detailed spectral and timing studies of the X-ray emission from microquasars, the recent detection by the HESS collaboration of very-high-energy gamma-rays from the microquasar LS~5039, and the earlier suggestion of jet models for ultraluminous X-ray sources observed in many nearby galaxies. Here we study the synchrotron and Compton signatures of time-dependent electron injection and acceleration, adiabatic and radiative cooling, and different jet geometries in the jets of Galactic microquasars. Synchrotron, synchrotron-self-Compton, and external-Compton radiation processes with soft photons provided by the companion star and the accretion disk are treated. An analytical solution is presented to the electron kinetic equation for general power-law geometries of the jets for Compton scattering in the Thomson regime. We pay particular attention to predictions concerning the rapid flux and spectral var...

  5. Foreign body detection in food materials using compton scattered x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Nigel James Bruce

    This thesis investigated the application of X-ray Compton scattering to the problem of foreign body detection in food. The methods used were analytical modelling, simulation and experiment. A criterion was defined for detectability, and a model was developed for predicting the minimum time required for detection. The model was used to predict the smallest detectable cubes of air, glass, plastic and steel. Simulations and experiments were performed on voids and glass in polystyrene phantoms, water, coffee and muesli. Backscatter was used to detect bones in chicken meat. The effects of geometry and multiple scatter on contrast, signal-to-noise, and detection time were simulated. Compton scatter was compared with transmission, and the effect of inhomogeneity was modelled. Spectral shape was investigated as a means of foreign body detection. A signal-to-noise ratio of 7.4 was required for foreign body detection in food. A 0.46 cm cube of glass or a 1.19 cm cube of polystyrene were detectable in a 10 cm cube of water in one second. The minimum time to scan a whole sample varied as the 7th power of the foreign body size, and the 5th power of the sample size. Compton scatter inspection produced higher contrasts than transmission, but required longer measurement times because of the low number of photon counts. Compton scatter inspection of whole samples was very slow compared to production line speeds in the food industry. There was potential for Compton scatter in applications which did not require whole-sample scanning, such as surface inspection. There was also potential in the inspection of inhomogeneous samples. The multiple scatter fraction varied from 25% to 55% for 2 to 10 cm cubes of water, but did not have a large effect on the detection time. The spectral shape gave good contrasts and signal-to-noise ratios in the detection of chicken bones.

  6. The role of Compton heating in radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, KwangHo; Ricotti, Massimo; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the role of Compton heating in radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes (BHs) from a neutral dense medium using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on the relative effects of Compton-heating and photoheating as a function of the spectral slope α, assuming a power-law spectrum in the energy range of 13.6 eV-100 keV. While Compton heating is dominant only close to the BH, it can reduce the accretion rate to 0.1 (l ∝ dot{m}^2 model)-0.01 per cent (l ∝ dot{m} model) of the Bondi accretion rate when the BH radiation is hard (α ˜ 1), where l and dot{m} are the luminosity and accretion rate normalized by Eddington rates, respectively. The oscillatory behaviour otherwise typically seen in simulations with α > 1, become suppressed when α ˜ 1 only for the l ∝ dot{m} model. The relative importance of the Compton heating over photoheating decreases and the oscillatory behaviour becomes stronger as the spectrum softens. When the spectrum is soft (α > 1.5), photoheating prevails regardless of models making the effect of Compton heating negligible. On the scale of the ionization front, where the gas supply into the Strömgren sphere from large scale is regulated, photoheating dominates. Our simulations show consistent results with the advection-dominated accretion flow (l ∝ dot{m}^2) where the accretion is inefficient and the spectrum is hard (α ˜ 1).

  7. Momentum densities and Compton profiles of alkali-metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is assumed that the dynamics of valence electrons of alkali-metal atoms can be well accounted for by a quantum-defect theoretic model while the core electrons may be supposed to move in a self-consistent field. This model is used to study the momentum properties of atoms from 3Li to 37Rb. The numerical results obtained for the momentum density, moments of momentum density and Compton profile are found to be in good agreement with the results of more detailed configuration-interaction calculations for the atom 3Li. Similar results for 11Na, 19K and 37Rb are compared with the corresponding Hartree-Fock-Roothan values only, for want of data from other realistic calculations. (author)

  8. Analysis of Bulk and Thin Film Model Samples Intended for Investigating the Strain Sensitivity of Niobium-Tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk samples and thin films were fabricated and characterized to determine their suitability for studying the effect of composition and morphology on strain sensitivity. Heat capacity and resistivity data are used to determine the critical temperature distribution. It is found that all bulk samples contain stoichiometric Nb3Sn regardless of their nominal Nb to Sn ratio. Furthermore, in bulk samples with Cu additions, a bi-modal distribution of stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric Nb-Sn is found. Thus the nominally off-stoichiometric bulk samples require additional homogenization steps to yield homogeneous off-stoichiometric samples. A binary magnetron-sputtered thin film has the intended off-stoichiometric Nb-Sn phase with a mid-point critical temperature of 16.3 K. This type of sample is a suitable candidate for investigating the strain sensitivity of A15 Nb1-βSnβ, with 0.18 3Sn wires.

  9. Compton profile of tantalum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas Varghese; K M Balakrishna; K Siddappa

    2003-03-01

    The Compton profile of tantalum (Ta) has been measured using IGP type coaxial photon detector. The target atoms were excited by means of 59.54 keV -rays from Am-241. The measurements were carried out on a high purity thin elemental foil. The data were recoreded in a 4 K multichannel analyzer. These data duly corrected for various effects are presented and compared with theoretical and measured values. Best agreement with experiment is found for the 5d36s2 electron configuration.

  10. Cork quality estimation by using Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Luciano, P; Ruggero, A

    2002-01-01

    The quality control of cork stoppers is mandatory in order to guarantee the perfect conservation of the wine. Several techniques have been developed but until now the quality control was essentially related to the status of the external surface. Thus possible cracks or holes inside the stopper will be hidden. In this paper a new technique based on X-ray Compton tomography is described. It is a non-destructive technique that allows one to reconstruct and visualize the cross-section of the cork stopper analyzed, and so to put in evidence the presence of internal imperfections. Some results are reported and compared with visual classification.

  11. The effect of Compton scattering on gamma-ray spectra of the 2005 January 20 flare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chen; Wei-Qun Gan

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about accelerated particles in solar flares,as well as the ambient medium with which these energetic particles interact.The neutron capture line (2.223 MeV),the strongest in the solar gamma-ray spectrum,forms in the deep atmosphere.The energy of these photons can be reduced via Compton scattering.With the fully relativistic GEANT4 toolkit,we have carried out Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of a neutron capture line in solar flares,and applied them to the flare that occurred on 2005 January 20 (X7.1/2B),one of the most powerful gamma-ray flares observed by RHESSI during the 23rd solar cycle.By comparing the fitting results of different models with and without Compton scattering of the neutron capture line,we find that when including the Compton scattering for the neutron capture line,the observed gamma-ray spectrum can be reproduced by a population of accelerated particles with a very hard spectrum (s≤2.3).The Compton effect of a 2.223 MeV line on the spectra is therefore proven to be significant,which influences the time evolution of the neutron capture line flux as well.The study also suggests that the mean vertical depth for neutron capture in hydrogen for this event is about 8 g cm-2.

  12. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-08-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova’s lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova.

  13. Compton scattering in a unitary approach with causality constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondratyuk, S.; Scholten, O.

    2000-01-01

    Pion-loop corrections for Compton scattering are calculated in a novel approach bused on the use of dispersion relations in a formalism obeying unitarity. The basic framework is presented, including an application to Compton scattering. In the approach the effects of the non-pole contribution arisin

  14. Low Mach Number Modeling of Convection in Helium Shells on Sub-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs II: Bulk Properties of Simple Models

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Adam M; Nonaka, Andy; Almgren, Ann S; Bell, John B

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of helium shell convection driven by nuclear burning establish the conditions for runaway in the sub-Chandrasekhar mass, double detonation model for Type Ia supernovae, as well as for a variety of other explosive phenomena. We explore these convection dynamics for a range of white dwarf core and helium shell masses in three dimensions using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code Maestro. We present calculations of the bulk properties of this evolution, including time-series evolution of global diagnostics, lateral averages of the 3D state, and the global 3D state. We find a variety of outcomes including quasi-equilibrium, localized runaway, and nova-like runaway. Our results suggest the double detonation progenitor model is promising, that 3D, dynamic convection plays a key role, and that these systems warrant further study.

  15. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Demirchyan, R; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, Erwin; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Göttlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Heuer, R D; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C B; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D K; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pöschl, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S V; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Vujicic, B; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, J; Zohrabyan, H G; Zomer, F

    2005-01-01

    A measurement is presented of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering \\gamma* p \\to \\gamma p made using e^+ p collision data corresponding to a luminosity of 46.5 pb^{-1}, taken with the H1 detector at HERA. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, the invariant mass of the \\gamma* p system, W, and for the first time, differentially in the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex, t, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2. QCD based calculations at next-to-leading order using generalized parton distributions can describe the data, as can colour dipole model predictions.

  16. Photon Acceleration of Laser-plasma Based on Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; XIE Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional electron density disturbance is studied by using the inelastic collision model of the relativity electron and photon group, the relativity theory, the momentum equation and the continuity equation, which is generated by a driving laser pulse and scattered laser pulse propagating through a tenuous plasma, and the electron density disturbance is closely associated with the incident laser and scattering laser. The electron plasma wave(EPW)is formed by the propagation of the electron density disturbance. Owing to the action of EPW, the increasing of the frequency of the photons in the incident laser pulses that there is a distance with the driving laser pulses is studied by using optical metric. The results show that it is possible that the photon will gain higher energy from the EPW when photon number is decreased and one-photon Compton scattering enters, the photon will be accelerated.

  17. Polarizability sum rule across real and virtual Compton scattering processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We derive a sum rule relating various electromagnetic properties of a spin-1/2 particle and consider its empirical implications for the proton. Given the measured values of the proton anomalous magnetic moment, electric and magnetic charge radii, the slope of the first moment of the spin structure function $g_1$, and the recently determined proton spin polarizability $\\gamma_{E1M2}$, the sum rule yields a constraint on the low-momentum behavior of a generalized polarizability appearing in virtual Compton scattering. With the help of the presently ongoing measurements of different electromagnetic observables at the MAMI, Jefferson Lab, and HI$\\gamma$S facilities, the sum rule will provide a model-independent test of the low-energy spin structure of the nucleon.

  18. Results on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck Sabatie

    2006-10-02

    After about 10 years of growing interest for Generalized Parton Distributions come the first results from dedicated experiments, using the golden Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering process. After a short introduction, we will explain the experimental methodology and show results of the Hall A E00-110 experiment, which aimed at measuring helicity-dependent photon electroproduction cross sections. We will emphasize how this experiment provided the first stringent tests of the scaling property of this process, allowing for the first time a model-independent extraction of a linear combination of Generalized Parton Distributions. We will also describe the Hall B E01-113 experiment which measured the photon electroproduction beam spin asymmetry over a wide kinematical range. The summary will include an outlook on the next generation of experiments which are already planned at Jefferson Lab at 6 GeV, but also after the planned 12 GeV upgrade.

  19. Results from the Daresbury Compton backscattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, D.; Priebe, G.; Jamison, S. P.; Graham, D. M.; Phillips, P. J.; Smith, S. L.; Saveliev, Y.; Vassilev, S.; Seddon, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Daresbury Compton Backscattering X-ray Source uses a high power Ti Sapphire laser interacting in head on geometry with electron bunches in the ALICE energy recovery linear accelerator. X-ray photons with peak energy of 21 keV were generated with the accelerator operating at an energy of 29.6 MeV. The spatial profile of the X-rays emitted near the electron beam axis was measured. The characteristics of the X-ray yield measured as a function of relative timing between the laser pulse and the interacting electron bunch was found to be consistent with the modelled intensity behaviour using measured electron and laser beam parameters.

  20. Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, P.Y.; VCS Collaboration

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10{sup 4} events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10{sup 5}) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Sylvester; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The European Muon Collaboration (EMC) observed the first signs of a modification of the partonic structure of the nucleon when present in a nuclear medium. The precise nature of these effects, as well as their underlying cause, is yet to be determined. The generalized parton distribution (GPD) framework provides a powerful tool to study the partonic structure of nucleons inside a nucleus. Hard exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon off a nucleon, deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS), is presently considered the cleanest experimental access to the GPDs, through the Compton form factors (CFFs). This is especially the case for scattering off the spin-zero helium nucleus, where only a single CFF contributes to the process. The real and imaginary parts of this CFF can be constrained through the beam-spin asymmetry (BSA). We will present the first measurements of the DVCS process off 4He using the CEBAF 6 GeV polarized electron beam and the CLAS detector at JLab. The CLAS detector was supplemented with an inner electromagnetic calorimeter for photons produced at small angles, as well as a radial time projection chamber (RTPC) to detect low-energy recoil nuclei. This setup allowed for a clean measurement of the BSA in both the coherent and incoherent channels.

  2. Nonlinear X-ray Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, P H; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B; Reis, David A

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a weak linear probe of matter. It is primarily sensitive to the position of electrons and their momentum distribution. Elastic X-ray scattering forms the basis of atomic structural determination while inelastic Compton scattering is often used as a spectroscopic probe of both single-particle excitations and collective modes. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are unique tools for studying matter on its natural time and length scales due to their bright and coherent ultrashort pulses. However, in the focus of an XFEL the assumption of a weak linear probe breaks down, and nonlinear light-matter interactions can become ubiquitous. The field can be sufficiently high that even non-resonant multiphoton interactions at hard X-rays wavelengths become relevant. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions, the simultaneous Compton scattering of two identical photons producing a single photon at nearly twice the photon energy. We measure scattered...

  3. Virtual compton scattering at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  4. Radiative corrections to pion Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the one-photon loop radiative corrections to charged pion Compton scattering, $\\pi^- \\gamma \\to \\pi^- \\gamma $. Ultraviolet and infrared divergencies are both treated in dimensional regularization. Analytical expressions for the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha)$ corrections to the invariant Compton scattering amplitudes, $A(s,u)$ and $B(s,u)$, are presented for 11 classes of contributing one-loop diagrams. Infrared finiteness of the virtual radiative corrections is achieved (in the standard way) by including soft photon radiation below an energy threshold $\\lambda$, and its relation to the experimental detection threshold is discussed. We find that the radiative corrections are maximal in backward directions, reaching e.g. -2.4% for a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=4m_\\pi$ and $\\lambda=5 $MeV. Furthermore, we extend our calculation of the radiative corrections by including the leading pion structure effect (at low energies) in form of its electric and magnetic polarizability difference, $\\alpha_\\pi - \\beta_...

  5. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  6. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, P G; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Gillam, J E; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Oliver, J F; Sala, P R; Solevi, P; Rafecas, M

    2015-01-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the recons...

  7. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  8. To Polarize or Not to Polarize? Charge-on-Spring versus KBFF Models for Water and Methanol Bulk and Vapor-Liquid Interfacial Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Rustenburg, Ariën S; Geerke, Daan P; Smith, Paul E

    2016-05-10

    Simulations of water and methanol mixtures using polarizable force fields (FFs) for methanol (COS/M and CPC) and water (COS/G2) were performed and compared to experiment and also to a nonpolarizable methanol (KBFF) model with SPC/E water in an effort to quantify the importance of explicit electronic polarization effects in bulk liquid mixtures and vapor-liquid interfaces. The bulk liquid mixture properties studied included the center of mass radial distribution functions, Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs), volumetric properties, isothermal compressibility, enthalpy of mixing, dielectric constant, and diffusion coefficients. The vapor-liquid interface properties investigated included the relative surface probability distributions, surface tension, excess surface adsorption, preferred surface molecule orientations, and the surface dipole. None of the three FFs tested here was clearly superior for all of the properties examined. All the force fields typically reproduced the correct trends with composition for both the bulk and interfacial system properties; the differences between the force fields were primarily quantitative. The overall results suggest that the polarizable FFs are not, at the present stage of development, inherently better able to reproduce the studied bulk and interfacial properties-despite the added degree of explicit transferability that is, by definition, built into the polarizable models. Indeed, the specific parametrization of the FF appears to be just as important as the class of FF.

  9. To Polarize or Not to Polarize? Charge-on-Spring versus KBFF Models for Water and Methanol Bulk and Vapor-Liquid Interfacial Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Rustenburg, Ariën S; Geerke, Daan P; Smith, Paul E

    2016-05-10

    Simulations of water and methanol mixtures using polarizable force fields (FFs) for methanol (COS/M and CPC) and water (COS/G2) were performed and compared to experiment and also to a nonpolarizable methanol (KBFF) model with SPC/E water in an effort to quantify the importance of explicit electronic polarization effects in bulk liquid mixtures and vapor-liquid interfaces. The bulk liquid mixture properties studied included the center of mass radial distribution functions, Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs), volumetric properties, isothermal compressibility, enthalpy of mixing, dielectric constant, and diffusion coefficients. The vapor-liquid interface properties investigated included the relative surface probability distributions, surface tension, excess surface adsorption, preferred surface molecule orientations, and the surface dipole. None of the three FFs tested here was clearly superior for all of the properties examined. All the force fields typically reproduced the correct trends with composition for both the bulk and interfacial system properties; the differences between the force fields were primarily quantitative. The overall results suggest that the polarizable FFs are not, at the present stage of development, inherently better able to reproduce the studied bulk and interfacial properties-despite the added degree of explicit transferability that is, by definition, built into the polarizable models. Indeed, the specific parametrization of the FF appears to be just as important as the class of FF. PMID:27045390

  10. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in -Ga metal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Panda; N C Mohapatra

    2003-12-01

    Room temperature Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in -Ga metal are calculated in band model. For this purpose, the conduction electron wave functions are determined in a temperature-dependent non-local model potential. The profiles calculated along the crystallographic directions, (100), (010), and (001) are found to be nearly isotropic. This conclusion is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  11. Dynamic bulk and shear moduli due to grain-scale local fluid flow in fluid-saturated cracked poroelastic rocks: Theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.

  12. Hydrothermal Habitats: Measurements of Bulk Microbial Elemental Composition, and Models of Hydrothermal Influences on the Evolution of Dwarf Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc Francois Laurent

    Finding habitable worlds is a key driver of solar system exploration. Many solar system missions seek environments providing liquid water, energy, and nutrients, the three ingredients necessary to sustain life. Such environments include hydrothermal systems, spatially-confined systems where hot aqueous fluid circulates through rock by convection. I sought to characterize hydrothermal microbial communities, collected in hot spring sediments and mats at Yellowstone National Park, USA, by measuring their bulk elemental composition. To do so, one must minimize the contribution of non-biological material to the samples analyzed. I demonstrate that this can be achieved using a separation method that takes advantage of the density contrast between cells and sediment and preserves cellular elemental contents. Using this method, I show that in spite of the tremendous physical, chemical, and taxonomic diversity of Yellowstone hot springs, the composition of microorganisms there is surprisingly ordinary. This suggests the existence of a stoichiometric envelope common to all life as we know it. Thus, future planetary investigations could use elemental fingerprints to assess the astrobiological potential of hydrothermal settings beyond Earth. Indeed, hydrothermal activity may be widespread in the solar system. Most solar system worlds larger than 200 km in radius are dwarf planets, likely composed of an icy, cometary mantle surrounding a rocky, chondritic core. I enhance a dwarf planet evolution code, including the effects of core fracturing and hydrothermal circulation, to demonstrate that dwarf planets likely have undergone extensive water-rock interaction. This supports observations of aqueous products on their surfaces. I simulate the alteration of chondritic rock by pure water or cometary fluid to show that aqueous alteration feeds back on geophysical evolution: it modifies the fluid antifreeze content, affecting its persistence over geological timescales; and the

  13. The Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera of the ASTRO-H Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD)

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Shin; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukuyama, Taro; Furui, Shunya; Genba, Kei; Hagino, Kouichi; Harayama, Astushi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Matsuura, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Goro; Sato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Togo, Atsushi; Tomizuka, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is one of the instrument payloads onboard ASTRO-H, and will cover a wide energy band (60--600 keV) at a background level 10 times better than instruments currently in orbit. The SGD achieves low background by combining a Compton camera scheme with a narrow field-of-view active shield. The Compton camera in the SGD is realized as a hybrid semiconductor detector system which consists of silicon and cadmium telluride (CdTe) sensors. The design of the SGD Compton camera has been finalized and the final prototype, which has the same configuration as the flight model, has been fabricated for performance evaluation. The Compton camera has overall dimensions of 12 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, consisting of 32 layers of Si pixel sensors and 8 layers of CdTe pixel sensors surrounded by 2 layers of CdTe pixel sensors. The detection efficiency of the Compton camera reaches about 15% and 3% for 100 keV and 511 keV gamma rays, respectively. The pixel pitch of the Si and CdTe sensors is 3.2 mm, and ...

  14. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of electron momentum distribution in -Ga metal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Panda; N C Mohapatra

    2002-01-01

    Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in the orthorhombic phase of -Ga metal at low temperature are calculated in the band model for the three crystallographic directions (100), (010), and (001). Unlike the results at room temperature, previously reported by Lengeler, Lasser and Mair, the present results show strong anisotropy in the Compton profiles with the momentum distribution along (001) direction being substantially different from the other two directions. While experimental data on Compton profiles at low temperatures are not available for comparison with theory, the resistivity data in -Ga at low temperature strongly support this anisotropic behaviour. Besides, the electronic heat capacity constant available from both experiment and present calculation suggests that the conduction electron distribution at low temperature in the orthorhombic phase is markedly different from the free-electron-like-distribution at room temperature, thus lending additional support to anisotropic behaviour of Compton profiles. It would be nice to have Compton profiles data from experiment at low temperature for direct comparison with theory. It is hoped that the present work would stimulate enough interest in that direction.

  15. The diffuse galactic gamma radiation - The Compton contribution and component separation by energy interval and galactic coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    The diffuse high-energy galactic gamma radiation to be expected from cosmic ray interactions with matter and photons is considered with particular emphasis on the contribution of Compton radiation from cosmic ray electrons. The intensity, spectrum and spatial distribution of the expected galactic gamma radiation are estimated based on models of the matter, cosmic ray and photon distributions to take into account the contributions of bremsstrahlung, high-energy cosmic-ray nucleon and interstellar matter interactions as well as Compton interactions between cosmic ray electrons and background photons. Results suggest that the Compton gamma ray contribution from cosmic ray electron interactions with galactic visible and infrared photons is substantially larger than previously believed. Analysis of the energy spectra and latitude dependence of the various sources reveals that the Compton radiation, bremsstrahlung and nuclear cosmic ray-matter interaction radiation should be separable, with Compton radiation dominating at energies from 10 to 100 MeV at galactic latitudes greater than several degrees. Results demonstrate the potential of gamma ray observations in studies of galactic structure, cosmic ray electrons and galactic photon density.

  16. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  17. Comptonization signatures in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontera, F.; Farinelli, R.; Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Titarchuk, L. [Dipartimento di Fisicae Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Amati, L.; Landi, R., E-mail: frontera@fe.infn.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We report results of a systematic study of the broadband (2-2000 keV) time-resolved prompt emission spectra of a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with both Wide Field Cameras (WFCs) on board the BeppoSAX satellite and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The main goal of this paper is to test spectral models of the GRB prompt emission that have recently been proposed. In particular, we test a recent photospheric model proposed, i.e., blackbody plus power law, the addition of a blackbody emission to the Band function in the cases in which this function does not fit the data, and a recent Comptonization model. By considering the few spectra for which the simple Band function does not provide a fully acceptable fit to the data, we find a statistically significant better fit by adding a blackbody to this function only in one case. We confirm earlier results found fitting the BATSE spectra alone with a blackbody plus power law. Instead, when the BATSE GRB spectra are joined to those obtained with WFCs (2-28 keV), this model becomes unacceptable in most time intervals in which we subdivide the GRB light curves. We find instead that the Comptonization model is always acceptable, even in the few cases in which the Band function is inconsistent with the data. We discuss the implications of these results.

  18. The dose from Compton backscatter screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rez, Peter; Metzger, Robert L; Mossman, Kenneth L

    2011-04-01

    Systems based on the detection of Compton backscattered X rays have been deployed for screening personnel for weapons and explosives. Similar principles are used for screening vehicles at border-crossing points. Based on well-established scattering cross sections and absorption coefficients in conjunction with reasonable estimates of the image contrast and resolution, the entrance skin dose and the dose at a depth of 1 cm can be calculated. The effective dose can be estimated using the same conversion coefficients as used to convert exposure measurements to the effective dose. It is shown that the effective dose is highly dependent on image resolution (i.e. pixel size).The effective doses for personnel screening systems are unlikely to be in compliance with the American National Standards Institute standard NS 43.17 unless the pixel sizes are >4 mm. Nevertheless, calculated effective doses are well below doses associated with health effects. PMID:21068018

  19. Electronic properties and Compton profiles of silver iodide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Dashora; Ambica Marwal; K R Soni; B L Ahuja

    2010-06-01

    We have carried out an extensive study of electronic properties of silver iodide in - and -phases. The theoretical Compton profiles, energy bands, density of states and anisotropies in momentum densities are computed using density functional theories. We have also employed full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method to derive the energy bands and the density of states. To compare our theoretical data, isotropic Compton profile measurement on -AgI using 137Cs Compton spectrometer at an intermediate resolution of 0.38 a.u. has been undertaken. The theoretical anisotropies are also interpreted on the basis of energy bands.

  20. On the Transition from Bulk to Ordered Form of Water: A Theoretical Model to Calculate Adhesion Force Due to Capillary and van der Waals Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqoob, M.A.; de, Rooij, R.; Schipper, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The adhesion force due to capillary interaction between two hydrophilic surfaces is strongly dependent on the partial pressure of water and is often calculated using the Kelvin equation. The validity of the Kelvin equation is questionable at low relative humidity (RH) of water, like in high vacuum and dry nitrogen environments, where water is only present as layers of several molecules thick at the surfaces. A model from ordered to bulk form of water has been developed using the Brunauer, Emm...

  1. Combining Harmonic Generation and Laser Chirping to Achieve High Spectral Density in Compton Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Terzić, Balša; Krafft, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. As a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results to demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. This combination of chirping and h...

  2. Assessment model of bulk curing technology based on grey statistic%基于灰色统计的密集烘烤工艺评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 贺帆; 孙永军; 徐成龙; 武圣江; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    为了评价不同烟区标准密集烘烤工艺的烘烤效果,以5个烟区(安徽、河南、湖南、四川、贵州)中部叶为研究对象,分析了烤烟的外观质量、内在化学成分、经济效益以及评吸质量,建立了基于灰色统计的密集烘烤工艺评价模型.结果表明,5个烟区标准烘烤工艺的烘烤效果均达到中等水平,其中安徽、湖南、贵州烟区的烘烤工艺处于第1灰类.5个烟区烘烤工艺水平均达到中等以上水平.%In order to assess the curing effect of bulk curing technology, the middle tobacco leaves from five tobacco-growing areas ( Anhui, Henan, Hunan, Sichuan , Guizhou ) were used as materials to analyze the appearance quality of tobacco leaves, internal chemistry composition, economic benefits, and smoking quality. The technological evaluation model of bulk curing technology was formulated. The results indicated that the bulk curing effect of the technology has all reached a middle level in five tobacco-growing areas, especially in Anhui,Hunan,Guizhou areas,among which the bulk curing technology level was in the first grey categories. The bulk curing technology of the five tobacco areas was all above the medium level.

  3. Local Two-Photon Couplings and the J=0 Fixed Pole in Real and Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2008-12-05

    The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t-dependence of this J = 0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t = 0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1=x form factor can be extracted from high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.

  4. Do The Species Of Soft X-Ray Transients Reveal Bulk-Motion Inflow Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Borozdin, K N; Trudolyubov, S P; Shrader, C R; Titarchuk, L G; Borozdin, Konstantin; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G; Trudolyubov, Sergey; Shrader, Chris; Titarchuk, Lev

    1999-01-01

    We present our analysis of the high-energy radiation from black hole (BH) transients, using archival data obtained primarily with RXTE observatory, and a comprehensive test of the bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for the high-soft state continuum. The emergent spectra of over 30 separate measurements of GRO J1655-40, GRS 1915+105, GRS 1739-278, 4U 1630-47 XTE J1755-32, and EXO~1846-031 X-ray sources are successfully fitted by the BMC model, which has been derived from basic physical principles in previous work. This in turn provides direct physical insight into the innermost observable regions where matter impinging upon the event horizon can effectively be directly viewed. The BMC model is characterized by three parameters: the disk color temperature, a geometric factor related to the illumination of the black hole (BH) site by the disk and a spectral index related to the efficiency of the bulk motion upscattering. For the case of GRO J1655-40, where there are distance and mass determinations, a self c...

  5. Polarized positron source with a Compton multiple interaction point line

    CERN Document Server

    Chaikovska, I; Dadoun, O; Lepercq, P; Variola, A

    2014-01-01

    Positron sources are critical components of the future linear collider projects. This is essentially due to the high luminosity required, orders of magnitude higher than existing ones. In addition, polarization of the positron beam rather expands the physics research potential of the machine. In this framework, the Compton sources for polarized positron production are taken into account where the high energy gamma rays are produced by the Compton scattering and subsequently converted into the polarized electron-positron pairs in a target-converter. The Compton multiple Interaction Point (IP) line is proposed as one of the solutions to increase the number of the positrons produced. The gamma ray production with the Compton multiple IP line is simulated and used for polarized positron generation. Later, a capture section based on an adiabatic matching device (AMD) followed by a pre-injector linac is simulated to capture and accelerate the positron beam.

  6. Investigation of Compton profiles of molecular methane and ethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Xu, Long-Quan; Kang, Xu; Liu, Ya-Wei; Ni, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Lin-Fan, E-mail: lfzhu@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: yangke@sinap.ac.cn; Ma, Yong-Peng; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2015-02-28

    The Compton profiles of methane and ethane molecules have been determined at an incident photon energy of 20 keV based on the third generation synchrotron radiation, and the statistical accuracy of 0.2% is achieved near p{sub z} = 0. The density functional theory with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set was used to calculate the Compton profiles of methane and ethane. The present experimental Compton profiles are in better agreement with the theoretical calculations in the whole p{sub z} region than the previous experimental results, which indicates that the present experimental Compton profiles are accurate enough to serve as the benchmark data for methane and ethane molecules.

  7. Compton scattering profile for in vivo XRF techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, A; Baraldi, C; Felsteiner, J; Casnati, E

    1991-05-01

    The contribution from single Compton scattered photons to the background in in vivo x-ray fluorescence analysis is evaluated by taking into account the energy broadening of the scattered photons which reflects the momentum distribution of the target electrons. A general-purpose Monte Carlo evaluation of multiple scattering components, as well as accurate experimental verifications with 59.54 keV photons impinging on various targets of interest for real-life irradiation, confirm that the single Compton scattering profiles of the elements composing the biological matrix dominate the trend and amplitude of the background in the region of interest with near-backscatter configurations. Step features are likewise explained in terms of single Compton phenomenology. Other probable sources of background, such as photoelectron Bremsstrahlung and pile-up distribution, are studied both theoretically and experimentally in order to compare their amplitude and features with those of single Compton scattered photon profiles. PMID:2068224

  8. Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, G. [GE Security Germany GmbH, Heselstuecken 3, D-22453 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Geoffrey.Harding@ge.com; Harding, E. [University of Muenster, Interdisciplinary Research Training Group ' Societal symbolism in mediaeval and early modern times' (German Research Foundation, DFG), Pferdegasse 3/D-48143 Muenster (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed.

  9. Development of highly non-cylindrical folds around rigid ellipsoidal inclusions in bulk simple shear regimes: natural examples and experimental modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. G.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1995-04-01

    The three-dimensional development of strongly non-cylindrical folds around competent ellipsoidal inclusions in bulk simple shear regimes is studied in experiments and natural examples. Examples from the Continental Allochthonous Terrane of the Bragança Nappe Complex (NE Portugal) show rim folds and sheath folds associated with different parts of rigid ellipsoidal boudins. Experimental work has been carried out with models made from analogue materials (silicone putty and plasticine) and deformed in a simple shear machine. We have considered three different models to simulate natural examples, and the results show that fold morphology depends on the shape of the inclusion and position around the inclusion. Although the bulk deformation regime is layer parallel homogeneous simple shear, we can distinguish local deformation regimes responsible for the folding associated with different parts of the rigid body. Flow and strain patterns must therefore be complex around inclusions or populations of inclusions. Prolate to oblate strain ellipsoids can be expected in different positions close to the rigid inclusion. In our experiments, the competent inclusions do not rotate synthetically with the applied bulk simple shear (e.g. clockwise rotation of inclusion in dextral shear). Instead, they back-rotate, early in the shearing history, and keep this position throughout the experiment. This is the result of the size relationship between the inclusion and the finite width of the shear zone. The fold pattern around rigid inclusions may be used as a shear sense criterion.

  10. Bin mode estimation methods for Compton camera imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S., E-mail: shiro@ism.ac.jp [The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8562 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Kanagawa 240-1542 (Japan); Odaka, H. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Uemura, M. [Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8511 (Japan); Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    We study the image reconstruction problem of a Compton camera which consists of semiconductor detectors. The image reconstruction is formulated as a statistical estimation problem. We employ a bin-mode estimation (BME) and extend an existing framework to a Compton camera with multiple scatterers and absorbers. Two estimation algorithms are proposed: an accelerated EM algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and a modified EM algorithm for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Numerical simulations demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods.

  11. Timelike Compton Scattering - New Theoretical Results and Experimental Possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pire, Bernard; Wagner, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    We review recent progress in the study of timelike Compton scattering (TCS), the crossed process of deeply virtual Compton scattering. We emphasize the need to include NLO corrections to any phenomenological program to extract Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) from near future experimental data. We point out that TCS at high energy should be available through a study of ultraperipheral collisions at RHIC and LHC, opening a window on quark and gluon GPDs at very small skewness.

  12. Comparison between electron and neutron Compton scattering studies

    OpenAIRE

    Moreh Raymond; Finkelstein Yacov; Vos Maarten

    2015-01-01

    We compare two techniques: Electron Compton Scattering (ECS) and neutron Compton scattering (NCS) and show that using certain incident energies, both can measure the atomic kinetic energy of atoms in molecules and solids. The information obtained is related to the Doppler broadening of nuclear levels and is very useful for deducing the widths of excited levels in many nuclei in self absorption measurements. A comparison between the atomic kinetic energies measured by the two methods on the sa...

  13. Is the Lack of Pulsations in Low Mass X-Ray Binaries due to Comptonizing Coronae?

    CERN Document Server

    Gogus, E; Gilfanov, M; Gogus, Ersin

    2006-01-01

    The spin periods of the neutron stars in most Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) systems still remain undetected. One of the models to explain the absence of coherent pulsations has been the suppression of the beamed signal by Compton scattering of X-ray photons by electrons in a surrounding corona. We point out that simultaneously with wiping out the pulsation signal, such a corona will upscatter (pulsating or not) X-ray emission originating at and/or near the surface of the neutron star leading to appearance of a hard tail of Comptonized radiation in the source spectrum. We analyze the hard X-ray spectra of a selected set of LMXBs and demonstrate that the optical depth of the corona is not likely to be large enough to cause the pulsations to disappear.

  14. Bulk asymptotics of skew-orthogonal polynomials for quartic double well potential and universality in the matrix model

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saugata

    2008-01-01

    We derive bulk asymptotics of skew-orthogonal polynomials (sop) $\\pi^{\\bt}_{m}$, $\\beta=1$, 4, defined w.r.t. the weight $\\exp(-2NV(x))$, $V (x)=gx^4/4+tx^2/2$, $g>0$ and $t 0$, such that $\\epsilon\\leq (m/N)\\leq \\lambda_{\\rm cr}-\\epsilon$, where $\\lambda_{\\rm cr}$ is the critical value which separates sop with two cuts from those with one cut. Simultaneously we derive asymptotics for the recursive coefficients of skew-orthogonal polynomials. The proof is based on obtaining a finite term recur...

  15. Modeling the effect of direct and indirect contamination of on-farm bulk tank milk with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2013-01-01

    in farm bulk tank milk and simulating the effect of direct and indirect contamination with MAP. The effect of discarding milk from test-positive cows at different prevalences was assessed. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a simulation model, while taking direct and indirect...... milk from test positive cows would result in discarding 11% of milk and reduce the MAP level by 80%. Due to poor sensitivity of the diagnostic test, removing test-positive cows would not further reduce the already low concentration of MAP and it would not guarantee the milk as MAP-free. The model was...

  16. The CLIC positron source based on compton schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Rinolfi, L; Braun, H; Papaphilippou, Y; Schulte, D; Vivoli, A; Zimmermann, F; Dadoun, O; Lepercq, P; Roux, R; Variola, A; Zomer, F; Pogorelski, I; Yakimenko, V; Gai, W; Liu, W; Kamitani, T; Omori, T; Urakawa, J; Kuriki, M; Takahasi, TM; Bulyak, E; Gladkikh, P; Chehab, R; Clarke, J

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC polarized positron source is based on a positron production scheme in which polarized photons are produced by a Compton process. In one option, Compton backscattering takes place in a so-called “Compton ring”, where an electron beam of 1 GeV interacts with circularly-polarized photons in an optical resonator. The resulting circularly-polarized gamma photons are sent on to an amorphous target, producing pairs of longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons. The nominal CLIC bunch population is 4.2x109 particles per bunch at the exit of the Pre-Damping Ring (PDR). Since the photon flux coming out from a "Compton ring" is not sufficient to obtain the requested charge, a stacking process is required in the PDR. Another option is to use a Compton Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) where a quasicontinual stacking in the PDR could be achieved. A third option is to use a "Compton Linac" which would not require stacking. We describe the overall scheme as well as advantages and constraints of the three option...

  17. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of ΔΣ in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  18. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  19. Thermodynamics of fission products in dispersion fuel designs - first principles modeling of defect behavior in bulk and at interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-yand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nerikar, Pankaj [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanek, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of fission product (Xe, Sr, and Cs) incorporation and segregation in alkaline earth metal oxides, HfO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} oxides, and the MgO/(U, Hf, Ce)O{sub 2} interfaces have been carried out. In the case of UO{sub 2}, the calculations were performed using spin polarization and with a Hubbard U term characterizing the on-sit Coulomb repulsion between the localized 5f electrons. The fission product solution energies in bulk UO{sub 2{+-}x} have been calculated as a function of non-stoichiometry x, and were compared to that in MgO. These calculations demonstrate that the fission product incorporation energies in MgO are higher than in HfO{sub 2}. However, this trend is reversed or reduced for alkaline earth oxides with larger cation sizes. The solution energies of fission products in MgO are substantially higher than in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, except for the case of Sr in the hypostoichiometric case. Due to size effects, the thermodynamic driving force of segregation for Xe and Cs from bulk MgO to the MgO/fluorite interface is strong. However, this driving force is relatively weak for Sr.

  20. Application of the local-bulk partitioning and competitive binding models to interpret preferential interactions of glycine betaine and urea with protein surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felitsky, Daniel J; Record, M Thomas

    2004-07-20

    Two thermodynamic models have been developed to interpret the preferential accumulation or exclusion of solutes in the vicinity of biopolymer surface and the effects of these solutes on protein processes. The local-bulk partitioning model treats solute (and water) as partitioning between the region at/or near the protein surface (the local domain) and the bulk solution. The solvent exchange model analyzes a 1:1 competition between water and solute molecules for independent surface sites. Here we apply each of these models to interpret thermodynamic data for the interactions of urea and the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine; GB) with the surface exposed in unfolding the marginally stable lacI HTH DNA binding domain. The partition coefficient K(P) quantifying accumulation of urea at this protein surface (K(P) approximately equal 1.1) is only weakly dependent on urea concentration up to 6 M urea. However, K(P) quantifying exclusion of GB from the vicinity of this protein surface increases from 0.83 (extrapolated to 0 M GB) to 1.0 (indicating that local and bulk GB concentrations are equal) at 4 M GB (activity > 40 M). We interpret the significant concentration dependence of K(P) for GB, predicted to be general for excluded, nonideal solutes such as GB, as a modest (8%) attenuation of the GB concentration dependence of solute nonideality in the local domain relative to that in the bulk solution. Above 4 M, K(P) for the interaction of GB with the surface exposed in protein unfolding is predicted to exceed unity, which explains the maximum in thermal stability observed for RNase and lysozyme at 4 M GB (Santoro, M. M., Liu, Y. F., Khan, S. M. A., Hou, L. X., and Bolen, D. W. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 5278-5283). Both thermodynamic models provide good two-parameter fits to GB and urea data for lacI HTH unfolding over a wide concentration range. The solute partitioning model allows for a full spectrum of attenuation effects in the local domain

  1. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  2. Compton scattering tomography for agricultural measurements Tomógrafo de espalhamento Compton para medidas agrícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo E. Cruvinel; Fatai A. Balogun

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in tomographic instrumentation for agriculture based on Compton scattering, which allows for the simultaneous measurements of density and moisture of soil samples. Compton tomography is a technique that can be used to obtain a spatial map of electronic density of samples. Quantitative results can be obtained by using a reconstruction algorithm that takes into account the absorption of incident and scattered radiation. Results show a coefficient of linear cor...

  3. Statistical simulation of multiple Compton backscattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    A number of laboratories are currently developing monochromatic sources of X-rays and gamma quanta based on the Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons by relativistic electrons. Modern technologies are capable of providing a concentration of electrons and photons in the interaction point such that each primary electron can emit several hard photons. In contrast to the well-known nonlinear CBS process, in which an initial electron "absorbs" a few laser photons and emits a single hard one, the above-mentioned process can be called a multiple CBS process and is characterized by a mean number of emitted photons. The present paper is devoted to simulating the parameters of a beam of back scattered quanta based on the Monte Carlo technique. It is shown that, even in the case of strong collimation of a resulting photon beam, the radiation monochromaticity may deteriorate because of the contribution coming from the multiple photon emission, which is something that must be considered while designing new CBS sources.

  4. Compact Laser Technology for Compton Scattering Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shverdin, M.; Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Bayramian, A.; Betts, S. M.; Ebbers, C.; Gibson, D.; Messerly, M.; Hartemann, F. V.; Siders, C. W.; McNabb, D. P.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2009-11-01

    We describe compact laser technology for Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering light source at LLNL. The high energy, 120W interaction laser utilizes chirped pulse amplification (CPA) in Nd:YAG to amplify a sub-nanometer bandwidth 20 μJ pulses from a fiber system to 1J. A novel pulse stretcher provides a dispersion of over 7000ps/nm to expand a several picosecond wide seed pulse to 6ns. After amplification, the pulse is recompressed to 10ps with a hyper-dispersive pulse compressor. We also describe a technique for over an order of magnitude increase in the generated gamma-ray flux by recirculation of the interaction laser pulse. This technique, termed Recirculation Injection by Nonlinear Gating (RING), consists of frequency doubling the incident laser pulse inside a dichroic mirror cavity. The resonator mirrors transmit at 1φ and reflect at 2φ. The 2^nd harmonic of the incident pulse then becomes trapped inside the cavity. To date, we demonstrated 14 times cavity enhancement of 180mJ, 10ps, 532nm laser pulses.

  5. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Biselli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables o...

  6. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  7. Compton Scattering by Static and Moving Media; 1, the Transfer Equation and Its Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Psaltis, D; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1997-01-01

    Compton scattering of photons by nonrelativistic particles is thought to play an important role in forming the radiation spectrum of many astrophysical systems. Here we derive the time-dependent photon kinetic equation that describes spontaneous and induced Compton scattering as well as absorption and emission by static and moving media, the corresponding radiative transfer equation, and their zeroth and first moments, in both the system frame and in the frame comoving with the medium. We show that it is necessary to use the correct relativistic differential scattering cross section in order to obtain a photon kinetic equation that is correct to first order in epsilon/m_e, T_e/m_e, and V, where epsilon is the photon energy, T_e and m_e are the electron temperature and rest mass, and V is the electron bulk velocity in units of the speed of light. We also demonstrate that the terms in the radiative transfer equation that are second-order in V usually should be retained, because if the radiation energy density i...

  8. Compton-thick AGN in the 70-month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey: A Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akylas, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Ranalli, P.; Gkiokas, E.; Corral, A.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2016-10-01

    The 70-month Swift-BAT catalogue provides a sensitive view of the extragalactic X-ray sky at hard energies (>10 keV) containing about 800 active galactic nuclei (AGN). We explore its content in heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN by combining the BAT (14-195 keV) with the lower energy XRT (0.3-10 keV) data. We apply a Bayesian methodology using Markov chains to estimate the exact probability distribution of the column density for each source. We find 53 possible Compton-thick sources (probability range 3-100%) translating to a ~7% fraction of the AGN in our sample. We derive the first parametric luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN. The unabsorbed luminosity function can be represented by a double power law with a break at L⋆ ~ 2 × 1042erg s-1 in the 20-40 keV band. The Compton-thick AGN contribute ~17% of the total AGN emissivity. We derive an accurate Compton-thick number count distribution taking into account the exact probability of a source being Compton-thick and the flux uncertainties. This number count distribution is critical for the calibration of the X-ray background synthesis models, i.e. for constraining the intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN. We find that the number counts distribution in the 14-195 keV band agrees well with our models which adopt a low intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN (~ 12%) among the total AGN population and a reflected emission of ~ 5%. In the extreme case of zero reflection, the number counts can be modelled with a fraction of at most 30% Compton-thick AGN of the total AGN population and no reflection. Moreover, we compare our X-ray background synthesis models with the number counts in the softer 2-10 keV band. This band is more sensitive to the reflected component and thus helps us to break the degeneracy between the fraction of Compton-thick AGN and the reflection emission. The number counts in the 2-10 keV band are well above the models which assume a 30% Compton-thick AGN fraction and zero reflection, while

  9. Compton Heating of the Intergalactic Medium by the Hard X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P; Madau, Piero; Efstathiou, George

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution hydrodynamics simulations of the Ly-alpha forest in cold dark matter dominated cosmologies appear to predict line widths that are substantially narrower than those observed. Here we point out that Compton heating of the intergalactic gas by the hard X-ray background (XRB), an effect neglected in all previous investigations, may resolve this discrepancy. The rate of gain in thermal energy by Compton scattering will dominate over the energy input from hydrogen photoionization if the XRB energy density is 0.2x/ times higher than the energy density of the UV background at a given epoch, where x is the hydrogen neutral fraction in units of 1e-6 and is the mean X-ray photon energy in units of m_ec^2. The numerical integration of the time-dependent rate equations shows that the intergalactic medium approaches a temperature of about 20,000 K at z>3 in popular models for the redshift evolution of the extragalactic background radiation. The importance of Compton heating can be tested experimentally by ...

  10. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K L

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova's lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an i...

  11. A growth-rate indicator for Compton-thick active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, M; Ballantyne, D R; Baloković, M; Brandt, W N; Chen, C -T; Comastri, A; Farrah, D; Gandhi, P; Harrison, F A; Ricci, C; Stern, D; Walton, D J

    2016-01-01

    Due to their heavily obscured central engines, the growth rate of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is difficult to measure. A statistically significant correlation between the Eddington ratio, {\\lambda}$_{Edd}$, and the X-ray power-law index, {\\Gamma}, observed in unobscured AGN offers an estimate of their growth rate from X-ray spectroscopy (albeit with large scatter). However, since X-rays undergo reprocessing by Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption when the line-of-sight to the central engine is heavily obscured, the recovery of the intrinsic {\\Gamma} is challenging. Here we study a sample of local, predominantly Compton-thick megamaser AGN, where the black hole mass, and thus Eddington luminosity, are well known. We compile results on X-ray spectral fitting of these sources with sensitive high-energy (E> 10 keV) NuSTAR data, where X-ray torus models which take into account the reprocessing effects have been used to recover the intrinsic {\\Gamma} values and X-ray luminosities, L$_...

  12. Crater size-frequency distribution measurements and age of the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, K. A.; Zanetti, M.; Jolliff, B.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC) is a 25 × 35 km feature on the lunar farside marked by elevated topography, high albedo, high thorium concentration, and high silica content. Morphologies indicate that the complex is volcanic in origin and compositions indicate that it represents rare silicic volcanism on the Moon. Constraining the timing of silicic volcanism at the complex is necessary to better understand the development of evolved magmas and when they were active on the lunar surface. We employ image analysis and crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements on several locations within the complex and at surrounding impact craters, Hayn (87 km diameter), and Compton (160 km diameter), to determine relative and absolute model ages of regional events. Using CSFD measurements, we establish a chronology dating regional resurfacing events and the earliest possible onset of CBVC volcanism at ∼3.8 Ga, the formation of Compton Crater at 3.6 Ga, likely resurfacing by volcanism at the CBVC at ∼3.5 Ga, and the formation of Hayn Crater at ∼1 Ga. For the CBVC, we find the most consistent results are obtained using craters larger than 300 m in diameter; the small crater population is affected by their approach to an equilibrium condition and by the physical properties of regolith at the CBVC.

  13. Electronic properties of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenide MoTeSe: LCAO calculations and Compton spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ushma; Kumar, Kishor; Joshi, Ritu; Bhavsar, D. N.; Heda, N. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have employed linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method to compute the Mulliken's population (MP), energy bands, density of states (DOS) and Compton profiles for hexagonal MoTeSe. The density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of Hartree-Fock with DFT (B3LYP) have been used within the LCAO approximation. Performance of theoretical models has been tested by comparing the theoretical momentum densities with the experimental Compton profile of MoTeSe measured using 137Cs Compton spectrometer. It is seen that the B3LYP prescription gives a better agreement with the experimental data than other DFT based approximations. The energy bands and DOS depict an indirect band gap character in MoTeSe. In addition, a relative nature of bonding in MoTeSe and its isovalent MoTe2 is discussed in terms of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) profiles. On the basis of EVED profiles it is seen that MoTeSe is more covalent than MoTe2.

  14. Dissipation of jet bulk kinetic energy in powerful blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Katarzynski, K

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the dissipation of the bulk kinetic energy of a relativistic jet at different distances from the central power--house and analyse in detail how the dissipated energy is radiated away. We assume that the location of the dissipation region is a function of the bulk Lorentz factor Gamma of the jet, being closer to the center for smaller Gamma. This assumption is naturally fulfilled in the internal shock scenario. The dissipated energy is partially used to accelerate electrons and to amplify the magnetic field. This process creates a source inside the jet (blob). Such blobs may efficiently produce synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. We find that even if the blobs or shells responsible for the blazar activity carry the same energy (in bulk kinetic form), the fact that they move at different Gamma can produce dramatic variations in different bands, even if the bolometric luminosity is instead very similar. This is due to the relative importance of the synchrotron, self-Compton and external Comp...

  15. Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  16. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  17. Extended dynamic model for ion diffusion in all-vanadium redox flow battery including the effects of temperature and bulk electrolyte transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Rajagopalan; Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K. J.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2014-12-01

    As with all redox flow batteries, the Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB) can suffer from capacity loss as the vanadium ions diffuse at different rates leading to a build-up on one half-cell and dilution on the other. In this paper an extended dynamic model of the vanadium ion transfer is developed including the effect of temperature and bulk electrolyte transfer. The model is used to simulate capacity decay for a range of different ion exchange membranes that are being used in the VRB. The simulations show that Selemion CMV and Nafion 115 membranes have similar behavior where the impact of temperature on capacity loss is highest within the first 100 cycles. The results for Selemion AMV membrane however are seen to be very different where the capacity loss at different temperatures observed to increase linearly with increasing charging/discharging cycles. The model is made more comprehensive by including the effect of bulk electrolyte transfer. A volume change of 19% is observed in each half-cell for Nafion 115 membrane based on the simulation parameters. The effect of this change in volume directly affects concentration, and the characteristics are analyzed for each vanadium species as well as the overall concentration in the half-cells.

  18. AN UPSCATTERING SPECTRAL FORMATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Farinelli, Ruben; Frontera, Filippo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: titarchuk@fe.infn.it, E-mail: ltitarch@gmu.edu, E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-06-20

    We propose a model for the spectral formation of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission, where the phenomenological Band function is usually applied to describe this emission. We suggest that the GRB prompt emission is mainly a result of two upscattering processes. The first process is the Comptonization of relatively cold soft photons of the star off electrons of a hot shell of plasma of temperature T{sub e} of the order of 10{sup 9} K (or kT{sub e} {approx} 100 keV) that moves subrelativistically with the bulk velocity V{sub b} substantially less than the speed of light c. In this phase, the Comptonization parameter Y is high and the interaction between a blackbody-like soft seed photon population and hot electrons leads to formation of a saturated Comptonization spectrum modified by the subrelativistic bulk outflow. The second process is an upscattering of the previously Comptonized spectrum by the plasma outflow once it becomes relativistic. This process gives rise to the high-energy power-law (PL) component above the peak in the EF(E) diagram where F(E) is the energy flux. The latter process can be described by a convolution of the Comptonized spectrum with a broken-PL Green function. Possible physical scenarios for this second upscattering process are discussed. In the framework of our model, we give an interpretation of the Amati relation between the intrinsic spectral peak photon energy and radiated energy or luminosity, and we propose a possible explanation of the GRB temporal variability.

  19. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E.; Dobbeleir, A.; Vanregemorter, J. [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  20. Wide Angle Compton Scattering within the SCET factorization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivel Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ~ −t ~ −u are about few GeV2. On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET. Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism.

  1. Realistic simulation of the Space-borne Compton Polarimeter POLAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    POLAR is a compact wide field space-borne detector dedicated for precise measurements of the linear polarization of hard x-rays emitted by transient sources. Its energy range sensitivity is optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). POLAR is developed by an international collaboration of China, Switzerland and Poland. It is planned to be launched into space in 2016 onboard the Chinese space laboratory TG2. The energy range of POLAR spans between 50 keV and 500 keV. POLAR detects gamma rays with an array of 1600 plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 muti-anode PMTs (MAPMTs). Polarization measurements use Compton scattering process and are based on detection of energy depositions in the scintillator bars. Reconstruction of the polarization degree and polarization angle of GRBs requires comparison of experimental modulation curves with realistic simulations of the full instrument response. In this paper we present a method to model and parameterize the detector response including efficiency of the light collection, contributions from crosstalk and non-uniformity of MAPMTs as well as dependency on low energy detection thresholds and noise from readout electronics. The performance of POLAR for determination of polarization is predicted with such realistic simulations and carefully cross-checked with dedicated laboratory tests.

  2. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Bourne, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ! 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one temperature regime; 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the Inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component, while the limits on the 2T emission are far weaker. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encoura...

  3. Compton-backscattered annihilation radiation from the Galactic Center region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M.; Lin, R. P.; Feffer, P.; Slassi, S.; Hurley, K.; Matteson, J.; Bowman, H. B.; Pelling, R. M.; Briggs, M.; Gruber, D.

    1993-01-01

    On 1989 May 22, the High Energy X-ray and Gamma-ray Observatory for Nuclear Emissions, a balloon-borne high-resolution germanium spectrometer with an 18-deg FOV, observed the Galactic Center (GC) from 25 to 2500 keV. The GC photon spectrum is obtained from the count spectrum by a model-independent method which accounts for the effects of passive material in the instrument and scattering in the atmosphere. Besides a positron annihilation line with a flux of (10.0 +/- 2.4) x 10 exp -4 photons/sq cm s and a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (2.9 + 1.0, -1.1) keV, the spectrum shows a peak centered at (163.7 +/- 3.4) keV with a flux of (1.55 +/- 0.47) x 10 exp -3 photons/sq cm s and a FWHM of (24.4 +/- 9.2) keV. The energy range 450-507 keV shows no positronium continuum associated with the annihilation line, with a 2-sigma upper limit of 0.90 on the positronium fraction. The 164 keV feature is interpreted as Compton backscatter of broadened and redshifted annihilation radiation, possibly from the source 1E 1740.7-2942.

  4. Higher twist effects in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirnay, Bjoern Michael

    2016-08-01

    In this work we explore the effects of higher twist power corrections on the deeply virtual Compton scattering process. The calculation of the helicity amplitudes for all possible polarization combinations is performed within the framework of QCD operator product expansion. As a result the known accuracy of the amplitudes is improved to include the (kinematic) twist-4 contributions. For the most part the analysis focuses on spin-1/2 targets, the answers for scalar targets conveniently emerge as a byproduct. We investigate the analytical structure of these corrections and prove consistency with QCD factorization. We give an estimation of the numerical impact of the sub-leading twist contributions for proton targets with the help of a phenomenological model for the nonperturbative proton generalized parton distributions. We compare different twist approximations and relate predictions for physical observables to experiments performed by the Hall A, CLAS, HERMES, H1 and ZEUS collaborations. The estimate also includes a numerical study for planned COMPASS-II runs. Throughout the analysis special emphasis is put on the convention dependence induced by finite twist truncation of scattering amplitudes.

  5. Results of a Si/CdTe Compton Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Oonuki, K; Watanabe, S; Takeda, S; Nakazawa, K; Mitani, T; Takahashi, T; Tajima, H; Fukazawa, Y; Nomachi, M; Oonuki, Kousuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Takefumi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nomachi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    We have been developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. We use a Si strip and CdTe pixel detector for the Compton telescope to cover an energy range from 60 keV. For energies above several hundred keV, the higher efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based Compton Telescope, we have developed a Compton telescope consisting of a stack of CdTe pixel detectors as a small scale prototype. With this prototype, we succeeded in reconstructing images and spectra by solving the Compton equation from 122 keV to 662 keV. The energy resolution (FWHM) of reconstructed spectra is 7.3 keV at 511 keV and 3.1 keV at 122 keV, respectively. The angular resolution obtained at 511 keV is measured to be 12.2degree (FWHM).

  6. Basin-fill Aquifer Modeling with Terrestrial Gravity: Assessing Static Offsets in Bulk Datasets using MATLAB; Case Study of Bridgeport, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlawsky, E. T.; Louie, J. N.; Pohll, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Blakely, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the potential availability of water resources in Eastern California aquifers is of critical importance to making water management policy decisions and determining best-use practices for California, as well as for downstream use in Nevada. Hydrologic well log data can provide valuable information on aquifer capacity, but is often proprietarily inaccessible or economically unfeasible to obtain in sufficient quantity. In the case of basin-fill aquifers, it is possible to make estimates of aquifer geometry and volume using geophysical surveys of gravity, constrained by additional geophysical and geological observations. We use terrestrial gravity data to model depth-to-basement about the Bridgeport, CA basin for application in preserving the Walker Lake biome. In constructing the model, we assess several hundred gravity observations, existing and newly collected. We regard these datasets as "bulk," as the data are compiled from multiple sources. Inconsistencies among datasets can result in "static offsets," or artificial bull's-eye contours, within the gradient. Amending suspect offsets requires the attention of the modeler; picking these offsets by hand can be a time-consuming process when modeling large-scale basin features. We develop a MATLAB script for interpolating the residual Bouguer anomaly about the basin using sparse observation points, and leveling offset points with a user-defined sensitivity. The script is also capable of plotting gravity profiles between any two endpoints within the map extent. The resulting anomaly map provides an efficient means of locating and removing static offsets in the data, while also providing a fast visual representation of a bulk dataset. Additionally, we obtain gridded basin gravity models with an open-source alternative to proprietary modeling tools.

  7. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  8. The first demonstration of the concept of "narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera"

    CERN Document Server

    Ichinohe, Yuto; Watanabe, Shin; Edahiro, Ikumi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Katsuragawa, Miho; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed onboard the {\\it ASTRO-H} satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60-600~keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10\\% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75\\% of the signal...

  9. The first demonstration of the concept of "narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Yuto; Uchida, Yuusuke; Watanabe, Shin; Edahiro, Ikumi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Katsuragawa, Miho; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed on board the ASTRO-H satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60-600 keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75% of the signals from the field-of-view are retained against the background rejection, which clearly demonstrates the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated effective area of 22.8 cm2 meets the mission requirement even though not all of the operational parameters of the instrument have been fully optimized yet.

  10. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  11. A nonlinear plasma retroreflector for single pulse Compton backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Gordon, D; Hafizi, B; Helle, M; Penano, J; Ting, A

    2014-01-01

    Compton scattered x-rays can be generated using a configuration consisting of a single, ultra-intense laser pulse, and a shaped gas target. The gas target incorporates a hydrodynamically formed density spike, which nonlinearly scatters the incident pump radiation, to produce a counter-propagating electromagnetic wiggler. This self-generated wiggler field Compton scatters from electrons accelerated in the laser wakefield of the pump radiation. The nonlinear scattering mechanism in the density spike is examined theoretically and numerically in order to optimize the Compton scattered radiation. It is found that narrow-band x-rays are produced by moderate intensity pump radiation incident on the quarter-critical surface of the density spike, while high fluence, broadband x-rays are produced by high intensity pump radiation reflected near the critical surface.

  12. Nonlinear single Compton scattering of an electron wave-packet

    CERN Document Server

    Angioi, A; Di Piazza, A

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a sufficiently intense electromagnetic laser field, an electron can absorb on average a large number of photons from the laser and emit a high-energy one (nonlinear single Compton scattering). The case of nonlinear single Compton scattering by an electron with definite initial momentum has been thoroughly investigated in the literature. Here, we consider a more general initial state of the electron and use a wave-packet obtained as a superposition of Volkov wave functions. In particular, we investigate the energy spectrum of the emitted radiation at fixed observation direction and show that in typical experimental situations the sharply peaked structure of nonlinear single Compton scattering spectra of an electron with definite initial energy is almost completely washed out. Moreover, we show that at comparable uncertainties, the one in the momentum of the incoming electron has a larger impact on the photon spectra at a fixed observation direction than the one on the laser frequency, relate...

  13. ILC Beam Energy Measurement by means of Laser Compton Backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Muchnoi, N; Viti, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered $\\gamma$-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of $10^{-4}$ or bette...

  14. Measurement of radiative Bhabha and quasi-real Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Easo, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palit, S; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Sakar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F; Zilizi, G

    1998-01-01

    We report on a study of radiative Bhabha and quasi-real Compton scattering at centre-of-mass energies between 50~{\\GeV} and 170~{\\GeV} and 20~{\\GeV} and 140~{\\GeV}, respectively, using the L3 detector at LEP. The analysis is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $232.2 \\,\\pb$. A total of 2856 radiative Bhabha and 4641 Compton scattering events are collected. Total and differential cross sections for both reactions are presented and found to be in good agreement with QED expectations. Our measurement of Compton scattering at the highest energies obtained so far is used to derive exclusion limits on the coupling $\\lambda$ for the on-shell production of an excited electron $\\e^{\\star}$ decaying into a $\\gamma\\e$ pair in the mass range $20 \\gev < m_{\\e^{\\star}} < 170 \\gev$.

  15. Nonlinear effects in Compton scattering at photon colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Galynskii, M; Levchuk, M I; Telnov, Valery I

    2001-01-01

    The backward Compton scattering is a basic process at future higher energy photon colliders. To obtain a high probability of e-> gamma conversion the density of laser photons in the conversion region should be so high that simultaneous interaction of one electron with several laser photons is possible (nonlinear Compton effect). In this paper, a detailed consideration of energy spectra, helicities of final photons and electrons in nonlinear backward Compton scattering of circularly polarized laser photons is given. Distributions of gamma gamma luminosities with total helicities 0 and 2 are investigated. Very high intensity of laser wave leads to broadening of the energy (luminosity) spectra and shift to lower energies (invariant masses). Beside complicated exact formulae, approximate formulae for energy spectrum and polarization of backscattered photons are given for relatively small nonlinear parameter xi sup 2 (first order correction). All this is necessary for optimization of the conversion region at photo...

  16. Application of nondiffracting laser beam to laser compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, D; Aoki, M; Miyamoto, S; Amano, S; Mochizuki, T

    2003-01-01

    Nondiffracting laser beam - J sub 0 Bessel beam, is suggested to take the place of conventional Gaussian laser beam in a laser Compton scattering system, in order to increase the flux of scattered photons through maintaining an efficient interaction of electron beam and laser beam in a long distance. A novel cavity is proposed to produce and store the J sub 0 Bessel beam based on our present laser Compton scattering experimental setup for gamma-ray generation, and the propagation features and intensity distribution of the J sub 0 Bessel beam inside the cavity are analyzed. The flux of Compton scattering gamma-ray is estimated theoretically and the results reveal that a significant growth are accomplished with the use of J sub 0 Bessel laser beam contrasting with the use of Gaussian laser beam. (author)

  17. Nonlinear effects in Compton scattering at photon colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Galynsky, M V; Levchuk, M I; Telnov, V I

    2001-01-01

    The backward Compton scattering is a basic process at future higher energy photon colliders. To obtain a high probability of e->gamma conversion the density of laser photons in the conversion region should be so high that simultaneous interaction of one electron with several laser photons is possible (nonlinear Compton effect). In this paper a detailed consideration of energy spectra, helicities of final photons and electrons in nonlinear backward Compton scattering of circularly polarized laser photons is given. Distributions of gamma-gamma luminosities with total helicities 0 and 2 are investigated. Very high intensity of laser wave leads to broadening of the energy (luminosity) spectra and shift to lower energies (invariant masses). Beside complicated exact formulae, approximate formulae for energy spectrum and polarization of backscattered photons are given for relatively small nonlinear parameter xi^2 (first order correction). All this is necessary for optimization of the conversion region at photon coll...

  18. Non-thermal shielding effects on the Compton scattering power in astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Soo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-10-01

    The non-thermal shielding effects on the inverse Compton scattering are investigated in astrophysical non-thermal Lorentzian plasmas. The inverse Compton power is obtained by the modified Compton scattering cross section in Lorentzian plasmas with the blackbody photon distribution. The total Compton power is also obtained by the Lorentzan distribution of plasmas. It is found that the influence of non-thermal character of the plasma suppresses the inverse Compton power in astrophysical Lorentzian plasmas. It is also found that the non-thermal effect on the inverse Compton power decreases with an increase of the temperature. In addition, the non-thermal effect on the total Compton power with Lorentzan plasmas increases in low-temperature photons and, however, decreases in intermediate-temperature photons with increasing Debye length. The variation of the total Compton power is also discussed.

  19. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  20. Low-Intensity Nonlinear Spectral Effects in Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Albert, Félicie; Siders, Craig W.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2010-09-01

    Nonlinear effects are known to occur in Compton scattering light sources, when the laser normalized potential A approaches unity. In this Letter, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A, if the fractional bandwidth of the laser pulse Δϕ-1 is sufficiently small to satisfy A2Δϕ≃1. A three-dimensional analysis, based on a local plane wave, slow-varying envelope approximation, enables the study of these effects for realistic interactions between an electron beam and a laser pulse, and their influence on high-precision Compton scattering light sources.

  1. 3D Image Reconstruction from Compton camera data

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchment, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address analytically and numerically the inversion of the integral transform (\\emph{cone} or \\emph{Compton} transform) that maps a function on $\\mathbb{R}^3$ to its integrals over conical surfaces. It arises in a variety of imaging techniques, e.g. in astronomy, optical imaging, and homeland security imaging, especially when the so called Compton cameras are involved. Several inversion formulas are developed and implemented numerically in $3D$ (the much simpler $2D$ case was considered in a previous publication).

  2. Results of a Si/CdTe Compton Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Oonuki, Kousuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Takefumi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nomachi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    We have been developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. We use a Si strip and CdTe pixel detector for the Compton telescope to cover an energy range from 60 keV. For energies above several hundred keV, the higher efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based...

  3. A simple configuration setup for compton suppression spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hai, N X; Dien, N N; Tan, V H; Hoa, N D

    2013-01-01

    The fast timing, standard timing and easy timing are popular timing configurations of compton suppression spectroscopy. Such spectroscopes always use a module of coincidence or time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). A compton suppression spectroscopy with semi-timing configuration is presented in this paper. The semi-timing configuration is relatively simple and easy system setup, especially this spectroscopy does not need to use module of coincidence or TAC. The performance of spectroscopy was tested and summarized. The count rate background, full peak efficiency and the ratios of area/background of peaks in suppressed and unsuppressed modes were comparative.

  4. Simulated conduction rates of water through a (6,6) carbon nanotube strongly depend on bulk properties of the model employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Patey, G. N.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate pressure driven flow rates of water through a (6,6) carbon nanotube (CNT) for the TIP3P, SPC/E, and TIP4P/2005 water models. The flow rates are shown to be strongly model dependent, differing by factors that range from ˜6 to ˜2 as the temperature varies from 260 to 320 K, with TIP3P showing the fastest flow and TIP4P/2005 the slowest. For the (6,6) CNT, the size constraint allows only single-file conduction for all three water models. Hence, unlike the situation for the larger [(8,8) and (9,9)] CNTs considered in our earlier work [L. Liu and G. N. Patey, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 18C518 (2014)], the different flow rates cannot be attributed to different model-dependent water structures within the nanotubes. By carefully examining activation energies, we trace the origin of the model discrepancies for the (6,6) CNT to differing rates of entry into the nanotube, and these in turn are related to differing bulk mobilities of the water models. Over the temperature range considered, the self-diffusion coefficients of the TIP3P model are much larger than those of TIP4P/2005 and those of real water. Additionally, we show that the entry rates are approximately inversely proportional to the shear viscosity of the bulk liquid, in agreement with the prediction of continuum hydrodynamics. For purposes of comparison, we also consider the larger (9,9) CNT. In the (9,9) case, the flow rates for the TIP3P model still appear to be mainly controlled by the entry rates. However, for the SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 models, entry is no longer the rate determining step for flow. For these models, the activation energies controlling flow are considerably larger than the energetic barriers to entry, due in all likelihood to the ring-like water clusters that form within the larger nanotube.

  5. Simple model of bulk and surface excitation effects to inelastic scattering in low-energy electron beam irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris [Medical Physics Lab, University of Ioannina Medical School, 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Garcia-Molina, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica - CIOyN, Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Abril, Isabel [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d' Alacant, Apartat 99, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Kostarelos, Kostas [Nanomedicine Lab, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-01

    The effect of bulk and surface excitations to inelastic scattering in low-energy electron beam irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is studied using the dielectric formalism. Calculations are based on a semiempirical dielectric response function for MWCNTs determined by means of a many-pole plasmon model with parameters adjusted to available experimental spectroscopic data under theoretical sum-rule constrains. Finite-size effects are considered in the context of electron gas theory via a boundary correction term in the plasmon dispersion relations, thus, allowing a more realistic extrapolation of the electronic excitation spectrum over the whole energy-momentum plane. Energy-loss differential and total inelastic scattering cross sections as a function of electron energy and distance from the surface, valid over the energy range {approx}50-30,000 eV, are calculated with the individual contribution of bulk and surface excitations separated and analyzed for the case of normally incident and escaping electrons. The sensitivity of the results to the various approximations for the spatial dispersion of the electronic excitations is quantified. Surface excitations are shown to have a strong influence upon the shape and intensity of the energy-loss differential cross section in the near surface region whereas the general notion of a spatially invariant inelastic mean free path inside the material is found to be of good approximation.

  6. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-06-15

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  7. Uniform description of bulk observables in hydrokinetic model of A+A collisions at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Karpenko, Iu A; Werner, K

    2012-01-01

    A successful simultaneous description of the hadronic yields, pion, kaon and proton spectra, elliptic flows and femtoscopy scales in hydrokinetic model of A+A collisions is presented at different centralities for the top RHIC and LHC energies. The only changed parameter at different collision energies and centralities, except for peripheric events, is normalization to number of all charged particles. The hydrokinetic model is used in its hybrid version that allows one to switch correctly to the UrQMD cascade at the isochronic hypersurface which separates the cascade stage and decaying hydrodynamic one. The results are compared with the standard hybrid model where hydrodynamics and hadronic cascade are matching just at the non-space-like hypersurface of chemical freeze-out. The initial conditions are based on both Glauber- and KLN- Monte-Carlo simulations, the results are compared. It seems that the observables, especially the femtoscopy data, prefer the Glauber initial conditions. The modification of the part...

  8. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. Methods: HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung emission are calculated from various electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere to study the observed (primary and albedo) sources. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. Results: We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the extent of the HXR source at a given disk location. In the radial direction, the polarization magnitude and direction at specific positions along the HXR source will either increase or decrease with increased photon distribution directivity towards the photosphere. We also show how high electron cutoff energies influence the direction of polarization at above ~100 keV. Conclusions: Spatially resolved HXR polarization measurements can provide important information about the directivity and energetics of the electron distribution. Our results indicate the preferred angular resolution of polarization measurements required to distinguish between the scattered and primary components. We also show how spatially resolved polarization measurements could be used to probe the emission pattern of an HXR source, using both the magnitude and the direction of the polarization.

  9. Parametric Study of Urban-Like Topographic Statistical Moments Relevant to a Priori Modelling of Bulk Aerodynamic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Iungo, G. Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano; Anderson, William

    2016-08-01

    For a horizontally homogeneous, neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), aerodynamic roughness length, z_0 , is the effective elevation at which the streamwise component of mean velocity is zero. A priori prediction of z_0 based on topographic attributes remains an open line of inquiry in planetary boundary-layer research. Urban topographies - the topic of this study - exhibit spatial heterogeneities associated with variability of building height, width, and proximity with adjacent buildings; such variability renders a priori, prognostic z_0 models appealing. Here, large-eddy simulation (LES) has been used in an extensive parametric study to characterize the ABL response (and z_0 ) to a range of synthetic, urban-like topographies wherein statistical moments of the topography have been systematically varied. Using LES results, we determined the hierarchical influence of topographic moments relevant to setting z_0 . We demonstrate that standard deviation and skewness are important, while kurtosis is negligible. This finding is reconciled with a model recently proposed by Flack and Schultz (J Fluids Eng 132:041203-1-041203-10, 2010), who demonstrate that z_0 can be modelled with standard deviation and skewness, and two empirical coefficients (one for each moment). We find that the empirical coefficient related to skewness is not constant, but exhibits a dependence on standard deviation over certain ranges. For idealized, quasi-uniform cubic topographies and for complex, fully random urban-like topographies, we demonstrate strong performance of the generalized Flack and Schultz model against contemporary roughness correlations.

  10. Soil bulk electrical resistivity and forage ground cover: nonlinear models in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a highly productive and fertility-building forage crop; its performance, can be highly variable as influenced by within-field soil spatial variability. Characterising the relations between soil and forage- variation is important for optimal management. The aim of this work was to model the relationship between soil electrical resistivity (ER and plant productivity in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. field in Southern Italy. ER mapping was accomplished by a multi-depth automatic resistivity profiler. Plant productivity was assessed through normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI at 2 dates. A non-linear relationship between NDVI and deep soil ER was modelled within the framework of generalised additive models. The best model explained 70% of the total variability. Soil profiles at six locations selected along a gradient of ER showed differences related to texture (ranging from clay to sandy-clay loam, gravel content (0 to 55% and to the presence of a petrocalcic horizon. Our results prove that multi-depth ER can be used to localise permanent soil features that drive plant productivity.

  11. A crosstalk and non-uniformity correction method for the Compact Space-borne Compton Polarimeter POLAR

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Hualin; Wu, Bobing; Produit, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    POLAR is a space-borne Compton polarimeter desired to measure linear polarization of 50 -- 500 keV gamma rays arriving from prompt emission of of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Reconstruction of energy deposition produced by gamma rays on scintillator bars is required to determine modulation curves, from which the linear polarization can be revealed. However, crosstalk between neighbor scintillator bars and non-uniformities of multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMT) make the energy reconstruction complicated. We present a model to describe relation between recorded energy signal and visible energy deposited (real deposited energy) on detector modules and energy response matrix is de- duced from the model. According to the model, crosstalk and non-uniformities can be corrected by performing a linear transformation of recorded energy de- position with inverse matrix of the response matrix, whose elements can be also obtained by measuring Compton edges and analyzing crosstalk between recorded signal produced by gamma ray...

  12. Short-time Variability of Blazars via Non-linear, Time-dependent Synchrotron-Self Compton Radiative Losses

    CERN Document Server

    Röken, Christian; Schöneberg, Sebastian; Schuppan, Florian

    2016-01-01

    A leptonic one-zone model accounting for the radiation emission of blazars is presented. This model describes multiple successive injections of mono-energetic, ultra-relativistic, interacting electron populations, which are subjected to synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton radiative losses. The electron number density is computed analytically by solving a time-dependent, relativistic transport equation. Moreover, the synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton intensities as well as the corresponding total fluences are explicitly calculated. The lightcurves and fluences are plotted for realistic parameter values, showing that the model can simultaneously explain both the specific short-time variability in the flaring of blazars and the characteristic broad-band fluence behavior.

  13. Compton scattering as a probe for materials investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates into the feasibility of using gamma radiation Compton backscatter spectra as a means of material characterization, with the view to developing a portable, hand held probe for investigative purposes such as searching for illicit substances hidden in wall or car door cavities.

  14. Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, G; Harding, E

    2010-06-01

    This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed. PMID:20138773

  15. Compton scattering as a probe for materials investigation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates into the feasibility of using gamma radiation Compton backscatter spectra as a means of material characterization, with the view to developing a portable, hand held probe for investigative purposes such as searching for illicit substances hidden in wall or car door cavities.

  16. Analysis of a proposed Compton backscatter imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James M.; Jacoby, Barry A.

    1994-03-01

    One-sided imaging techniques are currently being used in nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and shallow subsurface structures. In this work we present both analytical calculations and detailed Monte Carlo simulations aimed at assessing the capability of a proposed Compton backscattering imaging technique designed to detect and characterize voids located several centimeters below the surface of a solid.

  17. New JLab/Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defurne, Maxime [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN/LSN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    2015-08-01

    New data points for unpolarized Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering cross sections have been extracted from the E00-110 experiment at Q2=1.9 GeV2 effectively doubling the statistics available in the valence region. A careful study of systematic uncertainties has been performed.

  18. Recent developments in the search for Compton-thick AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Georgantopoulos, I

    2012-01-01

    I present a review of X-ray and mid-IR surveys for Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These are the most highly obscured sources having hydrogen column densities >1.5x10^24 cm-2. Key surveys in the local Universe are presented including the high energy SWIFT/BAT and INTEGRAL surveys, mid-IR and also optical surveys. Recently, deep X-ray surveys with Chandra and XMM-Newton have produced a number of candidate Compton-thick AGN at higher redshift primarily in the Chandra Deep Field South region. In addition, mid-IR surveys with Spitzer have helped to develop novel complementary techniques for the selection of Compton-thick AGN. The mid-IR techniques used to identify Compton-thick AGN include: a) 24 micron excess sources relative to their optical emission b) Spitzer spectroscopy for the detection of high optical depth Si 9.7 micron absorption features c) low X-ray to 6 micron luminosity ratio.

  19. The Compton-thick AGN in the CDF-N

    CERN Document Server

    Georgantopoulos, I; Georgakakis, A; Rowan-Robinson, M

    2009-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analysis of the brightest sources (f_{2-10 keV}>10^{-15}$ cgs) in the Chandra Deep Field North. Our sample consists of 222 sources; for the vast majority (171) either a spectroscopic or a photometric redshift is available. Our goal is to discover the Compton-thick AGN in a direct way i.e. through their X-ray spectra. Compton-thick AGN give away their presence in X-rays either directly through the absorption turnover redshifted in the Chandra passband, or through a flat, reflection-dominated, spectrum. The above selection criteria yield 10 Compton-thick AGN candidates of which the nine are reflection dominated. The IR or sub-mm data where available, corroborate the presence of a heavily obscured nucleus in most cases. All the five candidate Compton-thick sources with available 24 micron data present very high values of the f_{24}/f_R flux ratio suggesting that they are dust obscured galaxies. The low f_x/f_{IR} ratio also suggest the presence of obscured nuclei in many cases. Four of ...

  20. All-optical Compton gamma-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Phuoc, K Ta; Thaury, C; Malka, V; Tafzi, A; Goddet, J P; Shah, R C; Sebban, S; Rousse, A; 10.1038/nphoton.2012.82

    2013-01-01

    One of the major goals of research for laser-plasma accelerators is the realization of compact sources of femtosecond X-rays. In particular, using the modest electron energies obtained with existing laser systems, Compton scattering a photon beam off a relativistic electron bunch has been proposed as a source of high-energy and high-brightness photons. However, laser-plasma based approaches to Compton scattering have not, to date, produced X-rays above 1 keV. Here, we present a simple and compact scheme for a Compton source based on the combination of a laser-plasma accelerator and a plasma mirror. This approach is used to produce a broadband spectrum of X-rays extending up to hundreds of keV and with a 10,000-fold increase in brightness over Compton X-ray sources based on conventional accelerators. We anticipate that this technique will lead to compact, high-repetition-rate sources of ultrafast (femtosecond), tunable (X- through gamma-ray) and low-divergence (~1 degree) photons from source sizes on the order...

  1. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  2. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    1960-01-01

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  3. Partially Absorbed Comptonization Spectrum from the Nearly Edge-on Source X 1822-371

    OpenAIRE

    Iaria, R.; T. Di Salvo; Burderi, L.; Robba, N.R.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of a spectral analysis over the range 0.1-200 keV performed on the dipping source X 1822-371 observed by BeppoSAX. We find the best fit to the continuum using a partially covered Comptonization model, due to scattering off soft seed photons by electrons at a temperature of ~4.8 keV, without the presence of any soft blackbody emission. The equivalent hydrogen column obtained for the absorbed component is ~4.5 10^{22} cm^{-2}, an order of magnitude larger than the Galactic...

  4. Comptonization in the accretion column of the X-ray pulsar GX~1+4

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, D. K.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray observations of the binary pulsar GX 1+4 made using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite between February 1996 and May 1997 were analysed to quantify source spectral variation with luminosity. Mean Proportional Counter Array (PCA) spectra over the range 2-40 keV are best fitted with a Comptonization model, with source spectrum temperature T_0 approx 1-1.3 keV, plasma temperature T_e approx 6-10 keV, and optical depth tau approx 2-6. The range of fitted T_0 was consistent wit...

  5. Effective Compton Cross Section in Non-Degenerate High Temperature Media

    OpenAIRE

    Shekh-Momeni, F.; Samimi, J.

    2004-01-01

    The effective compton cross section in a non-degenerate plasma($n\\ll\\{\\frac{(kT/c)^{2}+2mkT}{h^{2}}\\}^{^{3/2}}$) is investigated in a wide range of temperatures. The results show a decreasing behavior with temperature especially for $kT\\gg m_{e}c^{2}$. The $may be important in phenomena like accretion discs or ultra-relativistic blast waves in GRB models, where the emitted radiation has to pass through a medium containing high energy electrons.

  6. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, J -P; Bellini, V; Beretta, M; Casano, L; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Gurzadyan, V G; Kashin, A; Knyazyan, S; Lapik, A; Lehnert, R; Sandri, P Levi; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Margarian, A; Mehrabyan, S; Messi, R; Nedorezov, V; Perrin, C; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the ESRF's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropiesrepresenting the first non-threshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal Standard-Model Extension,this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 x 10^{-14} at 95 % confidence level on a combination of the parity-violating photon and electron coefficients

  7. Deeply virtual Compton scattering on unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium targets at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, Dietmar [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In this presentation preliminary results on azimuthal asymmetries in leptoproduction of real photons on both unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium targets measured at the HERMES experiment will be discussed. The analysis includes the extraction of asymmetries originating from the interference of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Bethe-Heitler amplitudes by simultaneously fitting data taken with different beam charges and helicities. Sizeable asymmetry amplitudes for the main moments of the beam-charge asymmetry and the beam-spin asymmetry for both targets have been found. The moments related to the squared DVCS amplitude are compatible with zero. All results have been compared to model calculations.

  8. The prompt GRB high energy emission from internal shocks: synchrotron vs inverse Compton component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a detailed calculation of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission in the framework of the internal shock scenario, focusing on the high energy (GeV) bands. In order to follow the evolution of the ultrarelativistic inhomogeneous wind, we combined a model for the dynamics of internal shocks with a detailed calculation of the radiative processes occurring in the shocked medium. We present the resulting synthetic GRB light curves and spectra. We show the spectral evolution that can be expected for different sets of microphysics parameters and parameters of the dynamical evolution, and how the relative importance of synchrotron and inverse Compton components is varying during a burst.

  9. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farm bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    super-shedders. At the prevalence of 15%, discarding milk from test positive cows would result in discarding 11% of milk and reduce the MAP level by 80%. The model was relatively simple yet capable of capturing true infection status and associated contributions from milk and feces. Further knowledge on...... simulating the effect of different control options at different infection prevalences. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a hierarchical simulation model representing individual cows in a herd while taking both direct and indirect contamination with MAP into account. Parameters included...... true within-herd infection prevalences with cows in different infection stages, which were used to estimate prevalences of milk and fecal shedders, and subsequently MAP concentrations in milk and feces. Cows in different infection stages were considered with different risks of excreting MAP testing...

  10. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  11. Modeling target bulk heating resulting from ultra-intense short pulse laser irradiation of solid density targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antici, P. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma ‘‘La Sapienza,’’ Via Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INRS-EMT, Varennes, Québec (Canada); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi, 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Grismayer, T. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear-Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Mora, P. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Audebert, P.; Mančic, A.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C. A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Isochoric heating of solid-density matter up to a few tens of eV is of interest for investigating astrophysical or inertial fusion scenarios. Such ultra-fast heating can be achieved via the energy deposition of short-pulse laser generated electrons. Here, we report on experimental measurements of this process by means of time- and space-resolved optical interferometry. Our results are found in reasonable agreement with a simple numerical model of fast electron-induced heating.

  12. GAMMA-RAY COMPTON LIGHT SOURCE DEVELOPMENT AT LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartemann, F V; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Jovanovic, I; Messerly, M J; Pruet, J A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; McNabb, D P; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2007-08-15

    A new class of tunable, monochromatic {gamma}-ray sources capable of operating at high peak and average brightness is currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photoscience and applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector. A prototype, capable of producing > 10{sup 8} 0.7 MeV photons in a single shot, with a fractional bandwidth of 1%, and a repetition rate of 10 Hz, is currently under construction at LLNL; this system will be used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments. A new symmetrized S-band rf gun, using a Mg photocathode, will produce up to 1 nC of charge in an 8 ps bunch, with a normalized emittance modeled at 0.8 mm.mrad; electrons are subsequently accelerated up to 120 MeV to interact with a 500 mJ, 10 ps, 355 nm laser pulse and generate {gamma}-rays. The laser front end is a fiber-based system, using corrugated-fiber Bragg gratings for stretching, and drives both the frequency-quadrupled photocathode illumination laser and the Nd:YAG interaction laser. Two new technologies are used in the laser: a hyper-Michelson temporal pulse stacker capable of producing 8 ps square UV pulses, and a hyper-dispersion compressor for the interaction laser. Other key technologies, basic scaling laws, and recent experimental results will also be presented, along with an overview of future research and development directions.

  13. Partially Absorbed Comptonization Spectrum from the Nearly Edge-on Source X1822-371

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, R.; Di Salvo, T.; Burderi, L.; Robba, N. R.

    2001-08-01

    We report the results of a spectral analysis over the range 0.1-200 keV performed on the dipping source X1822-371 observed by BeppoSAX. We find the best fit to the continuum using a partially covered Comptonization model, representing scattering of soft seed photons by electrons at a temperature of ~4.8 keV, without the presence of any soft blackbody emission. The equivalent hydrogen column obtained for the absorbed component is ~4.5×1022 cm-2, an order of magnitude larger than the Galactic absorption for this source, and the covering fraction is ~71%. Because the inclination angle of X1822-371 to the line of sight is ~85°, this model gives a reasonable scenario for the source: the Comptonized spectrum could come from an extended accretion disk corona (ADC), probably the only region that can be directly observed as a result of the high inclination. The excess matter producing the partial covering could be close to the equatorial plane of the system, above the outer disk, occulting the emission from the inner disk and the inner part of the ADC. An iron emission line is also present at ~6.5 keV with an equivalent width of ~150 eV. We argue that this strong iron line cannot be explained as reflection of the Comptonized spectrum by the accretion disk. It is probably produced in the ADC. An emission line at ~1.9 keV (with an equivalent width of ~54 eV) and an absorption edge at ~8.7 keV (with an optical depth of ~0.1) are also required to fit this spectrum. These features are probably produced by highly ionized iron (Fe XXIV) present in the outer part of the ADC, where the plasma density is ~1011-1012 cm-3 and ionized plasma is present.

  14. Inverse Compton Gamma Rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Jayashri; Duorah, H. L.; Barua, A. G.; Duorah, K.

    2016-09-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are thought to be good candidates for dark matter search due to their high mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. One of the most favored dark matter candidates is the lightest neutralino (neutral χ particle) as predicted in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this study, we model the gamma ray emission from dark matter annihilation coming from the nearby dSph galaxies Draco, Segue 1, Ursa Minor and Willman 1, taking into account the contribution from prompt photons and photons produced from inverse Compton scattering off starlight and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by the energetic electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation. We also compute the energy spectra of electrons and positrons from the decay of dark matter annihilation products. Gamma ray spectra and fluxes for both prompt and inverse Compton emission have been calculated for neutralino annihilation over a range of masses and found to be in agreement with the observed data. It has been found that the ultra faint dSph galaxy Segue 1 gives the largest gamma ray flux limits while the lowest gamma ray flux limits has been obtained from Ursa Minor. It is seen that for larger M/L ratio of dwarf galaxies the intensity pattern originating from e + e - pairs scattering off CMB photons is separated by larger amount from that off the starlight photons for the same neutralino mass. As the e + e - energy spectra have an exponential cut off at high energies, this may allow to discriminate some dark matter scenarios from other astrophysical sources. Finally, some more detailed study about the effect of inverse Compton scattering may help constrain the dark matter signature in the dSph galaxies.

  15. Inverse Compton Gamma Rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Dwarf Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayashri Medhi; H. L. Duorah; A. G. Barua; K. Duorah

    2016-09-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are thought to be good candidates for dark matter search due to their high mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. One of the most favored dark matter candidates is the lightest neutralino(neutral $\\chi$ particle) as predicted in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this study, we model the gamma ray emission from dark matter annihilation coming from the nearby dSph galaxies Draco, Segue 1, Ursa Minor and Willman 1, taking into account the contribution from prompt photons and photons produced from inverse Compton scattering off starlight and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by the energetic electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation. We also compute the energy spectra of electrons and positrons from the decay of dark matter annihilation products. Gamma ray spectra and fluxes for both prompt and inverse Compton emission have been calculated for neutralino annihilation over a range of masses and found to be in agreement with the observed data. It has been found that the ultra faint dSph galaxy Segue 1 gives the largest gamma ray flux limits while the lowest gamma ray flux limits has been obtained from Ursa Minor. It is seen that for larger M/L ratio of dwarf galaxies the intensity pattern originating from $e^+e^−-$ pairs scattering off CMB photons is separated by larger amount from that off the starlight photons for the same neutralino mass. As the $e^+e^−-$ energy spectra have an exponential cut off at high energies, this may allow to discriminate some dark matter scenarios from other astrophysical sources. Finally, some more detailed study about the effect of inverse Compton scattering may help constrain the dark matter signature in the dSph galaxies.

  16. Measuring multimegavolt pulsed voltages using Compton-generated electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Pereira, N. R.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Stephanakis, S. J.; Young, F. C.

    2004-01-01

    The "Compton-Hall" voltmeter is a radiation-based voltage diagnostic that has been developed to measure voltages on high-power (TW) pulsed generators. The instrument collimates photons generated from bremsstrahlung produced in the diode onto an aluminum target to generate Compton-generated electrons. Permanent magnets bend the Compton electron orbits that escape the target toward a silicon pin diode detector. A GaAs photoconductive detector (PCD) detects photons that pass through the Compton target. The diode voltage is determined from the ratio of the electron dose in the pin detector to the x-ray dose in the PCD. The Integrated Tiger Series of electron-photon transport codes is used to determine the relationship between the measured dose ratio and the diode voltage. Variations in the electron beam's angle of incidence on the bremsstrahlung target produce changes in the shape of the photon spectrum that lead to large variations in the voltage inferred from the voltmeter. The voltage uncertainty is minimized when the voltmeter is fielded at an angle of 45° with respect to the bremsstrahlung target. In this position, the photon spectra for different angles of incidence all converge onto a single spectrum reducing the uncertainty in the voltage to less than 10% for voltages below 4 MV. Higher and lower voltages than the range considered in this article can be measured by adjusting the strength of the applied magnetic field or the position of the electron detector relative to the Compton target. The instrument was fielded on the Gamble II pulsed-power generator configured with a plasma opening switch. Measurements produced a time-dependent voltage with a peak (3.7 MV) that agrees with nuclear activation measurements and a pulse shape that is consistent with the measured radiation pulse shape.

  17. Design of a Compton scatter based radiation tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Heather

    Gamma spectroscopy is one of the most common techniques used for the detection of radiologic materials. This technology is deployed in a variety of scenarios such as emergency response, monitoring, and the recovery of lost, stolen, or otherwise unaccounted radiologic material. In most practical scenarios, it is useful to know the location of a source in relation to a detector, in addition to the classic output from gamma spectrometers such as decay rate and energy peak information. In collaboration with the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) at Andrews Air Force Base, a novel detector design by RSL, which utilizes a 360° detectable range in order to increase the probability of remote detection, was investigated for the possibility to recreate source location information from Compton scattering events within the detector. A recreation of this novel detector is simulated using Geant4 to determine the optimal dimensions of sodium iodide detectors that produce the most single Compton scattering events in order to facilitate source location through the back-projection of Compton scattering angles. The optimal detector dimensions are determined by maximizing the number of single Compton scatter events and minimizing the percentage of Compton events that undergo multiple successive scatters in detectors of varying thicknesses and lengths. The optimal detector thickness was chosen to be 1.88 in, and the optimal detector length was chosen to be 4 to 4.5 in. In future projects, these optimized detectors can be used to apply suggested back-projection algorithms in order to determine the feasibility and functionality of this detector design for the purpose of radiologic source location.

  18. Advanced Compton scattering light source R&D at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Gibson, D J; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M; Shverdin, M Y; Wu, S; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-02-16

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV {gamma}-ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented. At MeV photon energies relevant for nuclear processes, Compton scattering light sources are attractive because of their relative compactness and improved brightness above 100 keV, compared to typical 4th generation synchrotrons. Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A new precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. Based on the success of the previous Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-rays (T-REX) Compton scattering source at LLNL, the source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. After a brief presentation of successful nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments done with T-REX, the new source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  19. On the inability of Comptonization to produce the broad X-ray iron lines observed in Seyfert nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S

    1999-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that Compton downscattering may give rise to the broad iron lines seen in the X-ray spectra of Seyfert 1 galaxies. This challenges the standard model in which these lines originate from the innermost regions of the black hole accretion disk with Doppler shifts and gravitational redshifts giving rise to the broadened line profile. Here, we apply observational constraints to the Compton downscattering model for MCG-6-30-15 and NGC3516, the two best cases to date of Seyfert galaxies with relativistically broad lines. We show that the continuum source in MCG-6-30-15 required by the constrained model violates the black body limit. In the case of NGC3516, only a very small region of parameter space is compatible with the constraints. Hence, we conclude that the Comptonization model is not a viable one for the broad line seen in these two objects. The accretion disk model remains the best interpretation of these data.

  20. Gamma-ray detection and Compton camera image reconstruction with application to hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique for radiotherapy - hadron therapy - irradiates tumors using a beam of protons or carbon ions. Hadron therapy is an effective technique for cancer treatment, since it enables accurate dose deposition due to the existence of a Bragg peak at the end of particles range. Precise knowledge of the fall-off position of the dose with millimeters accuracy is critical since hadron therapy proved its efficiency in case of tumors which are deep-seated, close to vital organs, or radio-resistant. A major challenge for hadron therapy is the quality assurance of dose delivery during irradiation. Current systems applying positron emission tomography (PET) technologies exploit gamma rays from the annihilation of positrons emitted during the beta decay of radioactive isotopes. However, the generated PET images allow only post-therapy information about the deposed dose. In addition, they are not in direct coincidence with the Bragg peak. A solution is to image the complete spectrum of the emitted gamma rays, including nuclear gamma rays emitted by inelastic interactions of hadrons to generated nuclei. This emission is isotropic, and has a spectrum ranging from 100 keV up to 20 MeV. However, the measurement of these energetic gamma rays from nuclear reactions exceeds the capability of all existing medical imaging systems. An advanced Compton scattering detection method with electron tracking capability is proposed, and modeled to reconstruct the high-energy gamma-ray events. This Compton detection technique was initially developed to observe gamma rays for astrophysical purposes. A device illustrating the method was designed and adapted to Hadron Therapy Imaging (HTI). It consists of two main sub-systems: a tracker where Compton recoiled electrons are measured, and a calorimeter where the scattered gamma rays are absorbed via the photoelectric effect. Considering a hadron therapy scenario, the analysis of generated data was performed, passing trough the complete

  1. Grain opacity and the bulk composition of extrasolar planets. II. An analytical model for the grain opacity in protoplanetary atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, C

    2014-01-01

    Context. We investigate the grain opacity k_gr in the atmosphere of protoplanets. This is important for the planetary mass-radius relation since k_gr affects the H/He envelope mass of low-mass planets and the critical core mass of giant planets. Aims. The goal of this study is to derive an analytical model for k_gr. Methods. Our model is based on the comparison of the timescales of microphysical processes like grain settling in the Stokes and Epstein regime, growth by Brownian motion coagulation and differential settling, grain evaporation, and grain advection due to envelope contraction. With these timescales we derive the grain size, abundance, and opacity. Results. We find that the main growth process is differential settling. In this regime, k_gr has a simple functional form and is given as 27 Q/8 H rho in the Epstein regime and as 2 Q/H rho for Stokes drag. Grain dynamics lead to a typical radial structure of k_gr with high ISM-like values in the top layers but a strong decrease in the deeper parts where...

  2. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hoyos; Bom Soo Kim; Yaron Oz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical ...

  3. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  4. VLBI observations of 3C273 at 22 GHz and 43 GHz ; 2, test of Synchrotron Self-Compton process

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovani, F; McHardy, I M; Valerio, C

    1999-01-01

    The VLBI observations at 22 GHz and 43 GHz of the quasar 3C273 obtained during a multi-frequency campaign in late 1992 in the radio, millimetre and X-ray bands allow us to derive the components' angular sizes, their peak fluxes and turnover frequencies. Lower limits to the Doppler factors have been derived by comparing the observed X-ray fluxes with those predicted by the Synchrotron Self-Compton model. Independent estimates of the Doppler factors were obtained through the assumption of the energy equipartition between the particles and the magnetic field. Of the five components used to model the first two milli-arcseconds of the jet, apart from the core, two components are in equipartition and the remaining two, at larger distances from the core, have large Doppler factors and are mainly responsible for the X-ray emission due to the Synchrotron Self-Compton process.

  5. Nonforward parton densities and soft mechanism for form factors and wide-angle Compton scattering in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors argue that at moderately large momentum transfer -t ∼2, hadronic form factors and wide-angle Compton scattering amplitudes are dominated by mechanism corresponding to overlap of soft wave functions. They show that the soft contribution in both cases can be described in terms of the same universal nonforward parton densities (ND's) F(x;t), which are the simplest hybrids of the usual parton densities and hadronic form factors. They propose a simple model for ND's possessing required reduction properties. Their model easily reproduces the observed magnitude and the dipole t-dependence of the proton form factor F1p(t) in the region 1 GeV2 2. Their results for the wide-angle Compton scattering cross section follow the angular dependence of existing data and are rather close to the data in magnitude

  6. Nonforward parton densities and soft mechanism for form factors and wide-angle Compton scattering in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, A V

    1998-01-01

    We argue that at moderately large momentum transfer -t <10 GeV^2, hadronic form factors and wide-angle Compton scattering amplitudes are dominated by mechanism corresponding to overlap of soft wave functions. We show that the soft contribution in both cases can be described in terms of the same universal nonforward parton densities (ND's) F(x;t), which are the simplest hybrids of the usual parton densities and hadronic form factors. We propose a simple model for ND's possessing required reduction properties. Our model easily reproduces the observed magnitude and the dipole t-dependence of the proton form factor F_1^p(t) in the region 1 GeV^2 < -t < 10 GeV^2. Our results for the wide-angle Compton scattering cross section follow the angular dependence of existing data and are rather close to the data in magnitude.

  7. A Unified Monte Carlo Treatment of Gas-Grain Chemistry for Large Reaction Networks. II. A Multiphase Gas-Surface-Layered Bulk Model

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyunin, A I

    2012-01-01

    The observed gas-phase molecular inventory of hot cores is believed to be significantly impacted by the products of chemistry in interstellar ices. In this study, we report the construction of a full macroscopic Monte Carlo model of both the gas-phase chemistry and the chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. Our model treats icy grain mantles in a layer-by-layer manner, which incorporates laboratory data on ice desorption correctly. The ice treatment includes a distinction between a reactive ice surface and an inert bulk. The treatment also distinguishes between zeroth and first order desorption, and includes the entrapment of volatile species in more refractory ice mantles. We apply the model to the investigation of the chemistry in hot cores, in which a thick ice mantle built up during the previous cold phase of protostellar evolution undergoes surface reactions and is eventually evaporated. For the first time, the impact of a detailed multilayer approach to grain mantle formation on ...

  8. Predictive Mechanistic Model for the Electrical Impedance and Intensity-Modulated Photocurrent and Photovoltage Spectroscopic Responses of an Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Ying Ting; Birgersson, Erik; Luther, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    We develop a predictive and mechanistic model for the intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopic (IMPS), intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopic (IMVS), and electrical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) responses of organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Unlike the dominant analytical framework—equivalent circuit analysis—the model uses physical parameters that directly reflect the device's fundamental electronic mechanisms, eliminating the ambiguity associated with interpreting phenomenological parameters. Formulated in the frequency domain, the model is a computationally efficient tool for extracting parameters from the measured spectra. With a set of physical parameters representing a device, we predict the device's spectra (a) in techniques employing different methods of perturbing a device and (b) at different bias voltages and illumination intensities. The predicted spectra show good agreement with the measured ones. By quantifying the device's internal electric field and charge carrier concentration and relating them to the spectra, we determine that the IMPS responses at the short-circuit condition and the IMVS responses at the open-circuit condition directly reflect the charge carrier extraction and recombination, respectively. Furthermore, the EIS response indicates the device's recombination time scale at different bias voltages.

  9. Monitoring mRNA and protein levels in bulk and in model vesicle-based artificial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nies, Pauline; Canton, Alicia Soler; Nourian, Zohreh; Danelon, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    With rising interest in utilizing cell-free gene expression systems in bottom-up synthetic biology projects, novel labeling tools need to be developed to accurately report the dynamics and performance of the biosynthesis machinery operating in various reaction conditions. Monitoring the transcription activity has been simplified by the Spinach technology, an RNA aptamer that emits fluorescence upon binding to a small organic dye. Recently, we tracked the fluorescence of Spinach-tagged messenger RNA (mRNA) and its translation product the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), both synthesized in the protein synthesis using recombinant elements system from a DNA template. Building on our previous study, we describe here an improved Spinach reporter with modified flanking sequences that confer higher propensity for aptamer folding and, thus, enhanced fluorescence brightness. Hence, the kinetics of mRNA and YFP production could be simultaneously monitored with unprecedented sensitivity. A combination of methodologies, comprising RNA gel analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, absorbance measurements, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, was used to convert fluorescence intensity units into absolute concentrations of transcript and YFP translational product. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the new Spinach construct greatly enhanced mRNA detection when gene expression was confined inside self-assembled lipid vesicles. Therefore, we argue that this assay could be used to evaluate systematically the performance of transcription and translation in model vesicle-based artificial cells.

  10. Inefficient Driving of Bulk Turbulence by Active Galactic Nuclei in a Hydrodynamic Model of the Intracluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Christopher S; Schekochihin, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Central jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN) appear to heat the core regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) in cooling-core galaxy clusters and groups, thereby preventing a cooling catastrophe. However, the physical mechanism(s) by which the directed flow of kinetic energy is thermalized throughout the ICM core remains unclear. We examine one widely discussed mechanism whereby the AGN induces subsonic turbulence in the ambient medium, the dissipation of which provides the ICM heat source. Through controlled inviscid 3-d hydrodynamic simulations, we verify that explosive AGN-like events can launch gravity waves (g-modes) into the ambient ICM which in turn decay to volume-filling turbulence. In our model, however, this process is found to be inefficient, with less than 1% of the energy injected by the AGN activity actually ending up in the turbulence of the ambient ICM. This efficiency is an order of magnitude or more too small to explain the observations of AGN-feedback in galaxy clusters and groups with shor...

  11. Measurements of the Proton Spin Polarizabilities with Double-Polarized Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, P P; Aguar-Bartolome, P; Ahrens, J; Akondi, C S; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Barnes, W; Beck, R; Bernstein, A; Borisov, N; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Cherepnya, S; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Denig, A; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Fil'kov, L V; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gradl, W; Gurevich, G; Barrientos, P Hall; Hamilton, D; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Huber, G M; Jude, T C; Kaeser, A; Kashevarov, V L; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Krusche, B; Lazarev, A; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Mancell, J; Manley, D M; Meyer, W; Middleton, D G; Mushkarenkov, A; Nefkens, B M K; Neganov, A; Nikolaev, A; Oberle, M; Spina, H Ortega; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Polyansky, V; Prakhov, S; Rajabi, A; Reicherz, G; Rostomyan, T; Sarty, A; Schrauf, S; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Steffen, O; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Tiator, L; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Usov, Y; Watts, D P; Witthauer, L; Werthmüller, D; Wolfes, M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to measure the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton scattering. Double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetries on the proton were measured in the $\\Delta(1232)$ region using circularly polarized incident photons and a transversely polarized proton target at the Mainz Microtron. Fits to asymmetry data were performed using a dispersion model calculation and a baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation, and a separation of all four proton spin polarizabilities in the multipole basis was achieved. The analysis based on a dispersion model calculation yields $\\gamma_{E1E1} = -3.5 \\pm 1.2$, $\\gamma_{M1M1}= 3.16 \\pm 0.85$, $\\gamma_{E1M2} = -0.7 \\pm 1.2$, and $\\gamma_{M1E2} = 1.99 \\pm 0.29$, in units of $10^{-4}$ fm$^4$.

  12. A New Characterization of the Compton Process in the ULX Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, S; Makishima, K

    2015-01-01

    Attempts were made to construct a unified description of the spectra of ULX (Ultra Luminous X-ray source) objects, including their Power-Law (PL) state and Disk-like state. Among spectral models proposed to explain either state, the present work adopts the one which combines multi-color disk (MCD) emission and its thermal Comptonization (THC). This model was applied to several datasets of ULXs obtained by Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and Nustar. The model well explains all the spectra, regardless of the spectral states, in terms of a cool disk (inner radius temperature of 0.2-0.5 keV) and a cool thick (electron temperature of 1-3 keV, and optical thickness ~10) corona. The fit results can be characterized by two new parameters. One is Q (defined as the electron temerature divided by the inner radius temperature) which describes balance between the Compton cooling and gravitational heating of the coronal electrons, while the other is F, namely, the covering fraction of the MCD by the corona. Here, F is calculated from ...

  13. A new characterization of the Compton process in the ULX spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Makishima, K.

    2016-05-01

    Attempts were made to construct a unified description of the spectra of ULX (Ultra Luminous X-ray source) objects, including their power-law (PL) state and disk-like state. Among spectral models proposed to explain either state, the present work adopts the one which combines multi-color disk (MCD) emission and its thermal Comptonization (THC). This model was applied to several datasets of ULXs obtained by Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and Nustar. The model well explains all the spectra, regardless of the spectral states, in terms of a cool disk (Tin=0.2-0.5 keV) and a cool thick (Te=1-3 keV, τ ˜10) corona. The fit results can be characterized by two new parameters. One is Q≡ Te/Tin which describes the balance between the Compton cooling and gravitational heating of the coronal electrons, while the other is F≡ 1-Fdirect/Ftotal, namely, the covering fraction of the MCD by the corona. Here, Fdirect and Ftotal are the luminosity in the directly-visible disk emission and the total radiation, respectively. Then, the PL-state spectra have been found to show Q˜10 and F˜0.5, while those of the disk-like state Q˜ 3 and F˜1. Thus, the two states are clearly separated in terms of Q and F. The obtained results are employed to argue for their interpretation in terms of high-mass (several tens to several hundreds M⊙) black holes.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of muon-induced background of an anti-Compton gamma-ray spectrometer placed in a surface and underground laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of cosmic ray muon induced background of an HPGe detector placed inside an anti-Compton shield on the surface and in shallow underground is described. Investigation of several model set-ups revealed some trends useful for design of low-level gamma-ray spectrometers. It has been found that background spectrum of an HPGe detector can be scaled down with the shielding depth. No important difference is observed when the same set-up of the anti-Compton spectrometer is positioned horizontally or vertically. A cosmic-muon rejection factor of at least 40 (at around 1 MeV) can be reached when the anti-Compton suppression is operational. The cosmicmuon background can be reduced to such a level that other background components prevail, like those from the residual contamination of the detector and shield materials and/or from radon, especially for the underground facilities.

  15. Self consistent modeling of accretion columns in accretion powered pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Sebastian; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We combine three physical models to self-consistently derive the observed flux and pulse profiles of neutron stars' accretion columns. From the thermal and bulk Comptonization model by Becker & Wolff (2006) we obtain seed photon continua produced in the dense inner regions of the accretion column. In a thin outer layer these seed continua are imprinted with cyclotron resonant scattering features calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The observed phase and energy dependent flux corresponding to these emission profiles is then calculated, taking relativistic light bending into account. We present simulated pulse profiles and the predicted dependency of the observable X-ray spectrum as a function of pulse phase.

  16. Gaining improved chemical composition by exploitation of Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio in XRF analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Rackwitz, Vanessa

    2014-07-15

    The high specificity of the coherent (Rayleigh), as well as incoherent (Compton) X-ray scattering to the mean atomic number of a specimen to be analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), is exploited to gain more information on the chemical composition. Concretely, the evaluation of the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio from XRF spectra and its relation to the average atomic number of reference materials via a calibration curve can reveal valuable information on the elemental composition complementary to that obtained from the reference-free XRF analysis. Particularly for matrices of lower mean atomic numbers, the sensitivity of the approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished between specimens of mean atomic numbers differing from each other by 0.1. Hence, the content of light elements which are "invisible" for XRF, particularly hydrogen, or of heavier impurities/additives in light materials can be calculated "by difference" from the scattering calibration curve. The excellent agreement between such an experimental, empirical calibration curve and a synthetically generated one, on the basis of a reliable physical model for the X-ray scattering, is also demonstrated. Thus, the feasibility of the approach for given experimental conditions and particular analytical questions can be tested prior to experiments with reference materials. For the present work a microfocus X-ray source attached on an SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) system was used so that the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio could be acquired with EDX spectral data for improved analysis of the elemental composition. PMID:24950635

  17. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF GRB 130427A: EVIDENCE FOR INVERSE COMPTON RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nearby superluminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six γ-ray space telescopes (Swift, the Fermi GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)/Large Area Telescope, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE, and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic γ-ray energy release is ∼1054 erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a redshift z ≤ 0.5. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day, and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is favored for the ∼(95.3, 47.3, 41.4, 38.5, 32) GeV photons arriving at t ∼ (243, 256.3, 610.6, 3409.8, 34366.2) s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external inverse Compton scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., t ∼ 120-260 s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few γ-rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft γ-ray, optical, and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B, and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implications of the null detection of >1 TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube are discussed

  18. New Estimation of the Spectral Index of High-Energy Cosmic Rays as Determined by the Compton-Getting Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lou, Y.-Q.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, S.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The amplitude of the Compton-Getting (CG) anisotropy contains the power-law index of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum. Based on this relation and using the Tibet air shower array data, we measure the cosmic-ray spectral index to be -3.03 ± 0.55stat ± analysis can be utilized to confirm the astrophysical origin of the "knee" against models for nonstandard hadronic interactions in the atmosphere.

  19. Compton scattering in a unitary approach with causality constraints 11.55.Fv; 13.40.Gp; 13.60.Fz; Nucleon-photon vertex; Off-shell form factors; K-matrix formalism; Compton scattering; Dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyuk, S

    2000-01-01

    Pion-loop corrections for Compton scattering are calculated in a novel approach based on the use of dispersion relations in a formalism obeying unitarity. The basic framework is presented, including an application to Compton scattering. In the approach the effects of the non-pole contribution arising from pion dressing are expressed in terms of (half-off-shell) form factors and the nucleon self-energy. These quantities are constructed through the application of dispersion integrals to the pole contribution of loop diagrams, the same as those included in the calculation of the amplitudes through a K-matrix formalism. The prescription of minimal substitution is used to restore gauge invariance. The resulting relativistic-covariant model combines constraints from unitarity, causality, and crossing symmetry.

  20. Specific promoter deacetylation of histone H3 is conserved across mouse models of Huntington's disease in the absence of bulk changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiretti, Deisy; Sempere, Ana; Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Barco, Angel; Valor, Luis M

    2016-05-01

    Defective epigenetic regulation has been postulated as a possible cause for the extensive and premature transcriptional dysregulation observed in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD). In this study, we extended our observations in the N171-82Q mouse strain relating to the limited impact of polyQ pathology on the global histone acetylation to other animal and cellular models of HD, namely the R6/1 and YAC128 strains, striatal-electroporated mice, primary neuronal cultures and stably transfected PC12 cells. In the absence of bulk chromatin changes, we nonetheless documented histone deacetylation events at the transcription start sites (TSS) of genes relevant to neuronal functions (e.g., Rin1, Plk5, Igfbp5, Eomes, and Fos). In some instances, these local deficits were associated with an increased susceptibility to transcriptional dysregulation (e.g., Camk1g and Rasl11b) and the defective trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), another covalent modification of histone tails that is related to active transcription and is also altered in HD. Overall, this study provides further insight into the nature and extent of epigenetic dysregulation in HD pathology. PMID:26851501

  1. Computational investigation of structure, dynamics and nucleation kinetics of a family of modified Stillinger-Weber model fluids in bulk and free-standing thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianetti, Melisa M; Haji-Akbari, Amir; Paula Longinotti, M; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, computer simulations have found increasingly widespread use as powerful tools for studying phase transitions in wide variety of systems. In the particular and very important case of aqueous systems, the commonly used force-fields tend to offer quite different predictions with respect to a wide range of thermodynamic and kinetic properties, including the ease of ice nucleation, the propensity to freeze at a vapor-liquid interface, and the existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition. It is thus of fundamental and practical interest to understand how different features of a given water model affect its thermodynamic and kinetic properties. In this work, we use the forward-flux sampling technique to study the crystallization kinetics of a family of modified Stillinger-Weber (SW) potentials with energy (ε) and length (σ) scales taken from the monoatomic water (mW) model, but with different tetrahedrality parameters (λ). By increasing λ from 21 to 24, we observe the nucleation rate increases by 48 orders of magnitude at a supercooling of ζ = T/Tm = 0.845. Using classical nucleation theory, we are able to demonstrate that this change can largely be accounted for by the increase in |Δμ|, the thermodynamic driving force. We also perform rate calculations in freestanding thin films of the supercooled liquid, and observe a crossover from surface-enhanced crystallization at λ = 21 to bulk-dominated crystallization for λ ≥ 22. PMID:26778494

  2. Bulk chlorine uptake by polyamide active layers of thin-film composite membranes upon exposure to free chlorine-kinetics, mechanisms, and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua; Luh, Jeanne; Coronell, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    We studied the volume-averaged chlorine (Cl) uptake into the bulk region of the aromatic polyamide active layer of a reverse osmosis membrane upon exposure to free chlorine. Volume-averaged measurements were obtained using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with samples prepared at a range of free chlorine concentrations, exposure times, and mixing, rinsing, and pH conditions. Our volume-averaged measurements complement previous studies that have quantified Cl uptake at the active layer surface (top ≈ 7 nm) and advance the mechanistic understanding of Cl uptake by aromatic polyamide active layers. Our results show that surface Cl uptake is representative of and underestimates volume-averaged Cl uptake under acidic conditions and alkaline conditions, respectively. Our results also support that (i) under acidic conditions, N-chlorination followed by Orton rearrangement is the dominant Cl uptake mechanism with N-chlorination as the rate-limiting step; (ii) under alkaline conditions, N-chlorination and dechlorination of N-chlorinated amide links by hydroxyl ion are the two dominant processes; and (iii) under neutral pH conditions, the rates of N-chlorination and Orton rearrangement are comparable. We propose a kinetic model that satisfactorily describes Cl uptake under acidic and alkaline conditions, with the largest discrepancies between model and experiment occurring under alkaline conditions at relatively high chlorine exposures. PMID:24506252

  3. Partially Absorbed Comptonization Spectrum from the Nearly Edge-on Source X 1822-371

    CERN Document Server

    Iaria, R; Burderi, L; Robba, N R

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of a spectral analysis over the range 0.1-200 keV performed on the dipping source X 1822-371 observed by BeppoSAX. We find the best fit to the continuum using a partially covered Comptonization model, due to scattering off soft seed photons by electrons at a temperature of ~4.8 keV, without the presence of any soft blackbody emission. The equivalent hydrogen column obtained for the absorbed component is ~4.5 10^{22} cm^{-2}, an order of magnitude larger than the Galactic absorption for this source, and the covering fraction is ~71%. Because the inclination angle of X 1822-371 to the line of sight is ~85^\\circ, this model gives a reasonable scenario for the source: the Comptonized spectrum could come from an extended accretion disk corona (ADC), probably the only region that can be directly observed due to the high inclination. The excess of matter producing the partial covering could be close to the equatorial plane of the system, above the outer disk, occulting the emission from the inn...

  4. Influences of Uncaptured Electron on Energy Conversion of Photon Compton Scattering in High Power Laser-plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing-hua; HAO Xiao-fei; HAO Dong-shan

    2004-01-01

    Using the single particle theory and the non-flexibility collision model of electron and photon, the influence of the uncaptured electrons on the energy conversion efficiency of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering in the extra stationary laser-plasma is investigated. It shows that in extra stationary laser-plasma,the uncaptured electrons make the Δω of the scattering frequency of the multi-photon Compton fall down with the increases of the incident radiation electron speed,the materials of the incident collision of electron and photon, and the number of the photons which work with the electrons at the same time. Under the modulation of the uncaptured electrons to the laser field, the energy conversion efficiency between electrons and photons will fall down with the increase of the electron incident radiation speed, using the low-power electrons for incident source, the loss can be efficiently reduced.

  5. Prototype TIGRE Compton γ-ray balloon-borne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; O'Neill, T. J.; Akyüz, A.; Samimi, J.; Zych, A. D.

    2004-02-01

    A prototype balloon-borne telescope is being constructed for γ-ray observations in the MeV energy range. The Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE) uses multi-layers of thin silicon detectors to track and measure the energy losses of Compton recoil electrons. When combined with the direction and energy of the Compton scattered γ-ray a unique incident direction for each photon event is determined. This facilitates background rejection, improved sensitivity and image reconstruction. The converter/tracker also serves as an electron-positron pair detector for γ-rays up to 100 MeV. The initial continental US flight will be used to determine the sub-orbital atmospheric backgrounds and search for polarized γ-emission for the Crab pulsar. Longer southern hemisphere flights with an enhanced instrument will map out the 26Al emissions from the galactic center region.

  6. Novel approach to stationary transmission scanning using Compton scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission scanning-based estimation of the attenuation map plays a crucial role in quantitative radionuclide imaging. X-ray computed tomography (CT) reconstructs directly the attenuation coefficients map from data transmitted through the object. This paper proposes an alternative route for reconstructing the object attenuation map by exploiting Compton scatter of transmitted radiation from an externally placed radionuclide source. In contrast to conventional procedures, data acquisition is realized as a series of images parameterized by the Compton scattering angle and registered on a stationary gamma camera operating without spatial displacement. Numerical simulation results using realistic voxel-based phantoms are presented to illustrate the efficiency of this new transmission scanning approach for attenuation map reconstruction. The encouraging results presented in this paper may suggest the possibility of proposing a new concept for emission/transmission imaging using scattered radiation, which has many advantages compared to conventional technologies

  7. A nonlinear plasma retroreflector for single pulse Compton backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palastro, J. P.; Kaganovich, D.; Gordon, D.; Hafizi, B.; Helle, M.; Penano, J.; Ting, A.

    2015-02-01

    Compton scattered x-rays can be generated using a configuration consisting of a single ultrashort laser pulse and a shaped gas target. Upon ionization the gas target serves as a plasma mirror that reflects the incident pulse providing a counter-propagating electromagnetic wiggler. While plasma mirrors are often conceived as linear Fresnel reflectors, we demonstrate that for high-intensity, ultrashort laser pulses the reflection results from two distinct nonlinear mechanisms. At lower densities, the reflection arises from the emission of an electromagnetic pulse during the saturation of the absolute Raman instability at the quarter critical surface. At higher densities the reflection of the pulse from the critical surface sets up a density fluctuation that acts as a Bragg-like reflector. These mechanisms, occurring in a non-perturbative regime of laser-plasma interactions, are examined numerically in order to characterize the Compton scattered radiation.

  8. Characteristics of final particles in multiple Compton backscattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A.; Kol‘chuzhkin, A.

    2013-08-01

    An electron passing through a counter propagating intense laser beam can interact with a few laser photons with emission of a hard photon in each collision event. In contrast with the well-known nonlinear Compton backscattering process the above mentioned process may be named as multiple Compton backscattering process (MCBS). In this paper we have investigated the evolution of the electron energy distribution during MCBS process using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulation. The main characteristics of such a distribution as mean energy and variance obtained by M-C technique were compared with analytical solutions of kinetic equations. We found the kinematic region where the analytical solutions are applicable with a good accuracy. A photon spectrum, even for the case when each electron emits one photon (in average) differs significantly from that described by the Klein-Nishina formula.

  9. Characteristics of Final Particles in Multiple Compton Backscattering Process

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, A

    2013-01-01

    An electron passing through a counter propagating intense laser beam can interact with a few laser photons with emission of a hard photon in each collision event. In contrast with the well-known nonlinear Compton backscattering process the above mentioned process may be named as multiple Compton backscattering process (MCBS). In this paper we have investigated the evolution of the electron energy distribution during MCBS process using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulation. The main characteristics of such a distribution as mean energy and variance obtained by M-C technique were compared with analytical solutions of kinetic equations. We found the kinematic region where the analytical solutions are applicable with a good accuracy. A photon spectrum, even for the case when each electron emits one photon (in average) differs significantly from that described by the Klein-Nishina formula.

  10. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  11. Electronic structure of Mg studied by compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontrym-Sznajd, Grazyna; Samsel-Czekala, Malgorzata [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland); Pylak, Maciej [The Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Dobrzynski, Ludwik [The Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, ul. Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland); Brancewicz, Marek; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Zukowski, Eugeniusz [Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, ul. Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland); Kaprzyk, Stanislaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The electronic structure of divalent hexagonal close packed Mg is investigated by means of the high-resolution Compton scattering. Two-dimensional (2D) electron momentum densities are reconstructed using their line integrals, derived from the plane integrals of three-dimensional (3D) electron momentum densities measured directly in the Compton experiment. The analysis is performed both in the extended and reduced zone schemes. The results are compared with corresponding densities calculated within Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker in the local density approximation (KKR-LDA) band structure theory and electron-positron densities measured in the angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) experiment. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Backward Compton Scattering in Strong Uniform Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, W; Yan, M L; Huang, Wei; Xu, Wang; Yan, Mu-Lin

    2006-01-01

    In strong uniform magnetic field, the vacuum Non-Commutative Plane (NCP) caused by the lowest Landau level(LLL) effect and the QED with NCP (QED-NCP) are studied. Being similar to the theory of Quantum Hall effect, an effective filling factor $f(B)$ is introduced to character the possibility that the electrons stays on LLL. The backward Compton scattering amplitudes of QED-NCP are derived, and the differential cross sections for the process with polarized initial electrons and photons are calculated. The existing Spring-8's data has been analyzed primitively and some hints for QED-NCP effects are shown. We propose to precisely measure the differential cross sections of the backward Compton scattering in perpendicular magnetic field experimentally, which may lead to reveal the effects of QED-NCP. PACS number: 12.20.Ds; 11.10.Nx; 71.70.Di; 73.43.Fj.

  13. COMPACT, TUNABLE COMPTON SCATTERING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O' Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2009-08-20

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  14. Timelike Compton Scattering from JLAB to RHIC and LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pire, B; Wagner, J

    2012-01-01

    Timelike Compton scattering (TCS) i.e. the exclusive photoproduction of a lepton pair with large invariant mass nicely complements the already successful experimental study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). The same Generalized Parton Distributions enter both amplitudes, which offer a promissing way to access the quark and gluon nucleon structure. We review recent progress in this domain, emphasizing the fact that analyticity and factorization properties dictate the relation of the NLO corrections to TCS to those of DVCS. We also stress that data on TCS at high energy should be available soon thanks to the proposed experimental program at JLab at 12 GeV, and that, before the future high energy electron ion colliders become reality, the study of ultraperipheral collisions at the RHIC and LHC may open a window on quark and gluon GPDs at very small skewness. .

  15. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  16. Comparison between electron and neutron Compton scattering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreh, Raymond; Finkelstein, Yacov; Vos, Maarten

    2015-05-01

    We compare two techniques: Electron Compton Scattering (ECS) and neutron Compton scattering (NCS) and show that using certain incident energies, both can measure the atomic kinetic energy of atoms in molecules and solids. The information obtained is related to the Doppler broadening of nuclear levels and is very useful for deducing the widths of excited levels in many nuclei in self absorption measurements. A comparison between the atomic kinetic energies measured by the two methods on the same samples is made. Some results are also compared with calculated atomic kinetic energies obtained using the harmonic approximation where the vibrational frequencies were taken from IR/Raman optical measurements. The advantages of the ECS method are emphasized.

  17. Comparison between electron and neutron Compton scattering studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreh Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare two techniques: Electron Compton Scattering (ECS and neutron Compton scattering (NCS and show that using certain incident energies, both can measure the atomic kinetic energy of atoms in molecules and solids. The information obtained is related to the Doppler broadening of nuclear levels and is very useful for deducing the widths of excited levels in many nuclei in self absorption measurements. A comparison between the atomic kinetic energies measured by the two methods on the same samples is made. Some results are also compared with calculated atomic kinetic energies obtained using the harmonic approximation where the vibrational frequencies were taken from IR/Raman optical measurements. The advantages of the ECS method are emphasized.

  18. The Mathematical Foundations of 3D Compton Scatter Emission Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Truong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical principles of tomographic imaging using detected (unscattered X- or gamma-rays are based on the two-dimensional Radon transform and many of its variants. In this paper, we show that two new generalizations, called conical Radon transforms, are related to three-dimensional imaging processes based on detected Compton scattered radiation. The first class of conical Radon transform has been introduced recently to support imaging principles of collimated detector systems. The second class is new and is closely related to the Compton camera imaging principles and invertible under special conditions. As they are poised to play a major role in future designs of biomedical imaging systems, we present an account of their most important properties which may be relevant for active researchers in the field.

  19. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-08-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples. PMID:18222698

  20. Gamma-ray burst polarization via Compton scattering process

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering are widely accepted as the most likely emission mechanisms of some astrophysical phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The measurement on polarization of photons provides a useful tool to distinguish different emission mechanisms and structures of the emission region. Based on the differential cross section of a polarized photon scattered by an unpolarized electron of any initial momentum, we derive analytical formula of polarization for beamed photons scattered by isotropic electrons with a power law distribution. Numerical calculations are carried out in four special cases: electrons at rest, Thomson limit, head-on collision and monochromatic electrons. It is found that the maximum polarization can be as high as $100\\%$ for low energy photons, if the electrons are at rest. Although polarization is highly suppressed due to the isotropic electrons, a maximum value of $\\sim 10\\% - 20\\%$ can still be achieved. Compton scatterin...

  1. Compton scattering tomography for agricultural measurements Tomógrafo de espalhamento Compton para medidas agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. Cruvinel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach in tomographic instrumentation for agriculture based on Compton scattering, which allows for the simultaneous measurements of density and moisture of soil samples. Compton tomography is a technique that can be used to obtain a spatial map of electronic density of samples. Quantitative results can be obtained by using a reconstruction algorithm that takes into account the absorption of incident and scattered radiation. Results show a coefficient of linear correlation better than 0.81, when comparison is made between soil density measurements based on this method and direct transmission tomography. For soil water contents, a coefficient of linear correlation better than 0.79 was found when compared with measurements obtained by time domain reflectrometry (TDR. In addition, a set of Compton scatter images are presented to illustrate the efficacy of this imaging technique, which makes possible improved spatial variability analysis of pre-established planes.Este trabalho apresenta uma nova instrumentação tomográfica para agricultura baseada em espalhamento Compton, a qual viabiliza a medida simultânea da densidade e da umidade de amostras de solo. A tomografia Compton é uma técnica que possibilita o mapeamento espacial das densidades eletrônicas de uma amostra. Resultados mostram coeficiente de correlação linear melhor que 0,81 para medidas comparativas realizadas entre esse método e a técnica de tomografia por transmissão. Para a medida de umidade do solo, um coeficiente de correlação linear melhor que 0,79 foi encontrado, quando da comparação com a técnica de reflectrometria no domínio do tempo (RDT. Adicionalmente, um conjunto de imagens obtidas tomograficamente por espalhamento Compton é apresentado para ilustrar a eficácia da técnica desenvolvida, a qual viabiliza analisar a variabilidade espacial em planos pré-selecionados.

  2. Photon Polarization in Photonic Crystal Fibers under Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; ZHANG Xiao-fu

    2007-01-01

    Using the quantum invariant theory and unitary transformation means, we study the influences of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering on the photon polarization in photonic crystal fibers(PCF). The results show that the photon polarization of the incident photon changes a lot due to scattered optical, and its general geometric phase factor, Hamiton number and evolution operator are definited both by the incident and scattered optical.

  3. Dual color x rays from Thomson or Compton sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Ferrario, M.; Gatti, G.; Maroli, C.; Rau, J. V.; Ronsivalle, C.; Serafini, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Venturelli, M.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze the possibility of producing two-color x or γ radiation by Thomson/Compton backscattering between a high intensity laser pulse and a two-energy level electron beam, constituted by a couple of beamlets separated in time and/or energy obtained by a photoinjector with comb laser techniques and linac velocity bunching. The parameters of the Thomson source at SPARC_LAB have been simulated, proposing a set of realistic experiments.

  4. Measuring Flash X-Ray Spectra with a Compton Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Hunter, James; King, Nick; Merrill, Frank; Sedillo, Robert; Urbaitis, Algis; Volegov, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. LA-UR-14-23602.

  5. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  6. Compton wavelength, Bohr radius, Balmer's formula and g-factors

    CERN Document Server

    Heyrovska, R

    2004-01-01

    The Balmer formula for the spectrum of atomic hydrogen is shown to be analogous to that in Compton effect and is written in terms of the difference between the absorbed and emitted wavelengths. The g-factors come into play when the atom is subjected to disturbances (like changes in the magnetic and electric fields), and the electron and proton get displaced from their fixed positions giving rise to Zeeman effect, Stark effect, etc.

  7. Overview of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering represents the best experimental channel through which to understand Generalised Parton Distributions. The HERMES experiment measured the most diverse set of DVCS results of any experiment; this talk discusses the most recent sets of DVCS results released by HERMES and the unique experimental conditions found at HERMES that facilitated the measurements. We also examine the various ways in which the HERMES experimental measurements are being used to constrain GPDs and how future experiments can learn from the HERMES program.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of virtual Compton scattering below pion threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation developed specifically for the Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) experiments below pion threshold that have been performed at MAMI and JLab. This simulation generates events according to the (Bethe-Heitler + Born) cross-section behaviour and takes into account all relevant resolution-deteriorating effects. It determines the 'effective' solid angle for the various experimental settings which are used for the precise determination of the photon electroproduction absolute cross-section

  9. Validity of compton radiography in soft tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compton radiography was shown to be capable of delineating subcutaneous and hepatic inflammations as well as normal muscles and fatty tissues with positive tomoimages. This is an noteworthy feature in contrast to the ordinary x-ray radiography. Computer assistance would probably cultivate its various clinical applicability. Radiological diagnosis of soft tissue morbidities can possibly be assisted to an appreciable degree by this technique. (author)

  10. A Compton-thin Solution for the Suzaku X-ray Spectrum of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mkn 3

    CERN Document Server

    Yaqoob, T; Scholtes, A; Gottlieb, A; Turner, T J

    2015-01-01

    Mkn 3 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy that is widely regarded as an exemplary Compton-thick AGN. We study the Suzaku X-ray spectrum using models of the X-ray reprocessor that self-consistently account for the Fe K$\\alpha$ fluorescent emission line and the associated Compton-scattered, or reflection, continuum. We find a solution in which the average global column density, $0.234^{+0.012}_{-0.010} \\times 10^{24} \\ \\rm cm^{-2}$, is very different to the line-of-sight column density, $0.902^{+0.012}_{-0.013} \\times 10^{24} \\ \\rm cm^{-2}$. The global column density is $\\sim 5$ times smaller than that required for the matter distribution to be Compton-thick. Our model accounts for the profiles of the Fe K$\\alpha$ and Fe K$\\beta$ lines, and the Fe K edge remarkably well, with a solar abundance of Fe. The matter distribution could consist of a clumpy medium with a line-of-sight column density higher than the global average. A uniform, spherically-symmetric distribution alone cannot simultaneously produce the correct fluoresce...

  11. MEASUREMENT OF LOW ENERGY DETECTION EFFICIENCY OF A PLASTIC SCINTILLATOR: IMPLICATIONS ON THE LOWER ENERGY LIMIT AND SENSITIVITY OF A HARD X-RAY FOCAL PLANE COMPTON POLARIMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization measurements in X-rays offer a unique opportunity for the study of physical processes under the extreme conditions prevalent at compact X-ray sources, including gravitation, magnetic field, and temperature. Unfortunately, there has been no real progress in observational X-ray polarimetry thus far. Although photoelectron tracking-based X-ray polarimeters provide realistic prospects of polarimetric observations, they are effective in the soft X-rays only. With the advent of hard X-ray optics, it has become possible to design sensitive X-ray polarimeters in hard X-rays based on Compton scattering. An important point that should be carefully considered for the Compton polarimeters is the lower energy threshold of the active scatterer, which typically consists of a plastic scintillator due to its lowest effective atomic number. Therefore, an accurate understanding of the plastic scintillators energy threshold is essential to make a realistic estimate of the energy range and sensitivity of any Compton polarimeter. In this context, we set up an experiment to investigate the plastic scintillators behavior for very low energy deposition events. The experiment involves the detection of Compton scattered photons from a long, thin, plastic scintillator (a similar configuration as the eventual Compton polarimeter) by a high resolution CdTe detector at different scattering angles. We find that it is possible to detect energy deposition well below 1 keV, though with decreasing efficiency. We present detailed semianalytical modeling of our experimental setup and discuss the results in the context of the energy range and sensitivity of the Compton polarimeter involving plastic scintillators

  12. RXTE, Chandra, and XMM Spectroscopy of the Fe-K Lines and Compton Reflection in Type 1 AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Tahir

    2004-01-01

    This award pertains to an RXTE observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Akn 120. The purpose of the observation was to measure the Fe-K emission line and the Compton reflection continuum with RXTE, simultaneously with Chandra and XMM. Such measurements can severely constrain accretion disk models of the central engine since the Fe-K line emission and Compton reflection are intimately related in terms of the physics of X-ray reprocessing in optically-thick matter. Akn 120 was selected for this study because it is amongst the brightest AGN in its class and has a particularly strong and apparently broad Fe-K emission line. The results could then also be used to lay the ground work for even higher resolution studies with Astro-E2. Unfortunately, the Chandra observation was not performed but a contemporaneous XMM observation was performed by another group of researchers. Those data recently became public and can be compared with the RXTE data. In addition, non-contemporaneous observations with other missions do still provide additional important constraints (for example any non-varying line or continuum emission components can be established and used to reject or preserve various model scenarios). We analyzed the RXTE data and found a strong Fe-K emission line (resolved even with the poor resolution of RXTE), and a strong Compton-reflection continuum (see Fig. l(a)). We found that the results of archival ASCA data on Akn 120 had not been published in the literature so we analyzed the ASCA data too, in order to compare with the new RXTE data. Fig. l(b) shows that the ASCA data also reveal a strong, broad FeK emission line (but the data are not sensitive to the Compton-reflection continuum). We compared our spectral fitting results for the RXTE and ASCA data with the results from XMM and from previous RXTE observations.

  13. A Monte Carlo estimate for the fraction of thermal Comptonized photons that impinge back on the soft source in neutron star LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-10-01

    In earlier works, it was shown that the energy-dependent soft time lags observed in kHz quasi-periodic oscillations of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries can be explained as being due to Comptonization lags provided a significant fraction (η ˜ 0.2-0.8) of the Comptonized photons impinge back into the soft photon source. Here we use a Monte Carlo scheme to verify if such a fraction is viable or not. In particular we consider three different Comptonizing medium geometries: (i) a spherical shell, (ii) a boundary layer like torus and (iii) a corona on top of an accretion disc. Two sets of spectral parameters corresponding to the `hot' and `cold' seed photon models were explored. The general result of the study is that for a wide range of sizes, the fraction lies within η ˜ 0.3-0.7, and hence compatible with the range required to explain the soft time lags. Since there is a large uncertainty in the range, we cannot concretely rule out any of the geometries or spectral models, but the analysis suggests that a boundary layer type geometry with a `cold' seed spectral model is favoured over an accretion corona model. Better quality data will allow one to constrain the geometry more rigorously. Our results emphasize that there is significant heating of the soft photon source by the Comptonized photons and hence this effect needs to be taken into account for any detailed study of these sources.

  14. Electronic structure of the palladium hydride studied by compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mizusaki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Hiraoka, N; Itou, M; Sakurai, Y

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen-induced changes in the electronic structure of Pd have been investigated by Compton scattering experiments associated with theoretical calculations. Compton profiles (CPs) of single crystal of Pd and beta phase hydride PdH sub x (x=0.62-0.74) have been measured along the [100], [110] and [111] directions with a momentum resolution of 0.14-0.17 atomic units using 115 keV x-rays. The theoretical Compton profiles have been calculated from the wavefunctions obtained utilizing the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the local density approximation for Pd and stoichiometric PdH. The experimental and the theoretical results agreed well with respect to the difference in the CPs between PdH sub x and Pd, and the anisotropy in the CPs of Pd or PdH sub x. This study provides lines of evidence that upon hydride formation the lowest valance band of Pd is largely modified due to hybridization with H 1s-orbitals and the Fermi energy is raised into the sp-band. (author)

  15. SPECT Compton-scattering correction by analysis of energy spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, K F; Wang, X Q; Rogers, W L; Clinthorne, N H; Wang, X H

    1988-02-01

    The hypothesis that energy spectra at individual spatial locations in single photon emission computed tomographic projection images can be analyzed to separate the Compton-scattered component from the unscattered component is tested indirectly. An axially symmetric phantom consisting of a cylinder with a sphere is imaged with either the cylinder or the sphere containing 99mTc. An iterative peak-erosion algorithm and a fitting algorithm are given and employed to analyze the acquired spectra. Adequate separation into an unscattered component and a Compton-scattered component is judged on the basis of filtered-backprojection reconstruction of corrected projections. In the reconstructions, attenuation correction is based on the known geometry and the total attenuation cross section for water. An independent test of the accuracy of separation is not made. For both algorithms, reconstructed slices for the cold-sphere, hot-surround phantom have the correct shape as confirmed by simulation results that take into account the measured dependence of system resolution on depth. For the inverse phantom, a hot sphere in a cold surround, quantitative results with the fitting algorithm are accurate but with a particular number of iterations of the erosion algorithm are less good. (A greater number of iterations would improve the 26% error with the algorithm, however.) These preliminary results encourage us to believe that a method for correcting for Compton-scattering in a wide variety of objects can be found, thus helping to achieve quantitative SPECT. PMID:3258023

  16. Silicon detector for a Compton Camera in Nuclear Medical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D; Jalocha, P; Sowicki, B; Kowal, M; Dulinski, W; Maehlum, G; Nygård, E; Yoshioka, K; Fuster, J A; Lacasta, C; Mikuz, M; Roe, S; Weilhammer, Peter; Hua, C H; Park, S J; Wilderman, S J; Zhang, L; Clinthorne, N H; Rogers, W L

    2001-01-01

    Electronically collimated gamma ca\\-me\\-ras based on Com\\-pton scattering in silicon pad sensors may improve imaging in nuclear medicine and bio-medical research. The work described here concentrates on the silicon pad detector developed for a prototype Compton camera. The silicon pad sensors are read out using low noise VLSI CMOS chips and novel fast triggering chips. Depending on the application a light weight and dense packaging of sensors and its readout electronics on a hybrid is required. We describe the silicon pad sensor and their readout with the newly designed hybrid. %The silicon detector of a Compton camera %may contain up to $10^5$~analogue channels requiring %a fast and low cost data acquisition system. We also describe a modular and low-cost data acquisition system (CCDAQ) based on a digital signal processor which is interfaced to the EPP port of personal computers. Using the CCDAQ and the hybrids energy spectra of gamma-ray photons from technetium ($^{\\rm 99m}_{43}$Tc) and americium ($^{241}_{...

  17. Measurements of Compton Scattered Transition Radiation at High Lorentz Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Case, G L; Cherry, M L; Isbert, J; Mitchell, J W; Patterson, D; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Isbert, Joachim; Mitchell, John W.; Patterson, Donald

    2004-01-01

    X-ray transition radiation can be used to measure the Lorentz factor of relativistic particles. Standard transition radiation detectors (TRDs) typically incorporate thin plastic foil radiators and gas-filled x-ray detectors, and are sensitive up to \\gamma ~ 10^4. To reach higher Lorentz factors (up to \\gamma ~ 10^5), thicker, denser radiators can be used, which consequently produce x-rays of harder energies (>100 keV). At these energies, scintillator detectors are more efficient in detecting the hard x-rays, and Compton scattering of the x-rays out of the path of the particle becomes an important effect. The Compton scattering can be utilized to separate the transition radiation from the ionization background spatially. The use of conducting metal foils is predicted to yield enhanced signals compared to standard nonconducting plastic foils of the same dimensions. We have designed and built a Compton Scatter TRD optimized for high Lorentz factors and exposed it to high energy electrons at the CERN SPS. We pres...

  18. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  19. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  20. Stability analysis of implicit time discretizations for the Compton-scattering Fokker-Planck equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Warsa, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morel, Jim E [TEXAS A& M UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.

  1. Anisotropic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the circumstellar disc in PSR B1259-63

    CERN Document Server

    van Soelen, B; Odendaal, A; Townsend, L J

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray binary system PSR B1259-63 consists of a 48 ms pulsar orbiting a Be star. The system is particularly interesting because it is the only gamma-ray binary system where the nature of the compact object is known. The non-thermal radiation from the system is powered by the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar and the unpulsed radiation originates from the stand-off shock front which forms between the pulsar and stellar wind. The Be star/optical companion in the system produces an excess infrared flux from the associated circumstellar disc. This infrared excess provides an additional photon source for inverse Compton scattering. We discuss the effects of the IR excess near periastron, for anisotropic inverse Compton scattering and associated gamma-ray production. We determine the infrared excess from the circumstellar disc using a modified version of a curve of growth method, which takes into account the changing optical depth through the circumstellar disc during the orbit. The model is constrained usi...

  2. Development of a test protocol for industry to predict and optimise flow behaviour of blended powders utilising particle to bulk scale models

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Perdomo, Jose Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Reformulation of blended particulate materials has been always a problem for powder industry because formulators have difficulty in measuring, controlling and/or modifying the bulk flow properties of powders. A recently developed powder flow tester (PFT) by The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich is now available for industry to measure quickly and accurately the flow behaviour of single and blended particulate materials. This new powder flow teste...

  3. Unifying "soft" and "hard" diffractive exclusive vector meson production and deeply virtual Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, S; Jenkovszky, L; Salii, A

    2013-01-01

    A Pomeron model applicable to both "`soft" and "hard" processes is suggested and tested against the high-energy data from virtual photon-induced reactions. The Pomeron is universal, containing two terms, a "soft" and a "hard" one, whose relative weight varies with $\\widetilde {Q^2}=Q^2+M_V^2$, where $Q^2$ is the virtuality of the incoming photon and $M_V$ is the mass of the produced vector particle. With a small number of adjustable parameters, the model fits all available data on vector meson production and deeply virtual Compton scattering from HERA. Furthermore, we attempt to apply the model to hadron-induced reactions, by using high-energy data from proton-proton scattering.

  4. Reionization and cosmic microwave background distortions a complete treatment of second order Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, W; Scott, J; Hu, Wayne; Silk, Douglas Scott & Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The ionization history of the universe provides a major source of ambiguity in constraining cosmological models using small angular scale microwave background anisotropies. To clarify these issues, we consider a complete treatment of Compton scattering to second order, an approach which may be applicable to other astrophysical situations. We find that only the ${\\cal O} (v)$ Doppler effect, and the ${\\cal O} (v\\delta)$ Vishniac effect are important for recent last scattering epochs; the ${\\cal O} (v^2)$ Doppler effect is not significant on any angular scale, and other higher-order effects are completely negligible. However the ${\\cal O}(v^2)$ effect does lead to \\Cy\\ distortions, which although generally below current constraints, set an unavoidable minimum level in reionization models. We consider the small-angle approximation for the Vishniac effect in detail, and show several improvements over previous treatments, particularly for low $\\Omega_0$. For standard cold dark matter models, the effect of reioniza...

  5. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  6. The coincidence-summing correction of the Compton-suppression spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan-qing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shi-lian; Zhang, Xin-jun; Li, Qi

    2012-09-01

    The compton-suppression Spectrometer can suppress the Compton baseline and make weak full energy peaks prominent in low-level activity gamma spectra, so it is used to measure environmental radioactive samples. In order to quantify the activities of the radionuclides in the sample coincidence-summing corrections should be applied. In this article the expressions of coincidence-summing correction of Compton-Suppression Spectrometer were deduced and the validity of the expressions was verified. PMID:22405959

  7. The Effect of Molecular Structure and Environment on the Miscibility and Diffusivity in Polythiophene-Methanofullerene Bulk Heterojunctions: Theory and Modeling with the RISM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Kobryn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although better means to model the properties of bulk heterojunction molecular blends are much needed in the field of organic optoelectronics, only a small subset of methods based on molecular dynamics- and Monte Carlo-based approaches have been hitherto employed to guide or replace empirical characterization and testing. Here, we present the first use of the integral equation theory of molecular liquids in modelling the structural properties of blends of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM with poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and a carboxylated poly(3-butylthiophene (P3BT, respectively. For this, we use the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM with the Universal Force Field (UFF to compute the microscopic structure of blends and obtain insight into the miscibility of its components. Input parameters for RISM, such as optimized molecular geometries and charge distribution of interaction sites, are derived by the Density Functional Theory (DFT methods. We also run Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation to compare the diffusivity of the PCBM in binary blends with P3HT and P3BT, respectively. A remarkably good agreement with available experimental data and results of alternative modelling/simulation is observed for PCBM in the P3HT system. We interpret this as a step in the validation of the use of our approach for organic photovoltaics and support of its results for new systems that do not have reference data for comparison or calibration. In particular, for the less-studied P3BT, our results show that expectations about its performance in binary blends with PCBM may be overestimated, as it does not demonstrate the required level of miscibility and short-range structural organization. In addition, the simulated mobility of PCBM in P3BT is somewhat higher than what is expected for polymer blends and falls into a range typical for fluids. The significance of our predictive multi-scale modelling lies in the insights it offers into nanoscale

  8. Verification of terahertz-wave spectrophotometry by Compton backscattering of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Norihiro; Takahashi, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We developed a continuous-spectrum light beam from Compton backscattering by using coherent synchrotron radiation in an L-band linac at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. The ratio of Compton backscattered photons to background photons when coherent synchrotron radiation was used was three times larger than when coherent transition radiation was used. The transmission spectrum of a polystyrene film in the terahertz-wave region was evaluated by measuring the spectrum of the Compton backscattered photons and it roughly agreed with that measured by a Martin-Puplett-type interferometer. The spectrophotometry using Compton backscattering shows promise as a new tool for investigations in terahertz-wave science.

  9. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  10. Test of Lorentz Invarience from Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Narayan, Amrendra

    2015-01-01

    In the recent times, test of Lorentz Invariance has been used as a means to probe theories of physics beyond the standard model, especially those such as extensions to String Theory and Quantum Gravity. Tests of Lorentz invariance could go a long way in setting the stage for possible quantum gravity theories which are beyond the standard model. We describe a simple way of utilizing the polarimeters, which are a critical beam instrument at precision and intensity frontier nuclear physics labs such as Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab (JLab), to limit the dependence of speed of light with the energy of the photons. Furthermore, we also describe a way of limiting directional dependence of speed of light at previously unprecedented levels of precision by studying the sidereal variations. We obtain a limit of MSME parameters: $\\sqrt{\\kappa_X^2 + \\kappa_Y^2} < 2.4 \\times 10^{-17}$ and $\\sqrt{\\left( 2c_{TX} - (\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ} \\right)^2 + \\left( 2c_{TY} - (\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{...

  11. Momentum densities and Compton profiles of alkali-metal atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranab Sarkar; Anupam Sarkar; S N Roy; B Talukdar

    2003-03-01

    It is assumed that the dynamics of valence electrons of alkali-metal atoms can be well accounted for by a quantum-defect theoretic model while the core electrons may be supposed to move in a self-consistent field. This model is used to study the momentum properties of atoms from 3Li to 37Rb. The numerical results obtained for the momentum density, moments of momentum density and Compton profile are found to be in good agreement with the results of more detailed configuration-interaction calculations for the atom 3Li. Similar results for 11Na, 19K and 37Rb are compared with the corresponding Hartree–Fock–Roothaan values only, for want of data from other realistic calculations.

  12. Analysis of the levitation force of pure and starch/polystyrene/MWCNT added bulk MgB2 superconductors using frozen image model under zero field cooling condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of superconducting levitation force between permanent magnet and polycrystalline samples of pure and MgB2 added with starch, polystyrene (PS) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) have been performed under zero field cooling (ZFC) condition at 20 K in both descending and ascending modes. For this, the bulk pellets were synthesized by conventional solid state sintering technique. The XRD data indicate well developed MgB2 phase. However, a decrease in lattice parameter 'a = b' have been observed for doped MgB2 samples. Superconducting transition temperature of MgB2 also decreases with starch/PS/MWCNT addition. Unlike MWCNT, the addition of starch/polystyrene is found to enhance the levitation force of MgB2 superconductor. The levitation force between PM and investigated pellets in ZFC condition is explained well in terms of the updated version of modified frozen image model and the magnetic moment originated due to vertical motion of the superconductors have been estimated. It may be noted that except for MWCNT, addition of starch/PS in MgB2 improves the magnetic moment generated by vertical movement of pure MgB2. However, this improvement is more pronounced for 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2, which indicates more flux trapping and hence better levitation properties in 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2. The vertical stiffness estimated for pure and starch/PS/MWCNT doped MgB2 samples indicate that the levitation force are more sensitive in the region close to the PM.

  13. Constraint on Pulsar Wind Properties from Induced Compton Scattering off Radio Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Shuta J

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar winds have longstanding problems in energy conversion and pair cascade processes which determine the magnetization $\\sigma$, the pair multiplicity $\\kappa$ and the bulk Lorentz factor $\\gamma$ of the wind. We study induced Compton scattering by a relativistically moving cold plasma to constrain wind properties by imposing that radio pulses from the pulsar itself are not scattered by the wind as was first studied by Wilson & Rees. We find that relativistic effects cause a significant increase or decrease of the scattering coefficient depending on scattering geometry. Applying to the Crab, we consider uncertainties of an inclination angle of the wind velocity with respect to the radio beam $\\theta_{\\rm pl}$ and the emission region size $r_{\\rm e}$ which determines an opening angle of the radio beam. We obtain the lower limit $\\gamma\\gtrsim10^{1.7}r^{1/2}_{\\rm e,3}\\theta^{-1}_{\\rm pl}(1+\\sigma)^{-1/4}$ ($r_{\\rm e}=10^3r_{\\rm e,3}$ cm) at the light cylinder $r_{\\rm LC}$ for an inclined wind $\\theta_{\\r...

  14. Testing of the BGO Compton-suppression detectors for gammasphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Annan, G.A. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Gammasphere, the national {gamma}-ray facility, when completed will consist of 110 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The bismuth germanate (BGO) Compton-suppression detector system for each Ge detector consists of one tapered hexagonal BGO side shield and one slotted BGO back plug. Due to the geometry of the array, three types of annular shields are required. These types are referred to as B, C and D, and the array consists of 60, 30 and 20 of these units, respectively. Shield types B, C and D have a hexagonal geometry. They are divided into six optically separate sections, each with its own pair of photomultiplier tubes. Argonne assumed responsibility for the procurement and testing of the BGO Compton-suppression units. We received all detectors from the two vendors. In the past year, twenty-four of the B-type detectors were delivered to Stony Brook for evaluation tests. Since the number of crystals to test is quite large (six per detector), we involved undergraduate students working at ANL under the Department of Educational Programs (DEP) in this effort. The quality of students was excellent, and they played a major role in the performance testing of these detectors. Ninety-nine of the hexagonal side shields and 112 backplug detectors were shipped to LBL for use in Gammasphere. The remaining detectors did not meet the performance criteria when they were first delivered and tested and are either at the vendor being repaired or were returned to us for retesting. We anticipate that the remaining detectors will be ready for use in Gammasphere within the next few months.

  15. Polarisation Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, David

    2004-12-31

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E99-114 comprised a series of measurements to explore proton Compton scattering at high momentum transfer. For the first time, the polarisation transfer observables in the p (~ 0 ~ p) reaction were measured in the GeV energy range, where it is believed that quark-gluon degrees of freedom begin to dominate. The experiment utilised a circularly polarised photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target, with the scattered photon and recoil proton detected in a lead-glass calorimeter and a magnetic spectrometer, respectively.

  16. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at JLab Hall A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Voutier

    2007-04-16

    The deeply virtual Compton scattering reaction has been investigated in the Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory by measuring longitudinally polarized (e,e'gamma) cross sections, in the valence quark region, for protons and neutrons. In the proton channel, experimental results strongly support the factorization of the cross section at Q2 as low as 2 GeV2, opening the path to systematic measurements of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In the neutron case, preliminary data show sensitivity to the angular momentum of quarks.

  17. Two-photon Compton process in pulsed intense laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D

    2012-01-01

    Based on strong-field QED in the Furry picture we use the Dirac-Volkov propagator to derive a compact expression for the differential emission probability of the two-photon Compton process in a pulsed intense laser field. The relation of real and virtual intermediate states is discussed, and the natural regularization of the on-shell contributions due to the finite laser pulse is highlighted. The inclusive two-photon spectrum is two orders of magnitude stronger than expected from a perturbative estimate.

  18. Filtered back-projection algorithm for Compton telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Donald L.

    2008-03-18

    A method for the conversion of Compton camera data into a 2D image of the incident-radiation flux on the celestial sphere includes detecting coincident gamma radiation flux arriving from various directions of a 2-sphere. These events are mapped by back-projection onto the 2-sphere to produce a convolution integral that is subsequently stereographically projected onto a 2-plane to produce a second convolution integral which is deconvolved by the Fourier method to produce an image that is then projected onto the 2-sphere.

  19. Flux maximization techniques for compton backscatter depth profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L

    1993-01-01

    Resolution in x-ray backscatter imaging has often been hampered by low fluxes. But, for a given set of resolution requirements and geometric constraints, it is possible to define a maximization problem in the geometric parameters for which the solution is the maximum flux possible in those circumstances. In this way, resolution in noncritical directions can be traded for improved resolution in a desired direction. Making this the thickness, or surface normal direction, makes practicable the depth profiling of layered structures. Such techniques were applied to the problem of imaging the layered structure of corroding aircraft sheet metal joints using Compton backscatter. PMID:21307450

  20. X-ray Imaging Based on Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callerame, Joseph [American Science and Engineering, Inc.

    2011-08-10

    This presentation highlights a number of applications where rapid, low-dose, one-sided Compton imaging is especially desirable and describes typical methods for creating these images. Some of the systems are also capable of scanning an object by simultaneously forming multiple backscatter images of vehicles from different perspectives, such as left, right, and top-down. While each view has limited penetration ability, the combination of views provides a powerful inspection tool that often permits threat objects to be easily discerned, even in a cluttered environment.