WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk cargo

  1. Dry bulk cargo shipping - An overlooked threat to the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matthias; Mazurek, Nicole; Gräbsch, Carolin; Zeilinger, Jana; Le Floch, Stéphane; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Höfer, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 9.5billiontonnes of goods is transported over the world oceans annually with dry bulk representing the largest cargo group. This paper aims to analyse whether the transport and associated inputs of dry bulks into the sea create a risk for the marine environment. For this purpose, we analyse the international regulatory background concerning environmental protection (MARPOL), estimate quantities and identify inputs of such cargoes into the oceans (accidental and operational), and use available information for hazard assessment. Annually, more than 2.15milliontonnes of dry bulk cargoes are likely to enter the oceans, of which 100,000tonnes are potentially harmful to the marine environment according to the definition included in draft maritime regulation. The assessment of the threat to the marine environment is hampered by a lack of available information on chemical composition, bioavailability and toxicity. Perspectives for amendments of the unsatisfying pollution prevention regulations are discussed. PMID:27339744

  2. 29 CFR 1919.81 - Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. 1919.81 Section 1919.81 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  3. Reliability analysis of the bulk cargo loading system including dependent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokus-Roszkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    In the paper an innovative approach to the reliability analysis of multistate series-parallel systems assuming their components' dependency is presented. The reliability function of a multistate series system with components dependent according to the local load sharing rule is determined. Linking these results for series systems with results for parallel systems with independent components, we obtain the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system assuming dependence of components' departures from the reliability states subsets in series subsystem and assuming independence between these subsystems. As a particular case, the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system composed of dependent components having exponential reliability functions is fixed. Theoretical results are applied practically to the reliability evaluation of a bulk cargo transportation system, which main area is to load bulk cargo on board the ships. The reliability function and other reliability characteristics of the loading system are determined in case its components have exponential reliability functions with interdependent departures rates from the subsets of their reliability states. Finally, the obtained results are compared with results for the bulk cargo transportation system composed of independent components.

  4. Determination of Inertia Forces Acting on Break Bulk Cargo en Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Chepok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical method of defining inertia forces that act on break bulk cargo as a result of the oscillatory motion of the vessel exposed to the effect of ambient forces. Considering that the linear models of roll, pitch and heave applicable in this case, the problem is solved by expressing the angle of heel, the angle of pitch, and the amplitude of heave. The obtained functions are differentiated and the inertia forces are determined by means of applying the Newton's second law.

  5. Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Guo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of trade as the main factors of the ship operating priority. Then the authors combine berth assignment problem with the improved ant colony algorithm, and use the model to improve ship scheduling quality. Finally, the authors verify the model with physical data in a bulk-cargo-port in China. Findings: Test by the real data of bulk cargo port, it show that ships’ resource using priority and the length of waiting time are consistent; it indicates that the priority of resource allocation play a prominent role in improving ship scheduling quality. Research limitations: The questionnaires is limited in only one port group, more  related Influence factors should be considered to extend the conclusion. Practical implications: The Priority of Resource Allocation model in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of the dynamic berth assignment. Originality: This paper makes the time of ship in port minimized as the optimization of key indicators and establishes a dynamic berth assignment model based on improved ant colony algorithm and the ontology reasoning model.

  6. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  7. The insurance of bulk oil cargoes and adjustment of shortage claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortage claims discussed in this article include those due to a definite disaster such as a fire, those due to cargo contamination and storage, and those identified in documentation as occurring between loading and unloading. The principal types of cover are examined, and the distinction between gross and net quantities, claim documentation, the petroleum measurement tables, and guaranteed out turn cover are described in detail. (UK)

  8. 78 FR 54775 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... DOT Department of Transportation FR Federal Register IBC Intermediate Bulk Container IBC Code..., we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14327) a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) titled Bulk... portable tank. (77 FR 14327, at 14330),'' (emphasis added) The above excerpt provides a general...

  9. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Rubino, Frederico; Vershoor, Louis; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of...

  10. 77 FR 14327 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations; 49 CFR Parts 171-180 IBC Intermediate Bulk... Materials by Vessel'' (55 FR 37406), the Coast Guard allowed the use of Intermodal (IM) 101 and IM...

  11. 46 CFR Table 2 to Part 153 - Cargoes Not Regulated Under Subchapters D or O of This Chapter When Carried in Bulk on Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and mixtures of non-NLS cargoes with Category D NLS cargoes are in 33 CFR part 151. Cargoes Pollution... solution C Sodium sulfate solution III Sorbitol solution III Sulfonated polyacrylate solution III... an oceangoing vessel, see 46 CFR 153.900(c). —A NLS category in brackets indicates that the...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo manual. 154.1810 Section 154.1810 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1810 Cargo manual. (a) No person... navigable waters of the United States, or a U.S. flag vessel, unless the vessel has on board a cargo...

  13. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  14. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  15. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... and list the various degrees of segregation required. Paragraphs and (2) of this section explain...

  16. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo...

  17. 关于散货码头初期雨水收集再利用的探讨%Discussion on the Initial Rainwater Collection and Recycle of Bulk Cargo Wharf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尚智

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of pol utants in the initial rainwater of bulk cargo wharf area, with the protection of the water environment situation in China is becoming more and more severe the processing of such water bodies has the incre-asingly stringent requirements. Therefore, terminal needs to m-ake effective treatment col ect rainwater, decrease the pol ution of river water.%散货码头区域内的初期雨水存在大量的污染物,随着我国水环境保护形势的日益严峻,对这类水体的处理要求越来越严格。因此,码头需要通过对初期雨水进行有效的收集处理,减小对河流水体的污染。

  18. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  19. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  20. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  1. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  2. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and cargo compressors must shut-down automatically when the quick-closing shut-off valves under §§...

  3. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo...

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  5. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  6. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  7. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section 154.708 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the...

  8. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksejevs Ruslans; Guseinovs Raufs; Medvedev Alexander N.; Guseynov Sharif E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy) or several (partially corporate strategy) companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports), where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models b...

  9. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  10. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  11. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and cargo compressor rooms must be above the weather deck and must be within the cargo area. (b) Where pumps...

  12. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  13. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages

  14. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  15. Operational efficiency in STS cargo processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A multifaceted program is presented that addresses both the operational aspects of Shuttle-cargo integration and the needs of the STS Cargo Community. The program consists of the following key elements: (1) processing team awareness of cargo needs and requirements; (2) standardization of Orbiter preparation and cargo integration procedures and methods; (3) maximum application of state-of-the-art ADP techniques in all relevant areas; (4) continual review of cargo integration facility and ground system capabilities versus requirements and enhancement; (5) continual assessment of proposed cargo processing changes for safety and other needs; and (6) review of cargo processing philosophies, policies, and concepts for potential improvements.

  16. Combining technologies - radiography and neutron based - for cargo security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection of air and sea cargo has traditionally been done by X-ray systems of various energies relying on operators to analyze images looking for anomalies in the image of cargo that may signify a threat. This has shown only limited success in detecting explosives and other threats, which do not have any distinctive shapes. OSI Systems, through its subsidiaries Rapiscan and Ancore, has combined high-energy x-ray radiography with thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to create the combined system-''TNX''. The system provides automatic material specific detection of bulk threat items, like explosives, while furnishing the operator with a high-resolution image for weapons detection and also to identify anomalies for the TNA to inspect. Similarly the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) can be combined with high-energy x-ray to create a ''FNX'' system for both air and sea cargo applications. This enables the operator obtain a three dimensional image of the material composition of the cargo under inspection and remove the clutter from the image leaving only the potentially hazardous material(s) automatically while viewing a high resolution image for manifest verification and weapons. The current status of the technology will be discussed and data be presented

  17. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  18. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  19. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information. 153.907 Section 153.907 Shipping... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes...

  20. Determination of high-risk cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.

  1. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  2. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  3. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... rulemaking (docket number: CGD 87-069) that the Coast Guard closed in 1995. The 1989 advance NPRM (54 FR... Homeland Security DRI Direct Reduced Iron FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime Organization IMSBC... Federal Register (75 FR 34574). We also published a correction on June 18, 2010, addressing...

  4. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J de; Castón, José R

    2016-04-28

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ∼30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ∼20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers. PMID:27091107

  5. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  6. NWA Cargo Is Granted Additional Cargo Frequencies to China Four all-cargo frequencies per week granted by U.S. Department of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NWA Cargo, the cargo division of Northwest Airlines, will expand its all-cargo freighter service between the United States and China after being awarded four additional frequencies per week by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  7. Scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is a growing worldwide need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. CSIRO has been working with Australian Customs Service to develop an innovative and cost-effective solution capable of directly scanning air freight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. A new scanner has been developed that combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner will be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  8. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  9. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump unit. 64.89 Section 64.89 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.89 Cargo pump unit. (a) A cargo pump unit that fills or...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  10. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the safety relief valve setting. A reduction... required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the...

  11. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  12. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  13. Vehicle and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1997-02-01

    Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is comprised of a 1 Curie 137Cs gamma-ray source in a shield and collimator which produces a fan-shaped beam designed to intercept a vertical array of gama-ray detectors contained in a tower structure. The source and detector modules straddle the vehicle or container being inspected and are mounted on self-propelled trolleys which travel in synchronization along two parallel tracks covering the length of the scanned object. The signals from the gamma-ray detector array are processed and displayed so as to produce a 2D gamma-radiographic image of the object. Testing of the system on a variety of empty and lightly-loaded vehicles and containers has demonstrated the effectiveness of VACIS in detecting hidden contraband. For example, a small sample of cocaine only 1.5 inches thick was readily detected in a container.

  14. 46 CFR 105.25-10 - Cargo pumping installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumping installation. 105.25-10 Section 105.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS... Installed Below Decks § 105.25-10 Cargo pumping installation. (a) Cargo pumps shall not be installed in...

  15. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  16. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is cargo preference... cargo preference? Cargo preference is the statutory requirement that all, or a portion of all, ocean... the cargo preference laws must be approved by: Department of Transportation Maritime...

  19. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  20. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  1. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagler, Lisle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  2. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  3. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  4. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  5. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  6. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  7. Institute Cargo Clauses : Nova verzija 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses, 2009. znače izmijenjene i dopunjene Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta leže u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenom transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose niz rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u odnosu na rješenja Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906. Redaktori novih uvjeta vodili su računa i o tome da pojedine odredbe budu jasnije form...

  8. Trajanje osiguranja prema Institute Cargo Clauses (2009.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petrinović, Ranka; Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses iz 2009. zapravo su izmjene i dopune Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni su razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo-osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenome transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose više rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u usporedbi s onima u Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906., pa se prezentiraju kao klauzule za novo tisućljeće. Među bitnim promjenama koje donose ...

  9. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-3 Cargo tanks. (a... subjected, except that in no case shall the thickness of the shell or head be less than that specified...

  10. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  11. The complex network of global cargo ship movements

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods, and the spread of invasive species. With 90% of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here we use information about the itineraries of 16,363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features which set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified in three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with s...

  12. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  13. 46 CFR 151.20-20 - Cargo transfer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 90 percent of the set pressure of the cargo tank safety relief valve. The pressurizing line shall be... shall be fitted with a safety relief valve set to lift at a pressure no higher than 80 percent of the cargo tank safety relief valve setting. (d) When cargo vapors are flammable, combustible or toxic,...

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF THE LOGISTICS ORGANIZATION OF CUSTOMS CARGO PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ponomariova; Stoliar, T.

    2008-01-01

    The matter concerning customs logistics being an integral part of cargo delivery logistics range of international routes has been considered. The aim of functioning of cargo customs handling process has been determined. The application of Petri network theory for the purpose of customs cargo handling model development has been proved.

  15. Development of 60Co cargo train inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the research and development of 60Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  16. Molecular approach to intracellular cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2010-03-01

    Landmark discoveries in the study of cytoplasmic motors have been made through advances in single molecule biophysics and detailed mechanistic models exist for kinesin and dynein. However, the function of motors in physiological conditions has not been carefully tested. In cells, more than few dyneins can attach to the same cargo and interact with the opposite polarity motors of kinesin. To study the molecular crosstalk between the motors, we have used intraflagellar transport (IFT) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system. Ultrahigh spatio-temporal tracking of single cargo movement showed that IFT particles move for long distances unidirectionally with 8 nm increments, agreeing with measured step sizes of kinesin and dynein. To measure how many motors transport each cargo, we have linked large polystyrene beads to internal IFT particles through a transmembrane protein. Force measurements indicated that, on average, 3-4 motors transport cargoes in each direction. The results showed that IFT motors are tightly coordinated and might be involved in recycling each other to the appropriate end of the flagellum.

  17. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public... Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing E.O. Executive Order FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime.... vessels or for foreign vessels operating in U.S. waters. In a notice (64 FR 1648; Jan. 11,...

  18. Applications and Challenges for Use of Cell-Penetrating Peptides as Delivery Vectors for Peptide and Protein Cargos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Birch, Ditlev; Mørck Nielsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    -penetrating peptides (CPPs) constitute a promising tool and have shown applications for peptide and protein delivery into cells as well as across various epithelia and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). CPP-mediated delivery of peptides and proteins may be pursued via covalent conjugation of the CPP to the cargo peptide...... or protein or via physical complexation obtained by simple bulk-mixing of the CPP with its cargo. Both approaches have their pros and cons, and which is the better choice likely relates to the physicochemical properties of the CPP and its cargo as well as the route of administration, the specific...... barrier and the target cell. Besides the physical barrier, a metabolic barrier must be taken into consideration when applying peptide-based delivery vectors, such as the CPPs, and stability-enhancing strategies are commonly employed to prolong the CPP half-life. The mechanisms by which CPPs translocate...

  19. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  20. An airport cargo inspection system based on X-ray and thermal neutron analysis (TNA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cargo inspection system incorporating a high-resolution X-ray imaging system with a material-specific detection system based on Ancore Corporation's patented thermal neutron analysis (TNA) technology can detect bulk quantities of explosives and drugs concealed in trucks or cargo containers. The TNA process utilises a 252Cf neutron source surrounded by a moderator. The neutron interactions with the inspected object result in strong and unique gamma-ray signals from nitrogen, which is a key ingredient in modern high explosives, and from chlorinated drugs. The TNA computer analyses the gamma-ray signals and automatically determines the presence of explosives or drugs. The radiation source terms and shielding design of the facility are described. For the X-ray generator, the primary beam, leakage radiation, and scattered primary and leakage radiation were considered. For the TNA, the primary neutrons and tunnel scattered neutrons as well as the neutron-capture gamma rays were considered. (authors)

  1. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  2. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  3. Detection of Neutron Sources in Cargo Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, J. I.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of detecting the presence of clandestine neutron sources, such as would be produced by nuclear weapons containing plutonium, within cargo containers. Small, simple and economical semiconductor photodiode detectors affixed to the outsides of containers are capable of producing statistically robust detections of unshielded sources when their output is integrated over the durations of ocean voyages. It is possible to shield such sources with thick layers of neutron-abs...

  4. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

    2012-01-01

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and...

  6. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005

  7. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated

  8. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  9. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionality is discussed in this study. Similar to single motor movement, cargo steps forward and backward along microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that, cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory, it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depends on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming cargo has only the least memory, i.e. its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are detailed analyzed in this study: {\\bf (I)} cargo motion under constant external load; and {\\bf (II)} cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, for the first case, cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. For the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increase...

  10. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  11. NLS cargo transfer vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Hank C.; Langford, G. K.

    1992-02-01

    The propulsion system of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle is designed to meet a wide range of requirements associated with the National Launch System (NLS) resupply function for Space Station Freedom. It provides both orbit adjustment and precise vehicle control capability, and is compatible with close proximity operation at the space station as well as return on the shuttle for ground refurbishment and reuse. Preliminary trade studies have resulted in designing and sizing an integrated bipropellant system using monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Design and analysis activities are continuing, and the design will evolve and mature as part of the NLS program.

  12. Insurance of tanker and bulk oil cargo against war risks in the Arab insurance market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses war risks insurance, and war risks insurance in the Arab insurance market. The setting up of the Arab War Risks Insurance Syndicate in 1979, the Syndicate's targeted areas, insurance against war risks, and war on land cover are discussed in detail. (UK)

  13. Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfang Guo; Zhongliang Guan; Yan Song

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of ...

  14. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Persson

    Full Text Available Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached" or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  15. Pick-up, transport and release of a molecular cargo using a small-molecule robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T. L.; Leigh, David A.; Markevicius, Augustinas; Solà, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Modern-day factory assembly lines often feature robots that pick up, reposition and connect components in a programmed manner. The idea of manipulating molecular fragments in a similar way has to date only been explored using biological building blocks (specifically DNA). Here, we report on a wholly artificial small-molecule robotic arm capable of selectively transporting a molecular cargo in either direction between two spatially distinct, chemically similar, sites on a molecular platform. The arm picks up/releases a 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide cargo by formation/breakage of a disulfide bond, while dynamic hydrazone chemistry controls the cargo binding to the platform. Transport is controlled by selectively inducing conformational and configurational changes within an embedded hydrazone rotary switch that steers the robotic arm. In a three-stage operation, 79-85% of 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide molecules are transported in either (chosen) direction between the two platform sites, without the cargo at any time fully dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with other molecules in the bulk.

  16. Information tecnology and its impact on port cargo distribution businness

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2002-01-01

    The IT revolution has dynamised the port cargo business: up-to-date software is needed to optimize operations such as vessel loading, yard planning, equipment flow, gate handling, administration and invoicing and it is also essential for vessel tracking, electronic declaration of cargo and passengers and as a communication platform to all port users.

  17. 29 CFR 1917.14 - Stacking of cargo and pallets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stacking of cargo and pallets. 1917.14 Section 1917.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... pallets. Cargo, pallets and other material stored in tiers shall be stacked in such a manner as to...

  18. 33 CFR 155.775 - Maximum cargo level of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum cargo level of oil. 155.775 Section 155.775 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.775 Maximum cargo level of oil. (a) For the purposes...

  19. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  20. Fatalities to occupants of cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Greenland, S

    2000-07-01

    We sought to describe the fatalities to occupants of pickup truck cargo areas and to compare the mortality of cargo area occupants to passengers in the cab. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files for 1987-1996, we identified occupants of pickup trucks with at least one fatality and at least one passenger in the cargo area. Outcomes of cargo area occupants and passengers in the cab were compared using estimating equations conditional on the crash and vehicle. Thirty-four percent of deaths to cargo occupants were in noncrash events without vehicle deformation. Fifty-five percent of those who died were age 15-29 years and 79% were male. The fatality risk ratio (FRR) comparing cargo area occupants to front seat occupants was 3.0 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 2.7-3.4). The risk was 7.9 (95% CI = 6.2-10.1) times that of restrained front seat occupants. The FRR ranged from 92 (95% CI = 47-179) in noncrash events to 1.7 (95% CI = 1.5-1.9) in crashes with severe vehicle deformation. The FRR was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) for occupants of enclosed cargo areas and 3.5 (95% CI = 3.1-4.0) for occupants of open cargo areas. We conclude that passengers in cargo areas of pickup trucks have a higher risk of death than front seat occupants, especially in noncrash events, and that camper shells offer only limited protection for cargo area occupants. PMID:10868756

  1. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  2. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.15 Access to cargo: Security threat... must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable security threat...

  3. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  4. A Liquid Cargo Handling Training Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvin Villabø

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a computer-based, real-time training simulator for liquid cargo handling. The mathematical model description is modular and emphasizes the flow generating part. The flow model applies network theory to describe the logical piping connections and the overall flow system performance, while Bernoulli's equation is used for the description of the piping elements. Numerically the Newton-Raphson method is applied for computation of the non-linear flow model. The programming language is HP-FORTRAN IV and the simulator is implemented on an HP minicomputer system. The instructor part of the system is interactive and controlled by the use of a standard ASCII terminal. The simulation part of the system is running in real-time or scaled real-time, and is controlled from the trainee's panel.

  5. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C

    1994-11-01

    Transporting passengers in the cargo area of pickup trucks is a public health safety issue in the United States. Our study compared crashes involving passengers in the cargo area with those involving passengers in the cab. We obtained data for all injury events of pickup occupants for 1990 from the California Highway Patrol. A total of 702 traffic reports coded as having passengers riding in pickup truck beds involved 1,685 passengers in the cargo area and 865 in the cab. Significantly more events involving passengers in the cargo area occurred in summer in rural areas and were noncollisions than did events with only cab passengers. Crashes with passengers in the cargo area resulted in death in 5% of passengers. Of the drivers, 81% were male and 22% were younger than 20 years. Among the 1,685 passengers in the cargo area, 65% were male, 36% were younger than 15 years, and 30% were ages 15 to 19 years. Passengers in the cargo area were more frequently ejected and more seriously injured than their counterparts in the cab. Legislation to restrict travel in truck beds and the design of restraints for this area are some measures that may reduce the risk of injury. PMID:7810125

  6. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  7. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  8. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  9. 46 CFR 153.371 - Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo... Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.371 Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a refrigerated cargo must at...

  10. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  11. Capacity Issues and Efficiency Drivers in Brazilian Bulk Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficiency analysis of Brazilian bulk terminals built upon the conjoint use of Data Envelopment Analysis and the bootstrapping technique. Confidence intervals and bias corrected central estimates were used as cornerstone tools, not only to test for significant differences on efficiency scores and their reciprocals, but also on returns to scale indicators provided by different DEA models. The results of the study suggest that most Brazilian bulk terminals present increasing returns-to-scale, that is, they are too small in size comparatively to the tasks performed, indicating a capacity shortfall. Results also suggest paths for improving efficiency levels in a scenario of low investments and capacity constraints: privatization and cargo specialization. A final contribution to the literature lays on the development a simple methodology to assess returns-to-scale based on bootstrap results.

  12. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... piping by means of seamless steel pipe expansion bends. Special consideration will be given for packless... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of...

  13. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor lines... valve. (d) Before being placed in service, each new cargo hose, with all necessary fittings...

  15. Stochastic modeling of cargo transport by teams of molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Many different types of cellular cargos are transported bidirectionally along microtubules by teams of molecular motors. The motion of this cargo-motors system has been experimentally characterized in vivo as processive with rather persistent directionality. Different theoretical approaches have been suggested in order to explore the origin of this kind of motion. An effective theoretical approach, introduced by M\\"uller et al., describes the cargo dynamics as a tug-of-war between different kinds of motors. An alternative approach has been suggested recently by Kunwar et al., who considered the coupling between motor and cargo in more detail. Based on this framework we introduce a model considering single motor positions which we propagate in continuous time. Furthermore, we analyze the possible influence of the discrete time update schemes used in previous publications on the system's dynamic.

  16. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

  17. Bidirectional cargo transport: Moving beyond tug-of-war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Vesicles, organelles and other intracellular cargo are transported by kinesin and dynein motors, which move in opposite directions along microtubules. This bidirectional cargo movement is frequently described as a “tug-of-war” between oppositely-directed motors attached to the same cargo. However, although many experimental and modeling studies support the tug-of-war paradigm, numerous knockout and inhibition studies in a variety of systems have found that inhibiting one motor leads to diminished motility in both directions, which is a “paradox of codependence” that challenges it. In an effort to resolve this paradox, three classes of bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation, and steric disinhibition, are proposed and a general mathematical modeling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is put forward to guide future experiments. PMID:25118718

  18. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment....

  19. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  20. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  1. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-04

    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  2. The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin; Ohlsson, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Title: The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research Authors: Martin Eriksson and Tobias Ohlsson Supervisor: Cecilia Lindh University: University of MälardalenDepartment: School of Sustainable Development of Society and TechnologyCourse: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 credits Research question: Is the Indian cargo tray industry a promising place for Autoform to make futureinvestments? Target group: The primary target is Autoform. The secondary target group is other cara...

  3. CARGO INSURANCE. TOTAL LOSS UNDER NORWEGIAN, ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneeva, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    This Master Thesis was created because of great personal interest towards marine insurance as such ans cargo insurance in particular. The purpose of this work is to give a proper overview of three legal fields - Norwegian, English and Russian Law. Cargo insurance is of no doubts tremendously important nowadays. How often do people consider where the goods they use daily are coming from? Some tea from India, a new phone form Japan, household appliances from Germany. All these goods were made l...

  4. Three-dimensional container and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    1997-02-01

    A fusion of two independent but complementary three- dimensional imaging techniques is proposed for detecting drugs in containers, cargo, mail and luggage. The containers, cargo, mail and/or luggage are scanned using a combined neutron and gamma ray source. A detector that can detect both neutrons and gamma rays is used to produce three dimensional images from both signals. The two images will be combined and analyzed by a fast host computer to detect drugs that may be concealed in the container, cargo and/or luggage. The two independent signatures from both neutrons and gamma rays, when analyzed simultaneously, may help determine the type of concealed material inside the containers. Containers, cargo and luggage are filled with a large variety of materials. Imaging them only in two dimensions may result in a poor contraband detection probability as different materials may shield each other. Therefore, a true three-dimensional imaging system is proposed, where the individual items inside the container or cargo can be resolved. This is expected to lead to reliable identification of the drugs even in small quantities. Such a system will also pinpoint the location of the suspected item and help expedite inspection by law enforcement agents. The proposed detection system produces two complementary three- dimensional images of the containers, cargo and/or luggage. These images are combined and analyzed by a specially developed algorithm to identify and locate the contraband automatically.

  5. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  6. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  7. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  8. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or...

  9. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; Shaw, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  10. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  11. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecular motor utilizes chemical free energy to generate a unidirectional motion through the viscous fluid. In many experimental settings and biological settings, a molecular motor is elastically linked to a cargo. The stochastic motion of a molecular motor-cargo system is governed by a set of Langevin equations, each corresponding to an individual chemical occupancy state. The change of chemical occupancy state is modeled by a continuous time discrete space Markov process. The probability density of a motor-cargo system is governed by a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The operation of a molecular motor is dominated by high viscous friction and large thermal fluctuations from surrounding fluid. The instantaneous velocity of a molecular motor is highly stochastic: the past velocity is quickly damped by the viscous friction and the new velocity is quickly excited by bombardments of surrounding fluid molecules. Thus, the theory for macroscopic motors should not be applied directly to molecular motors without close examination. In particular, a molecular motor behaves differently working against a viscous drag than working against a conservative force. The Stokes efficiency was introduced to measure how efficiently a motor uses chemical free energy to drive against viscous drag. For a motor without cargo, it was proved that the Stokes efficiency is bounded by 100% [H. Wang and G. Oster, (2002]. Here, we present a proof for the general motor-cargo system.

  12. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  13. Applications and Challenges for Use of Cell-Penetrating Peptides as Delivery Vectors for Peptide and Protein Cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Kristensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic nature of peptides and proteins renders them impermeable to cell membranes. Thus, in order to successfully deliver peptide and protein-based therapeutics across the plasma membrane or epithelial and endothelial barriers, a permeation enhancing strategy must be employed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs constitute a promising tool and have shown applications for peptide and protein delivery into cells as well as across various epithelia and the blood-brain barrier (BBB. CPP-mediated delivery of peptides and proteins may be pursued via covalent conjugation of the CPP to the cargo peptide or protein or via physical complexation obtained by simple bulk-mixing of the CPP with its cargo. Both approaches have their pros and cons, and which is the better choice likely relates to the physicochemical properties of the CPP and its cargo as well as the route of administration, the specific barrier and the target cell. Besides the physical barrier, a metabolic barrier must be taken into consideration when applying peptide-based delivery vectors, such as the CPPs, and stability-enhancing strategies are commonly employed to prolong the CPP half-life. The mechanisms by which CPPs translocate cell membranes are believed to involve both endocytosis and direct translocation, but are still widely investigated and discussed. The fact that multiple factors influence the mechanisms responsible for cellular CPP internalization and the lack of sensitive methods for detection of the CPP, and in some cases the cargo, further complicates the design and conduction of conclusive mechanistic studies.

  14. Effect of cargo size and shape on the transport efficiency of the bacterial Tat translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Neal; Bageshwar, Umesh; Musser, Siegfried M

    2013-04-01

    The Tat machinery translocates fully-folded and oligomeric substrates. The passage of large, bulky cargos across an ion-tight membrane suggests the need to match pore and cargo size, and therefore that Tat transport efficiency may depend on both cargo size and shape. A series of cargos of different sizes and shapes were generated using the natural Tat substrate pre-SufI as a base. Four (of 17) cargos transported with significant (>20% of wild-type) efficiencies. These results indicate that cargo size and shape significantly influence Tat transportability. PMID:23422074

  15. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  16. Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material in a Cargo Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., ''calibration'' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  17. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Norman, Daren R.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Sterbentz, James W.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Zabriskie, John M.; Bennett, Brion D.; Watson, Richard W.; Moss, Cavin E.; Frank Harmon, J.

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration.

  18. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., 'calibration' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  19. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  20. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  1. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  2. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors,the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the possibility of recovery of claim. Moreover the cargo mortgage regulations are, in some regards and aspects, contrary to general legal rules and hence subject to criticism.

  3. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    cargo sizes to the column generation framework is not straightforward, and we handle the flexible cargo sizes heuristically when solving the subproblems. This leads to convergence issues in the branch-and-price search tree, and the optimal solution cannot be guaranteed. Hence we have introduced a method...... that generates an upper bound on the optimal objective. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that the Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with...

  4. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  5. Explosive bulk charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  6. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  7. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  8. SPECIFICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL MECHANISM TO PROVIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARGO HAULERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchenko, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Specifics of implementation of marketing strategy of cargo haulers are identified. Indicators of their marketing strategies’ efficiency are reviewed. The structure of organizational and functional mechanism of implementation of marketing strategies’ by cargo haulers is suggested.

  9. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void... spaces containing cargo piping must have: (1) A fixed mechanical ventilation system; or (2) A...

  10. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.512... shipments and a closing report for all outward shipments, and pay the premium and fees, for all...

  11. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  12. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  13. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  14. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT ON THE CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Kylnytsvska, Y.; Gluhova, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the efficiency of accounts receivable management on cargo motor transportation enterprises is analyzed using the method of statistical analysis, namely middle descriptions of variation row of account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises are analysed; the analysis of unevenness of distributing of the account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises is conducted; the degree of dirigibility of conduct of debtors of cargo motor transportation enterprises...

  15. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  16. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel lines must not pass through accommodation, service, or control spaces. Each gas fuel line...

  17. 46 CFR 308.549 - Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.549 Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319. Any domestic insurance company authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United States may apply for appointment as a Cargo Underwriting...

  18. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables...

  19. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature... temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's vapor pressure at 46 °C (approx. 115 °F)....

  20. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5..., 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  1. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5..., 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  2. 7 CFR 1493.3 - Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on programs and cargo preference... Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement. (a) Restrictions on use of credit guarantees. (1... service the debt associated with such sales. (b) Cargo preference laws. The provisions of the...

  3. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  4. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  5. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  6. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  7. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  8. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Gravity type cargo tanks shall be fitted with an approved pressure-vacuum relief valve of not less than 21... or pressure vacuum relief valve shall be directed in such a manner as to not impinge on another tank... from the safety or pressure vacuum relief valve as a result of a fire or other casualty. In...

  10. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... will cause the quick closing shutoff valves to close in case of fire. Quick closing shutoff valves... penetrations are not applicable to nozzles at which pressure vacuum or safety relief valves are fitted. (a... conditions, every cargo piping system shall be provided with one of the following sets of control valves...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, or it exceeds the capacity of the lifting appliance. (d... rated capacity. (D) The lift angle is at 80 to 90 degrees; (E) The distance between the lifting beam and... maximum cargo weight, in pounds. (b) Container weight. No container shall be hoisted by any...

  12. 46 CFR 13.309 - Eligibility: Cargo course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.309 Eligibility: Cargo course. Each applicant for an original “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of completion from a course in DL or LG appropriate for tank barges and for Tankerman-PIC or Tankerman-PIC (Barge),...

  13. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  14. 46 CFR 148.01-7 - Permitted cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heating and ignition. Note: Definitions of hazard classes of hazardous materials are found in 49 CFR 171.8 and 49 CFR 173.500. (b) A mixture or blend of two or more cargoes, one or more of which is listed in... Flammable solid Contact with water may cause self heating. Coconut meal pellets (or copra...

  15. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  16. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...

  17. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  18. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  19. Inflation from bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the perfect fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model with the bulk-viscosity term. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit equation of state (EoS) of the viscous fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Furthermore, we show that the singular inflation can occur in the viscous fluid ...

  20. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and...... three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low...

  1. Working out of generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation with cargo pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements under the action spatial force system

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibulla TURANOV; Elena TIMUKHINA

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an account of the results of working out a generalized dynamic model of fixation of cargo with pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements. Working out a generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation is rather a complicated problem not in the sense of solving differential equations systems but in the sense of presenting them as a complex mechanical system “cargo – pads – flexible elements – thrust bars”. Generalized dynamic model of cargo with pads observed that this model ...

  2. Uncertainty Assessment of Wave Loads and Ultimate Strength of Tankers and Bulk Carriers in a Reliability Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the research work in this thesis is to investigate the uncertainty of wave-induced loads and ultimate strength of tankers and bulk carriers in a reliability framework. The ship structure is generally designed in accordance with a classification society's rules to be able to withstand the extreme external environmental loads and internal cargo and ballast loads and fulfill its function in the expected service life span without serious negative consequences such as oil leakage, ...

  3. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 orchestrates recruitment of other synaptic vesicle cargo proteins during synaptic vesicle recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ping-Yue; Marrs, Julia; Ryan, Timothy A

    2015-09-11

    A long standing question in synaptic physiology is how neurotransmitter-filled vesicles are rebuilt after exocytosis. Among the first steps in this process is the endocytic retrieval of the transmembrane proteins that are enriched in synaptic vesicles (SVs). At least six types of transmembrane proteins must be recovered, but the rules for how this multiple cargo selection is accomplished are poorly understood. Among these SV cargos is the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut). We show here that vGlut1 has a strong influence on the kinetics of retrieval of half of the known SV cargos and that specifically impairing the endocytosis of vGlut1 in turn slows down other SV cargos, demonstrating that cargo retrieval is a collective cargo-driven process. Finally, we demonstrate that different cargos can be retrieved in the same synapse with different kinetics, suggesting that additional post-endocytic sorting steps likely occur in the nerve terminal. PMID:26224632

  4. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  5. Development of a Cargo Screening Process Simulator: A First Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of current cargo screening processes at sea and air ports is largely unknown as few benchmarks exists against which they could be measured. Some manufacturers provide benchmarks for individual sensors but we found no benchmarks that take a holistic view of the overall screening procedures and no benchmarks that take operator variability into account. Just adding up resources and manpower used is not an effective way for assessing systems where human decision-making and operator compliance to rules play a vital role. Our aim is to develop a decision support tool (cargo-screening system simulator) that will map the right technology and manpower to the right commodity-threat combination in order to maximise detection rates. In this paper we present our ideas for developing such a system and highlight the research challenges we have identified. Then we introduce our first case study and report on the progress we have made so far.

  6. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  7. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  8. Reject or embrace? Messengers and electric cargo bikes

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes; Kihm, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    One of many approaches to react to the challenges faced by urban freight can be the introduction of electric cargo bikes as an environmentally friendly mode of transport for courier deliveries. Since this market consists of highly decentralized decision-making structures, it is important to characterize the individuals involved and their perceptions in order to estimate market potentials and identify barriers to market uptake. To achieve this goal, we use information from a nationwide survey ...

  9. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  10. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-01-01

    Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors),the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the pos...

  11. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  12. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Wei Wang; Chen Yao; Rui Xie; Xiao-Jie Ju; Zhuang Liu; Liang-Yin Chu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two “legs” for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated “on/off” electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers ...

  13. Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Colton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a proposed system for mounting loaded pallets in the cargo bay of a next-generation space-shuttle-like spacecraft, such that the center of mass of the cargo would lie within a 1-in. (2.54-cm) cube that would also contain the center of mass of the spacecraft. The system would include (1) an algorithm for planning the locations of the pallets, given the geometric and weight properties of the pallets, and the geometric restrictions of the cargo bay; (2) quick-connect/quick-disconnect mounting mechanisms similar to those now used on air hoses; (3) other mounting mechanisms, comprising mostly spring-loaded pins, in a locking subsystem that would prevent shifting of the pallets under load; and (4) mechanisms for performing fine position adjustments to satisfy the center-of-mass requirement. The position- adjusting mechanisms would be motor-driven lead-screw mechanisms in groups of three - one for positioning each pin of the locking subsystem along each of three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes. The system also would include a triple-threaded screw that would provide compensation for thermal expansion or contraction of the spacecraft.

  14. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour; Luo, Jia Ning; Lu, Shao Yong

    2015-01-01

    To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID. PMID:26512673

  15. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems. PMID:26637019

  16. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W S; Dick, Ian M; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  17. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins

  18. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  19. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hour Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID.

  20. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  3. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  4. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  5. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1998-01-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge preserving between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singlely charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped a...

  6. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Conainer Inspection, March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-03-27

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.

  7. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Container Inspection, March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a ''next-generation'' mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the ''next-generation'' Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible

  8. 78 FR 21037 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A330-200 Airplanes; Bulk Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... unassisted verbal communication between seated flight attendants. 7. There must be a means for...

  9. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  10. Analytical basis of technology asymmetrical allocation of cargo masses common centre in wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla TURANOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the account of results of the analytical basis of technology asymmetrical cargo allocation in a wagon during rolling stock movement on track unevenness waves. The finite analytical formulas have been obtained for determination of response of wagon bogie spring sets in case of simultaneous displacement of cargo masses common centre longitudinally and sideways to the wagon, which make it possible to ground the cargo allocation according to admissible value of wagon vertical dynamic addition coefficient.

  11. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section 36.10-1..., Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be omitted, however, a suitable device shall be fitted to stop...

  12. A Framework for Analysis of Security Measures Within On-airport Cargo Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rountree, Carla; Demetsky, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 displayed the shortcomings of aviation security in the United States. Most of the attention on aviation security since that time has focused on airline passengers, their luggage, and their carry-on items, leaving air cargo security on the back burner. The lack of security screening and screening guidelines of cargo traveling by both passenger and all-cargo aircraft is the driving purpose behind this research project: the development of a framework t...

  13. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and Oils. This is the third and last scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel on this topic, in which sixteen of these substances or groups of substances have been evaluated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that sodium silicate (water glass solution, iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, 1,3-propanediol, isobutyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, propylene tetramer, paraffin wax, candelilla wax, white mineral oils and glycerol would not be of health concern as previous cargoes. The CONTAM Panel concluded that carnauba wax was not acceptable as a previous cargo because of its insolubility in water and high melting point, which raise concerns regarding the efficiency of tank cleaning. There was insufficient information available on the composition of montan wax for the CONTAM Panel to conclude that it would be of no health concern when used as previous cargo and hence it does not meet the criteria for acceptability as previous cargo. The CONTAM Panel made several recommendations regarding the way in which the substances are described in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC, to correct inaccuracies and to better reflect current transport practices.

  14. Report on the 2011 and 2012 NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) / Alaska State Cargo Airship Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstettler, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the Cargo Airships for Northern Operations workshop that was held August 24-25, 2011. This workshop co-sponsored by NASA ARC and the Alaska State Department of Transportation was initiated by interest from Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell for assistance in investigating the potential benefits of proposed cargo airships for the Alaskan economy and societal needs. The workshop provided a brief background on the technology and operational aspects of conventional airships and hybrids followed by presentations on issues affecting cargo airship operations such as weather management, insurance, regulations, crew duty/rest rules, and available support infrastructures. Speakers representing potential cargo airship users from Alaskan State and commercial organizations presented the needs they felt could be met by cargo airship services. Presenters from Canadian private and military interests also detailed applications and missions that cargo airships could provide to remote regions of Canada. Cost drivers of cargo airship operations were also addressed and tools for modeling and analyzing operational factors and costs affecting cargo airship operations were discussed. Four breakout sessions were held which allowed workshop participants to contribute inputs to four topic areas: Business Approaches and Strategies (financing incentives public/private partnerships etc) for Airship Development and Operation, Design, Development, Production Challenges, and Possible Solutions, Regulatory, Certification, Legal, and Insurance Issues, and Operational Issues, Customer Requirements, and Airship Requirements. A follow on to the 2011 cargo airship workshop is being planned for July 31 August 2, 2012. A status update on this second workshop will also be presented.

  15. X-ray scan detection for cargo integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Juan; Miller, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL's prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels.

  16. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies

  17. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  18. Automatic continuous monitoring system for dangerous sites and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of automatic comprehensive continuous monitoring system for nuclear and radiation sites and cargoes of Rosatom Corporation, which carries out data collecting, processing, storage and transmission, including informational support to decision-making, as well as support to modelling and forecasting functions, are considered. The system includes components of two levels: site and industry. Currently the system is used to monitor over 8000 integrated parameters, which characterise the status of nuclear and radiation safety on Rosatom sites, environmental and fire safety

  19. Advanced gamma ray technology for scanning cargo containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphan, Victor J; Muenchau, Ernie; Gormley, Jerry; Richardson, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS gamma ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced gamma ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers. PMID:15996470

  20. High energy gamma ray telescope using a cargo airplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to measure high energy gamma rays from astronomical objects is presented. In this method, we use commercial cargo airplanes to get the altitude near the air shower maximum. Gamma rays with the energy greater than 100 GeV can be detected by the lead-glass based detector. Directions of gamma rays are determined by those of the secondary electrons (positrons) in the showers. The angular resolution obtained by this method is considered to be better than 1 degree. The detector is sensitive to the gamma ray point sources. (author)

  1. Collinear swimmer propelling a cargo sphere at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2014-01-01

    The swimming velocity and rate of dissipation of a linear chain consisting of two or three little spheres and a big sphere is studied on the basis of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The big sphere is treated as a passive cargo, driven by the tail of little spheres via hydrodynamic and direct elastic interaction. The fundamental solution of Stokes' equations in the presence of a sphere with no-slip boundary condition, as derived by Oseen, is used to model the hydrodynamic interactions between the big sphere and the little spheres.

  2. Advanced γ ray technology for scanning cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS[reg] γ ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced γ ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers

  3. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  4. The legal and documentary aspects of sale of oil cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part discusses a number of specific areas where sale contracts in the oil markets differ from traditional CIF or FOB contracts in other trades and where difficulties have therefore arisen which are peculiar to the oil trade. The second part deals with the passing of ownership and risk in oil cargoes. Finally it looks at certain documentary aspects of oil trading transactions, again concentrating on areas such as letters of indemnity, where the oil markets differ from the traditional commodity markets. (author)

  5. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  6. Gamma probe dry bulk densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma density probe is a useful instrument for measuring water content in small volumes of soil. Essentially, the gamma probe measures the density of the soil and water between a source and a detector. To transpose the gamma densities into water content, the dry bulk density of the soil is needed. A nondestructive method for estimating dry bulk densities for use with the gamma probe is proposed. The procedure is based on the assumption that water content values in a field dry condition were more stable than the dry bulk density values and could be transferred from one point to another. The procedure was successfully used on three areas in Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho. (U.S.)

  7. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  8. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  9. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  10. A Forecasting Model of Required Number of Wheat Bulk Carriers for Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayoshi Kubo

    2008-01-01

    <正>The ocean transportation of grain bulk carriers is promoted by development of ocean economic.With the development of coastal region,the cargo transportation wi11 become more and more important,especially for the resource such as grain,oil and coal.In this study,a model is built to estimate the number of grain bulk carriers needed for wheat based upon analyzing the relationships between Tons and Ton-miles of Africa wheat transportation.We find that the agricultural policies greatly affect the wheat transportation to Africa.Then,using two scenarios, we predict how many ships are necessary for the maritime transportation of wheat from other places to Africa in the future.We believe that this research is extremely useful to maritime transportation of wheat to Africa.

  11. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  12. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1999-06-01

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ˜30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ˜1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ˜2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs.

  13. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ∼30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ∼1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ∼2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs

  14. Cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas R.; Coates, Allison; Kuo, Stelly N.; Loveman, Robert; Pentaleri, Ed; Rynes, Joel C.

    1997-02-01

    The pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) cargo inspection system (CIS) uses a nanosecond pulsed beam of fast neutrons to interrogate the contents of small volume elements -- voxels -- of a cargo container or truck. A color display shows the three-dimensional location of suspected contraband, such as drugs or explosives. The neutrons interact with the elemental contents of each vowel, and gamma rays characteristic of the elements are collected in an array of detectors. The elemental signals and their ratios give unique signatures for drugs and other contraband. From the time of arrival of the gamma rays, the position of the vowel within the truck is determined. The PFNA CIS is designed to scan five or more trucks per hour. The operator interface has been designed to assist in the rapid identification of drugs, explosives or other contraband. This paper describes the system and the tests for drugs and explosives that have been carried out during the past year. These tests were aimed at exploring the envelope of performance of the system.

  15. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF6, and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF6. After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  16. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  17. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.

    1998-07-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge. Solutions involving anomaly terms preserve between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries but Chern-Simons fluxes generally break all of the remaining supersymmetry. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singly charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped around a space with non-zero first Pontryagin class picks up an electric charge proportional to the Pontryagin number.

  18. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  19. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  20. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Lading means the hazardous material contained in a cargo tank. Loading/unloading connection means the... cargo tank loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading connection is attached. Manufacturer... means for attaching a closure), except that the following are not outlets: a threaded opening...

  1. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  2. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  3. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... domestic insurance companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United...

  4. 75 FR 9638 - Safety Advisory Notice: Use of Composite Cargo Tanks Manufactured Under DOT Special Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... reinforced plastic (GFRP) cargo tanks. Federal hazardous materials transportation law (Federal hazmat law; 49..., and use of FRP or GFRP cargo tank motor vehicles: Expiration SP number Holder Status date 9166... above contain the following requirement: The compatibility of the commodities and the (FRP or...

  5. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers AGENCY... the public on methods for securing cargo in transport vehicles and freight containers in order...

  6. 46 CFR 31.10-16 - Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-16 Inspection and certification of cargo gear—TB/ALL. (a) The owner, operator... treatment of chains, rings, hooks, shackles, and swivels which require such treatment; and,...

  7. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  8. 46 CFR 32.60-15 - Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL. 32.60-15 Section 32.60-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT... § 32.60-15 Segregation of cargo; Grade E—TB/ALL. (a) General. The galleys, living quarters,...

  9. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.91 Section 123.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information for Cargo Arriving by Rail or...

  10. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.92 Section 123.92 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information for Cargo Arriving by Rail or...

  11. 14 CFR 121.198 - Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.198 Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing...

  12. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... off- airport and includes facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers... supply chain to accept, screen, and transport air cargo. The uninterrupted collection of this information... below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal in compliance with the...

  13. 49 CFR 1549.111 - Security threat assessments for personnel of certified cargo screening facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessments for personnel of... SECURITY CERTIFIED CARGO SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.111 Security threat assessments for personnel... cargo screening facility, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548 for transport on a...

  14. 46 CFR 308.501 - Cargoes on which coverage is available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.501 Cargoes on which coverage is available. The Maritime Administrator will be prepared to provide marine insurance against loss or damage by the risks of... Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1281(a)); (b) Shipped or to be shipped on any...

  15. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40... Safety Construction Certificate—T/ALL. (a) All tankships on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by the U.S....

  16. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  17. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure in accordance with 49 CFR 180.405(k). (3) Any Specification MC 310 or MC 311 cargo tank motor... this subchapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.33, see the List of CFR... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor...

  18. Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele: Untersuchung der Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen bzgl. Konversionsrate (degree of conversion = DC), Vickers-Härte (HV), Polymerisationsschrumpfungsstress (PSS) und Polymerisationsvolumenschrumpfung (PVS) im Vergleich zu konventionellen Kompositen. Material und Methode: Untersucht wurden die Bulk-Fill Komposite Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBF, 3M ESPE, Seefeld), Surefil Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR, Dentsply, Konstanz), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill...

  19. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors. PMID:26842936

  20. Electronic Method to Detect Persons Hidden Within Cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1997-11-10

    Physical security technologies have been unable to address most `Trojan Horse' scenarios at vehicle portals which provide access through the perimeter of a secure area. Thorough visual searches of vehicle cargo containers are time consuming, involve a number of security personnel and are cursory at best. Vehicles entering or exiting a protected site provide an adversary with an easy pathway across secure boundaries. A method to detect the presence of persons hiding within a vehicle's enclosed cargo container has been developed by LQckheed Martin Energy Systems. The system measures vibrations coupled to the container and generated by the human heart. Each time the human heart beats, it generates a small but measurable shock wave. This shock wave is propagated through the body and transmitted to anything with which the body has contact. This wave is referred to as a baflistocardiograrn and is the mechanical equivalent to an electrocardiogram. Systems have been installed in several State prisons and have been independently tested and evaluated. The effectiveness of the system has been determined by the Thunder Mountain Evaluation Center at Fort Huachuca. Arizona. Sympathetic vibrations of the cargo container's surface can be collected using any of several detection methods, i.e. infrared, Doppler microwave, Doppler ultrasonic wave and geophones. The analog signal delivered by the sensors is passed through an amplifier and a low pass filter and then fed to a microprocessor via an analog to digital converter. When initiated by the operator, anafog signals are recorded for a specific interval of time and rate. At the end of the recording intervaL the data are analysed using wavelet transform techniques and compared with a ballistocardiographic template. If the collected data are similar, the system informs the operator that there is a high degree of probability that a person is within the vehicle. The paper describes in depth the development of the system

  1. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  2. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  3. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  4. A Sensor and Communications System for Containerized-Cargo Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach Jr., R R

    2005-02-10

    A public/private collaboration between federal, state, provincial, and local U.S. and Canadian governmental organizations, called the Canada - United States Cargo Security Project has been formed, with the goal to improve security of containerized cargo moving from overseas locations into eastern Canadian provinces and the Northeastern United States. The current phase of this project has two technical objectives. These are: (1) to build and test a prototype in-container sensor system able to detect unauthorized entry into the container and the presence of radioactive material, to record geographical location and environmental data, and to transmit this information via satellite communications to a remote monitoring facility, and (2) to develop a secure website where data from the in-container sensors and other information will be displayed in real or near-real time and can be made available to law enforcement and emergency response organizations as appropriate. This paper will describe these activities, currently being undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An additional goal of the project's current phase is to integrate multi-jurisdictional training and first-responder exercises while monitoring and tracking container shipments from overseas to the US via Canadian ports-of-entry into North America. This activity is being undertaken by other project partners, which include the National Infrastructure Institute--Center for Infrastructure Expertise (NI2CIE), Transport Canada, Canadian Provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia, Ports of Halifax and Montreal, U.S. Coast Guard (First Coast Guard District), States of New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, and New York and the Port of Portland.

  5. Bulk metallic glass tube casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. → Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. → Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. → Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

  6. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  7. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  8. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  9. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra...

  10. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, J. M.; Bressloff, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow movi...

  11. Bulk dynamics for interfacial growth models

    OpenAIRE

    López, Cristóbal; Santos, Fernando; Garrido, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of the bulk dynamics of a growing cluster of particles on the properties of its interface. First, we define a general bulk growth model by means of a continuum Master equation for the evolution of the bulk density field. This general model just considers an arbitrary addition of particles (though it can be easily generalized to consider subtraction) with no other physical restriction. The corresponding Langevin equation for this bulk density field is derived where the i...

  12. 46 CFR 38.15-5 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the cargo are carried on board the vessel, they shall be of flexible metal and fabricated of seamless steel pipe and flexible joints of steel or bronze, or of other suitable material resistant to the...

  13. A cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNATM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNATM) is to be used at a border crossing to detect explosives and contraband hidden in trucks and cargo containers. Neutrons are produced by the interaction of deuterons in a deuterium target mounted on a moveable scan arm. The collimated pulsed fast neutron beam is used to determine the location and composition of objects in a cargo container. The neutrons produce secondary gamma rays that are characteristic of the object's elemental composition. The cargo inspection system building consists of an accelerator room and an inspection tunnel. The accelerator room is shielded and houses the injector, accelerator and the neutron production gas target. The inspection tunnel is partially shielded. The truck or container to be inspected will be moved through the inspection tunnel by a conveyor system. The facility and radiation source terms considered in the shielding design are described. (authors)

  14. Incorporating biplane wing theory into a large, subsonic, all-cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    If the air-cargo market increases at the pace predicted, a new conceptual aircraft will be demanded to meet the needs of the air-cargo industry. Furthermore, it has been found that not only should this aircraft be optimized to carry the intermodal containers used by the current shipping industry, but it should also be be able to operate at existing airports. The best solution to these problems is a configuration incorporating a bi-wing planform, which has resulted in significant improvements over the monoplane in lift/drag, weight reduction, and span reduction. The future of the air-cargo market, biplane theory, wind tunnel tests, and a comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of the biplane and monoplane are discussed. The factors pertaining to a biplane cargo transport are then examined, resulting in biplane geometric parameters.

  15. Recent developments in fast neutron radiography for the interrogation of air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a worldwide need for improved methods for the scanning of consolidated air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. Ideally, cargo containers must be imaged without unpacking and with scan times of less than a few minutes. Fast neutron radiography techniques are particularly attractive for screening cargo. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine cargo composition. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has developed a scanner for fully-loaded air cargo containers. The scanner combines fast (14 MeV) neutron and γ-ray (or X-ray) radiography, using intense radiation sources and custom high-efficiency detector arrays. The ratio of the transmissions of neutrons and X-rays provides a measure of material composition that is much more sensitive than alternative dual high-energy (MeV) X-ray systems. A full-scale prototype scanner was used by Australian Customs Service to screen incoming air cargo at Brisbane International Airport in 2005/6. The trial of the scanner at Brisbane demonstrated the material discrimination capability of the technology and its ability to make hidden organic materials more obvious. Consolidated cargo was scanned in less than two minutes allowing high volumes of cargo to be screened rapidly. CSIRO is working directly with Nuctech Company Limited, Beijing, China to develop and commercialise the next generation in air cargo scanning technology. A commercial version of the airport scanner being developed by Nuctech and CSIRO is expected to be commissioned by January 2009. The commercial scanner combines a 14 MeV fast neutron radiography system with Nuctech's dual-energy X-ray technology that uses a 6 MeV LINAC X-ray source and Binocular Stereoscopic imaging technology. The commercial scanner will have much better spatial resolution than the Brisbane scanner. The improved resolution, combined with

  16. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  17. An 18680 dwt Multipurpose/Heavy Lift Cargo Vessel, Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Rajko; Grubiša, Robert; Rimanić, Radojka; Vlah, Radivoj; Kučan, Edi; Štokić, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In the article the second part of the signifi cant design features of an 18680 dwt multipurpose/ heavy lift cargo vessel is presented. The specifi c features of the ship structure design are fi rst dealt with. Then, the propulsion assembly, including the main engine, the gearbox/coupling and the controllable pitch propeller system, is described. Also, features of the electrical system are given, with special emphasis laid on the supply, driving and controlling system of the heavy cargo dec...

  18. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  19. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won (SGC-Toronto); (PPCS); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  20. A study of international security requirement on Hong Kong air cargo industry : development and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yu-to, Matthew; 鄧汝滔

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the research related to aviation sector of Hong Kong would focus on infrastructure perspective such as the building of 3rd runway in HKIA and the cooperation issues among airports in Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region in order to analyze the impact towards competitiveness of Hong Kong as a major international air cargo hub. However, there are not much research on air cargo industry has been done from security perspective but the recent trend of tightening international security...

  1. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the authors put together the individual models which are significant to study further. Finally, the authors combine two individual models (grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model into one combined model to forecast the port cargo throughput, and use the model to a physical port in China to testify the validity of the model.Findings: Test by the perceptional data of cargo throughput in the physical port, the results show that the combined model can obtain relatively higher forecast accuracy when it is not easy to find more information. Furthermore, the forecast made by the combined model are more accurate than any of the individual ones.Research limitations/implications: The study provided a new combined forecast model of cargo throughput with a relatively less information to improve the accuracy rate of the forecast. The limitation of the model is that it requires the cargo throughput of the port have an S-shaped change trend.Practical implications: This model is not limited by external conditions such as geographical, cultural. This model predicted the port cargo throughput of one real port in China in 2015, which provided some instructive guidance for the port development.Originality/value: This is the one of the study to improve the accuracy rate of the cargo throughput forecast with little information.

  2. Oligomerization of a Cargo Receptor Directs Protein Sorting into COPII-coated Transport Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Ken; Nakano, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    Secretory proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex in vesicles coated with coat protein complex II (COPII). The incorporation of certain transport molecules (cargo) into the COPII vesicles is thought to be mediated by cargo receptors. Here we show that Emp47p, a type-I membrane protein, is specifically required for the transport of an integral membrane protein, Emp46p, from the ER. Exit of Emp46p from the ER was saturable and de...

  3. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  4. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ∼350 Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry

  5. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  6. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  7. Guidelines for Measuring Bulk Density of Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk density is defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of undisturbed soil. • Bulk density can be used to give an indication of the porosity and structure of the soil influencing O2 and H2O movement in the soil. • Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 may restrict root development. • Bulk density is also a measurement of the degree of compaction of the soil. • Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with soil depth. • Sandy soils tend to have higher bulk density (1.4-1.5 g/cm3) than clay soils (1.2-1/3g/cm3). The measurement of soil bulk density is carried out by collecting undisturbed soil samples through inserting metal rings (with a known volume) into the soil, and determining the weight of the collected soil after drying

  8. Mulheres em cargos profissionais de chefia: o paradoxo da igualdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Alberton de Silva Galvane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aqui apresentado foi construído a partir de informações obtidas em uma pesquisa realizada no ano de 2009, apresentada como Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso da Psicologia, ao Centro Universitário Barriga Verde - UNIBAVE (GALVANE, 2009. A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral verificar os sentidos produzidos por mulheres que ocupam cargos de chefia em indústrias de uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O modelo de pesquisa foi o qualitativo proposto por González Rey (2005. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram sete mulheres e as informações obtidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Neste artigo, propõe-se revisar informações obtidas e ampliar discussões outrora realizadas, utilizando-se das contribuições teóricas de Joan Scott e Judith Butler. Entre outras questões relevantes, o estudo sugere que as entrevistadas utilizam concepções baseadas em “certa essência feminina” como estratégia de visibilidade, permanência e poder no mercado de trabalho.

  9. Desktop Application Program to Simulate Cargo-Air-Drop Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The DSS Application is a computer program comprising a Windows version of the UNIX-based Decelerator System Simulation (DSS) coupled with an Excel front end. The DSS is an executable code that simulates the dynamics of airdropped cargo from first motion in an aircraft through landing. The bare DSS is difficult to use; the front end makes it easy to use. All inputs to the DSS, control of execution of the DSS, and postprocessing and plotting of outputs are handled in the front end. The front end is graphics-intensive. The Excel software provides the graphical elements without need for additional programming. Categories of input parameters are divided into separate tabbed windows. Pop-up comments describe each parameter. An error-checking software component evaluates combinations of parameters and alerts the user if an error results. Case files can be created from inputs, making it possible to build cases from previous ones. Simulation output is plotted in 16 charts displayed on a separate worksheet, enabling plotting of multiple DSS cases with flight-test data. Variables assigned to each plot can be changed. Selected input parameters can be edited from the plot sheet for quick sensitivity studies.

  10. The Lethal Cargo of Myxococcus xanthus Outer Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JamesEBerleman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterial micro-predator known for hunting other microbes in a wolf pack-like manner. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are produced in large quantities by M. xanthus and have a highly organized structure in the extracellular milieu, sometimes occurring in chains that link neighboring cells within a biofilm. OMVs may be a vehicle for mediating wolf pack activity by delivering hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics aimed at killing prey microbes. Here, both the protein and small molecule cargo of the OMV and membrane fractions of M. xanthus were characterized and compared. Our analysis indicates a number of proteins that are OMV-specific or OMV-enriched, including several with putative hydrolytic function. Secondary metabolite profiling of OMVs identifies 16 molecules, many associated with antibiotic activities. Several hydrolytic enzyme homologs were identified, including MXAN_3564 (mepA, an M36 protease homolog. Genetic disruption of mepA leads to a significant reduction in extracellular protease activity suggesting MepA is the long-predicted (yet to date unknown primary extracellular protease in M. xanthus.

  11. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra que los aspectos civiles de los cargos son indisociables de los rituales religiosos. Los cargos reunían funciones militares, judiciales y económicas, pero éstas han ido perdiendo vigencia por la violencia y por la compañía forestal, una notable fuente de recursos. Sin embargo, por el sistema de cargos los mestizos de Milpillas se han integrado a la organización política y la cultura de los tepehuanos.

  12. Quantifying the Dynamic Interactions Between a Clathrin-Coated Pit and Cargo Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Aubrey; Tamkun, Michael; Krapf, Diego

    2014-03-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major pathway of internalization of cargo in eukaryotic cells. This process involves the recruitment of cargo molecules into a growing clathrin-coated pit (CCP). However, cargo-CCP interactions are difficult to study because CCPs display a large degree of lifetime heterogeneity and the interactions with cargo molecules evolve over time. We use single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, in combination with automatic detection and tracking algorithms, to directly visualize the recruitment of individual voltage-gated potassium channels into forming CCPs in living cells. Contrary to widespread ideas, cargo often escapes from a pit before abortive CCP termination or endocytic vesicle production. By measuring tens of thousands of capturing events, we build the distribution of capture times and the times that cargo remains confined to a CCP. An analytical stochastic model is developed and compared to the measured distributions. Due to the dynamic nature of the pit, the model is non-Markovian and it displays long-tail power law statistics. Our findings identify one source of the large heterogeneities observed in CCP maturation and provide a mechanism for the anomalous diffusion of proteins in the plasma membrane. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-0956714.

  13. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  14. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  15. Changing Concentration Ratios and Geographical Patterns of Bulk Ports: The Case of the Korean West Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehwee Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to liner shipping, common shipping network patterns are difficult to organize in tramp shipping as origin and destination ports are irregular and they may change based on shippers’ demands. Unlike liner shipping whereas the choice of ports is strongly related to their geographical locations among other factors and a topic of much research in the contemporary literature, the geographical issues related to bulk ports are an interesting yet currently under-researched topic. For this reason, this study aims to analyze the concentration ratios of bulk ports to reveal geographical patterns, using the case of bulk ports along the west coast of Korea including, Incheon Port (ICP, Pyeongtaek-Dangjin Port (PDP, and Gunsan Port (GSP. To examine and shed more light to the above mentioned research issue, this paper adopts a series of methods, such as Hirshmann-Herfindahl Index (HHI, Location Quotients (LQ, and Shift Effects (SE. Results from the HHI analysis, indicated that de-concentration has been gradually rising because of a considerable overlapping of ports’ functions. Meanwhile, the LQs’ confirmed this result. Finally, the SE’ results effectively showed that a substantial shifting of cargo had occurred among the ports.

  16. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia; Juul, Sissel; Ottaviani, Alessio; Benvenuti, Claudia; Biocca, Silvia; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Desideri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous demonstration of temperature controlled reversible encapsulation of the cargo enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, in the cage with four hairpin forming strands. However, in this previous study the mechanism of cargo uptake was not directly addressed (Juul, et al., Temperature-Controlled Encapsulation and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724-9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening-closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation and showed that the two hairpin forming strands facilitated extension of at least one of the face surfaces of the cage scaffold, allowing entrance of the cargo protein into the cavity of the structure. Hence, the presented data demonstrate that cargo uptake does not involve a full opening of the structure. Rather, the uptake mechanism represents a feature of increased flexibility integrated in this nanocage structure upon the addition of at least two hairpin-forming strands.In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous

  17. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  18. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  19. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  20. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  1. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Eglynas; Marijonas Bogdevičius; Arūnas Andziulis; Tomas Lenkauskas

    2016-01-01

    Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable dam...

  2. Effect of process-dependent parameters of the handling-and-storage facility operation on the cargo handling cost

    OpenAIRE

    Шраменко, Наталя Юріївна

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the handling-and-storage facility operation revealed the disadvantages of the technology that is related to the non-consideration of incoming cargo traffic variations in the planning and organization of industrial activity.The criterion of the handling-and-storage facility operation that presents unit costs for cargo handling has been formalized. The criterion makes it possible to take into account the cargo owner's costs associated with downtime of vehicles waiting for service an...

  3. 46 CFR 30.25-1 - Cargoes carried in vessels certificated under the rules of this subchapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... category C oil-like NLS, under 33 CFR part 151. Requirements for category D NLS cargoes and mixtures of non-NLS cargoes with category D NLS cargoes are in 33 CFR part 151. Table 30.25-1—List of Flammable and..., n.o.s. (see also Oil, edible) D Including: Beechnut oil Castor oil Cocoa butter Coconut oil Corn...

  4. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  5. Bicaudal-D uses a parallel, homodimeric coiled coil with heterotypic registry to coordinate recruitment of cargos to dynein

    OpenAIRE

    Yang LIU; Salter, Hannah K.; Holding, Andrew N.; Johnson, Christopher M.; Stephens, Elaine; Lukavsky, Peter J.; Walshaw, John; Bullock, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Cargo transport by the microtubule motor dynein is critical to diverse cellular processes. However, little is known about how different cargos are recognized and linked to this motor complex. Here, Liu et al. investigate the cargo-binding region of the dynein adaptor BicD in Drosophila. They provide a crystal structure of BicD and identify a shared binding site for two cargo-associated proteins: Rab6 and the RNA-binding protein Egl. This study provides structural insight into the molecular in...

  6. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface. PMID:27353000

  7. Delivery of Non-Native Cargo into Mammalian Cells Using Anthrax Lethal Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Amy E; Pentelute, Bradley Lether

    2016-06-17

    The intracellular delivery of peptide and protein therapeutics is a major challenge due to the plasma membrane, which acts as a barrier between the extracellular environment and the intracellular milieu. Over the past two decades, a nontoxic PA/LFN delivery platform derived from anthrax lethal toxin has been developed for the transport of non-native cargo into the cytosol of cells in order to understand the translocation process through a protective antigen (PA) pore and to probe intracellular biological functions. Enzyme-mediated ligation using sortase A and native chemical ligation are two facile methods used to synthesize these non-native conjugates, inaccessible by recombinant technology. Cargo molecules that translocate efficiently include enzymes from protein toxins, antibody mimic proteins, and peptides of varying lengths and non-natural amino acid compositions. The PA pore has been found to effectively convey over 30 known cargos other than native lethal factor (LF; i.e., non-native) with diverse sequences and functionalities on the LFN transporter protein. All together these studies demonstrated that non-native cargos must adopt an unfolded or extended conformation and contain a suitable charge composition in order to efficiently pass through the PA pore. This review provides insight into design parameters for the efficient delivery of new cargos using PA and LFN. PMID:27055654

  8. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  9. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Thomas Wesley, E-mail: twholmes@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P. [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are {sup 137}Cs and {sup 235}U.

  10. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley Holmes, Thomas; Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, [1]). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.×4 in.×16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.×16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  11. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  12. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nanowire coils of organometallic coordination polymers for controlled cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Ni, Huan; Bao, Suping; Zhu, Fangming; Gao, Haiyang; Wu, Qing

    2014-06-12

    Nanowire coils of organometallic coordination polymers have been synthesized for the first time by using the emulsion periphery polymerization technique. An amphiphilic triblock copolymer terminated with inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin and 4,4'-bipyridine self-assembles into oil-in-water emulsion in a toluene/water mixture. Subsequent coordination of bipyridine with Ni(II) in periphery of emulsions results in the formation of coordination polymer nanowire coils. The nanowire coils are composed of nanowires with diameter of 2 nm. Nanowire coils exhibit enhanced thermal stability in contrast to their parent triblock copolymer. Interestingly, nanowire coils are capable of encapsulating organic cargoes. Encapsulated cargoes can be selectively extracted from nanowire coils without damaging nanowire coils. Nanowire coils are potential candidates for encapsulating and controlled release of organic cargoes. PMID:24842771

  14. Tackling the x-ray cargo inspection challenge using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W.; Morton, Edward J.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-05-01

    The current infrastructure for non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers cannot accommodate exploding com-merce volumes and increasingly stringent regulations. There is a pressing need to develop methods to automate parts of the inspection workflow, enabling expert operators to focus on a manageable number of high-risk images. To tackle this challenge, we developed a modular framework for automated X-ray cargo image inspection. Employing state-of-the-art machine learning approaches, including deep learning, we demonstrate high performance for empty container verification and specific threat detection. This work constitutes a significant step towards the partial automation of X-ray cargo image inspection.

  15. Fast-neutron/gamma-ray radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J.; Liu, Y.; Rainey, S.; Roach, G.; Sowerby, B.; Stevens, R.; Tickner, J.

    2006-05-01

    There is a worldwide need for efficient inspection of cargo containers at airports, seaports and road border crossings. The main objectives are the detection of contraband such as illicit drugs, explosives and weapons. Due to the large volume of cargo passing through Australia's airports every day, it is critical that any scanning system should be capable of working on unpacked or consolidated cargo, taking at most 1-2 minutes per container. CSIRO has developed a fast-neutron/gamma-ray radiography (FNGR) method for the rapid screening of air freight. By combining radiographs obtained using 14 MeV neutrons and 60Co gamma-rays, high resolution images showing both density and material composition are obtained. A near full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory. With the support of the Australian Customs Service, a full-scale scanner has recently been installed and commissioned at Brisbane International Airport.

  16. Mechanized azobenzene-functionalized zirconium metal-organic framework for on-command cargo release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshi; Gui, Bo; Yuan, Daqiang; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained increasing attention recently for their potential applications in many areas. We report the design and synthesis of a water-stable zirconium MOF (Zr-MOF) that bears photoresponsive azobenzene groups. This particular MOF can be used as a reservoir for storage of cargo in water, and the cargo-loaded MOF can be further capped to construct a mechanized MOF through the binding of β-cyclodextrin with the azobenzene stalks on the MOF surface. The resulting mechanized MOF has shown on-command cargo release triggered by ultraviolet irradiation or addition of competitive agents without premature release. This study represents a simple approach to the construction of stimuli-responsive mechanized MOFs, and considering mechanized UiO-68-azo made from biocompatible components, this smart system may provide a unique MOF platform for on-command drug delivery in the future. PMID:27493996

  17. Microbial influenced corrosion in cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, R.T. [Chevron Shipping Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); McFarland, B.L. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgman, R.Z. [Corrpro Companies Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Excessive pitting corrosion in the uncoated bottom platings of cargo oil tanks was detected in newbuilt crude oil tankers only 2 to 5 years old, and was diagnosed as microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) concentrations reached as high as 100,000 to 10,000,000 per milliliter in the settled water at the bottom of the cargo oil tanks. Biocide treatment to control MIC was studied in the laboratory using microbial consortia isolated from cargo oil tank bottoms. Biocide treatment to control MIC was attempted experimentally, but was found to be impractical onboard tankers. A MIC mitigation strategy, employing an enhanced pitting inspection and repair program combined with the coating of the bottom platings, was developed and implemented for existing crude oil tankers. Considerations for improvement of future newbuild crude oil tankers are also presented.

  18. GSK-3 regulates transport of kinesin-1 driven cargos in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, Christina; Weaver, Carole; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.; Shubeita, George T.; CenterNonlinear Dynamics, Department of Physics, University of Texas At Austin Collaboration; Hhmi, Department of Cellular; Molecular Medicine, Univ. Of California Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    The Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been linked to many aspects of the development of Alzheimer's disease and was proposed to play a role in the transport of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by kinesin-1 motors. Using Drosophila embryos and larvae with altered GSK-3 expression, we characterize motor transport of cargos including APP and lipid droplets using DIC microscopy, high-resolution video tracking, fluorescence, and in vivo stall force measurements with optical tweezers. By comparing cargo velocities and run lengths we find that GSK-3 is a required negative regulator of in vivo transport. Stall force measurements on lipid droplets reveal that enhanced transport under conditions of reduced GSK-3 is a result of a larger number of active motors hauling the cargo. Our findings have implications on the use of GSK-3 inhibitors in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-27

    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Applicability of gamma detection systems for the detection of illicit transports of radioactive substances in cargo containers shielded by the cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this research project is the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material inside of cargo containers. The currently used radiation portal monitors (RPM) at border crossings are not sufficient due to two effects which often occur during operation: false positive and false negative alarms. In case of false positive an alarm is given in the absence of radioactive material (or natural and harmless radioactive substances are classified as relevant anthropogenic material). In the second case, false negative, radioactive material with high risk potential is not detected. Because of these two effects, more advanced detections systems and other technical efforts are desirable. The expected increase of cargo container flow and special security programs like the Mega Port Initiative are demanding more reliable detection systems. Main focus of research project: This research project focuses on the applicability of spectrometric gamma detection systems in general. Regardless whether currently used, advanced detectors or hypothetic gamma detectors, all need a certain amount of gamma radiation to afford the identification of characteristic peaks. The overall problem is that the emitted gamma radiation is attenuated and has to be discriminated from the radiation background. One has to consider that the attenuation of radiation depends on the energy, and that often in the lower part of the energetic spectrum a higher background occurs. This leads in particular to a larger decrease of detection probability of radionuclides in the lower part of the energy spectrum. One can assume that even with high ambitioned efforts only a small progress in detection efficiency will be achieved because the marginal improvements approach physical limitations that cannot be overcome. The first part of the research project consisted of measurements with portal monitors and, in comparison, smaller spectrometric detectors. This was done in order to get an overview on realistic

  1. Gamma-ray and neutron radiography for a pulsed fast neutron analysis cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design, optimization, and characterization of a gamma-ray and neutron radiographic subsystem that was developed for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) cargo inspection system. The PFNA inspection system uses D-D based nanosecond pulsed neutron source to produce three-dimensional elemental content images of cargo. The PFNA neutron source produces gamma rays as well as neutrons. The new radiographic subsystem measures these radiations in an array of plastic scintillators to produce gamma-ray and neutron transmission images of the cargo simultaneously with the PFNA elemental content measurement. Although the radiographic subsystem improves PFNA performance in many forms of contraband detection, it was specifically designed to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in cargo containers and trucks. A feasibility study, including experiments and modeling, was performed to determine the usefulness of neutron and gamma-ray radiography in this application. The study showed that the baseline configuration was useful in cargoes up to 144 g/cm2 thick. In order to improve the subsystem performance, the source output needed to be increased. The neutron and gamma-ray yield and spectrum were measured for a variety of different beam stops. The maximum cargo thickness was increased to 180 g/cm2 by changing the source beam stop from gold to copper and by increasing the detector length to 17.0 cm. An experiment was then performed that determined a 3.5 cm radiographic resolution was adequate for SNM detection. The detector configuration and the source motion were optimized to obtain a resolution of approximately 3.5 cm using the minimal number of detectors (128) and the maximum detector diameter (5.1 cm). A prototype of the final design was built, installed, and tested, and is currently in use at the PFNA test facility. (author)

  2. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation

  3. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  4. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with railway-induced ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight lines, with one work package that investigated human response to vibration, including sleep disturbance, community annoyanc...

  5. Genetic algorithms approach for containerships fleet management dependent on cargo and their deadlines

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Ana; Martins, Paulo; Andrade-Campos, António; Lobo,

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes a method to improve the flexibility of short sea shipping and to increase its competitiveness with other means of freight transport. A logistic model and a mathematical model are developed to manage a fleet of two or more vessels which transport cargo to and from several ports, bearing in mind the cargo distribution and delivery deadlines. At each port, the model determines which port to visit next, which containers to embark, disembark and to shift, as well as how to stow ...

  6. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Zhang; Lei Huang; Zhichao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the a...

  7. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C Jeffrey; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L

    2015-03-31

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  8. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  9. Automatic air cargo selection and weight balancing: A mixed integer programming approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vancroonenburg, Wim; Verstichel, Jannes; Tavernier, Karel; Vanden Berghe, Greet

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution introduces a mixed integer linear programming model as a decision support tool for air cargo load planning. The main objective for the model is to find the most profitable selection from a set of cargo to be loaded on an aircraft. The secondary objective is to minimize the deviation between the aircraft’s centre of gravity, and a known target value so as to reduce fuel consumption and improve stability. The model is subject to a large number of constraints that ensure...

  10. Triple Emulsion Drops with An Ultrathin Water Layer: High Encapsulation Efficiency and Enhanced Cargo Retention in Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lee, Hyomin; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Kim, June Hwan; Fan, Jing; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Zhu, Taotao; Weitz, David A

    2016-05-01

    Triple emulsion drops with an ultrathin water layer are developed to achieve high encapsulation efficiency of hydrophobic cargo in a hydrophobic polymeric shell, directly dispersed in water. Furthermore, enhanced retention of volatile hydrophobic cargo is achieved by forming a hydrogel network within this water layer that serves as a physical barrier. PMID:26932778

  11. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  12. Bulk Viscosity in Holographic Lifshitz Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent.

  13. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hoyos; Bom Soo Kim; Yaron Oz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical ...

  14. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  15. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  16. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  17. Technical specifications for the bulk shielding reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information concerning the technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor. Areas covered include: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of airborne effluents. 10 refs

  18. The bulk radio expansion of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison, in the visibility plane, or radio observations of Cassiopeia A made at 151 MHz over a 2.3 yr interval indicates that the bulk of the radio emitting material has not been decelerated strongly

  19. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John A

    2002-01-01

    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE

  20. PHONON ECHOES IN BULK AND POWDERED MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kajimura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of phonon echoes in bulk and powdered materials are reviewed. Phonon echoes have been observed in many materials such as bulk piezoelectric crystals, paramagnets, glasses, doped semiconductors, and piezoelectric, magnetic, and metallic powders, etc. The echoes arise from a time reversal of the phase, like spin echoes, of a primary pulsed acoustic excitation due to a second acoustic or rf pulse. The phase reversal occurs through the nonlinear interactions o...

  1. Orbital magnetization in insulators: Bulk versus surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Raffaello; Resta, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The orbital magnetic moment of a finite piece of matter is expressed in terms of the one-body density matrix as a simple trace. We address a macroscopic system, insulating in the bulk, and we show that its orbital moment is the sum of a bulk term and a surface term, both extensive. The latter only occurs when the transverse conductivity is nonzero and it is due to conducting surface states. Simulations on a model Hamiltonian validate our theory.

  2. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  3. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGE OF CAIRO-DAMIETTA SELF-PROPELLED GRAIN BULK SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global logistics center for the storage and handling of grain which will be constructed at Damietta port will extremely increase the annual movement of grain through Cairo-Damietta waterway. Therefore, the demand for inland grain bulk ships has increased significantly in the recent years. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the fleet size and optimum characteristics of self-propelled grain bulk ships working between Cairo and Damietta through River Nile. The characteristics of the Cairo–Damietta waterway are investigated to define the constraints on dimensions and speed for such ship type. Also, mathematical model for the objective function was developed considering: powering, voyage, weight, stability and cost calculation. In this research, Specific cost (Sc, cost of transporting one ton of cargo a distance of one kilometre, is considered as the objective function for this optimization process. This optimization problem is handled as a single objective nonlinear constrained optimization problem using a specially developed computer program. Solutions are generated by varying design variables systematically in certain steps. The best of these solutions is then taken as the estimated optimum. Finally, the problem is presented, the main constrains analyzed and the optimum solution shown.

  4. 46 CFR 32.50-5 - Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or... SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-5 Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936—TB/ALL....

  5. Analysis of VGH data from two types of four-engine airplanes in commercial cargo service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, F. M.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented for derived gust velocities and for incremental normal accelerations due to gusts, maneuvers, and landing impacts. The data were obtained from NASA VGH recorders installed on three four-engine cargo airplanes operated by three airlines. Continental United States and trans-Pacific routes were covered.

  6. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast... cargo in the navigable waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is prohibited... or email LTJG Johnny Zeng, Sector Puget Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard;...

  7. 78 FR 50134 - Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics Holding... securities of Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  8. 77 FR 50926 - Security Zones; Certain Dangerous Cargo Vessels, Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of..., which, due to their ] political, economic, social, or religious significance, may render them... Ombudsman evaluates these actions annually and rates each agency's responsiveness to small business. If...

  9. Functional description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, W.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [SAIC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-15

    This Functional Description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) documents the purpose of and requirements for the ICDB in order to ensure a mutual understanding between the development group and the user group of the system. This Functional Description defines ICDB and provides a clear statement of the initial operational capability to be developed.

  10. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be tested and inspected? 150.405 Section 150.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Operations § 150.405 How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected? (a) No person may transfer oil... and tested according to this section. (b) The single point mooring (SPM)-CTS must be maintained...

  11. Dragonair- Year-on-Year Rises Continue For Passengers And Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Passenger numbers at Dragonair rose 13.2% while cargo volumes climbed 23.9%in April compared with the same month in 2004. The airline flew 431,860 passengers last month, 50,274 more than one year ago,and 7.3% up on March.

  12. 33 CFR 157.37 - Discharge of oily mixtures from oil cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from such cargoes to a reception facility. (c) Each oil discharge monitoring and control system must be... discharge monitoring and control system must be retained for at least three years. The data for the most... the vessel is an existing vessel with a Part Flow System meeting that appendix; or (iii) Below...

  13. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-08-23

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms-intended to improve the chances of capturing the target-are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau-a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer\\'s disease-coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Groves, FAA, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification... that each cargo compartment must meet one of the Class requirements of Sec. 25.857; and the flight.... Two types of shut-off systems meet this requirement: A manual system, with an airplane flight...

  15. Gamma/x-ray linear pushbroom stereo for 3D cargo inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Hu, Yu-Chi

    2006-05-01

    For evaluating the contents of trucks, containers, cargo, and passenger vehicles by a non-intrusive gamma-ray or X-ray imaging system to determine the possible presence of contraband, three-dimensional (3D) measurements could provide more information than 2D measurements. In this paper, a linear pushbroom scanning model is built for such a commonly used gamma-ray or x-ray cargo inspection system. Accurate 3D measurements of the objects inside a cargo can be obtained by using two such scanning systems with different scanning angles to construct a pushbroom stereo system. A simple but robust calibration method is proposed to find the important parameters of the linear pushbroom sensors. Then, a fast and automated stereo matching algorithm based on free-form deformable registration is developed to obtain 3D measurements of the objects under inspection. A user interface is designed for 3D visualization of the objects in interests. Experimental results of sensor calibration, stereo matching, 3D measurements and visualization of a 3D cargo container and the objects inside, are presented.

  16. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-09-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms—intended to improve the chances of capturing the target—are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau—a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer's disease—coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations.

  17. 49 CFR 1544.202 - Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft. 1544.202 Section 1544.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.202 Persons and property onboard an...

  18. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  19. Conceptual design of the french MAPS NTP cargo shuttle based on a particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAPS, a 3-years study program on NTP has been launched at CEA in 1994 following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results obtained after one year of studies, and gives an outline of the future work. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. The use of x-ray imaging technology in cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aftermath of the September 11,2001 terrorist attack in the United States has brought a significant change in the conduct of trade and commerce among nations. The introduction on non-intrusive cargo inspection equipment, most x-ray and gamma ray scanners, among customs administrations worldwide has been widely employed and incorporated in their respective cargo examination procedures as part of their security initiative to deter terrorist threats. In compliance with our international commitment and agreement passed by the World Customs Organization which required the use of modern technology in cargo inspection, the Bureau of Customs had acquired 30 units of container x-ray scanners in 2006 from China that became operational in 2007 and the acquisition of which was guided by the following objectives: maximize collection of government revenues,facilitate trade and commerce, prevent smuggling, and safeguard the public and environment against the entry of hazardous and harmful substance. In this light, this paper discusses the brief background of the non-intrusive container inspection system project of the Bureau of Customs, an overview of the technical features of x-ray imaging technology acquired, the procedures in the application of x-ray inspection in containerized cargo, the radiation safety infrastructures and considerations, and a review of some major accomplishments after its two years of existence. (author)

  1. 77 FR 44528 - Dry Cargo Residue Discharges in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... requesting information about the then-current status of dry cargo operations in the Great Lakes (69 FR 77147... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not plan to... Protection Agency FEIS Final Environmental Impact Statement FR Federal Register ICR Information...

  2. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms—intended to improve the chances of capturing the target—are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau—a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer's disease—coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations

  3. APPL endosomes are not obligatory endocytic intermediates but act as stable cargo-sorting compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidzidis, Inna; Miaczynska, Marta; Brewińska-Olchowik, Marta; Hupalowska, Anna; Ferguson, Charles; Parton, Robert G.; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis allows cargo to enter a series of specialized endosomal compartments, beginning with early endosomes harboring Rab5 and its effector EEA1. There are, however, additional structures labeled by the Rab5 effector APPL1 whose role in endocytic transport remains unclear. It has been proposed that APPL1 vesicles are transport intermediates that convert into EEA1 endosomes. Here, we tested this model by analyzing the ultrastructural morphology, kinetics of cargo transport, and stability of the APPL1 compartment over time. We found that APPL1 resides on a tubulo-vesicular compartment that is capable of sorting cargo for recycling or degradation and that displays long lifetimes, all features typical of early endosomes. Fitting mathematical models to experimental data rules out maturation of APPL1 vesicles into EEA1 endosomes as a primary mechanism for cargo transport. Our data suggest instead that APPL1 endosomes represent a distinct population of Rab5-positive sorting endosomes, thus providing important insights into the compartmental organization of the early endocytic pathway. PMID:26459602

  4. Endocytic Trafficking of Membrane-Bound Cargo: A Flotillin Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and highly conserved flotillin proteins, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, have been shown to be involved in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, signal transduction through receptor tyrosine kinases as well as in cellular trafficking pathways. Due to the fact that flotillins are acylated and form hetero-oligomers, they constitutively associate with cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains. In recent years, such microdomains have been appreciated as platforms that participate in endocytosis and other cellular trafficking steps. This review summarizes the current findings on the role of flotillins in membrane-bound cargo endocytosis and endosomal trafficking events. We will discuss the proposed function of flotillins in endocytosis in the light of recent findings that point towards a role for flotillins in a step that precedes the actual endocytic uptake of cargo molecules. Recent findings have also revealed that flotillins may be important for endosomal sorting and recycling of specific cargo molecules. In addition to these aspects, the cellular trafficking pathway of flotillins themselves as potential cargo in the context of growth factor signaling will be discussed.

  5. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  6. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure. 192.14 Section 192.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXPORT CONTROL Filing of Export Information Through the Automated Export...

  7. 77 FR 25187 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... and include facilties upstream ] in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities, distributors, third party logistics companies, and indirect air carriers located in the... collection of information on February 24, 2012, 77 FR 11146, and TSA received no comments. The...

  8. 23 CFR 658.23 - LCV freeze; cargo-carrying unit freeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... including the truck tractor) whose cargo-carrying units exceed: (i) The maximum combination trailer, semitrailer, or other type of length limitation authorized by State law or regulation of that State on or... units may operate on the NN. (1) Truck tractor-semitrailer-trailer and truck...

  9. 46 CFR 308.548 - Standard form of underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agreements executed by the Maritime Administrator and domestic insurance companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United States, appointing such companies as Underwriting Agents to... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.548 Standard form...

  10. The Targeted Delivery of Multicomponent Cargos to Cancer Cells via Nanoporous Particle-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Carlee E.; CARNES, ERIC C.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Padilla, David; Durfee, Paul N.; Brown, Page A.; Hanna, Tracey N.; Liu, Juewen; Phillips, Brandy; Carter, Mark B.; Carroll, Nick J.; Jiang, Xingmao; Dunphy, Darren R.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2011-01-01

    Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including specificity, stability, and a high capacity for disparate cargos. Here we report porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) that ...

  11. Database specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, B.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Database Specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) describes the database organization and storage allocation, provides the detailed data model of the logical and physical designs, and provides information for the construction of parts of the database such as tables, data elements, and associated dictionaries and diagrams.

  12. 33 CFR 155.310 - Containment of oil and hazardous material cargo discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For a tankship, as defined in 46 CFR 30.10-67, the coaming or other barrier required in 46 CFR 32.56... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containment of oil and hazardous... FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.310 Containment of oil and hazardous material cargo discharges....

  13. A whole-system approach to x-ray spectroscopy in cargo inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Gozani, Tsahi; Ryge, Peter; Sinha, Shrabani; Shaw, Tim; Strellis, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrum used in high-energy, high-intensity x-ray cargo inspection systems is attenuated and modified by the materials in the cargo in a Z-dependent way. Therefore, spectroscopy of the detected x rays yields information about the Z of the x-rayed cargo material. It has previously been shown that such ZSpectroscopy (Z-SPEC) is possible under certain circumstances. A statistical approach, Z-SCAN (Z-determination by Statistical Count-rate ANalysis), has also been shown to be effective, and it can be used either by itself or in conjunction with Z-SPEC when the x-ray count rate is too high for individual x-ray spectroscopy. Both techniques require fast x-ray detectors and fast digitization electronics. It is desirable (and possible) to combine all techniques, including x-ray imaging of the cargo, in a single detector array, to reduce costs, weight, and overall complexity. In this paper, we take a whole-system approach to x-ray spectroscopy in x-ray cargo inspection systems, and show how the various parts interact with one another. Faster detectors and read-out electronics are beneficial for both techniques. A higher duty-factor x-ray source allows lower instantaneous count rates at the same overall x-ray intensity, improving the range of applicability of Z-SPEC in particular. Using an intensity-modulated advanced x-ray source (IMAXS) allows reducing the x-ray count rate for cargoes with higher transmission, and a stacked-detector approach may help material discrimination for the lowest attenuations. Image processing and segmentation allow derivation of results for entire objects, and subtraction of backgrounds. We discuss R&D performed under a number of different programs, showing progress made in each of the interacting subsystems. We discuss results of studies into faster scintillation detectors, including ZnO, BaF2 and PbWO4, as well as suitable photo-detectors, read-out and digitization electronics. We discuss high-duty-factor linear

  14. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals

  15. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  16. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices.Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border?Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested.Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques.Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  17. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; Pappas, Andrea L; Cooper, Kirsten; Merrihew, Gennifer E; MacCoss, Michael J; Ailion, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment. PMID:27191843

  18. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  19. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  20. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-06-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  1. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  2. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  3. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (Eγ = 3-7 MeV) fission product γ-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy γ-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy γ-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of ∼ 0.5 gm/cm3. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of 16O by the 16O(n,p)16N reaction that produces a 6 MeV γ-ray following a 7-sec β-decay of the 16N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for 16O(n,p)16N is 10 MeV. The signature γ-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 104 cps. That is high enough to quickly identify SNM fission by its characteristic high energy γ-ray emission and

  4. First beam trials of 6 MeV RF electron linac for mobile Cargo-scanning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6 MeV compact RF Electron Linac for container cargo-scanning applications has been designed and developed by the Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, BARC. This compact linac has been designed to be a mobile system, to be mounted in a moving container. In linac-based cargo-scanning systems, the linac acts as the source of X-rays, which fall on the cargo and are then detected by the detector system. This paper describes the salient features of the 6/3 MeV dual energy compact linac and results of the first beam trials. (author)

  5. Design Verification of a High Energy X-ray Scanner for Cargo Inspections with the Stereo Visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, validity verifications of the design of the system have been carried out with Monte Carlo simulations for the precise technical design. The central goal in this research asks that the designed system is suitable enough for the purpose, which is to inspect cargo container in fast and with good visualization performance. The simulation test of the design of the cargo container inspection system has been carried out using Geant4, which is a widely used Monte Carlo code. The calculation is to expect whether the geometrical design is able to visualize the inside of a cargo with reasonable coverage and the results give an insight to achieve the goal

  6. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  7. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  8. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio and a...... low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state are...... discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  9. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  10. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  11. Status report on the detection of illicit materials in cargo containers by using neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers has become a key issue in the fight against terrorism. Indeed, shipping of cargo container between seaports represent today one of the more important way of the international trade. After 9/11, the Cargo Security Initiative started setting standards for the cargo containers inspections in the trading between US and other countries, as the ones in the European Union (E U). US are now aiming at 100% scanning of cargo containers shipped towards the American ports. At present time, controls are mainly based on X- or gamma-ray scanners, which provide mainly the shape and density of the transported goods. Fast neutrons can be additionally employed to deduce information about their elemental composition. Neutrons have been selected mainly thanks to their capability of penetrating materials and the availability of different type of neutron sources. Neutron transmission measurements or the detection of characteristic gamma-rays emitted following neutron induced reactions have been proposed to characterize carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, which are major components of explosives or narcotics, with the goal of discriminating illicit from benign materials. Several systems have been validated under laboratory conditions demonstrating that such technologies are capable of providing material specific information and few of them have been fielded. However, the use of neutron based tools depends not only on the intrinsic capability of the method, as explored in laboratory conditions, but also on some major issues: 1) the possibility of solving logistics and licensing problems; 2) the possibility of constructing systems that are operated directly by end-users; 3) the effective integration of the neutron based system in current customs procedures. In this talk, the general capability of neutron sources to be used in a cost effective way to detect illicit materials inside cargo containers will be discussed looking also to the latest technical

  12. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  13. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  14. Remedial investigations for quarry bulk wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs

  15. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  16. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  17. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Livine, Etera R; Terno, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales w...

  18. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. We show that in this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  19. Reductions in cost and greenhouse gas emissions with new bulk ship designs enabled by the Panama Canal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, fuel costs have been small compared with the fixed costs of a bulk vessel, its crewing and management. Today, however, fuel accounts for more than 50% of the total costs. In combination with an introduction of stricter energy efficiency requirements for new vessels, this might make design improvement a necessity for all new bulk vessels. This is in contradiction to traditional bulk vessel designs, where the focus has been on maximizing the cargo-carrying capacity at the lowest possible building cost and not on minimizing the energy consumption. Moreover, the Panama Canal has historically been an important design criterion, while the new canal locks from 2014 will significantly increase the maximum size of vessels that can pass. The present paper provides an assessment of cost and emissions as a function of alternative bulk vessel designs with focus on a vessel's beam, length and hull slenderness, expressed by the length displacement ratio for three fuel price scenarios. The result shows that with slenderer hull forms the emissions drop. With today's fuel price of 600 USD per ton of fuel, emissions can thus be reduced by up to 15–25% at a negative abatement cost. - Highlights: • We have assessed cost and emissions as a function of alternative bulk vessel designs. • The design focus has been on vessel beam, length, hull slenderness and bow section length. • The assessment has taken into account three different fuel price scenarios. • When the block coefficient is reduced and the hull becomes more slender the emissions drop. • With a fuel price of 600 USD/t, emissions can be reduced by up to 15–25% at a negative abatement cost

  20. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  1. Determining the bulk strength of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk rock strength of strata is determined by logging a bore-hole with an instrument to obtain a neutron-neutron log of the hole and determining in conjunction with the lithology of the strata the strength by applying an inverse relation formula. (author)

  2. Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

  3. Crevice chemistry estimation from bulk water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first PWR plant in Japan started commercial operation in 1970, 22 plants are running in Japan as of the end of 1994. The main purpose of secondary water chemistry control is to minimize the corrosion possibility of the secondary system equipment, especially steam generators (SG). To achieve this objective, much effort has been concentrated on improving secondary water chemistry control. As a result of this effort, the recent secondary water chemistry in Japanese plants is well maintained in every stage of operation. However, to ensure and improve the reliability of SG, it is necessary to control crevice environments, which are located at tube/tube support plate intersections and under the sludge pile on the tube sheet. According to recent crevice monitoring examination results, the concentration behavior impurities in SG bulk water at the crevice is different for each species, and SG bulk water and crevice chemical compositions are not always equal. From these results, to control the crevice chemistry, improving bulk water chemistry control methods and a new type of molar ratio control index is needed. This paper introduces a brief summary of a recent crevice chemistry evaluation technique and bulk water chemistry control method, which is employed for crevice chemistry control, based on crevice monitoring examination results

  4. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  5. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  6. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization is cond...

  7. The interplay between RPGR, PDEδ and Arl2/3 regulate the ciliary targeting of farnesylated cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätzlich, Denise; Vetter, Ingrid; Gotthardt, Katja; Miertzschke, Mandy; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ismail, Shehab

    2013-01-01

    Defects in primary cilia result in human diseases known as ciliopathies. The retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR), mutated in the most severe form of the eye disease, is located at the transition zone of the ciliary organelle. The RPGR-interacting partner PDEδ is involved in trafficking of farnesylated ciliary cargo, but the significance of this interaction is unknown. The crystal structure of the propeller domain of RPGR shows the location of patient mutations and how they perturb the structure. The RPGR·PDEδ complex structure shows PDEδ on a highly conserved surface patch of RPGR. Biochemical experiments and structural considerations show that RPGR can bind with high affinity to cargo-loaded PDEδ and exposes the Arl2/Arl3-binding site on PDEδ. On the basis of these results, we propose a model where RPGR is acting as a scaffold protein recruiting cargo-loaded PDEδ and Arl3 to release lipidated cargo into cilia. PMID:23559067

  8. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroletti, E.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.

    2012-07-01

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public.

  9. Magnetically triggered release of molecular cargo from iron oxide nanoparticle loaded microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregal-Romero, Susana; Guardia, Pablo; Yu, Xiang; Hartmann, Raimo; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-12-01

    Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat-mediators for local heating, which can be triggered by applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). AMFs are much less absorbed by tissue than light and thus can penetrate deeper overcoming the above mentioned limitations. Here we present iron oxide nanocube-modified microcapsules as a platform for magnetically triggered molecular release. Layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte microcapsules with 4.6 μm diameter, which had 18 nm diameter iron oxide nanocubes integrated in their walls, were synthesized. The microcapsules were further loaded with an organic fluorescent polymer (Cascade Blue-labelled dextran), which was used as a model of molecular cargo. Through an AMF the magnetic nanoparticles were able to heat their surroundings and destroy the microcapsule walls, leading to a final release of the embedded cargo to the surrounding solution. The cargo release was monitored in solution by measuring the increase in both absorbance and fluorescence signal after the exposure to an AMF. Our results demonstrate that magnetothermal release of the encapsulated material is possible using magnetic nanoparticles with a high heating performance.Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat

  10. Gamma-ray nuclear resonance absorption (γ-NRA) for explosives detection in air cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-NRA method has been utilized to detect explosives concealed in aviation containers loaded with a variety of cargo. In γ-NRA, gamma-rays at an energy of 9.17 MeV undergo a resonant nuclear attenuation component proportional to the integrated density of 14N nuclei along the line of sight from source to detector. When inspecting objects in transmission mode, projected images of nitrogen density of their contents can be generated. In an experiment performed earlier this year at the Dynamitron accelerator lab. of Birmingham Univ., U.K., diverse items such as passenger bags, electronic equipment, paper goods and mixed cargo were scanned along with explosives simulants. The results from this run will be presented and anticipated performance ratings of an operational explosives detection system (EDS) discussed

  11. Gamma-ray nuclear resonance absorption (γ-NRA) for explosives detection in air cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartsky, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Engler, G.; Goldschmidt, A.; Feldman, G.; Bar, D.; Sayag, E.; Katz, D.; Krauss, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The γ-NRA method has been utilized to detect explosives concealed in aviation containers loaded with a variety of cargo. In γ-NRA, gamma-rays at an energy of 9.17 MeV undergo a resonant nuclear attenuation component proportional to the integrated density of 14N nuclei along the line of sight from source to detector. When inspecting objects in transmission mode, projected images of nitrogen density of their contents can be generated. In an experiment performed earlier this year at the Dynamitron accelerator lab. of Birmingham Univ., U.K., diverse items such as passenger bags, electronic equipment, paper goods and mixed cargo were scanned along with explosives simulants. The results from this run will be presented and anticipated performance ratings of an operational explosives detection system (EDS) discussed.

  12. Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented

  13. On the possibility of the in-cell molecular motors working as cargo moorings only

    CERN Document Server

    Lisowski, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    Although active transport is considered the most efficient way of depositing materials in the appropriate compartments within living cells, free diffusion remains the energetically cheapest and most widespread determinant of the in-cell dynamics. Here we investigate the hypothesis of cargoes - vesicles or organelles - being transported by the means of free diffusion, limited spatially by the molecular motors. Routinely navigating through ever-changing and unsteady environment, utilizing chemical energy (e.g. from hydrolyzing ATP), as the result they transport cell's crucial components, such as neurotransmitters and organelles. In our model the motor, which we identify with kinesin-1 walking along the microtubule, tethers the cargo in the same manner as a mooring rope attached to a bollard holds a ship from drifting toward the open sea. We study the model behavior in the context of optical trap single molecule experiments, mimicking their procedures in our simulations and investigate how the mechanical propert...

  14. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  15. Automated Workplace of Cargo Consignor: New : Development of the Promotion Strategy for a Software Product

    OpenAIRE

    Soltysyuk, Anastasiya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a promotion strategy of a new software product: “Automated Workplace of Cargo Consignor: New” for the commissioner company “TMSoft ltd”. Main method used in this case was table research and information collection; marketing literature was carefully studied, as well as legislative sources. Theoretical part consists of the situational analysis, strategy pyramid and promotion theory. And the development part is the core of the thesis, and includes the pro...

  16. RESEARCH ACTION: IMPLEMENTATION ZERO BASED BUDGET (ZBB) IN THE PROVIDER SERVICE LEASING EQUIPAMENTS OF CARGO HANDLING.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi Gimenez; Antonio Benedito Silva Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present the implementation of zero-based budgeting in a rental service provider of cargo handling equipment using the action research methodology. The goal was to examine the possibility of concomitant use of this instrument in service providers in need of accurate information that enables targeting at the best result in a setting avid for quick decisions and actions. Action research was used as research method. It was concluded that it is suitable for this branch, con...

  17. Ports sustainability: a life cycle assessment of zero emission cargo handling equipment:

    OpenAIRE

    Jerman, Boris; Vujičić, Andrija; Zrnić, Nenad Đ.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present and evaluate the latest trends in the cargo handling equipment (CHE) industry, aimed at mitigating the environmental impact of container terminal operations and contributing to the sustainability of ports. The most common machines for handling containers are described and dealt with separately, with a focus on electric CHE, usually referred to as zero emission CHE. In a separate chapter, recommendations on methodologies suitable for investigation of the en...

  18. IMPACT OF INFORMATION ON THE DELIVERY OF CARGO WITH AIR TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Габріелова, Т.Ю.; National Aviation University; Войцеховський, В.С.; National Aviation University

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the impact of informatization on the process of cargo delivery involving air transport under conditions of competitive environment dynamic development have been considered. Information products providing uploading capacity on an extensive air route network were analysed. The role of international mediation bodies for financial settlements between participants of air transportation process was determined. Basic aspects of the pricing control depending on the condition of fligh...

  19. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN PORT CARGO FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN ASIAN CONTAINER PORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study discusses the structural changes in port cargo flow distribution in Asia and traffic inequality in Asian container port systems, by conducting an inequality decomposition analysis of the Gini index. Specifically, port systems considered here comprise 229 container ports, which were classified into fifteen port ranges according to their geographic locations and annual port container traffic data from 1980 to 2009. The results confirmed the trend of shrinkin...

  20. Cell-Penetrating Peptides: A Comparative Study on Lipid Affinity and Cargo Delivery Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of natural and/or synthetic peptides with cell membrane penetrating capability have been identified and described in the past years. These molecules have been considered promising tools for delivering bioactive compounds into various cell types. Although the mechanism of uptake is still unclear, it is reasonable to assume that the relative contribute of each proposed mechanism could differ for the same peptide, depending on experimental protocol and cargo molecule composition. In this work we try to connect the capability to interact with model lipid membrane and structural and chemical characteristics of CPPs in order to obtain a biophysical classification that predicts the behavior of CPP-cargo molecules in cell systems. Indeed, the binding with cell membrane is one of the primary step in the interaction of CPPs with cells, and consequently the studies on model membrane could become important for understanding peptide-membrane interaction on a molecular level, explaining how CPPs may translocate a membrane without destroying it and how this interactions come into play in shuttling CPPs via different routes with different efficiency. We analyzed by CD and fluorescence spectroscopies the binding properties of six different CPPs (kFGF, Nle54-Antp and Tat derived peptides, and oligoarginine peptides containing 6, 8 or 10 residues in absence or presence of the same cargo peptide (the 392-401pTyr396 fragment of HS1 protein. The phospholipid binding properties were correlated to the conformational and chemical characteristics of peptides, as well as to the cell penetrating properties of the CPP-cargo conjugates. Results show that even if certain physico-chemical properties (conformation, positive charge govern CPP capability to interact with the model membrane, these cannot fully explain cell-permeability properties.

  1. High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer Missions in Cislunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) in transporting cargo and propellant from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the first Earth-Moon Lagrange point (EML1) is examined. The baseline NEP vehicle utilizes a fission reactor system with Brayton power conversion for electric power generation to power multiple liquid hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Vehicle characteristics and performance levels are based on technology availability in a fifteen to twenty year timeframe. Results of numerical trajectory analyses are also provided.

  2. AMPA Receptors Commandeer an Ancient Cargo Exporter for Use as an Auxiliary Subunit for Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Harmel; Barbara Cokic; Gerd Zolles; Henrike Berkefeld; Veronika Mauric; Bernd Fakler; Valentin Stein; Nikolaj Klöcker

    2012-01-01

    Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs). AMPARs are protein complexes of the pore-lining alpha-subunits GluA1-4 and auxiliary beta-subunits modulating their trafficking and gating. By a proteomic approach, two homologues of the cargo exporter cornichon, CNIH-2 and CNIH-3, have recently been identified as constituents of native AMPARs in mammalian brain. In heterologous reconstit...

  3. RAPID ACQUISITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AFTER ACCIDENTS WITH HAZARDOUS CARGO THROUGH REMOTE SENSING BY UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Longhitano, G. A.; Quintanilh, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present procedures of using remote sensing by UAV to aid in the rapid evaluation and monitoring of environmental impacts caused by accidents involving transport of dangerous cargoes on highways. From the data collected and the UAV model defined, it was developed a methodology of operating a UAV to generate the potential benefits identified in the application. A Mini UAV or Close Range class was considered appropriate. It was created the procedures for imag...

  4. Technologies and technical tools of combined transportation of cargoes by factors of global logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Миколайович Котенко

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new piggybacks technology has been developed and presented taking into account the problems of global logistics. The technology allows cargo operations (loading and unloading of modules on platforms of varying floor height above rail head level and reload modules between platforms with different values and different ways between rails floor height platforms. The system of differential equations of Kolmogorov have been showed and modeling of combined transportation have been made

  5. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  6. Evaluating the modal split of overland transportation of general cargo in Brazil using a market share model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gildemir Ferreira da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology developed to evaluate the modal split of land transport of general cargo in Brazil and possible reasons for the prevalence of road transport over rail, using a market share model. No studies were found using the market share model for planning cargo transport, in spite of its generic nature which makes it readily applicable to any market, service, utility or commodity. The methodology was applied in three transport corridors, two groups of general cargo and enabled us to establish that Brazilian rail operations are still uncompetitive in terms of logistics costs when transporting general cargo of high aggregate value. Moreover, transport supply is a determinant factor for the greater use of road transport in Brazil’s general cargo transport matrix, and the demand for general cargo transport in Brazil is elastic in relation to this factor. For low aggregate value general cargo (AV1, a 1% reduction in the gap between road and railway supply leads to an increase in the railway market share of 4.5% through TC1 (São Paulo - Porto Alegre - São Paulo, 4.9% through TC2 (Santos - Brasilia - Santos, and 3.3% through TC3(São Paulo - Rio de Janeiro - São Paulo. For high aggregate value general cargo (AV2, this elasticity was more pronounced. A 1% reduction in the gap between road and railway transport supply leads to an increase in the railway market share of 4.2% through TC1, 11.9% through TC2, and 9.6% through TC3.

  7. 46 CFR 32.60-10 - Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D-TB/ALL. 32.60-10 Section 32.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL... 1, 1951 § 32.60-10 Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D—TB/ALL. (a) General. The...

  8. Sensitivity of a Multi-view Bremsstrahlung Scanning Technique for Radiography of Intermodal Cargo Containers to Identify Fisssionable Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Araina

    2014-01-01

    Rapid scanning of intermodal cargo containers for clandestine fissionable material is a security concern of the United States government. This issue has been investigated over the past ten years with limited success. This dissertation builds on previous simulation work to investigate the limits of a multi-view scanning technique to determine the linear attenuation coefficients of small high-Z objects hidden within cargo containers. Monte Carlo modeling was used to estimate the uncertainties i...

  9. Temperature Controlled Aircraft Unit Load Devices: The Technological Response to Growing Global Air Cargo Cool Chain Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Baxter; Kyriakos Kourousis

    2015-01-01

    Unit load devices (ULDs) are pallets and containers which are used to carry air cargo, mail and passengers baggage on wide-body aircraft. Using an in-depth case study, an empirical investigation was undertaken to examine the recent technological developments and innovations in the temperature-controlled containers that are used extensively in the growing and highly important air cargo cool chains. The results demonstrated that advances in refrigeration systems and the use of composite materia...

  10. Low cost, robust and real time system for detecting and tracking moving objects to automate cargo handling in port terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero, Victor; Repiso, Ely; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Vissers, John; Kwakkernaat, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking moving objects for autonomous cargo handling in port terminals using a perception system which input data is a single layer laser scanner. A computationally low cost and robust Detection and Tracking Moving Objects (DATMO) algorithm is presented to be used in autonomous guided vehicles and autonomous trucks for efficient transportation of cargo in ports. The method first detects moving objects and then tracks them, taking int...

  11. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  12. Amphiphilic nanocapsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers for controlled cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Ni, Huan; Bao, Suping; Zhu, Fangming; Gao, Haiyang; Wu, Qing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-06-01

    A class of new amphiphilic nanocapsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers has been developed for the first time. Poly(2-(N,N-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene capped with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (CD-PDMAEMA-b-PS) is first synthesized using sequent RAFT polymerization of styrene and 2-(N,N-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate with xanthate modified β-CD as chain transfer agent. The end group of β-CD is allowed to include 4,4'-bipyridine through host-guest inclusion to yield PDMAEMA-b-PS terminated with an inclusion complex of β-CD and bipyridine (bpy-PDMAEMA-b-PS), which is then used as surfactant to prepare emulsion droplets in toluene/water mixture. Upon addition of Ni(II), bipyridine coordinates with Ni(II) to form coordination polymers in the periphery of emulsion droplets, affording amphiphilic capsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers, as confirmed by GPC, (1)H NMR, SEM, TEM, DLS, and so on. The organometallic coordination polymer capsules are capable of encapsulating organic cargoes. Interestingly, encapsulated cargoes can be extracted from the capsules without damaging the capsules. Such capsules are potential candidates for encapsulating and controlled release of organic cargoes. PMID:24828951

  13. DISEÑO ESTRATÉGICO DE PERFILES DE CARGOS POR COMPETENCIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Soltura Laseria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta una tecnología para la determinación de los perfiles de cargo por competencias en las organizaciones cubanas con base científica, fundamentada en la creciente necesidad de dirigir los esfuerzos individuales hacia el cumplimiento de la estrategia. La tecnología provee a las organizaciones de una forma de determinar la estructura de competencias que ha de adoptar para satisfacer las demandas o necesidades de clientes o usuarios, estado, proveedores y sociedad, en función de su cultura, procesos, estructura, rivalidad de competidores -en caso que exista y la estrategia como guía del proceso, donde los perfiles de cargo por competencias desempeñan el papel fundamental para la implantación de la estrategia. Palabras Clave Gestión de (por competencias, perfiles de competencias, diseño estratégico de perfiles de cargo por competencias.

  14. Determination of ambient and personal dose equivalent for personnel and cargo security screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, imaging technology using ionising radiation has been gaining in importance for the screening of goods and persons for security reasons and in order to detect contraband. For radiation protection purposes it is extremely important to know that dose persons are exposed to when passing through a personnel scanner or, as a stowaway, in a cargo scanner, so as to remain within the prescribed dose limits. Within the scope of a research project, measurements were performed on different types of personnel X-ray scanners as well as cargo X-ray scanners, using the transmission and/or the backscattering method. All scanners investigated operate with a high dose rate and use short irradiation time. Owing to this method of scanning reliable values can only be determined for the personal and ambient dose equivalents, Hp(10) and H*(10), by using a specially developed measuring system. The aim of this project was to determine the range of magnitudes of doses for representative personnel and cargo X-ray scanner systems. Depending on the type of scanner, the determined dose values for personnel scanners range from 0.07 μSv to 6 μSv. Measurements and instruments used in this study are described and the dose values obtained are discussed in detail. (authors)

  15. Video-based cargo fire verification system with fuzzy inference engine for commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Zakrzewski, Radek; Zeliff, Bob

    2005-02-01

    Conventional smoke detection systems currently installed onboard aircraft are often subject to high rates of false alarms. Under current procedures, whenever an alarm is issued the pilot is obliged to release fire extinguishers and to divert to the nearest airport. Aircraft diversions are costly and dangerous in some situations. A reliable detection system that minimizes false-alarm rate and allows continuous monitoring of cargo compartments is highly desirable. A video-based system has been recently developed by Goodrich Corporation to address this problem. The Cargo Fire Verification System (CFVS) is a multi camera system designed to provide live stream video to the cockpit crew and to perform hotspot, fire, and smoke detection in aircraft cargo bays. In addition to video frames, the CFVS uses other sensor readings to discriminate between genuine events such as fire or smoke and nuisance alarms such as fog or dust. A Mamdani-type fuzzy inference engine is developed to provide approximate reasoning for decision making. In one implementation, Gaussian membership functions for frame intensity-based features, relative humidity, and temperature are constructed using experimental data to form the system inference engine. The CFVS performed better than conventional aircraft smoke detectors in all standardized tests.

  16. Early results utilizing high-energy fission product gamma rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material (235U or 239Pu) concealed in inter modal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 6-8 MeV neutrons and fission events are identified between beam pulses by their β-delayed neutron emission or β -delayed high-energy γ-radiation. The high-energy γ-ray signature is being employed for the first time. Fission product γ-rays above 3 MeV are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. High-energy γ-radiation is nearly 10X more abundant than the delayed neutrons and penetrates even thick cargo's readily. The concept employs two large (8x20 ft) arrays of liquid scintillation detectors that have high efficiency for the detection of both delayed neutrons and delayed γ-radiation. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. This information, together with predicted signature strength, has been applied to the estimation of detection probability for the nuclear material and estimation of false alarm rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  17. The South America East Coast Reefer Cargo: A Diagnosis of a Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Cassia Bömer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses reefer cargo maritime shipping characteristics and development in South American East Coast ports. The geographical area studied goes from Punta Arenas (Chile to Manaus (Brazil. The study main hypothesis is reefer shipping as a profitable market niche in spite of higher operation costs and a very demanding supply chain. The paper comprises three sections: the first one describes global reefer cargo transportation general characteristics; the second, reefer shipping in South American ports, focusing five main issues: (1 Cargo flows; (2 Ports infrastructure; (3 Post-Panamax vessels operation and its economies of scale; (4 Shippers and carriers’ mergers and acquisitions processes and (5 Containerization process; finally, it investigates the marketing relationship between shippers and shipping liners. The exploratory study was based on technical reports and statistics analysis, and interviews with industry executives, performing a multicase study. The general conclusions indicate that South American reefer market has concluded most of its containerization process and is moving fast towards a concentrated market of players. Some experts consider that the market will keep increasing as a result of the improved quality of products and enhancing cold logistics services provision in spite of the international crisis, due to emergent markets buying and more demanding clients.

  18. Dose to drivers during drive-through cargo scanning using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Rogerio S.; Gomes, Joana D' Arc R.L.; Costa, Mara Lucia L., E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca muclear; Miranda, Valeria F.E.S., E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of radiation technologies to perform screening for cargo containers has been increased due to security issues, mainly, as a consequence of the United States (US) legislation which requires, from 2013, the scanning of all intermodal cargo containers which arrive at US ports. Currently, systems to cargo inspections, using accelerator-driven high energy X-rays, between 4 and 9 MeV, are available for scanning operations. It is expected that, in the future, the use of these systems will be widely spread on roads, ports and airports in Brazil. However, in order to improve the productivity and reduce the costs of acquisition, operation and maintenance these systems require that the driver drives its vehicle through irradiation area, in a situation where members of the public (the truck drivers) enter in controlled area and are deliberately exposed to high-energy beam. Some manufacturers justifies this procedure arguing that the drivers are exposed briefly, and only to the scattered beam, since there are safety systems in order to avoid that the drivers are exposed to direct beam. In this work, it is presented the preliminary results of Monte Carlo simulations concerning the dose of drivers during scanning operations, including the dose due to a failure of safety system, producing an exposure of drivers to the direct beam, as well as, an analysis of the justification of practice, mainly related to the drive-through operational procedure. (author)

  19. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S; Driessen, Wouter H P; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D'Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P; Stafford, R Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-16

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. These results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications. PMID:26839407

  20. Challenges and perspectives of transport cargo vehicles utilization for performing research in free flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, T. V.; Belyaev, M. Yu.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Russian Progress transport cargo vehicles have successfully been used in different space station programs since 1978. At present time, they play an important role in the International Space Station (ISS) project. Main tasks performed by the transport cargo vehicle (TCV) in the station program are the following: refueling of the station, delivery of consumables and equipment, waste removal, station attitude control and orbit correction maneuver execution. At the same time, the cargo vehicle basic systems still retain unused resources after the vehicle finishes its work with the station. It makes sense to use these resources to perform research in free flight of TCV after departure from the ISS when possible. The fields of research can be determined not only on the basis of the vehicle capabilities as a research platform but also taking into account needs of the research community. Possible fields could be the following: Earth or other objects remote sensing using additional equipment, Microgravity research aboard TCV, Launch of small satellites and probes after TCV undocking from the station and transfer to the specified orbit, etc. Solution of research tasks using the Progress TCV resources helps to increase efficiency of the ISS research program performance. The paper considers the TCV flight control features and the methods of the solution of the problems arising when various experiments are performed aboard the vehicle.

  1. The nuclear car wash: A system to detect nuclear weapons in commercial cargo shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material (235U or 239Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers has been developed, studied, and recent performance results are described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 3-7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and subsequent detection of their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ-radiation reveals the presence of fissionable material. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. Their impact on detection sensitivity is relatively minor and can be addressed readily. Components of a simple laboratory prototype have been assembled, tested with the most challenging cargo threat scenarios, and results compared to computer simulations. Preliminary results will be presented

  2. AMPA receptors commandeer an ancient cargo exporter for use as an auxiliary subunit for signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Harmel

    Full Text Available Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs. AMPARs are protein complexes of the pore-lining α-subunits GluA1-4 and auxiliary β-subunits modulating their trafficking and gating. By a proteomic approach, two homologues of the cargo exporter cornichon, CNIH-2 and CNIH-3, have recently been identified as constituents of native AMPARs in mammalian brain. In heterologous reconstitution experiments, CNIH-2 promotes surface expression of GluAs and modulates their biophysical properties. However, its relevance in native AMPAR physiology remains controversial. Here, we have studied the role of CNIH-2 in GluA processing both in heterologous cells and primary rat neurons. Our data demonstrate that CNIH-2 serves an evolutionarily conserved role as a cargo exporter from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. CNIH-2 cycles continuously between ER and Golgi complex to pick up cargo protein in the ER and then to mediate its preferential export in a coat protein complex (COP II dependent manner. Interaction with GluA subunits breaks with this ancestral role of CNIH-2 confined to the early secretory pathway. While still taking advantage of being exported preferentially from the ER, GluAs recruit CNIH-2 to the cell surface. Thus, mammalian AMPARs commandeer CNIH-2 for use as a bona fide auxiliary subunit that is able to modify receptor signaling.

  3. System/subsystem specifications for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Grubb, J.; Hancock, B.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-11-20

    A system is being developed by the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) to provide data integration and worldwide management and tracking of surface cargo movements. The Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) will be a data repository for the WPS terminal-level system, will be a primary source of queries and cargo traffic reports, will receive data from and provide data to other MTMC and non-MTMC systems, will provide capabilities for processing Advance Transportation Control and Movement Documents (ATCMDs), and will process and distribute manifests. This System/Subsystem Specifications for the Worldwide Port System Regional ICDB documents the system/subsystem functions, provides details of the system/subsystem analysis in order to provide a communication link between developers and operational personnel, and identifies interfaces with other systems and subsystems. It must be noted that this report is being produced near the end of the initial development phase of ICDB, while formal software testing is being done. Following the initial implementation of the ICDB system, maintenance contractors will be in charge of making changes and enhancing software modules. Formal testing and user reviews may indicate the need for additional software units or changes to existing ones. This report describes the software units that are components of this ICDB system as of August 1995.

  4. Cargo identification algorithms facilitating unmanned/unattended inspection at high throughput portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alex

    2007-10-01

    A simple model is presented of a possible inspection regimen applied to each leg of a cargo containers' journey between its point of origin and destination. Several candidate modalities are proposed to be used at multiple remote locations to act as a pre-screen inspection as the target approaches a perimeter and as the primary inspection modality at the portal. Information from multiple data sets are fused to optimize the costs and performance of a network of such inspection systems. A series of image processing algorithms are presented that automatically process X-ray images of containerized cargo. The goal of this processing is to locate the container in a real time stream of traffic traversing a portal without impeding the flow of commerce. Such processing may facilitate the inclusion of unmanned/unattended inspection systems in such a network. Several samples of the processing applied to data collected from deployed systems are included. Simulated data from a notional cargo inspection system with multiple sensor modalities and advanced data fusion algorithms are also included to show the potential increased detection and throughput performance of such a configuration.

  5. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public. - Highlights: ► Neutron irradiation of cargo containers implies a radiological risk. ► The risk is about the modification of food properties and the products activation. ► Assessment is made about the EURITRACK neutron irradiation system. ► Results show that the EURITRACK scanning is not dangerous for the population.

  6. Bicaudal-D uses a parallel, homodimeric coiled coil with heterotypic registry to coordinate recruitment of cargos to dynein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Salter, Hannah K; Holding, Andrew N; Johnson, Christopher M; Stephens, Elaine; Lukavsky, Peter J; Walshaw, John; Bullock, Simon L

    2013-06-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is the major minus end-directed microtubule motor in eukaryotes. However, there is little structural insight into how different cargos are recognized and linked to the motor complex. Here we describe the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a cargo-binding region of the dynein adaptor Bicaudal-D (BicD), which reveals a parallel coiled-coil homodimer. We identify a shared binding site for two cargo-associated proteins-Rab6 and the RNA-binding protein Egalitarian (Egl)-within a region of the BicD structure with classical, homotypic core packing. Structure-based mutagenesis in Drosophila provides evidence that occupancy of this site drives association of BicD with dynein, thereby coupling motor recruitment to cargo availability. The structure also contains a region in which, remarkably, the same residues in the polypeptide sequence have different heptad registry in each chain. In vitro and in vivo analysis of a classical Drosophila dominant mutation reveals that this heterotypic region regulates the recruitment of dynein to BicD. Our results support a model in which the heterotypic segment is part of a molecular switch that promotes release of BicD autoinhibition following cargo binding to the neighboring, homotypic coiled-coil region. Overall, our data reveal a pivotal role of a highly asymmetric coiled-coil domain in coordinating the assembly of cargo-motor complexes. PMID:23723415

  7. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  8. Higher-order assemblies of oligomeric cargo receptor complexes form the membrane scaffold of the Cvt vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertipaglia, Chiara; Schneider, Sarah; Jakobi, Arjen J; Tarafder, Abul K; Bykov, Yury S; Picco, Andrea; Kukulski, Wanda; Kosinski, Jan; Hagen, Wim Jh; Ravichandran, Arvind C; Wilmanns, Matthias; Kaksonen, Marko; Briggs, John Ag; Sachse, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Selective autophagy is the mechanism by which large cargos are specifically sequestered for degradation. The structural details of cargo and receptor assembly giving rise to autophagic vesicles remain to be elucidated. We utilize the yeast cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a prototype of selective autophagy, together with a multi-scale analysis approach to study the molecular structure of Cvt vesicles. We report the oligomeric nature of the major Cvt cargo Ape1 with a combined 2.8 Å X-ray and negative stain EM structure, as well as the secondary cargo Ams1 with a 6.3 Å cryo-EM structure. We show that the major dodecameric cargo prApe1 exhibits a tendency to form higher-order chain structures that are broken upon interaction with the receptor Atg19 in vitro The stoichiometry of these cargo-receptor complexes is key to maintaining the size of the Cvt aggregate in vivo Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we further visualize key stages of Cvt vesicle biogenesis. Our findings suggest that Atg19 interaction limits Ape1 aggregate size while serving as a vehicle for vacuolar delivery of tetrameric Ams1. PMID:27266708

  9. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  10. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized-power-density x bandwidth) amongst previously reported inertial energy harvesters. The fabricated energy harvester is

  11. Lead Tungstate and Silicon Photomultipliers for Transmission Z-spectroscopy in Cargo Inspection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Janecek, Martin

    The bremsstrahlung X-ray spectrum in high-energy, high-intensity X-ray cargo inspection systems is attenuated and modified by cargo materials depending on the cargo atomic number (Z). Spectroscopy of transmitted x rays is thus useful to measure the approximate Z of the cargo. Due to the broad features of the energy spectrum, excellent energy resolution is not required. Such "Z-Spectroscopy" (Z-SPEC) is possible at low enough count rates. A statistical approach, Z-SCAN (Z-determination by Statistical Count-rate ANalysis), can also be used, complementing Z-SPEC at high count rates. Both approaches require fast X-ray detectors and fast digitizers. Z-SPEC, in particular, benefits from very fast scintillators, in order to avoid signal pile-up.Preferentially, Z-SPEC, Z-SCAN and cargo imaging are implemented in a single detector array to reduce system cost, weight, and complexity. To preserve good spatial resolution of the imaging subsystem, dense scintillators are required. Previously, we studied ZnO, BaF2 and PbWO4, as well as suitable photo-detectors, read-out electronics and digitizers. ZnO is not suitable because it self-absorbs its scintillation light. BaF2 emits in the UV, either requiring fast wavelength shifters or UV-sensitive solid state read-out devices, and it also has a long decay time component. PbWO4 is currently the most attractive choice because it does not have these problems, but it is significantly slower and has low light output. There is thus a need for alternative fast high-density scintillators that emit visible light. Alternatively, there is a need for a fast solid-state read-out device that is sensitive to UV light for use with BaF2, or other UV-emitting scintillators. Here, we present results of tests performed with PbWO4 crystals, reflector materials and silicon photomultipliers.

  12. Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, A. M.; Islam, M. F.; Zhang, J.; Collings, P. J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2005-08-01

    Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at temperatures below the bulk melting transition. It can be thought of as the nucleation of the melting process. Premelting has been observed at the surfaces of crystals but not within. We report observations of premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals using real-time video microscopy. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed, three-dimensional colloidal structures made from thermally responsive microgel spheres. Particle tracking reveals increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. Our observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and atomic-scale crystals.

  13. Fully antisymmetrised dynamics for bulk fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron star's crust and mantel are typical examples of non-uniform bulk systems with spacial localisations. When modelling such systems at low temperatures, as is the case in the crust, one has to work with antisymmetrised many-body states to get the correct fermion behaviour. Fermionic molecular dynamics, which works with an antisymmetrised product of localised wave packets, should be an appropriate choice. Implementing periodic boundary conditions into the fermionic molecular dynamics formalism would allow the study of the neutron star's crust as a bulk quantum system. Unfortunately, the antisymmetrisation is a non-local entanglement which reaches far out of the periodically repeated unit cell. In this proceeding, we give a brief overview how periodic boundary conditions and fermionic molecular dynamics can be combined without truncating the long-range many-body correlation induced by the antisymmetry of the many-body state.

  14. NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience are summarized. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is shown as one of the companies which are able to make NPPs industrial sites free from stored bulk equipment with its further utilization. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is the Russian Federation sole specialized metallic LLW (MLLW) treatment and utilization facility. Company's main objectives are waste predisposal volume reduction and treatment for the unrestricted release as a scrap. Leningrad NPP decommissioned main pumps and moisture separators/steam super heaters dismantling results are presented. Prospective fragmentation technologies (diamond and electro-erosive cutting) testing results are described. The electro-erosive cutting machine designed by 'ECOMET-S' JSC is presented. The fragmentation technologies implementation plans for nuclear industry are presented too. (author)

  15. Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDM case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10−11 || cb2 ∼−8

  16. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2002-08-01

    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  17. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk cash smuggling is a serious issue that has grown in volume in recent years. By building on the magnetic characteristics of paper currency, induction sensing is found to be capable of quickly detecting large masses of banknotes. The results show that this method is effective in detecting bulk cash through concealing materials such as plastics, cardboards, fabrics and aluminum foil. The significant difference in the observed phase between the received signals caused by conducting materials and ferrite compounds, found in banknotes, provides a good indication that this process can overcome the interference by metal objects in a real sensing application. This identification strategy has the potential to not only detect the presence of banknotes, but also the number, while still eliminating false positives caused by metal objects

  18. Surface-Bulk Vibrational Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Covert, Paul A; Jarisz, Tasha A; Chan, Chantelle; Hore, Dennis K

    2016-05-01

    Homo- and heterospectral correlation analysis are powerful methods for investigating the effects of external influences on the spectra acquired using distinct and complementary techniques. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive probe of surface structure changes, as bulk molecules are excluded on the basis of symmetry. However, as a result of this exquisite specificity, it is blind to changes that may be occurring in the solution. We demonstrate that correlation analysis between surface-specific techniques and bulk probes such as infrared absorption or Raman scattering may be used to reveal additional details of the adsorption process. Using the adsorption of water and ethanol binary mixtures as an example, we illustrate that this provides support for a competitive binding model and adds new insight into a dimer-to-bilayer transition proposed from previous experiments and simulations. PMID:27058265

  19. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro;

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared include......-layers-thick polymer woodpile photonic crystal. Characterization of such samples before and after metal deposition in the 700 nm 1700 nm range exposes some unpredictable features like an enhanced broadband transmission, which still waits to be explained.......Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  20. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  1. Nuclear Matter Bulk Parameter Scales and Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the arising of correlations among some isovector bulk parameters in nonrelativistic and relativistic hadronic mean-field models. For the former, we investigate correlations in the nonrelativistic (NR) limit of relativistic point-coupling models. We provide analytical correlations, for the NR limit model, between the symmetry energy and its derivatives, namely, the symmetry energy slope, curvature, skewness and fourth order derivative, discussing the conditions in which they are linear ones. We also show that some correlations presented in the NR limit model are reproduced for relativistic models presenting cubic and quartic self-interactions in its scalar field. As a direct application of such linear correlations, we remark its association with possible crossing points in the density dependence of the linearly correlated bulk parameter. (author)

  2. Brane plus Bulk Supersymmetry in Ten Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas; Roest, D; Van Proeyen, A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a generalized form of IIA/IIB supergravity depending on all R-R potentials C^(p) (p=0,1,...,9) as the effective field theory of Type IIA/IIB superstring theory. For the IIA case we explicitly break this R-R democracy to either p=5 which allows us to write a new bulk action that can be coupled to N=1 supersymmetric brane actions. The case of 8-branes is studied in detail using the new bulk & brane action. The supersymmetric negative tension branes without matter excitations can be viewed as orientifolds in the effective action. These D8-branes and O8-planes are fundamental in Type I' string theory. A BPS 8-brane solution is given which satisfies the jump conditions on the wall. As an application of our results we derive a quantization of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant in string units.

  3. Melt Grown ZnO Bulk Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Detlev; Ganschow, Steffen; Klimm, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Bulk crystals of zinc oxide can be grown from the melt by a Bridgman technique under pressure. This new technology using an iridium crucible shows the potential to yield large single crystals of good crystalline perfection. Crystals with diameters up to 33 mm and a length of up to 50 mm have been demonstrated. The impurity content can be strongly reduced by using the crucibles repeatedly.

  4. Oscillatory Dynamical Switching System of Bulk Ferroelectrics

    OpenAIRE

    M. N.A. Halif; S. Daud; Junaidah Osman

    2005-01-01

    This study gives a detailed account of calculation of the bulk ferroelectric (FE) oscillatory dynamical system switching to first and second-order phase transition, respectively. All the formalism is delineated in the framework of Landau free-energy expansion and Landau-Khalatnikov (LK) equation of motion where the effect of external energy may affray FE atoms similar to the spring damped oscillatory system. Here we scrutinized the switching properties from free-energy expansion and hysteresi...

  5. Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Emanuel; Chuang, Isaac; Laflamme, Raymond

    1997-01-01

    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computa...

  6. Superconducting RF cavities film of bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The successful operation of LEP2 has demonstrated the feasibility of using on a large scale copper accelerating cavities coated with a thin superconducting niobium film. Yet other existing or planned installations such as CEBAF and TESLA, rely instead on the bulk niobium technology. The reason is a wide spread belief that the film technology would suffer from fundamental limitations preventing high gradients to be reached...

  7. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Roehling, J.D.; Rochester, C.W.; Ro, H.W.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J; Batenburg, Joost; Arslan, I; Delongchamp, D.M.; Moulé, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualitatively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fulleren...

  9. Statistical Determination of Bulk Flow Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yong-Seon; Nichol, Robert C; Miller, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    We present here a new parameterization for the bulk motions of galaxies and clusters (in the linear regime) that can be measured statistically from the shape and amplitude of the two-dimensional two-point correlation function. We further propose the one-dimensional velocity dispersion (v_p) of the bulk flow as a complementary measure of redshift-space distortions, which is model-independent and not dependent on the normalisation method. As a demonstration, we have applied our new methodology to the C4 cluster catalogue constructed from Data Release Three (DR3) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find v_p=270^{+433}km/s (also consistent with v_p=0) for this cluster sample (at z=0.1), which is in agreement with that predicted for a WMAP5-normalised LCDM model (i.e., v_p(LCDM=203km/s). This measurement does not lend support to recent claims of excessive bulk motions (\\simeq1000 km/s) which appear in conflict with LCDM, although our large statistical error cannot rule them out. From the measured coherent evolutio...

  10. Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Well recognized empty core (EMC pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength NOV of some (Ni33Zr671 – xVx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H, Taylor (T, Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU, Farid et al. (F and Sarkar et al. (S to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The TC obtained from Sarkar et al. (S local field correction function are found an excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic TC equation has been proposed, which provide successfully the TC values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  11. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program

  13. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites are...

  14. Reluctance motors with bulk HTS material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have successfully designed, built and tested several reluctance motors with YBCO bulk material incorporated into the rotor, working at 77 K. Our last motor type SRE150 was tested up to 200 kW. The aim of our investigations is the construction of motors with extremely high power density and dynamics. In comparison to conventional motor types the advantage of HTS reluctance motors with respect to size and dynamics could be demonstrated. Some fields of possible future applications will be described. These motors show a significant improvement in performance using high quality HTS bulk elements in the rotor. Until now the motor parameters have been limited by the current density which could be obtained in the bulk material at 77 K and by the geometric dimensions of the segments available. Therefore we expect further improvements in the case of these materials. Since the total motor including stator and rotor is working at low temperature we have to optimize the windings and the magnetic circuit to these operation conditions. A new design of a 200 kW motor in order to achieve increased power density and the theoretical results of our calculations will be shown

  15. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  16. The effect of nanoparticle permeation on the bulk rheological properties of mucus from the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, M D; Van Rooij, L K; Chater, P I; Pereira de Sousa, I; Pearson, J P

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of delivering oral therapeutic peptides, proteins and nucleotides is often hindered by the protective mucus barrier that covers mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in nanocarriers is a potential strategy to protect the cargo but they still have to pass the mucus barrier. Decorating nanoparticles with proteolytic enzymes has been shown to increase the permeation through mucus. Here we investigate the effect of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (BRO), a proteolytic enzyme from pineapple stem, on the bulk rheology of mucus as well as non-decorated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Porcine intestinal mucus from the small intestine was incubated for 30min in the presence of PLGA nanoparticles or polyacrylic nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (PAA-BRO). The effect of nanoparticles on the rheological properties, weight of gel, released glycoprotein content from mucus as well as the viscosity of liquid removed was assessed. Treatment with nanoparticles decreased mucus gel strength with PAA-BRO reducing it the most. PAA-BRO nanoparticles resulted in the release of increased glycoprotein from the gel network whereas mucus remained a gel and exhibited a similar breakdown stress to control mucus. Therefore it would be possible to use bromelain to increase the permeability of nanoparticles through mucus without destroying the gel and leaving the underlying mucosa unprotected. PMID:25758122

  17. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini Topalidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment.

  18. EL VÍNCULO INDIVIDUO-COLECTIVO EN EL SISTEMA DE CARGOS EN UNA COMUNIDAD RURAL DEL SUR DE TLAXCALA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Salas Quintanal; Iñigo González de la Fuente

    2013-01-01

    This paper exposes the authors reflections about their last investigations into  community organization concept. The research took place in several countries in Mexico from 2008 to 2012. It is an anthropological analysis about cargo system, which includes native and no-native communities. In such a way, the authors recognize the importance of heterogeneous institution into cargo system concept. So that, they suggest, as the main hypothesis, that cargo system creates several mechanisms, which ...

  19. Evaluation of a flag-based explosives detection algorithm based on active neutron interrogation for use in sea land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly explosive materials smuggled in sea land cargo containers are a security concern. An algorithm based on neutron and photon measurements during active neutron interrogation with 14.1 MeV neutrons was developed. The detection algorithm has now been evaluated for effectiveness over a wide range of explosive sizes, positions, and cargo configurations. Various sources of uncertainty were also studied. An estimate of the false positive and false negative rates was completed for various measurement conditions. Results showed that, although minimum detectable mass depends on the surrounding cargo, explosive position, and cargo configuration, 200 kg RDX could be reliably detected. (author)

  20. Reconstitution of mitochondria derived vesicle formation demonstrates selective enrichment of oxidized cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Soubannier

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that ensure the removal of damaged mitochondrial proteins and lipids are critical for the health of the cell, and errors in these pathways are implicated in numerous degenerative diseases. We recently uncovered a new pathway for the selective removal of proteins mediated by mitochondrial derived vesicular carriers (MDVs that transit to the lysosome. However, it was not determined whether these vesicles were selectively enriched for oxidized, or damaged proteins, and the extent to which the complexes of the electron transport chain and the mtDNA-containing nucloids may have been incorporated. In this study, we have developed a cell-free mitochondrial budding reaction in vitro in order to better dissect the pathway. Our data confirm that MDVs are stimulated upon various forms of mitochondrial stress, and the vesicles incorporated quantitative amounts of cargo, whose identity depended upon the nature of the stress. Under the conditions examined, MDVs did not incorporate complexes I and V, nor were any nucleoids present, demonstrating the specificity of cargo incorporation. Stress-induced MDVs are selectively enriched for oxidized proteins, suggesting that conformational changes induced by oxidation may initiate their incorporation into the vesicles. Ultrastructural analyses of MDVs isolated on sucrose flotation gradients revealed the formation of both single and double membranes vesicles of unique densities and uniform diameter. This work provides a framework for a reductionist approach towards a detailed examination of the mechanisms of MDV formation and cargo incorporation, and supports the emerging concept that MDVs are critical contributors to mitochondrial quality control.

  1. Opposing microtubule motors control motility, morphology and cargo segregation during ER-to-Golgi transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Brown

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that dynein and kinesin motors drive multiple aspects of endosomal function in mammalian cells. These functions include driving motility, maintaining morphology (notably through providing longitudinal tension to support vesicle fission, and driving cargo sorting. Microtubule motors drive bidirectional motility during traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi. Here, we have examined the role of microtubule motors in transport carrier motility, morphology, and domain organization during ER-to-Golgi transport. We show that, consistent with our findings for endosomal dynamics, microtubule motor function during ER-to-Golgi transport of secretory cargo is required for motility, morphology, and cargo sorting within vesicular tubular carriers en route to the Golgi. Our data are consistent with previous findings that defined roles for dynein-1, kinesin-1 (KIF5B and kinesin-2 in this trafficking step. Our high resolution tracking data identify some intriguing aspects. Depletion of kinesin-1 reduces the number of motile structures seen, which is in line with other findings relating to the role of kinesin-1 in ER export. However, those transport carriers that were produced had a much greater run length suggesting that this motor can act as a brake on anterograde motility. Kinesin-2 depletion did not significantly reduce the number of motile transport carriers but did cause a similar increase in run length. These data suggest that kinesins act as negative regulators of ER-to-Golgi transport. Depletion of dynein not only reduced the number of motile carriers formed but also caused tubulation of carriers similar to that seen for sorting nexin-coated early endosomes. Our data indicated that the previously observed anterograde–retrograde polarity of transport carriers in transit to the Golgi from the ER is maintained by microtubule motor function.

  2. Evolution of bulk damage initiation in DKDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher W.; McMillian, T. H.; Staggs, Mike C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Demos, Stavros G.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of laser-induced damage initiated in the bulk of DKDP crystals using in-situ microscopy. Experimental results indicate that at peek fluences greater than 10 J/cm2, damage sites are formed with increasing number as a function of the laser fluence. Following plasma formation, cracks are observed which grow in size for tens of seconds after the termination of the laser pulse. Subsequent irradiation leads to modest increase in size only during the initial 2-5 pulses. Experimental results suggest that there is also relaxation of the stresses adjacent to a damage site for several hours after initial damage.

  3. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  4. Neutron moisture gage for bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desing and operation of neutron moisture gage of bulk materials intended for the determination of moisture of coke, agglomerated charge, and iron ore concentrate in black metallurgy is described. The moisture gage operates both under ''measurement'' and ''calibration'' conditions, contains a fast neutron source, and two groups of slow neutron detectors. Technical and economic efficiency of the moisture gage utilization consists in the improved accuracy of moisture detection at the expense of more accurate calibration, optimum arrangement of the carriage in a hopper, and stabilization of detector temperature. The device service is also simplified

  5. Oscillatory Dynamical Switching System of Bulk Ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N.A. Halif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study gives a detailed account of calculation of the bulk ferroelectric (FE oscillatory dynamical system switching to first and second-order phase transition, respectively. All the formalism is delineated in the framework of Landau free-energy expansion and Landau-Khalatnikov (LK equation of motion where the effect of external energy may affray FE atoms similar to the spring damped oscillatory system. Here we scrutinized the switching properties from free-energy expansion and hysteresis loop. The polarization and current switching appropriate to the estimated complete switching time, changing of temperature, electric field and damping are scrutinized and discussed.

  6. Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of 235U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, 235U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The bulk composition of exo-planets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensicke, Boris; Dufour, Patrick; Farihi, Jay; Jura, Michael; Kilic, Mukremin; Melis, Carl; Veras, Dimitri; Xu, Siyi; Zuckerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Priorities in exo-planet research are rapidly moving from finding planets to characterizing their physical properties. Of key importance is their chemical composition, which feeds back into our understanding of planet formation. For the foreseeable future, far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of white dwarfs accreting planetary debris remains the only way to directly and accurately measure the bulk abundances of exo-planetary bodies. The exploitation of this method is limited by the sensitivity of HST, and significant progress will require a large-aperture space telescope with a high-throughput ultraviolet spectrograph.

  8. Heavy Quark Energy Loss and Bulk Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the low-pT data and high-pT data from RHIC and LHC give a contradictory picture of the relevant dynamics of a quark-gluon plasma. While the bulk observables imply a strongly coupled fluid best described by AdS/CFT the rare probes imply a weakly coupled gas best described using thermal pQCD. These conclusions are based on leading order theoretical calculations, and we speculate that more sophisticated calculations that include higher order effects might provide a resolution to the current puzzle

  9. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intrinsic plastic Cu45Zr46Al7Ti2 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs

  10. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  11. Bulk hydrogen analysis by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efforts of the UCT-based group now working on bulk analysis using neutrons are directed mainly towards developing methods for detecting concealed explosive or other hidden contraband, such as drugs. The technique which we are developing, called fast neutron scattering analysis (FNSA), is based on the detection and measurement of hydrogen and other elements, particularly carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, by means of fast neutron scattering measurements. This report describes progress achieved over the past year in the work on fast neutron scattering analysis and in the development of detection techniques for plastic land mines

  12. Forming of bulk metallic glass microcomponents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wert, John A.; Thomsen, Christian; Jensen, Rune Debel;

    2009-01-01

    The present article considers forward extrusion, closed-die forging and backward extrusion processes for fabrication of individual microcomponents from two bulk metallic glass (BMG) compositions: Mg60Cu30Y10 and Zr44Cu40Ag8Al8. Two types of tooling were used in the present work: relatively massive...... die sets characteristic of cold forming operations for crystalline metals and lightweight die sets adapted to the special characteristics of BMGs. In addition to demonstrating that microcomponents of several geometries can be readily fabricated from BMGs, rheological properties are combined with...

  13. Distinct N-terminal regions of the exomer secretory vesicle cargo Chs3 regulate its trafficking itinerary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ChristopherFromme

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cells transport integral membrane proteins between organelles by sorting them into vesicles. Cargo adaptors act to recognize sorting signals in transmembrane cargos and to interact with coat complexes that aid in vesicle biogenesis. No coat proteins have yet been identified that generate secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN to the plasma membrane, but the exomer complex has been identified as a cargo adaptor complex that mediates transport of several proteins in this pathway. Chs3, the most well-studied exomer cargo, cycles between the TGN and the plasma membrane in synchrony with the cell cycle, providing an opportunity to study regulation of proteins that cycle in response to signaling. Here we show that different segments of the Chs3 N-terminus mediate distinct trafficking steps. Residues 10-27, known to mediate retention, also appear to play a role in internalization. Residues 28-52 are involved in transport to the plasma membrane and recycling out of endosomes to prevent degradation in the vacuole. We also present the crystal structure of residues 10-27 bound to the exomer complex, suggesting different cargo adaptors could compete for binding to this segment, providing a potential mechanism for regulation.

  14. Comunidad, sistema de cargos y proyecto social. Una propuesta analítica de sociedades locales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo González de la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto contiene una propuesta de análisis antropológico del sistema de cargos que incluye tanto a comunidades indígenas como no-indígenas. Partiendo del reconocimiento del sistema de cargos como una institución esencialmente heterogénea, se sugiere que, como hipótesis principal, tal institución alimenta una serie de mecanismos que, en sí mismos, potencian los escenarios de interacciones que protagonizan los miembros de la comunidad a través de un conjunto de roles: fomentan que los escenarios puedan ser protagonizados por el mayor número de miembros; propician que tales escenarios se articulen con la mayor frecuencia posible; todo ello con el acuerdo tácito entre protagonistas de que exista rotación de roles entre escenario y escenario. Esta propuesta analítica va a estar estructurada en tres bloques. En primer lugar, se ubican los fenómenos estudiados en torno al sistema de cargos en un continuum de comportamientos tendentes al individualismo y a lo colectivo en sus dos polos. En segundo lugar, se explicita el concepto de comunidad como elemento básico para el estudio de los sistemas de cargos; por último, se propone la idea del proyecto comunitario como denominador común en cuanto a sistemas de cargos se refiere en el área mesoamericana.

  15. Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

    2006-10-05

    The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

  16. Sandwich design of a lift plate for tail lift platforms for cargo trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Bergwall, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis examines a sandwich lift plate for cargo trucks in order to propose an option for existing lift platforms in aluminium or steel. The wish is to make it lighter but not less stiff or weak. Two different cores in Divinycell with different density; H130 and H250 is examined. Calculations are made with respect to deflection and max stress in both core and faces for the whole plates. But also more local calculations are performed to see how the faces and core behaved on local po...

  17. DISEÑO ESTRATÉGICO DE PERFILES DE CARGOS POR COMPETENCIAS.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel Soltura Laseria; Armando Cuesta Santos

    2008-01-01

    En el trabajo se presenta una tecnología para la determinación de los perfiles de cargo por competencias en las organizaciones cubanas con base científica, fundamentada en la creciente necesidad de dirigir los esfuerzos individuales hacia el cumplimiento de la estrategia. La tecnología provee a las organizaciones de una forma de determinar la estructura de competencias que ha de adoptar para satisfacer las demandas o necesidades de clientes o usuarios, estado, proveedores y sociedad, en ...

  18. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk

  19. Cargo transport by sea and road - Technical and economical environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2006-01-01

    .)) Having established a method for the calculation of the ships energy demand, it is relatively simple to calculate the exhaust emissions by using some well-established specific emission factors, i.e. figures for the exhaust emission pr. consumed energy unit (g/Mj). >> In the paper, a comparison with road...... transport will also be presented focusing on the energy demand and exhaust emissions per transport unit, i.e. per ton cargo per km. >>) Finally, the energy and emission data will be used for an economical evaluation of sea transport versus land transport. This will be done by calculating the external costs...

  20. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk.