WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk cargo

  1. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or to safely clean cargo tanks; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in... or cleaning cargo tanks. 153.957 Section 153.957 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his...

  2. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... nonsubstantive changes, however, to correct grammar, internal paragraph references, and a temperature conversion... means the English version of the ``International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code'' published by...

  3. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Smillie, Karen J; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-12-02

    The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.

  4. 78 FR 21037 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A330-200 Airplanes; Bulk Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... unusual design feature associated with the installation of bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartments... supplemental type certificate to install a bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartment in the Airbus Model...

  5. Dry bulk cargo shipping - An overlooked threat to the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matthias; Mazurek, Nicole; Gräbsch, Carolin; Zeilinger, Jana; Le Floch, Stéphane; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Höfer, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 9.5billiontonnes of goods is transported over the world oceans annually with dry bulk representing the largest cargo group. This paper aims to analyse whether the transport and associated inputs of dry bulks into the sea create a risk for the marine environment. For this purpose, we analyse the international regulatory background concerning environmental protection (MARPOL), estimate quantities and identify inputs of such cargoes into the oceans (accidental and operational), and use available information for hazard assessment. Annually, more than 2.15milliontonnes of dry bulk cargoes are likely to enter the oceans, of which 100,000tonnes are potentially harmful to the marine environment according to the definition included in draft maritime regulation. The assessment of the threat to the marine environment is hampered by a lack of available information on chemical composition, bioavailability and toxicity. Perspectives for amendments of the unsatisfying pollution prevention regulations are discussed.

  6. Reliability analysis of the bulk cargo loading system including dependent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokus-Roszkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    In the paper an innovative approach to the reliability analysis of multistate series-parallel systems assuming their components' dependency is presented. The reliability function of a multistate series system with components dependent according to the local load sharing rule is determined. Linking these results for series systems with results for parallel systems with independent components, we obtain the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system assuming dependence of components' departures from the reliability states subsets in series subsystem and assuming independence between these subsystems. As a particular case, the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system composed of dependent components having exponential reliability functions is fixed. Theoretical results are applied practically to the reliability evaluation of a bulk cargo transportation system, which main area is to load bulk cargo on board the ships. The reliability function and other reliability characteristics of the loading system are determined in case its components have exponential reliability functions with interdependent departures rates from the subsets of their reliability states. Finally, the obtained results are compared with results for the bulk cargo transportation system composed of independent components.

  7. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1866 - Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. 154.1866... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1866 Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. No person may transfer cargo through a cargo hose...

  9. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154.534 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps...

  10. Design of Cargo Hold Ventilation for Bulk Carrier Carrying Dangerous Cargoes%散货船装载危险品货舱通风系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣杰

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the different requirements of the Rules for cargo hold ventilation of bulk carrier carrying all kinds of dangerous cargoes, this paper classiifes the types of cargo hold ventilation for carrying dangerous cargoes, describes the design and typical arrangement of each type of cargo hold ventilation including the relevant rules and standards in order to simplify the design of cargo hold ventilation and reduce the cost of shipbuilding under the premise of meeting ship’s speciifcation and the Rules' minimum requirement.%本文通过分析散货船危险品货物清单中各种货物的装载和运输对货舱通风的不同要求,对散货船装载危险品货舱通风的型式进行归类,简述每一类货舱通风的设计及典型布置,分析其中所涉及到的相关规范和标准,旨在满足船东技术规格书要求和规范最低配置的前提下尽可能简化货舱通风系统的设计,降低船舶的建造成本。

  11. 77 FR 14327 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations; 49 CFR Parts 171-180 IBC Intermediate Bulk... Materials by Vessel'' (55 FR 37406), the Coast Guard allowed the use of Intermodal (IM) 101 and IM 102... describe the types of IBCs the Coast Guard would allow for the carriage of certain hazardous materials...

  12. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation...... shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...

  13. Cargo work for maritime operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, D.

    2005-07-01

    Previously published as Kemp & Young's Cargo Work, this new edition has been revised and expanded to reflect unit load containerised systems that are now used in the majority of cargo shipping, while retaining the necessary detail on transporting key classes of cargoes safely, efficiently and profitably. The book covers general principles and the latest international regulations that affect all cargo work, including cargo types and key characteristics of a wide range of cargo classes. It also details Roll On-Roll Off cargo handling, containerisation, equipment and offshore supply. Chapter 4 on bulk cargoes contains a section headed: Coal, characteristics, categories and procedures, precautions.

  14. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1826 - Opening of cargo tanks and cargo sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of cargo tanks and cargo sampling. 154.1826... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1826 Opening of cargo tanks and cargo sampling. (a) The master shall ensure that each cargo tank opening...

  16. 46 CFR 151.03-9 - Cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo. 151.03-9 Section 151.03-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-9 Cargo. This term means any liquid, gas or solid having...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1858 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 154.1858 Section 154.1858 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1858 Cargo hose. The person...

  18. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo manual. 154.1810 Section 154.1810 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1810 Cargo manual. (a) No person... navigable waters of the United States, or a U.S. flag vessel, unless the vessel has on board a cargo...

  20. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  1. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  2. 46 CFR 153.935a - Storage of cargo samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage of cargo samples. 153.935a Section 153.935a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... § 153.935a Storage of cargo samples. (a) The master shall make sure that any cargo samples are stored...

  3. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the...

  4. 46 CFR 153.251 - Independent cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent cargo tanks. 153.251 Section 153.251... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.251 Independent cargo tanks. All independent cargo tank must meet § 38.05-10 (a)(1), (b), (d),...

  5. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... symbols used in lines 1 and 2, in order, under the tank segregation column of Table 151.05....

  6. Master-slave Genetic Algorithm for Forklift Truck Scheduling in Port Bulk Cargo Handling%港口散货物流铲车调度的主-从级遗传算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维存; 康凯; 崔婷玉; 冯娇

    2011-01-01

    Through analyzing the relationship between forklift trucks and the service-ready cargo trucks waiting at the docking slot, the paper proposes to use the master-slave genetic algorithm to solve the scheduling problem of forklift trucks in port bulk cargo handling. To be more specific, as the first step, a mathematical model aimed for shortening the waiting time of the cargo trucks is formulated; secondly after an analysis of the relationship between cargo trucks and forklift trucks in the scheduling process, a real number coded genetic algorithm with master-slave structure is put forward together with its decoding method; finally an empirical example is used to verify the effectiveness of the method and to present the optimum solution in Cantt chart.%通过分析货位上待服务的货车与铲车之间的关系,提出了利用主-从级遗传算法解决该类物流铲车调度问题.首先,建立了以缩短顾客停留时间为目标的数学模型.通过分析铲车调度过程中铲车与货车之间的关系,提出了采用实数编码的主-从两级遗传算法及其解码方法,最后通过一个应用实例的分析验证了此算法的有效性,并将最优解通过甘特图的形式展现出来.

  7. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Connecting a cargo hose. 153.972 Section 153.972 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo...

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  9. 46 CFR 150.160 - Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.160 Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. The Operator of a vessel having on board a cargo carried as an exception under §...

  10. The Cargo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas; Charlton, Michael F.; Biggs, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The Gresham ship was carrying a substantial cargo of different metals when she sank, representing a considerable financial loss. Reports record that some of that material recovered in 1846 included 2700 tin ingots, lead pigs and iron bars (British Archaeological Association, 1847, 361). The excav...

  11. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  12. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  13. 46 CFR 153.283 - Valving for cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valving for cargo piping. 153.283 Section 153.283... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.283 Valving for cargo piping. (a) Except as described in...

  14. 46 CFR 154.356 - Cargo emergency jettisoning piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo emergency jettisoning piping. 154.356 Section 154.356 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.356 Cargo emergency jettisoning piping. Emergency jettisoning piping...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks: Filling limits. 154.1844 Section 154.1844... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1844 Cargo tanks... cargo tank is not loaded: (1) More than 98 percent liquid full; or (2) In excess of the...

  16. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gauging devices. 151.15-10 Section 151.15-10... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section contains definitions and requirements for types of gauging devices specified in Table 151.05. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargoes having toxic properties. 151.50-5 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-5 Cargoes having... transporting liquids having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 14 pounds per square inch absolute or vented at...

  18. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  19. Genetic algorithm with master-slave structure for forklift truck dispatching in bulk cargo logistics%基于主—从两级遗传算法的港口散货物流铲车调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维存; 康凯; 崔婷玉

    2012-01-01

    In port bulk cargo logistics, reasonable forklift truck operation considering forklift truck capacity constraints will improve the whole operational efficiency and increase customers' satisfaction. A Genetic Algorithm ( GA) with master-slave structure was proposed to solve the forklift truck with capacity constraints dispatching in port bulk cargo logistics. First, a mathematical model was built for the goal to shorten trucks' time from arriving to leaving the yard on the basis that a forklift truck with capacity constraints will serve a truck and a truck must be served by one forklift. Then, a real coded GA with master-slave structure and its decoding method were proposed after the analysis of forklifts with capacity constraints and trucks. In addition, when coded in slave structure, heuristic rules and penalty function were designed in order to avoid infeasible solutions. Finally, an application example was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. And the Gantt chart was used to show the optimal strategy when dispatching trucks with capacity constraints.%港口散货物流中,在考虑铲车能力约束条件下合理的铲车调度将提高整体的运作效率,并增强顾客满意度.通过分析货位上待服务的货车与有能力约束的铲车之间的关系,提出了利用主—从级遗传算法解决该类有能力约束的铲车调度问题.首先,建立了以缩短顾客停留时间为目标的数学模型.其次,设计了主、从递阶型式的两级遗传算法.算法中,主级求解铲车到货位的分配问题,从级求解主级所分配铲车能力约束下的货车服务次序及服务时间.另外,为避免非可行解产生,在主从级遗传算法的解码中均设计了启发式规则和惩罚函数.最后,通过一个应用实例的对比实验分析验证了此算法的有效性,并将最优解通过甘特图的形式展现出来.

  20. 33 CFR 126.27 - General permit for handling dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) in bulk, portable tanks, containers, or packagings, at designated waterfront facilities, conditioned... cargo in limited-quantity packaging. (e) Transport units and portable tanks containing dangerous cargo... in the event of an accident. Cargo not required to be segregated, when in break-bulk form, is...

  1. Characterizing the composition of molecular motors on moving axonal cargo using "cargo mapping" analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Sylvia; Campbell, George E; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Encalada, Sandra E

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms by which molecular motors coordinate their activities to transport vesicular cargoes within neurons requires the quantitative analysis of motor/cargo associations at the single vesicle level. The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate ("map") the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. "Cargo mapping" consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. Colocalization between cargoes and their associated motors is assessed by assigning sub-pixel position coordinates to motor and cargo channels, by fitting Gaussian functions to the diffraction-limited point spread functions representing individual fluorescent point sources. Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to "map" them to their tracked trajectories. The strength of this protocol is the combination of live and IF data to record both the transport of vesicular cargoes in live cells and to determine the motors associated to these exact same vesicles. This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. Furthermore, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of other transport and/or trafficking pathways in other cell types to correlate the movement of individual intracellular structures with their protein composition. Limitations of this protocol are the relatively low throughput due to low transfection efficiencies of cultured primary neurons and a limited field of view available for

  2. 46 CFR 151.20-10 - Cargo system instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system instrumentation. 151.20-10 Section 151.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... instrumentation. (a) Each tank operated at other than ambient temperature shall be provided with at least...

  3. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981. (c) The steel cover for the aluminum... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  4. 76 FR 41278 - Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS..., transfer, and storage of Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC) in bulk within the U.S. Marine Transportation System....Bergan@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In September 2009, the Coast Guard held a...

  5. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  6. 33 CFR 401.32 - Cargo booms-deck cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo booms-deck cargo. 401.32... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.32 Cargo booms—deck cargo. (a) Every vessel shall have cargo booms secured in a manner that affords maximum...

  7. Scatter in cargo radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Erin A; Caggiano, Joseph A; Runkle, Robert C; White, Timothy A; Bevill, Aaron M

    2011-03-01

    As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding, in addition to screening for items such as drugs or contraband. Radiographic detection of such threat objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beam in the cargo, the radiographic system itself, and the surrounding environment, which degrades image contrast. Here, we estimate the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers. Stochastic transport simulations were performed to determine the details of the radiography equipment and surrounding environment, which are important in reproducing measured data and to investigate scatter magnitudes for typical cargo. We find that scatter plays a stronger role in cargo radiography than in typical medical imaging scenarios, even for low-density cargo, with scatter-to-primary ratios ranging from 0.14 for very low density cargo, to between 0.20 and 0.40 for typical cargo, and higher yet for dense cargo.

  8. 75 FR 59617 - Notification of Arrival in U.S. Ports; Certain Dangerous Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... requirements. The 2005 definition of CDC residue only included residue quantities of bulk ammonium nitrate or ammonium nitrate fertilizer that remained onboard after the vessel discharges all saleable cargo; no other... until the removal of all bulk liquid and liquefied gas CDC cargoes, including residue quantities of...

  9. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  10. Air Cargo Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to freight...free transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  11. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  12. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  13. 46 CFR 153.602 - Special requirements for cargoes reactive with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for cargoes reactive with water. 153.602 Section 153.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.602 Special requirements for cargoes reactive with...

  14. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments....287 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are..., the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of the...

  15. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments... Requirements § 125.185 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments... during flight, the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of...

  16. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  17. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  18. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  19. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 97 and 160, and 46 CFR Part 97 RIN 1625-AA25 Cargo Securing Manuals... proposes requiring cargo securing manuals (CSMs) on vessels of 500 gross tons or more traveling on... Code of Federal Regulations CSAP Cargo safe access plan CSM Cargo Securing Manual CSS Code Code of...

  20. 46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST... Cargo antidotes. No person may operate a tankship that carries a cargo listed in Table 1 unless the tankship has on board the antidotes described for the cargo in the Medical First Aid Guide for Use...

  1. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.53 - Cargo winches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo winches. 1918.53 Section 1918.53 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.53 Cargo winches. (a...) There shall be no load other than the fall and cargo hook assembly on the winch when changing gears on...

  3. Proteomics Characterization of Exosome Cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Schey, Kevin L.; Luther, J. Matthew; Rose, Kristie L

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitat...

  4. A systematic approach to pair secretory cargo receptors with their cargo suggests a mechanism for cargo selection by Erv14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Yonatan; Sharpe, Hayley J; Elbaz, Yael; Munro, Sean; Schuldiner, Maya

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis of secreted and membrane proteins. To exit the ER, proteins are packaged into COPII vesicles through direct interaction with the COPII coat or aided by specific cargo receptors. Despite the fundamental role of such cargo receptors in protein traffic, only a few have been identified; their cargo spectrum is unknown and the signals they recognize remain poorly understood. We present here an approach we term "PAIRS" (pairing analysis of cargo receptors), which combines systematic genetic manipulations of yeast with automated microscopy screening, to map the spectrum of cargo for a known receptor or to uncover a novel receptor for a particular cargo. Using PAIRS we followed the fate of ∼150 cargos on the background of mutations in nine putative cargo receptors and identified novel cargo for most of these receptors. Deletion of the Erv14 cargo receptor affected the widest range of cargo. Erv14 substrates have a wide array of functions and structures; however, they are all membrane-spanning proteins of the late secretory pathway or plasma membrane. Proteins residing in these organelles have longer transmembrane domains (TMDs). Detailed examination of one cargo supported the hypothesis that Erv14 dependency reflects the length rather than the sequence of the TMD. The PAIRS approach allowed us to uncover new cargo for known cargo receptors and to obtain an unbiased look at specificity in cargo selection. Obtaining the spectrum of cargo for a cargo receptor allows a novel perspective on its mode of action. The rules that appear to guide Erv14 substrate recognition suggest that sorting of membrane proteins at multiple points in the secretory pathway could depend on the physical properties of TMDs. Such a mechanism would allow diverse proteins to utilize a few receptors without the constraints of evolving location-specific sorting motifs.

  5. Cargo recognition and cargo-mediated regulation of unconventional myosins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Jianchao; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-10-21

    Organized motions are hallmarks of living organisms. Such motions range from collective cell movements during development and muscle contractions at the macroscopic scale all the way down to cellular cargo (e.g., various biomolecules and organelles) transportation and mechanoforce sensing at more microscopic scales. Energy required for these biological motions is almost invariably provided by cellular chemical fuels in the form of nucleotide triphosphate. Biological systems have designed a group of nanoscale engines, known as molecular motors, to convert cellular chemical fuels into mechanical energy. Molecular motors come in various forms including cytoskeleton motors (myosin, kinesin, and dynein), nucleic-acid-based motors, cellular membrane-based rotary motors, and so on. The main focus of this Account is one subfamily of actin filament-based motors called unconventional myosins (other than muscle myosin II, the remaining myosins are collectively referred to as unconventional myosins). In general, myosins can use ATP to fuel two types of mechanomotions: dynamic tethering actin filaments with various cellular compartments or structures and actin filament-based intracellular transport. In contrast to rich knowledge accumulated over many decades on ATP hydrolyzing motor heads and their interactions with actin filaments, how various myosins recognize their specific cargoes and whether and how cargoes can in return regulate functions of motors are less understood. Nonetheless, a series of biochemical and structural investigations in the past few years, including works from our own laboratory, begin to shed lights on these latter questions. Some myosins (e.g., myosin-VI) can function both as cellular transporters and as mechanical tethers. To function as a processive transporter, myosins need to form dimers or multimers. To be a mechanical tether, a monomeric myosin is sufficient. It has been shown for myosin-VI that its cellular cargo proteins can play critical roles

  6. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring..., LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Documents and Cargo Information § 153.908 Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge:...

  7. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information. 153.907 Section 153.907 Shipping... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes...

  8. 46 CFR 45.137 - Cargo ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo ports. 45.137 Section 45.137 Shipping COAST GUARD....137 Cargo ports. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commandant, the lower edge of any opening for cargo, personnel, machinery access, or similar opening in the side of a ship must be above a line...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.114 - Cargo doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo doors. 1917.114 Section 1917.114 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.114 Cargo doors. (a) Mechanically operated. (1) Cargo...

  10. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear shall be marked on the heel of each cargo boom, crane, or derrick. These letters and figures are to...

  11. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Exporters and Importers, Cargo Airline Association, Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals... the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland Security to... conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off-airport. Thus, the CCSP...

  12. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.328 Cargo tanks. (a) Providing and affixing identification numbers. Unless a cargo tank is already marked with the identification numbers required by this subpart,...

  13. Cargo transport by several motors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2010-01-01

    In cells, organelles and vesicles are usually transported by cooperation of several motor proteins, including plus-end directed motor kinesin and minus-end directed motor dynein. Many biophysical models have been constructed to understand the mechanism of this motion. However, so far, the basic principle about it remains unclosed. In this paper, based on the recent experimental results and existing theoretical models, a spider-like model is provided. In this model, each motor is regarded as a bead-spring system. The bead can bind to or unbind from the track stochastically, and step forward or backward with fixed step size L and force dependent transition rates. The spring connects the bead to cargo tightly. At any time, the position of cargo is determined by force balance condition. The obvious characteristics of our model are that, the motors interact with each other and they do not share the external load equally. Our results indicate, the stall force of cargo, under which the mean velocity of cargo vanishe...

  14. Systems Analysis and Structural Design of an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cruz, Jonathan N.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sasamoto, Washito A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station will require a continuous supply of replacement parts for ongoing maintenance and repair after the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010. These parts are existing line-replaceable items collectively called Orbital Replacement Units, and include heavy and oversized items such as Control Moment Gyroscopes and stowed radiator arrays originally intended for delivery aboard the Space Shuttle. Current resupply spacecraft have limited to no capability to deliver these external logistics. In support of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study, a team at Langley Research Center designed an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle to deliver bulk cargo to the Space Station. The Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle was required to deliver at least 13,200 lbs of cargo mounted on at least 18 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. The Crew Launch Vehicle design recommended in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study would be used to launch one annual resupply flight to the International Space Station. The baseline vehicle design developed here has a cargo capacity of 16,000 lbs mounted on up to 20 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. Major vehicle components are a 5.5m-diameter cargo module containing two detachable cargo pallets with the payload, a Service Module to provide propulsion and power, and an aerodynamic nose cone. To reduce cost and risk, the Service Module is identical to the one used for the Crew Exploration Vehicle design.

  15. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  16. 46 CFR 153.970 - Cargo transfer piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo transfer piping. 153.970 Section 153.970 Shipping... § 153.970 Cargo transfer piping. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that: (a) Cargo is transferred to or from a cargo tank only through the tankship's cargo piping system; (b) Vapor not returned...

  17. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... that is sensitive to heat. If it is necessary to transport petroleum coke in a hold adjacent to other... vessel is within safe limits. b. One comment asked if the detonation test prescribed by The Fertilizer... Fertilizer Institute. Therefore, the detonation test prescribed by The Fertilizer Institute is not...

  18. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J de; Castón, José R

    2016-04-28

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ∼30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ∼20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.

  19. Proteomics characterization of exosome cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Kevin L; Luther, J Matthew; Rose, Kristie L

    2015-10-01

    Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitative, global quantitative, and targeted quantitative analysis of exosomal proteins. In addition, we provide an example application of a standard global quantitative analysis followed by validation via a targeted quantitative analysis of urine exosome samples from human patients. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed as well as future directions for exosome proteomics analysis.

  20. Competitiveness of Slovenian Cargo Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Slovenian cargo shipping, its system oforganisation, ownership, age and value stntcture. It shows theimportance of shipping in the Slovenian overseas trade and itsimpact on the state's balance of payments. The analysis of thecompetitiveness of shipping was made from the viewpoint ofoperation costs and in comparison with the competitiveness ofEU shippers. The paper concludes with a proposal of possiblesystemic solutions which improve the competitiveness of Slovenianshipping.

  1. 46 CFR 154.1860 - Integral tanks: Cargo colder than −10 °C (14 °F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral tanks: Cargo colder than â10 °C (14 °F). 154.1860 Section 154.1860 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK....1860 Integral tanks: Cargo colder than −10 °C (14 °F). The master shall ensure that an integral...

  2. NWA Cargo Is Granted Additional Cargo Frequencies to China Four all-cargo frequencies per week granted by U.S. Department of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NWA Cargo, the cargo division of Northwest Airlines, will expand its all-cargo freighter service between the United States and China after being awarded four additional frequencies per week by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  3. Communication: Cargo towing by artificial swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen

    2016-11-01

    An active swimmer can tow a passive cargo by binding it to form a self-propelling dimer. The orientation of the cargo relative to the axis of the active dimer's head is determined by the hydrodynamic interactions associated with the propulsion mechanism of the latter. We show how the tower-cargo angular configuration greatly influences the dimer's diffusivity and, therefore, the efficiency of the active swimmer as a micro-towing motor.

  4. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo hose connections. (4) Cargo transfer operations for any cargo requiring a PV or safety relief...) All connections for cargo transfer have been made to the vessel's fixed pipeline system. (7) In... control the operations as follows: (1) Supervise the operation of the cargo system valves. (2)...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1834 - Cargo transfer piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo transfer piping. 154.1834 Section 154.1834... piping. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo is transferred to or from a cargo tank only through the cargo piping system....

  6. 46 CFR 153.910 - Cargo piping plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping plan. 153.910 Section 153.910 Shipping... Information § 153.910 Cargo piping plan. No person may operate a tankship unless the tankship has a cargo piping plan that: (a) Shows all cargo piping on the tankship; (b) Shows all cargo valving, pumps,...

  7. OPTIMAL GOODS STOWAGE IN AIR CARGO TERMINALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Yun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Lack of system research done by domestic and foreign scientists in the field of optimal cargostraffic distribution problem in Air Cargo Terminal, proves necessity of investigation and optimization of thisprocess. Mathematical models and algorithms of optimal problem solving for air cargos distribution inwarehouses on the basis of established functional dependence between freight flow stowage in warehousesand transport vehicle loading (unloading processes are presented in the article.Keywords:algorithms, dimensions of air cargo terminal, effectiveness of loading-unloading processes,freight flow, models.

  8. 19 CFR 122.115 - Labeling of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cargo. 122.115 Section 122.115 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.115 Labeling of cargo. A warning label, as required by § 18.4(e) of this chapter, shall be attached to all transit air cargo...

  9. 19 CFR 4.38 - Release of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of cargo. 4.38 Section 4.38 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.38 Release of cargo. (a) No... report which lists those shipments which have been authorized for release. This alternative cargo...

  10. 49 CFR 1548.21 - Screening of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening of cargo. 1548.21 Section 1548.21... cargo. An IAC may only screen cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft under §§ 1544.205 and 1546.205 if the IAC is a certified cargo screening facility as provided in part 1549....

  11. 19 CFR 4.33 - Diversion of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversion of cargo. 4.33 Section 4.33 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.33 Diversion of cargo. (a) Unlading at other than original port of destination. A vessel may unlade cargo or baggage at an...

  12. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo liquid and vapor piping and process piping systems must meet the requirements in §§ 154.503 through...

  13. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 105.20-3 Section 105.20-3 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-3 Cargo tanks. (a) Construction and Materials. (1) The cargo tanks must be constructed of iron, steel, copper, nickel...

  14. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  15. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 157 - Damage Assumptions, Hypothetical Outflows, and Cargo Tank Size and Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Outflows, and Cargo Tank Size and Arrangements A Appendix A to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. A Appendix A to Part 157... from tank vessels, three dimensions of the extent of damage of a parallelepiped on the side and...

  16. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  17. OPTIMAL GOODS STOWAGE IN AIR CARGO TERMINALS

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gennadiy; Gyrych, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Lack of system research done by domestic and foreign scientists in the field of optimal cargostraffic distribution problem in Air Cargo Terminal, proves necessity of investigation and optimization of thisprocess. Mathematical models and algorithms of optimal problem solving for air cargos distribution inwarehouses on the basis of established functional dependence between freight flow stowage in warehousesand transport vehicle loading (unloading) processes are presented in the articl...

  18. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  19. Research on probability distribution of port cargo throughput

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang; TAN De-rong

    2008-01-01

    In order to more accurately examine developing trends in gross cargo throughput, we have modeled the probability distribution of cargo throughput. Gross cargo throughput is determined by the time spent by cargo ships in the port and the operating efficiency of handling equipment. Gross cargo throughput is the sum of all compound variables determining each aspect of cargo throughput for every cargo ship arriving at the port. Probability distribution was determined using the Wald equation. The results show that the variability of gross cargo throughput primarily depends on the different times required by different cargo ships arriving at the port. This model overcomes the shortcoming of previous models: inability to accurately determine the probability of a specific value of future gross cargo throughput. Our proposed model of cargo throughput depends on the relationship between time required by a cargo ship arriving at the port and the operational capacity of handling equipment at the port. At the same time, key factors affecting gross cargo throughput are analyzed. In order to test the efficiency of the model, the cargo volume of a port in Shandong Province was used as an example. In the case study the actual results matched our theoretical analysis.

  20. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  1. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  2. Cargo binding to Atg19 unmasks additional Atg8 binding sites to mediate membrane-cargo apposition during selective autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa-Makarska, Justyna; Abert, Christine; Romanov, Julia; Zens, Bettina; Ibiricu, Iosune; Martens, Sascha

    2014-05-01

    Autophagy protects cells from harmful substances such as protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria and intracellular pathogens, and has been implicated in a variety of diseases. Selectivity of autophagic processes is mediated by cargo receptors that link cargo to Atg8 family proteins on the developing autophagosomal membrane. To avoid collateral degradation during constitutive autophagic pathways, the autophagic machinery must not only select cargo but also exclude non-cargo material. Here we show that cargo directly activates the cargo receptor Atg19 by exposing multiple Atg8 binding sites. Furthermore, Atg19 mediates tight apposition of the cargo and Atg8-coated membranes in a fully reconstituted system. These properties are essential for the function of Atg19 during selective autophagy in vivo. Our results suggest that cargo receptors contribute to tight membrane bending of the isolation membrane around the cargo.

  3. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  4. Motility states in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular cargos which are transported by molecular motors move stochastically along cytoskeleton filaments. In particular for bidirectionally transported cargos it is an open question whether the characteristics of their motion can result from pure stochastic fluctuations or whether some coordination of the motors is needed. The results of a mean-field model of cargo-motors dynamics, which was proposed by M\\"uller et al.[1] suggest the existence of high motility states which would result from a stochastic tug-of-war. Here we analyze a non-mean field extension of their model, that takes explicitly the position of each motor into account. We find that high motility states then disappear. We consider also a mutual motor-motor activation, as an explicit mechanism of motor coordination. We show that the results of the mean-field model are recovered only in case of a strong motor-motor activation in the limit of a high number of motors.

  5. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  6. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  7. 49 CFR 176.39 - Inspection of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of cargo. 176.39 Section 176.39... Requirements § 176.39 Inspection of cargo. (a) Manned vessels. The carrier, its agents, and any person... thereafter, weather permitting, in order to ensure that the cargo is in a safe condition and that no...

  8. 19 CFR 4.36 - Delayed discharge of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delayed discharge of cargo. 4.36 Section 4.36... TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.36 Delayed discharge of cargo. (a) When pursuant to section 457, Tariff Act of 1930, customs officers are placed on a...

  9. 46 CFR 154.310 - Cargo piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping systems. 154.310 Section 154.310 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.310 Cargo piping systems. Cargo liquid or vapor piping must: (a) Be separated from other piping systems, except where an interconnection to inert gas or purge piping is required by §...

  10. Stochastic Movement of Multiple Motor Transported Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, David; Gopinathan, Ajay; Xu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Experimental observations of cargo position during transport by multiple motors are determined by several coupled stochastic processes. During collective transport, each motor can transition between multiple kinetic states, with the state of each motor influencing the states of the others via mechanical coupling through a common cargo. We measured the motion of a micron sized bead as it is transported by two kinesin motors along a single microtubule track, focusing on cargo displacements which are both axial and transverse to the microtubule. We model the effects of inter-motor interference and the state of each motor throughout time, and back out motor properties using a systematic comparison of experimental observations with simulated model traces over a wide parameter space. Our model captures a surface-associated mode of kinesin, which is only accessible via inter-motor interference in groups, in which kinesin diffuses along the microtubule surface and rapidly ``hops'' between protofilaments without dissociating from the microtubule. This enhances local exploration of the microtubule surface, possibly enabling cellular cargos to overcome macromolecular crowding and to navigate obstacles along micro- tubule tracks without sacrificing overall travel distance.

  11. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); J.A. Hammer (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThree types of motors, myosins, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the formatio

  12. Cargo Integration Products for External Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Joel W.

    2008-01-01

    This document consists of a listing of integration products by function: Reconfiguration Engineering, Payload Interface Requirements, and Cargo Integration Analysis. The products may be accessed from, the Flight Operation and Integration Office page, i.e. http://sspweb.jsc.nasa.gov/.

  13. Assembly and Mechanical Properties of the Cargo-Free and Cargo-Loaded Bacterial Nanocompartment Encapsulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Joost; Kononova, Olga; Barbu, Ioana M; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Rurup, W Frederik; Burnley, Rebecca J; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri; Wuite, Gijs J L; Heck, Albert J R

    2016-08-08

    Prokaryotes mostly lack membranous compartments that are typical of eukaryotic cells, but instead, they have various protein-based organelles. These include bacterial microcompartments like the carboxysome and the virus-like nanocompartment encapsulin. Encapsulins have an adaptable mechanism for enzyme packaging, which makes it an attractive platform to carry a foreign protein cargo. Here we investigate the assembly pathways and mechanical properties of the cargo-free and cargo-loaded nanocompartments, using a combination of native mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and multiscale computational molecular modeling. We show that encapsulin dimers assemble into rigid single-enzyme bacterial containers. Moreover, we demonstrate that cargo encapsulation has a mechanical impact on the shell. The structural similarity of encapsulins to virus capsids is reflected in their mechanical properties. With these robust mechanical properties encapsulins provide a suitable platform for the development of nanotechnological applications.

  14. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  15. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  16. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Richardson, Brian C; Fromme, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The adaptor protein (AP)-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor has a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos.

  17. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2013-05-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionalities is discussed in this study. Similarly to single motor movement, the cargo steps forward and backward along a microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory; it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depend on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming that the cargo has only the least possible memory, i.e., its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are analyzed in detail in this study: (I) cargo motion under constant external load, and (II) cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, in the first case, the cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. In the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increases with increasing forward step rate of the motor, but both of them decrease with increasing trap stiffness. The most likely location of the cargo, where the probability of finding the oscillating cargo is maximum, may be the same as or may be different from the trap center, which depends on the step rates of the two motor species. Meanwhile, if the motors are robust, i.e., their forward to backward step rate ratios are high, there may be two such most likely locations, located one on each side of the trap center. The probability of finding the cargo in a given location, the probability of the cargo being in forward or backward motion, and various mean first passage times of the cargo to a given location or a given state are also analyzed.

  18. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    , it is hard tomotivate companies to pay for cleaner transport since transportation is not visible to end customers,and therefore cannot justify a higher cost. Hence, optimization may be one of the few options forlimiting CO2 emission of international trade. A possible direction is to focus on vessels...... composition available in the different portsmight not be suitable for the full utilization of the vessel. The focus of our work is the analysis ofvessels’ cargo-mix, in particular finding what cargo composition is needed for a vessel to maximizeits utilization on a given service. Such a model can have various...... applications ranging from drivingrate prices, improving fleet composition and network design ((Christiansen et al., 2007; Reinhardtand Pisinger, 2012; Brouer et al., 2014))....

  19. A Review of Cargo Handling Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-10-01

    surge, and sway). If, for example, only heave compensation is employed, i.e., one constraint, then the cargo may swing in a pendulous manner and the...pendulous mass as well as lack of heave compensation . One proposed method for overcoming the heave compensation problem is to tie the helicopter to the...deck. Further, any method which does not use the ship as a reference (i.e., not mounted on the ship) must also provide for some type of heave

  20. Basic mechanisms for recognition and transport of synaptic cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlager Max A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synaptic cargo trafficking is essential for synapse formation, function and plasticity. In order to transport synaptic cargo, such as synaptic vesicle precursors, mitochondria, neurotransmitter receptors and signaling proteins to their site of action, neurons make use of molecular motor proteins. These motors operate on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton and are highly regulated so that different cargos can be transported to distinct synaptic specializations at both pre- and post-synaptic sites. How synaptic cargos achieve specificity, directionality and timing of transport is a developing area of investigation. Recent studies demonstrate that the docking of motors to their cargos is a key control point. Moreover, precise spatial and temporal regulation of motor-cargo interactions is important for transport specificity and cargo recruitment. Local signaling pathways – Ca2+ influx, CaMKII signaling and Rab GTPase activity – regulate motor activity and cargo release at synaptic locations. We discuss here how different motors recognize their synaptic cargo and how motor-cargo interactions are regulated by neuronal activity.

  1. A mechanism for retromer endosomal coat complex assembly with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Megan S; Hung, Chia-Sui; Liu, Ting-ting; Christiano, Romain; Walther, Tobias C; Burd, Christopher G

    2014-01-07

    Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex composed of the VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 proteins that selects and packages cargo proteins into transport carriers that export cargo from the endosome. The mechanisms by which retromer is recruited to the endosome and captures cargo are unknown. We show that membrane recruitment of retromer is mediated by bivalent recognition of an effector of PI3K, SNX3, and the RAB7A GTPase, by the VPS35 retromer subunit. These bivalent interactions prime retromer to capture integral membrane cargo, which enhances membrane association of retromer and initiates cargo sorting. The role of RAB7A is severely impaired by a mutation, K157N, that causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy 2B. The results elucidate minimal requirements for retromer assembly on the endosome membrane and reveal how PI3K and RAB signaling are coupled to initiate retromer-mediated cargo export.

  2. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  3. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  4. 46 CFR 308.517 - Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. 308.517 Section 308.517... Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.517 Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. The standard form of War Risk Open Cargo, Form MA-300, may be obtained from the American War...

  5. 78 FR 54775 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... hazardous materials in the event of an emergency, thereby reducing risk to health and environment.'' (77 FR... Register (77 FR 14327), we proposed amendments to the rules covering the transfer of hazardous materials on... expand the types of allowed portable tanks and expand the list of allowed ] hazardous materials...

  6. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionality is discussed in this study. Similar to single motor movement, cargo steps forward and backward along microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that, cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory, it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depends on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming cargo has only the least memory, i.e. its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are detailed analyzed in this study: {\\bf (I)} cargo motion under constant external load; and {\\bf (II)} cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, for the first case, cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. For the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increase...

  7. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by intervals instead of by fixed values. The flexible cargo sizes have...... consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...

  8. Pick-up, transport and release of a molecular cargo using a small-molecule robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T. L.; Leigh, David A.; Markevicius, Augustinas; Solà, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Modern-day factory assembly lines often feature robots that pick up, reposition and connect components in a programmed manner. The idea of manipulating molecular fragments in a similar way has to date only been explored using biological building blocks (specifically DNA). Here, we report on a wholly artificial small-molecule robotic arm capable of selectively transporting a molecular cargo in either direction between two spatially distinct, chemically similar, sites on a molecular platform. The arm picks up/releases a 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide cargo by formation/breakage of a disulfide bond, while dynamic hydrazone chemistry controls the cargo binding to the platform. Transport is controlled by selectively inducing conformational and configurational changes within an embedded hydrazone rotary switch that steers the robotic arm. In a three-stage operation, 79-85% of 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide molecules are transported in either (chosen) direction between the two platform sites, without the cargo at any time fully dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with other molecules in the bulk.

  9. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section 154.548... and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve must have a vapor or liquid flow capacity that is greater than the rated closing flow under § 154.546....

  10. 49 CFR 175.78 - Stowage compatibility of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage compatibility of cargo. 175.78 Section 175... Loading, Unloading and Handling § 175.78 Stowage compatibility of cargo. (a) For stowage on an aircraft..., Compatibility Group S, explosives are permitted to be transported aboard a passenger aircraft. Only...

  11. 49 CFR 180.405 - Qualification of cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... protection or other appropriate accident damage protection device. (v) A cargo tank may be constructed of.... (l) MC 300, MC 301, MC 302, MC 303, MC 305, MC 306 cargo tank—Rear accident damage protection. (1... accident damage protection device to protect the tank and piping in the event of a rear-end collision...

  12. Information tecnology and its impact on port cargo distribution businness

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2002-01-01

    The IT revolution has dynamised the port cargo business: up-to-date software is needed to optimize operations such as vessel loading, yard planning, equipment flow, gate handling, administration and invoicing and it is also essential for vessel tracking, electronic declaration of cargo and passengers and as a communication platform to all port users.

  13. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. The piping shall be of not less than Schedule 40...

  14. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  15. 46 CFR 150.130 - Loading a cargo on vessels carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... it is incompatible. 150.130 Section 150.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible. Except as described in § 150.160, the person in charge of a... any cargo in table I with which it is incompatible by two barriers such as formed by a: (1)...

  16. Vacuolar transport in tobacco leaf epidermis cells involves a single route for soluble cargo and multiple routes for membrane cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottanelli, Francesca; Foresti, Ombretta; Hanton, Sally; Denecke, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    We tested if different classes of vacuolar cargo reach the vacuole via distinct mechanisms by interference at multiple steps along the transport route. We show that nucleotide-free mutants of low molecular weight GTPases, including Rab11, the Rab5 members Rha1 and Ara6, and the tonoplast-resident Rab7, caused induced secretion of both lytic and storage vacuolar cargo. In situ analysis in leaf epidermis cells indicates a sequential action of Rab11, Rab5, and Rab7 GTPases. Compared with Rab5 members, mutant Rab11 mediates an early transport defect interfering with the arrival of cargo at prevacuoles, while mutant Rab7 inhibits the final delivery to the vacuole and increases cargo levels in prevacuoles. In contrast with soluble cargo, membrane cargo may follow different routes. Tonoplast targeting of an α-TIP chimera was impaired by nucleotide-free Rha1, Ara6, and Rab7 similar to soluble cargo. By contrast, the tail-anchored tonoplast SNARE Vam3 shares only the Rab7-mediated vacuolar deposition step. The most marked difference was observed for the calcineurin binding protein CBL6, which was insensitive to all Rab mutants tested. Unlike soluble cargo, α-TIP and Vam3, CBL6 transport to the vacuole was COPII independent. The results indicate that soluble vacuolar proteins follow a single route to vacuoles, while membrane spanning proteins may use at least three different transport mechanisms.

  17. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  18. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  19. Neutron and Photon Transport in Sea-Going Cargo Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Pohl, B; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-09

    Factors affecting sensing of small quantities of fissionable material in large sea-going cargo containers by neutron interrogation and detection of {beta}-delayed photons are explored. The propagation of variable-energy neutrons in cargos, subsequent fission of hidden nuclear material and production of the {beta}-delayed photons, and the propagation of these photons to an external detector are considered explicitly. Detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations of these stages in representative cargos are presented. Analytical models are developed both as a basis for a quantitative understanding of the interrogation process and as a tool to allow ready extrapolation of the results to cases not specifically considered here.

  20. Radiative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X

    2001-01-01

    Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.

  1. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  2. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each cargo tank or cargo tank motor vehicle design type, including its required accident damage... specification cargo tank motor vehicles. 178.320 Section 178.320 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Transportation § 178.320 General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles....

  3. Determinan Pilihan Pelanggan Terhadap Layanan Cargo Pada PT. Garuda Indonesia Cabang Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    RESPATI., TRIADHI

    2012-01-01

    2012 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perbedaan pilihan pelanggan terhadap layanan cargo dan memperoleh faktor perbedaan dalam keputusan pilihan pelanggan terhadap layanan cargo. Sedangkan metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, analisis kuantitatif dan uji hipotesis. Berdasarkan hasil analisis perbedaan pilihan pelanggan layanan cargo dari masing-masing perusahaan cargo (GIA, Lion Air, Sriwijaya Air dan PT. Wings Air) ternyata ada perbedaan yang signifikan...

  4. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  5. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  6. Stochastic modeling of cargo transport by teams of molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Many different types of cellular cargos are transported bidirectionally along microtubules by teams of molecular motors. The motion of this cargo-motors system has been experimentally characterized in vivo as processive with rather persistent directionality. Different theoretical approaches have been suggested in order to explore the origin of this kind of motion. An effective theoretical approach, introduced by M\\"uller et al., describes the cargo dynamics as a tug-of-war between different kinds of motors. An alternative approach has been suggested recently by Kunwar et al., who considered the coupling between motor and cargo in more detail. Based on this framework we introduce a model considering single motor positions which we propagate in continuous time. Furthermore, we analyze the possible influence of the discrete time update schemes used in previous publications on the system's dynamic.

  7. Cargo Loading Facilities, Published in unknown, Arizona Department of Transportation.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cargo Loading Facilities dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection;...

  8. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  9. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment. The...

  10. Design and Inspection of Liquid Cargo Piping of Chemical Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Sheng; Jiang Chengsong

    2012-01-01

    There is a great variety of liquid chemicals, and many shipowners are not clear about the cargos their ships will carry at the early stage of the design and construction of chemical tankers. In addition, because of the inclination to choose low cost construction material due to cost concern, the sources of cargos that ships can carry are greatly limited and the operation efficiency will be influenced. What should we do to avoid such situations?

  11. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  12. SIMULATIONS FOR ACTIVE INTERROGATION OF HEU IN CARGO CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEE, SANG Y. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BEDDINGFIELD, DAVID H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PARK, JAEYOUNG [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-22

    We describe the results of a Monte Carlo simulation 10 investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron technique for active interrogation of special nuclear material in cargo containers. Time distributions of fission neutrons from highly enriched uranium induced by a pulsed D-T neutron source were calculated for cargo containers with different hydrogen contents. A simple detector system with polyethylene and cadmium was modeled to calculate the two-group neutron flux at the detector.

  13. Modern approaches to cargo protection of rail transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Викторович Ломотько

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study we have proposed a number of measures to improve the cargo protection during rail transportation. The economic impact of some of them is estimated. The legal relations of railways and cargo owners in terms of liability for failure to preserve are considered and proposed the management model of insurance risks of failure to preserve in transportation.

  14. Vibration and acoustic environments for payload/cargo integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. E.; Coody, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Shuttle orbiter launch vibration and acoustic environments for cargo bay/payload interfaces are predicted. Data acquired during Shuttle flight tests are compared with the preflight estimates. Vibration response data for payload attachment locations are presented, along with acoustic data in the form of noise-level spectra measured at various locations in the cargo bay and space averages of the noise levels. It is shown that the payload-bay vibration and acoustic environments are generally less severe than predicted.

  15. Phototriggered cargo release from virus-like assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, Melanie; Voets, Ilja K; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2013-01-01

    There has been tremendous progress towards the development of responsive polymers that are programmed to respond to an external stimulus such as light, pH and temperature. The unique combination of molecular packaging followed by slow, controlled release of molecular cargo is of particular importance for self-healing materials and the controlled release of drugs. While much focus and progress remains centred around synthetic carriers, viruses and virus-like particles can be considered ideal cargo carriers as they are intrinsically designed to package, protect and deliver nucleic acid cargo to host cells. Here, we report the encapsulation of a stimuli-responsive self-immolative polymer within virus-like assemblies of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus. Upon photo-irradiation, the self-immolative polymer undergoes a head-to-tail depolymerization into its monomeric subunits, resulting in the slow release of the molecular cargo. We propose that the liberated monomers are small enough to diffuse through the pores of the virus capsid shell and offer an alternative strategy for the controlled loading and unloading of the molecular cargo using viruses as cargo carriers.

  16. Comparative International Air Cargo Solutions: The Pathway to a Resilient, Adaptable, Balanced and Sustainable Secure Global Air Cargo Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    systems. Dr. Gerald L. Dillinham, the Director of Physical Infrastructure Issues, GAO noted during his testimony that securing the nation’s aviation...9697. Karp , Aaron. “Air Cargo Flattens Out.” Air Transport World 46, no. 1 (2009): 37–39. 74 Kersey, J. W. “The Economics of Air Cargo (Analysis of...Transportation, U.S. Senate. Aviation Security: Progress since September 11, 2001, and the Challenges Ahead. Statement of Gerald L. Dillingham

  17. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  18. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  19. Cargo binding activates myosin VIIA motor function in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2011-04-26

    Myosin VIIA, thought to be involved in human auditory function, is a gene responsible for human Usher syndrome type 1B, which causes hearing and visual loss. Recent studies have suggested that it can move processively if it forms a dimer. Nevertheless, it exists as a monomer in vitro, unlike the well-known two-headed processive myosin Va. Here we studied the molecular mechanism, which is currently unknown, of activating myosin VIIA as a cargo-transporting motor. Human myosin VIIA was present throughout cytosol, but it moved to the tip of filopodia upon the formation of dimer induced by dimer-inducing reagent. The forced dimer of myosin VIIA translocated its cargo molecule, MyRip, to the tip of filopodia, whereas myosin VIIA without the forced dimer-forming module does not translocate to the filopodial tips. These results suggest that dimer formation of myosin VIIA is important for its cargo-transporting activity. On the other hand, myosin VIIA without the forced dimerization module became translocated to the filopodial tips in the presence of cargo complex, i.e., MyRip/Rab27a, and transported its cargo complex to the tip. Coexpression of MyRip promoted the association of myosin VIIA to vesicles and the dimer formation. These results suggest that association of myosin VIIA monomers with membrane via the MyRip/Rab27a complex facilitates the cargo-transporting activity of myosin VIIA, which is achieved by cluster formation on the membrane, where it possibly forms a dimer. Present findings support that MyRip, a cargo molecule, functions as an activator of myosin VIIA transporter function.

  20. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahon, Jill [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Danagoulian, Areg, E-mail: aregjan@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MacDonald, Thomas D. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hartwig, Zachary S. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lanza, Richard C. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as {sup 11}B(d,nγ){sup 12}C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  1. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  2. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  3. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  4. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  5. Lipid Raft-Mediated Membrane Tethering and Delivery of Hydrophobic Cargos from Liquid Crystal-Based Nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Okhil K; Naciri, Jawad; Oh, Eunkeu; Spillmann, Christopher M; Delehanty, James B

    2016-04-20

    A main goal of bionanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery (NMDD) continues to be the development of novel biomaterials that can controllably modulate the activity of the NP-associated therapeutic cargo. One of the desired subcellular locations for targeted delivery in NMDD is the plasma membrane. However, the controlled delivery of hydrophobic cargos to the membrane bilayer poses significant challenges including cargo precipitation and lack of specificity. Here, we employ a liquid crystal NP (LCNP)-based delivery system for the controlled partitioning of a model dye cargo from within the NP core into the plasma membrane bilayer. During synthesis of the NPs, the water-insoluble model dye cargo, 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO), was efficiently incorporated into the hydrophobic LCNP core as confirmed by multiple spectroscopic analyses. Conjugation of a PEGylated cholesterol derivative to the NP surface (DiO-LCNP-PEG-Chol) facilitated the localization of the dye-loaded NPs to lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane in HEK 293T/17 cell. Analysis of DiO cellular internalization kinetics revealed that when delivered as a LCNP-PEG-Chol NP, the half-life of DiO membrane residence time (30 min) was twice that of free DiO (DiO(free)) (15 min) delivered from bulk solution. Time-resolved laser scanning confocal microscopy was employed to visualize the passive efflux of DiO from the LCNP core and its insertion into the plasma membrane bilayer as confirmed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. Finally, the delivery of DiO as a LCNP-PEG-Chol complex resulted in the attenuation of its cytotoxicity; the NP form of DiO exhibited ∼30-40% less toxicity compared to DiO(free). Our data demonstrate the utility of the LCNP platform as an efficient vehicle for the combined membrane-targeted delivery and physicochemical modulation of molecular cargos using lipid raft-mediated tethering.

  6. Project CarGO tram at Dresden; Projekt CarGo Tram in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Eberstein, F.; Franke, M. [Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG, Dresden (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Next year, the Glassen Volkswagen Factory, which is currently under construction, will commence the production of luxury class automobiles. Already buying a car is meant to be a special event; thus the factory is set in a baroque environment, near the famous Semper Opera and Picture Gallery. This arrangement, hitherto without example, will be accompanied by another, equally remarkable project. The factory, which is situated in a central city area being very sensitive in terms of urban development and traffic installations, will be delivered raw materials and parts using a CarGo Tram. Two bi-directionally operated, 60 metres long five-car trains will transport the parts from the railway cargo hub at Dresden Friedrichstadt to the factory in cycles of 40 minutes. There and at the Glassen Factory in Grosser Garten, separate track terminals will be built. In addition to the historic past and the charming scenery of the Elbe metropolis Dresden and its environs, soon also the CarGo Tram and the Glassen Factory will attract guests from all over the world to visit this innovative and culturally important city in the centre of Europe. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2001 beginnt die Produktion von Automobilen der Oberklasse in der derzeit noch im Bau befindlichen Glaesernen Manufaktur der Volkswagen Automobil-Manufaktur Dresden GmbH. In einem barocken Umfeld, mit raeumlicher Naehe zur Semperoper und Gemaeldegalerie, soll bereits der Verkauf dieser Fahrzeuge zu einem Erlebnis werden. Dieses bisher einmalige Vorhaben wird von einem zweiten, ebenso einzigartigen Vorhaben begleitet. Die Belieferung der in einem staedtebaulich und verkehrlich sensiblen Innenstadtbereich gelegenen Manufaktur erfolgt mit einer Gueterstrassenbahn. Zwei 60 Meter lange, fuenfteilige Zweirichtungsfahrzeuge werden ab Maerz 2001 etwa im 40-Minutentakt die Anlieferung der Zulieferteile aus dem Gueterverkehrszentrum Dresden-Friedrichstadt uebernehmen. Hier und an der Glaesernen Manufaktur im Grossen Garten werden

  7. Cooperative behavior of molecular motors: Cargo transport and traffic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Beeg, Janina; Dimova, Rumiana; Klumpp, Stefan; Müller, Melanie J. I.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells including those of our own body contain complex transport systems based on molecular motors which walk along cytoskeletal filaments. These motors are rather small and make discrete mechanical steps with a step size of the order of 10 nm but are able to pull cargo particles over much larger distances, from micrometers up to meters. In vivo, the intracellular cargos include large membrane-bounded organelles, smaller vesicles, a subset of mRNAs, cytoskeletal filaments, and various protein building blocks, which are transported between different cell compartments. This cargo transport is usually performed by teams of motors. If all motors belong to the same molecular species, the cooperative action of the motors leads to uni-directional transport with a strongly increased run length and with a characteristic force dependence of the velocity distributions. If two antagonistic teams of motors pull on the same cargo particle, they perform a stochastic tug-of-war, which is characterized by a subtle force balance between the two motor teams and leads to several distinct patterns of bi-directional transport. So far, all experimental observations on bi-directional transport are consistent with such a tug-of-war. If many motors and/or cargo particles are transported along the filaments, one encounters various traffic phenomena. Depending on their mutual interactions and the compartment geometry, the motors form various spatio-temporal patterns such as traffic jams, and undergo nonequilibrium phase transitions between different patterns of transport.

  8. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular motor utilizes chemical free energy to generate a unidirectional motion through the viscous fluid. In many experimental settings and biological settings, a molecular motor is elastically linked to a cargo. The stochastic motion of a molecular motor-cargo system is governed by a set of Langevin equations, each corresponding to an individual chemical occupancy state. The change of chemical occupancy state is modeled by a continuous time discrete space Markov process. The probability density of a motor-cargo system is governed by a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The operation of a molecular motor is dominated by high viscous friction and large thermal fluctuations from surrounding fluid. The instantaneous velocity of a molecular motor is highly stochastic: the past velocity is quickly damped by the viscous friction and the new velocity is quickly excited by bombardments of surrounding fluid molecules. Thus, the theory for macroscopic motors should not be applied directly to molecular motors without close examination. In particular, a molecular motor behaves differently working against a viscous drag than working against a conservative force. The Stokes efficiency was introduced to measure how efficiently a motor uses chemical free energy to drive against viscous drag. For a motor without cargo, it was proved that the Stokes efficiency is bounded by 100% [H. Wang and G. Oster, (2002]. Here, we present a proof for the general motor-cargo system.

  9. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  10. Anomalous motor mediated cargo transport in microtubule networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandal, Steven; Macveigh-Fierro, Daniel; Shen, Zhiyuan; Lemoi, Kyle; Vidali, Luis; Ross, Jennifer; Tuzel, Erkan

    Cargo transport is an important biological mechanism by which cells locomote, self-organize, and actively transport organelles. This transport is mediated by the cytoskeletal network and molecular motors; however, it is not known how network self-organization and dynamics affect these transport processes. In order to develop a mechanistic understanding of cargo transport, we use a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that incorporates the dynamics of these networks, as well as experimentally determined motor properties. We will test these models with two experimental systems: (1) in vitro microtubule networks with kinesin-1 motors, and quantum dot cargos on recreated microtubule networks, and (2) an excellent model organism, the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which chloroplasts are transported via the microtubule network by means of kinesin-like proteins. Phenomenological network characterizations are made, both in vivo and in vitro, and cargo motility is characterized using Mean Squared Displacement (MSD) measurements. Our simulations shed light on the role of network density and motor properties on the observed transport behavior, and improve our understanding of cargo transport in cells.

  11. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  12. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  13. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Werner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011, we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted comparative analysis to quantify and compare the abovementioned factors for Hyperloop and over-the-road cargo transport in Germany. Then, we monetized the individual and collective benefits of the shared value created by Hyperloop replacing a significant share of cargo transported by truck. Our findings indicate that the hypothetical Hyperloop project in Northern Germany would create €660 to €900 million of shared value annually. Our research method establishes a framework for assessing future transportation projects like Hyperloop, and our findings can be generalized to industrialized nations beyond Germany.

  14. Coupling of Active Motion and Advection Shapes Intracellular Cargo Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Trong, P Khuc; Goldstein, R E; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.028104

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular cargo transport can arise from passive diffusion, active motor-driven transport along cytoskeletal filament networks, and passive advection by fluid flows entrained by such motor/cargo motion. Active and advective transport are thus intrinsically coupled as related, yet different representations of the same underlying network structure. A reaction-advection-diffusion system is used here to show that this coupling affects the transport and localization of a passive tracer in a confined geometry. For sufficiently low diffusion, cargo localization to a target zone is optimized either by low reaction kinetics and decoupling of bound and unbound states, or by a mostly disordered cytoskeletal network with only weak directional bias. These generic results may help to rationalize subtle features of cytoskeletal networks, for example as observed for microtubules in fly oocytes.

  15. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  16. 75 FR 63192 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration... under a security program, and all-cargo carriers: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening reporting,...

  17. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller;

    2015-01-01

    to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting cargo flows. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multicommodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...

  18. A matheuristic for the Cargo Mix Problem with Block Stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The cargo-mix problem aims at selecting the amount of containers of a given type to load on a vessel. In this article we present an extended definition that includes the analysis of a circular route with draft restrictions, limitations on expected cargo and the use of a block stowage strategy. A ....... A compact formulation of the problem based on the state-of-the-art heuristic decomposition is shown not to be able to solve the extended problem, thus a matheuristic approach is presented that can achieve high quality results in a matter of seconds....

  19. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    cargo sizes to the column generation framework is not straightforward, and we handle the flexible cargo sizes heuristically when solving the subproblems. This leads to convergence issues in the branch-and-price search tree, and the optimal solution cannot be guaranteed. Hence we have introduced a method...... that generates an upper bound on the optimal objective. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that the Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with larger...

  20. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  1. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  2. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  3. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-09-15

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of non- relativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk-viscosity effects of a weakly interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles.

  4. Brane Couplings from Bulk Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi, Howard; Grant, Aaron K.; Hailu, Girma

    2000-01-01

    We compute loop corrections to the effective action of a field theory on a five-dimensional $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold. We find that the quantum loop effects of interactions in the bulk produce infinite contributions that require renormalization by four-dimensional couplings on the orbifold fixed planes. Thus bulk couplings give rise to renormalization group running of brane couplings.

  5. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vessel cargo is to be laden; (ii) For air cargo, including cargo being transported by Air Express.... The AES Commodity Module already captures the requisite export data, so no new data elements for...-ment (low-risk exporter or other exemption) for any export shipment laden that is not subject to...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.83 - Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down. 1918.83 Section... cargo; tiering and breaking down. (a) When necessary to protect personnel working in a hold, the employer shall secure or block stowed cargo that is likely to shift or roll. (b) In breaking down...

  7. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124....

  8. 46 CFR 153.1000 - Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water. 153.1000 Section 153.1000 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1000 Special operating requirements for cargoes...

  9. 46 CFR 153.935 - Opening of tanks and cargo sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except: (1) To clean a tank; (2) To transfer a cargo that Table 1 allows in a containment system having... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. 153.935 Section 153... Vessel Safety § 153.935 Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  10. 46 CFR 308.521 - Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. 308.521 Section 308.521 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR... for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. The standard form of application for a War Risk Open Cargo...

  11. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables...

  12. 76 FR 4847 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... flammable liquids in unprotected external product piping on DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles. If... specification cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV), unless the vehicle is equipped with bottom damage...

  13. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. This request for...: Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None....

  14. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  15. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature (one pound of water=27.737 cubic inches at 60 °F., or one gallon of water = 231 cubic inches at 60... density following partial unloading. Multiple OWTT markings for different pressure levels are permitted... the design service temperature of the packaging. (2) A cargo tank may not be loaded with any...

  16. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hookup, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use, and proper methods of equipment inspection and... such container is empty. Methods of identification may include cargo plans, manifests, or markings on... the method of calculation described in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section or by shipping...

  18. Bicaudal-D: Switching motors, cargo and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.D. Splinter (Daniël)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractScope of this thesis Transport of vesicles and organelles is an essential cellular process. Proteins like Rab GTPases, specialized adaptor proteins and motor proteins are involved in targeting and movement of cargos to their destination. This thesis describes the function of the mammalia

  19. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(a)(2) or § 157.10c(b)(2) without sufficient segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK...

  20. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks under § 157.09, § 157.10, § 157.10a(a)(1), § 157...; (b) More ballast water than can be carried in segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks....

  1. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ..., such as the ACAS pilot, in 19 CFR 101.9. Advance Electronic Air Cargo Information Required by 19 CFR... need to sign an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA) or amend their existing ISA, if necessary, and... connection covered by a valid and up to date ISA will have already met these requirements. ACAS...

  2. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...

  3. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S.

  4. 49 CFR 1548.9 - Acceptance of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of cargo. 1548.9 Section 1548.9..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.9 Acceptance of... program. (b) Refusal to transport. Each indirect air carrier must refuse to offer for transport on...

  5. A consolidation model for cargo-driven intermodal transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, B.; Zuidwijk, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of main sea ports by road has become increasingly difficult due to rapid growth in container throughput. To deal with this challenge, new ways for handling containers and distribution of cargo flows are needed to define and implement. One possibility is going beyond container transport

  6. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  7. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  8. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  9. CH-47F Improved Cargo Helicopter (CH-47F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    supply chain and industrial base. Nuclear Costs None CH-47F December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 18:18:21 UNCLASSIFIED 22 Unit Cost Unit Cost Report...mission is transportation of ground forces, Class III/Class V supplies , and other battle critical cargo in support of all future contingencies. The CH

  10. 49 CFR 175.75 - Quantity limitations and cargo location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 25.857(b) or for a Class C aircraft cargo compartment in 14 CFR 25.857(c). A package bearing a KEEP AWAY FROM HEAT handling marking must be protected from direct sunshine and stored in a cool and ventilated place, away from sources of heat. (c) For each package containing a hazardous material...

  11. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  12. Mechanized silica nanoparticles based on pillar[5]arenes for on-command cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Yang, Ying-Wei; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Wang, Guan; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Chun-Yu; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2013-10-11

    Mechanized silica nanoparticles, equipped with pillar[5]arene-[2]pseudorotaxane nanovalves, operate in biological media to trap cargos within their nanopores, but release them when the pH is lowered or a competitive binding agent is added. Although cargo size plays an important role in cargo loading, cargo charge-type does not appear to have any significant influence on the amount of cargo loading or its release. These findings open up the possibility of using pillar[n]arene and its derivatives for the formation of robust and dynamic nanosystems that are capable of performing useful functions.

  13. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-04-01

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that, bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of nonrelativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk viscosity effects of a weakly-interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  14. A heuristic and hybrid method for the tank allocation problem in maritime bulk shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2016-01-01

    In bulk shipping, ships often have multiple tanks and carry multiple inhomogeneous products at a time. When operating such ships it is therefore a major challenge to decide how to best allocate cargoes to available tanks while taking into account tank capacity, safety restrictions, ship stability...... and strength as well as other operational constraints. The problem of finding a feasible solution to this tank allocation problem has been shown to be NP-Complete. We approach the problem on a tactical level where requirements for computation time are strict while solution quality is less important than simply...

  15. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  16. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  17. Development of a Cargo Screening Process Simulator: A First Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of current cargo screening processes at sea and air ports is largely unknown as few benchmarks exists against which they could be measured. Some manufacturers provide benchmarks for individual sensors but we found no benchmarks that take a holistic view of the overall screening procedures and no benchmarks that take operator variability into account. Just adding up resources and manpower used is not an effective way for assessing systems where human decision-making and operator compliance to rules play a vital role. Our aim is to develop a decision support tool (cargo-screening system simulator) that will map the right technology and manpower to the right commodity-threat combination in order to maximise detection rates. In this paper we present our ideas for developing such a system and highlight the research challenges we have identified. Then we introduce our first case study and report on the progress we have made so far.

  18. Variable Structure Control of Catastrophic Course in Airdropping Heavy Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huiyuan; Shi Zhongke

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical model of a transport aircraft would be subjected to a sudden change when heavy cargo is dropped off in airdropping, which exerts serious influences upon the safety of the aircraft. A variable structure controller is specially designed for handling the airdrop process. The nonlinear system is linearized by input-output feedback linearization using differential geometry theories. On this basis, an inner loop system for velocity and attitude tracking control is designed by using the exponentially approaching rule of the variable structure theory. The whole flight control system is integrated with the outer loop flight altitude control. Digital simulation evidences the applicability of the system to potentially catastrophic course in airdropping heavy cargo and provides robustness against system parameter perturbation.

  19. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...... in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator....

  20. August Passenger and Cargo Numbers Set New Highs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Passenger and cargo numbers set new highs in August, the second consecutive month that both areas of operation at Dragonair posted record figures. The airline flew 444,498 passengers in August to record its third consecutive monthly record. The number was 7.7%higher than in July, with travel in both months driven by holiday traffic. August 15 saw a new daily mark set, with 17,220passengers carried on the day.

  1. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    2655, 1994. 11 F. Reif , Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1985. 12 H. Kleinert, Path Integrals in...Quantum Mechanics , Statistics , Polymer Physics, and Financial Markets, World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, USA, 3rd edition, 2004. 13 A. Einstein...Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems Hongyun Wang1 and Hong Zhou2 1Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics , University of California

  2. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  3. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    OpenAIRE

    Max Werner; Klaus Eissing; Sebastian Langton

    2016-01-01

    This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011), we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted com...

  4. X-Ray Scan Detection for Cargo Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Juan D.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-04-18

    ABSTRACT The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL’s prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels. Keywords: Radiation, Scan, X-ray, Gamma, Detection, Cargo, Container, Wireless, RF

  5. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yuri Álvarez; Lorenzo, José Ángel Martínez

    2017-01-15

    One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  6. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  7. Cargo transport by cytoplasmic Dynein can center embryonic centrosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Longoria

    Full Text Available To complete meiosis II in animal cells, the male DNA material needs to meet the female DNA material contained in the female pronucleus at the egg center, but it is not known how the male pronucleus, deposited by the sperm at the periphery of the cell, finds the cell center in large eggs. Pronucleus centering is an active process that appears to involve microtubules and molecular motors. For small and medium-sized cells, the force required to move the centrosome can arise from either microtubule pushing on the cortex, or cortically-attached dynein pulling on microtubules. However, in large cells, such as the fertilized Xenopus laevis embryo, where microtubules are too long to support pushing forces or they do not reach all boundaries before centrosome centering begins, a different force generating mechanism must exist. Here, we present a centrosome positioning model in which the cytosolic drag experienced by cargoes hauled by cytoplasmic dynein on the sperm aster microtubules can move the centrosome towards the cell's center. We find that small, fast cargoes (diameter ∼100 nm, cargo velocity ∼2 µm/s are sufficient to move the centrosome in the geometry of the Xenopus laevis embryo within the experimentally observed length and time scales.

  8. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez López, Yuri; Martínez Lorenzo, José Ángel

    2017-01-01

    One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated. PMID:28098841

  9. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems.

  10. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert P; Jia, Zhiyuan; Gross, Steven P; Yu, Clare C

    2011-05-01

    The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s), significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  11. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  12. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  13. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  14. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  15. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  16. The Universe With Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Exact solutions for a model with variable G, A and bulk viscosity areobtained. Inflationary solutions with constant (de Sitter-type) and variable energydensity are found. An expanding anisotropic universe is found to isotropize duringits expansion but a static universe cannot isotropize. The gravitational constant isfound to increase with time and the cosmological constant decreases with time asAo∝t-2.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and Oils. This is the third and last scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel on this topic, in which sixteen of these substances or groups of substances have been evaluated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that sodium silicate (water glass solution, iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, 1,3-propanediol, isobutyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, propylene tetramer, paraffin wax, candelilla wax, white mineral oils and glycerol would not be of health concern as previous cargoes. The CONTAM Panel concluded that carnauba wax was not acceptable as a previous cargo because of its insolubility in water and high melting point, which raise concerns regarding the efficiency of tank cleaning. There was insufficient information available on the composition of montan wax for the CONTAM Panel to conclude that it would be of no health concern when used as previous cargo and hence it does not meet the criteria for acceptability as previous cargo. The CONTAM Panel made several recommendations regarding the way in which the substances are described in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC, to correct inaccuracies and to better reflect current transport practices.

  18. A Forecasting Model of Required Number of Wheat Bulk Carriers for Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayoshi Kubo

    2008-01-01

    <正>The ocean transportation of grain bulk carriers is promoted by development of ocean economic.With the development of coastal region,the cargo transportation wi11 become more and more important,especially for the resource such as grain,oil and coal.In this study,a model is built to estimate the number of grain bulk carriers needed for wheat based upon analyzing the relationships between Tons and Ton-miles of Africa wheat transportation.We find that the agricultural policies greatly affect the wheat transportation to Africa.Then,using two scenarios, we predict how many ships are necessary for the maritime transportation of wheat from other places to Africa in the future.We believe that this research is extremely useful to maritime transportation of wheat to Africa.

  19. Development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the research and development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  20. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carbon dioxide, service are excepted from these testing requirements, but must be tested in accordance... rebuilt cargo tank's structural integrity, venting, and accident damage protection with the...

  1. ATHLETE: Lunar Cargo Handling for International Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems Project within the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. The basic idea of ATHLETE is to have six relatively small wheels on the ends of legs. The small wheels and associated drive actuators are much less massive than the larger wheels and gears needed for an "all terrain" vehicle that cannot "walk" out of extreme terrain. The mass savings for the wheels and wheel actuators is greater than the mass penalty of the legs, for a net mass savings. Starting in 2009, NASA became engaged in detailed architectural studies for international discussions with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) under the auspices of the International Architecture Working Group (IAWG). ATHLETE is considered in most of the campaign options considered, providing a way to offload cargo from large Altair-class landers (having a cargo deck 6+ meters above the surface) as well as offloading international landers launched on Ariane-5 or H-2 launch vehicles. These international landers would carry provisions as well as scientific instruments and/or small rovers that would be used by international astronauts as part of an international effort to explore the moon.Work described in this paper includes architectural studies in support of the international missions as well as field testing of a half-scale ATHLETE prototype performing cargo offloading from a lander mockup, along with multi-kilometer traverse, climbing over greater than 1 m rocks, tool use, etc.

  2. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...

  3. Domestic & International Air Cargo Activity: National and Selected Hub Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    world regional models. These six world regions are: North America excluding U.S., South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and Oceania, and Africa . For each...1 I et p(B) p(B) = (I- PIB - P2B 2,---, PpB ) and B is a backward shift operator. The part f (Xt’s 1 ) is a predictable component, which contains the...world regions are: North America excluding U.S., South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and Oceania and Africa . Statistics of air cargo flow for these

  4. Collinear swimmer propelling a cargo sphere at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2014-01-01

    The swimming velocity and rate of dissipation of a linear chain consisting of two or three little spheres and a big sphere is studied on the basis of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The big sphere is treated as a passive cargo, driven by the tail of little spheres via hydrodynamic and direct elastic interaction. The fundamental solution of Stokes' equations in the presence of a sphere with no-slip boundary condition, as derived by Oseen, is used to model the hydrodynamic interactions between the big sphere and the little spheres.

  5. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  6. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  7. Effect of fuel concentration on cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Mishra, Nirvantosh; Kulkarni, Aditi; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2017-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells employ specialized proteins called molecular motors for transporting organelles and vesicles from one location to another in a regulated and directed manner. These molecular motors often work collectively in a team while transporting cargos. Molecular motors use cytoplasmic ATP as fuel, which is hydrolyzed to generate mechanical force. While the effect of ATP concentration on cargo transport by single Kinesin motor function is well understood, it is still unexplored, both theoretically and experimentally, how ATP concentration would affect cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. For instance, how does fuel concentration affect the travel distances and travel velocities of cargo? How cooperativity of Kinesin motors engaged on a cargo is affected by ATP concentration? To answer these questions, here we develop mechano-chemical models of cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. To develop these models we use experimentally-constrained mechano-chemical model of a single Kinesin motor as well as earlier developed mean-field and stochastic models of load sharing for cargo transport. Thus, our new models for cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors include fuel concentration explicitly, which was not considered in earlier models. We make several interesting predictions which can be tested experimentally. For instance, the travel distances of cargos are very large at limited ATP concentrations in spite of very small travel velocity. Velocities of cargos driven by multiple Kinesin have a Michaelis-Menten dependence on ATP concentration. Similarly, cooperativity among the engaged Kinesin motors on the cargo shows a Michaelis-Menten type dependence, which attains a maximum value near physiological ATP concentrations. Our new results can be potentially useful in controlling artificial nano-molecular shuttles precisely for targeted delivery in various nano-technological applications.

  8. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  9. "Cargo-mooring" as an operating principle for molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Bartosz; Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Żabicki, Michał; Bier, Martin

    2015-06-07

    Navigating through an ever-changing and unsteady environment, and utilizing chemical energy, molecular motors transport the cell׳s crucial components, such as organelles and vesicles filled with neurotransmitter. They generate force and pull cargo, as they literally walk along the polymeric tracks, e.g. microtubules. What we suggest in this paper is that the motor protein is not really pulling its load. The load is subject to diffusion and the motor may be doing little else than rectifying the fluctuations, i.e. ratcheting the load׳s diffusion. Below we present a detailed model to show how such ratcheting can quantitatively account for observed data. The consequence of such a mechanism is the dependence of the transport׳s speed and efficacy not only on the motor, but also on the cargo (especially its size) and on the environment (i.e. its viscosity and structure). Current experimental works rarely provide this type of information for in vivo studies. We suggest that even small differences between assays can impact the outcome. Our results agree with those obtained in wet laboratories and provide novel insight in a molecular motor׳s functioning.

  10. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  11. Functional architecture of the retromer cargo-recognition complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, Aitor; Rojas, Adriana L.; Rojas, Raul; Murthy, Namita; Effantin, Grégory; Kajava, Andrey V.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hurley, James H.

    2008-01-01

    The retromer complex 1, 2 is required for the sorting of acid hydrolases to lysosomes 3-7, transcytosis of the polymeric Ig receptor 8, Wnt gradient formation 9, 10, iron transporter recycling 11, and processing of the amyloid precursor protein 12. Human retromer consists of two smaller complexes, the cargo recognition Vps26:Vps29:Vps35 heterotrimer, and a membrane-targeting heterodimer or homodimer of SNX1 and/or SNX2 13. The crystal structure of a Vps29:Vps35 subcomplex shows how the metallophosphoesterase-fold subunit Vps29 14, 15 acts as a scaffold for the C-terminal half of Vps35. Vps35 forms a horseshoe-shaped right-handed α-helical solenoid whose concave face completely covers the metal-binding site of Vps29 and whose convex face exposes a series of hydrophobic interhelical grooves. Electron microscopy shows that the intact Vps26:Vps29:Vps35 complex is a stick-shaped, somewhat flexible, structure, ∼ 21 nm long. A hybrid structural model derived from crystal structures, electron microscopy, interaction studies, and bioinformatics shows that the α-solenoid fold extends the full length of Vps35, and that Vps26 is bound at the opposite end from Vps29. This extended structure presents multiple binding sites for the SNX complex and receptor cargo, and appears capable of flexing to conform to curved vesicular membranes. PMID:17891154

  12. Strong Interest In China’s Cargo Market——An interview with Jean-Peter Jansen, chairman of the Executive Board of Lufthansa Cargo AG.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Lufthansa Cargo AG ranks top among European airlines in the flights bound for China. It has 14 weekly flights for Hong Kong to transport 720 tons of cargo and mails, nine weekly services for Shanghai to carry 450 tons and four weekly flights for Beijing to handle 250 tons.The carrier is showing strong interest in the Chinese market, for 11 per cent of its sales in 2003, 2.16 billion euro came from China.

  13. A hopping mechanism for cargo transport by molecular motors in crowded microtubules

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Most models designed to study the bidirectional movement of cargos as they are driven by molecular motors rely on the idea that motors of different polarities can be coordinated by external agents if arranged into a motor-cargo complex to perform the necessary work [gross04]. Although these models have provided us with important insights into these phenomena, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the mechanisms through which the movement of the complex takes place on crowded microtubules. For example (i) how does cargo-binding affect motor motility? and in connection with that - (ii) how does the presence of other motors (and also other cargos) on the microtubule affect the motility of the motor-cargo complex? We discuss these questions from a different perspective. The movement of a cargo is conceived here as a hopping process resulting from the transference of cargo between neighboring motors. In the light of this, we examine the conditions under which cargo might display bidirectional movemen...

  14. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  15. Co-operative versus independent transport of different cargoes by Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jennetta W; Griffin, Kelly; Jih, Gloria T; Stuckey, Jeanne; Verhey, Kristen J

    2008-05-01

    Kinesin motors drive the intracellular transport of multiple cargoes along microtubule tracks; yet, how kinesins discriminate among their many potential cargoes is unknown. We tested whether Kinesin-1 cargoes compete, co-operate or are transported independently of each other. We focused on Kinesin-1 cargoes that bind directly to the kinesin light chain (KLC) subunit, namely the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting proteins (JIPs) 1 and 3, Kidins220/ARMS and PAT1. Overexpression of individual cargo proteins in differentiated CAD cells resulted in mislocalization of the endogenous protein but had no effect on localization of other cargo proteins to neurite tips. Thus, while transport of distinct cargoes is saturable, they do not compete with each other. Interestingly, we found that low expression of JIP1 or JIP3 enhanced the transport of the other JIP to neurite tips. Moreover, JIP1 and JIP3 require each other for transport. Co-operative transport is due to an interaction between JIP1 and JIP3 as well as distinct binding sites on the KLC tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) bundle: the TPR groove binds to C-terminal residues of JIP1, whereas the TPR surface binds to internal residues in JIP3. Formation of a JIP1/JIP3/KLC complex is necessary for efficient JIP1 or JIP3 transport in neuronal cells. Thus, JIP scaffolding proteins are transported in a co-operative manner, despite the independent transport of other Kinesin-1 cargoes.

  16. 46 CFR 154.1710 - Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. 154.1710... Operating Requirements § 154.1710 Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. When a vessel is carrying acetaldehyde, butadiene, ethylene oxide, or vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that air is: (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  18. 77 FR 35993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... affected agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Container...

  19. 77 FR 19030 - Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    .... 12-06] Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo... Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) for the transmission of advance ocean and rail cargo information... controlled environment.\\3\\ M1 test participants were chosen based on the specific type of software...

  20. 78 FR 50134 - Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics Holding... securities of Cargo Connection Logistics Holding, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  1. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with ra

  2. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  3. Extensive cargo identification reveals distinct biological roles of the 12 importin pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Makoto; Morinaka, Yuriko; Imai, Kenichiro; Kose, Shingo; Horton, Paul; Imamoto, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    Vast numbers of proteins are transported into and out of the nuclei by approximately 20 species of importin-β family nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors. However, the significance of the multiple parallel transport pathways that the receptors constitute is poorly understood because only limited numbers of cargo proteins have been reported. Here, we identified cargo proteins specific to the 12 species of human import receptors with a high-throughput method that employs stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture, an in vitro reconstituted transport system, and quantitative mass spectrometry. The identified cargoes illuminated the manner of cargo allocation to the receptors. The redundancies of the receptors vary widely depending on the cargo protein. Cargoes of the same receptor are functionally related to one another, and the predominant protein groups in the cargo cohorts differ among the receptors. Thus, the receptors are linked to distinct biological processes by the nature of their cargoes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21184.001 PMID:28117667

  4. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... off- airport and includes facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities, distributors, third party logistics companies, and Indirect Air Carriers... supply chain to accept, screen, and transport air cargo. The uninterrupted collection of this...

  5. 46 CFR 308.523 - Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. 308.523 Section 308.523 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY... Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. An application for the revision of an Open...

  6. 46 CFR 308.548 - Standard form of underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard form of underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318. 308.548 Section 308.548 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318. This form, which may be obtained from the American...

  7. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  8. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MA-304. 308.524 Section 308.524 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.524 Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304. The standard form of application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  10. 46 CFR 38.10-10 - Cargo piping-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping-TB/ALL. 38.10-10 Section 38.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-10 Cargo piping—TB/ALL. (a) The piping shall be designed for...

  11. 76 FR 14643 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... external product piping (wetlines) on a cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV) unless the CTMV is equipped with... National Tank Truck Carriers, Inc., and the Tank Truck Manufacturers Association requesting an extension...

  12. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station... forms of information. Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096....

  13. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  14. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  15. A novel architecture for cargos location and safety in networked RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dong-li; YUAN Zheng-wu; Byeong-Seob You; Sook-Kyung Cho; Hae-Young Bae

    2007-01-01

    Using Networked RFID equipped in warehouse or supermarket distribution, Enterprise information system (EIS) can gather and deal with cargos information. Nevertheless, when cargos are in traffic, the Networked RFID can't monitor the cargos any more as the products tagged aren't within range of a reader. This paper proposes a solution framework which combines Networked RFID and GPS tracking, and then equip with this system in container to make the cargos monitored even if the cargos are in traffic. This solution can solve the accurate consignments, position tracking and advanced theft happening through drilling holes in container. In addition, customhouse and checkpoint can get an electronic shipment manifest rapidly and safely when a vehicle gets through a checkpoint.

  16. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors.

  17. Toughness of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu V. Madge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs have desirable properties like high strength and low modulus, but their toughness can show much variation, depending on the kind of test as well as alloy chemistry. This article reviews the type of toughness tests commonly performed and the factors influencing the data obtained. It appears that even the less-tough metallic glasses are tougher than oxide glasses. The current theories describing the links between toughness and material parameters, including elastic constants and alloy chemistry (ordering in the glass, are discussed. Based on the current literature, a few important issues for further work are identified.

  18. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo... LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-3 Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo tanks of pressure vessel configuration (e.g. cylindrical, spherical,...

  19. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by... separation distance between the surfaces of the radioactive materials packages, overpacks or...

  20. 49 CFR 176.84 - Other requirements for stowage and segregation for cargo vessels and passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... May be stowed in portable magazine or metal locker. 16 No other cargo may be stowed in the same hold... solids. 101 Stow “separated from” iron oxide. 102 Stow “separated from” all odor absorbing cargoes. 103... must be steel. 15E On deck, cargo transport unit must be leakproof. 17E On deck stowage is...

  1. PINS Measurements of Explosive Simulants for Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury

    2008-06-01

    As part of its efforts to prevent the introduction of explosive threats on commercial flights, the Transportation Security Administration (TSL) is evaluating new explosives detection systems (EDSs) for use in air cargo inspection. The TSL has contracted Battelle to develop a new type of explosives simulant to assist in this development. These are designed to mimic the elemental profile (C, H, N, O, etc.) of explosives as well as their densities. Several “neutron in—gamma out” (n,?) techniques have been considered to quantify the elemental profile in these new simulants and the respective explosives. The method chosen by Battelle is Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS), developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Battelle wishes to validate that the simulants behave like the explosive threats with this technology. The results of the validation measurements are presented in this report.

  2. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  3. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  4. Nanofluidics, from bulk to interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lydéric; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Nanofluidics has emerged recently in the footsteps of microfluidics, following the quest for scale reduction inherent to nanotechnologies. By definition, nanofluidics explores transport phenomena of fluids at nanometer scales. Why is the nanometer scale specific? What fluid properties are probed at nanometric scales? In other words, why does 'nanofluidics' deserve its own brand name? In this critical review, we will explore the vast manifold of length scales emerging for fluid behavior at the nanoscale, as well as the associated mechanisms and corresponding applications. We will in particular explore the interplay between bulk and interface phenomena. The limit of validity of the continuum approaches will be discussed, as well as the numerous surface induced effects occurring at these scales, from hydrodynamic slippage to the various electro-kinetic phenomena originating from the couplings between hydrodynamics and electrostatics. An enlightening analogy between ion transport in nanochannels and transport in doped semi-conductors will be discussed (156 references).

  5. New fermions in the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    de Brito, K P S

    2016-01-01

    Spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified, according to the geometric Fierz identities that involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification that generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are, hence, found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density, through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish a realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of 5-dimensional Kerr black holes. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at the spatial infinity, through a current 1-form density, constructed with the derived new spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the f\\"unfbein components, assuming a condensed for...

  6. New fermions in the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, K. P. S.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2016-10-01

    The spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified according to the geometric Fierz identities, which involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification, which generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are hence found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish the realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of a 5-dimensional Kerr black hole. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at spatial infinity through a current 1-form density, constructed with the new derived spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the fünfbein component, assuming a condensed form.

  7. Advanced analysis of the transverse bulkhead of the a general cargo ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, T.; Nutu, C.; Stanca, C.; Cupsa, O.; Carp, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the main strength factors stressing the transverse bulkhead of a cargo ship. The transverse bulkhead is one of the main components of the hull for a general cargo vessel. There are presented the role and the importance of the general cargo vessel's type using an original drawing made in NX 8.0 Software from Siemens. Further on, we are presented the importance of the transverse bulkhead of the general cargo ship's hull. Next there are analysed the formability of the transverse bulkhead's material and then we are determining the shear, normal and von Mises stresses in the traverse bulkhead, using the finite element method. Once the stresses are computed, there are also determined the fatigue life, strength safety factor and fatigue safety factor. The analysis of the transverse bulkhead is important for the safety of the general cargo vessel type because if this component of the ship does not resist to the various stresses and high deformations during bad storms on the sea or if the cargo is stored inappropriately, deformations or even breakage of the transverse bulkhead can occur, thus causing damages of the cargo ship, especially under heavy storm.

  8. Mechanisms for exporting large-sized cargoes from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kota; Katada, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Cargo proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus are typically transported in coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles of 60-90 nm diameter. Several cargo molecules including collagens and chylomicrons form structures that are too large to be accommodated by these vesicles, but their secretion still requires COPII proteins. Here, we first review recent progress on large cargo secretions derived especially from animal models and human diseases, which indicate the importance of COPII proteins. We then discuss the recent isolation of specialized factors that modulate the process of COPII-dependent cargo formation to facilitate the exit of large-sized cargoes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Based on these findings, we propose a model that describes the importance of the GTPase cycle for secretion of oversized cargoes. Next, we summarize reports that describe the structures of COPII proteins and how these results provide insight into the mechanism of assembly of the large cargo carriers. Finally, we discuss what issues remain to be solved in the future.

  9. A propagating ATPase gradient drives transport of surface-confined cellular cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Neuman, Keir C; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    The faithful segregation of duplicated genetic material into daughter cells is critical to all organisms. In many bacteria, the segregation of chromosomes involves transport of "centromere-like" loci over the main body of the chromosome, the nucleoid, mediated by a two-protein partition system: a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and an ATPase stimulator, ParB, which binds to the centromere-like loci. These systems have previously been proposed to function through a filament-based mechanism, analogous to actin- or microtubule-based movement. Here, we reconstituted the F-plasmid partition system using a DNA-carpeted flow cell as an artificial nucleoid surface and magnetic beads coated with plasmid partition complexes as surface-confined cargo. This minimal system recapitulated directed cargo motion driven by a surface ATPase gradient that propagated with the cargo. The dynamics are consistent with a diffusion-ratchet model, whereby the cargo dynamically establishes, and interacts with, a concentration gradient of the ATPase. A chemophoresis force ensues as the cargo perpetually chases the ATPase gradient, allowing the cargo to essentially "surf" the nucleoid on a continuously traveling wave of the ATPase. Demonstration of this non-filament-based motility mechanism in a biological context establishes a distinct class of motor system used for the transport and positioning of large cellular cargo.

  10. Early endosomal escape of a cyclic cell-penetrating peptide allows effective cytosolic cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ziqing; LaRochelle, Jonathan R; Jiang, Bisheng; Lian, Wenlong; Hard, Ryan L; Selner, Nicholas G; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Barrios, Amy M; Pei, Dehua

    2014-06-24

    Cyclic heptapeptide cyclo(FΦRRRRQ) (cFΦR4, where Φ is l-2-naphthylalanine) was recently found to be efficiently internalized by mammalian cells. In this study, its mechanism of internalization was investigated by perturbing various endocytic events through the introduction of pharmacologic agents and genetic mutations. The results show that cFΦR4 binds directly to membrane phospholipids, is internalized into human cancer cells through endocytosis, and escapes from early endosomes into the cytoplasm. Its cargo capacity was examined with a wide variety of molecules, including small-molecule dyes, linear and cyclic peptides of various charged states, and proteins. Depending on the nature of the cargos, they may be delivered by endocyclic (insertion of cargo into the cFΦR4 ring), exocyclic (attachment of cargo to the Gln side chain), or bicyclic approaches (fusion of cFΦR4 and cyclic cargo rings). The overall delivery efficiency (i.e., delivery of cargo into the cytoplasm and nucleus) of cFΦR4 was 4-12-fold higher than those of nonaarginine, HIV Tat-derived peptide, or penetratin. The higher delivery efficiency, coupled with superior serum stability, minimal toxicity, and synthetic accessibility, renders cFΦR4 a useful transporter for intracellular cargo delivery and a suitable system for investigating the mechanism of endosomal escape.

  11. Redox-regulated cargo binding and release by the peroxisomal targeting signal receptor, Pex5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changle; Hagstrom, Danielle; Polley, Soumi Guha; Subramani, Suresh

    2013-09-20

    In its role as a mobile receptor for peroxisomal matrix cargo containing a peroxisomal targeting signal called PTS1, the protein Pex5 shuttles between the cytosol and the peroxisome lumen. Pex5 binds PTS1 proteins in the cytosol via its C-terminal tetratricopeptide domains and delivers them to the peroxisome lumen, where the receptor·cargo complex dissociates. The cargo-free receptor is exported to the cytosol for another round of import. How cargo release and receptor recycling are regulated is poorly understood. We found that Pex5 functions as a dimer/oligomer and that its protein interactions with itself (homo-oligomeric) and with Pex8 (hetero-oligomeric) control the binding and release of cargo proteins. These interactions are controlled by a redox-sensitive amino acid, cysteine 10 of Pex5, which is essential for the formation of disulfide bond-linked Pex5 forms, for high affinity cargo binding, and for receptor recycling. Disulfide bond-linked Pex5 showed the highest affinity for PTS1 cargo. Upon reduction of the disulfide bond by dithiothreitol, Pex5 transitioned to a noncovalent dimer, concomitant with the partial release of PTS1 cargo. Additionally, dissipation of the redox balance between the cytosol and the peroxisome lumen caused an import defect. A hetero-oligomeric interaction between the N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-110) of Pex5 and a conserved motif at the C terminus of Pex8 further facilitates cargo release, but only under reducing conditions. This interaction is also important for the release of PTS1 proteins. We suggest a redox-regulated model for Pex5 function during the peroxisomal matrix protein import cycle.

  12. Tackling the x-ray cargo inspection challenge using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W.; Morton, Edward J.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-05-01

    The current infrastructure for non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers cannot accommodate exploding com-merce volumes and increasingly stringent regulations. There is a pressing need to develop methods to automate parts of the inspection workflow, enabling expert operators to focus on a manageable number of high-risk images. To tackle this challenge, we developed a modular framework for automated X-ray cargo image inspection. Employing state-of-the-art machine learning approaches, including deep learning, we demonstrate high performance for empty container verification and specific threat detection. This work constitutes a significant step towards the partial automation of X-ray cargo image inspection.

  13. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  14. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  15. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appurtenances and structural attachments on the cargo tank including, but not limited to, suspension system...; (vii) Areas near upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly attachments; (viii) Areas near suspension system... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  16. Opportunity of Constructing a Cargo Terminal – Case Study Brașov International Airport, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Air transport and especially air cargo transport became ever more important during the last 25 years, with a signifi cant impact upon economic development. Air cargo transport supports regional economic development, provided there is suffi cient local demand for its services. In our study, we have identifi ed signifi cant elements of the impact a cargo terminal at the International Brașov-Ghimbav Airport would have upon local economic development. For this purpose, we have conducted a quantitative market research. We have reached the conclusion that constructing a cargo terminal at the Brașov-Ghimbav Airport is a necessary investment in the current economic context, with an important contribution to the economic development of its surrounding counties. The positive results registered in our study could contribute to improving the economic and fi nancial prospects of Brașov-Ghimbav Airport and attract investors in this project.

  17. Bidirectional transport of motor-driven cargoes in cell: A random walk with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Deepak; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2013-02-01

    Motor-driven bidirectional transport inside a cell is an intriguing phenomenon where multiple dyneins and kinesins drag cargoes and deliver them to specific locations. Quite often, both anterograde (plus) and retrograde (minus) directed motors reside simultaneously on the cargo and co-ordinate their activity such that the motion of the cargo looks like spells of plus directed and minus directed segments, with pauses in between. The stochastic tug-of-war model is widely used to analyze this motion, largely studied by computer simulations. Here, we present some analytical results for this model, such as the average durations of plus and minus-run segments and tug-of-war events as well as probabilities of persistence and reversal of directions following a tug-of-war. We show that cargo motion has memory in case of 2 dyneins and 1 kinesin driving together, while it is absent when only a dynein and a kinesin is involved.

  18. The Influence of Freight Trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadala Hassan Alfadala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by countries who are moving continually towards economic development and stability, Kuwait has moved to establishing freight trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport to meet the ever changing and increasing number of both passenger and cargoes going in and out of the country. As a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council or GCC it is clearly seen that as most of its member countries drive towards a collective effort to connect together by means of railroad networks, Kuwait’s effort to move transportation of cargoes to and from the Kuwait International Airport by linking with the GCC’s project to create railroad networks, the proposed ―Cargo City‖ becomes a major part of the realization of the development of the KIA which shall help with the aim to widen trade within and across GCC countries.

  19. 46 CFR 38.05-10 - Installation of cargo tanks-general-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... including testing for the hull and integral tanks. In the application of the requirements for the hydrostatic test of the cargo tanks, the hydrostatic test shall in no case be less severe than the...

  20. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The...

  1. Applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    The development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) can be broadly generalized into thin-film electronics, wire applications, and bulk applications. We consider bulk HTS's to include sintered or crystallized forms that do not take the geometry of filaments or tapes, and we discuss major applications for these materials. For the most part applications may be realized with the HTS's cooled to 77 K, and the properties of the bulk HTS's are often already sufficient for commercial use. A non-exhaustive list of applications for bulk HTS's includes trapped field magnets, hysteresis motors, magnetic shielding, current leads, and magnetic bearings. These applications are briefly discussed in this paper.

  2. Non-destructive automated sampling of mycotoxins in bulk food and feed - A new tool for required harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, M; Stroka, J; Patel, S; Buechler, S; Pittet, A; Barel, S

    2001-06-01

    Mycotoxins contamination is highly non-uniformly distributed as is well recog-nized by the EC, by not only setting legal limits in a series of commodities, but also schedule a sampling plan that takes this heterogeneity into account. In practice however, it turns out that it is very difficult to carry out this sampling plan in a harmonised way. Applying the sampling plan to a container filled with pallets of bags (i.e. with nuts or coffee beans) varies from very laborious to almost impossible. The presented non-destructive automated method to sample bulk food could help to overcome these practical problems and to enforcing of EC directives. It is derived from a tested and approved technology for detection of illicit substances in security applications. It has capability to collect and iden-tify ultra trace contaminants, i.e. from a fingerprint of chemical substance in a bulk of goods, a cargo pallet load (~ 1000 kg) with boxes and commodities.The technology, patented for explosives detection, uses physical and chemistry processes for excitation and remote rapid enhanced release of contaminant residues, vapours and particulate, of the inner/outer surfaces of inspected bulk and collect them on selective probes. The process is automated, takes only 10 minutes, is non-destructive and the bulk itself remains unharmed. The system design is based on applicable international regulations for shipped cargo hand-ling and transportation by road, sea and air. After this process the pallet can be loaded on a truck, ship or plane. Analysis can be carried out before the cargo leaves the place of shipping. The potent application of this technology for myco-toxins detection, has been demonstrated by preliminary feasibility experiments. Aflatoxins were detected in pistachios and ochratoxin A in green coffee beans bulk. Both commodities were naturally contaminated, priory found and confirm-ed by common methods as used at routine inspections. Once the contaminants are extracted from a

  3. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  4. Experimental Research on Influence of Some Factors on Ejection Height of Cargo Projectile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁浩; 王晓天; 李欣; 李纪敏

    2012-01-01

    Some factors influencing the cargo projectile's ejection height in different conditions were analyzed by using harmonic curve diagram and cluster method.The test results of the ejection height for a certain cargo projectile show that the wind speed and direction are the main influence factors.For given meteorological conditions,the applied environmental stress becomes the main cause,while the launching angle does not influence the ejection height.

  5. Design of a Large Span-Distributed Load Flying-Wing Cargo Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernell, L. S.; Quartero, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of very large, long-range, subsonic cargo aircraft are considered. A design concept which distributes the payload along the wingspan to counterbalance the aerodynamic loads, with a resultant decrease in the in-flight wing bending moments and shear forces, is described. The decreased loading of the wing structure, coupled with the very thick wing housing the cargo, results in a relatively low overall structural weight in comparison to that of conventional aircraft.

  6. Underwater Photogrammetry and 3d Reconstruction of Marble Cargos Shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Costa, E.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays archaeological and architectural surveys are based on the acquisition and processing of point clouds, allowing a high metric precision, essential prerequisite for a good documentation. Digital image processing and laser scanner have changed the archaeological survey campaign, from manual and direct survey to a digital one and, actually, multi-image photogrammetry is a good solution for the underwater archaeology. This technical documentation cannot operate alone, but it has to be supported by a topographical survey to georeference all the finds in the same reference system. In the last years the Ca' Foscari and IUAV University of Venice are conducting a research on integrated survey techniques to support underwater metric documentation. The paper will explain all the phases regarding the survey's design, images acquisition, topographic measure and the data processing of two Roman shipwrecks in south Sicily. The cargos of the shipwrecks are composed by huge marble blocks, but they are different for morphological characteristic of the sites, for the depth and for their distribution on the seabed. Photogrammetrical and topographical surveys were organized in two distinct methods, especially for the second one, due to the depth that have allowed an experimentation of GPS RTK's measurements on one shipwreck. Moreover, this kind of three-dimensional documentation is useful for educational and dissemination aspect, for the ease of understanding by wide public.

  7. Mulheres em cargos profissionais de chefia: o paradoxo da igualdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Alberton de Silva Galvane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aqui apresentado foi construído a partir de informações obtidas em uma pesquisa realizada no ano de 2009, apresentada como Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso da Psicologia, ao Centro Universitário Barriga Verde - UNIBAVE (GALVANE, 2009. A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral verificar os sentidos produzidos por mulheres que ocupam cargos de chefia em indústrias de uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O modelo de pesquisa foi o qualitativo proposto por González Rey (2005. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram sete mulheres e as informações obtidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Neste artigo, propõe-se revisar informações obtidas e ampliar discussões outrora realizadas, utilizando-se das contribuições teóricas de Joan Scott e Judith Butler. Entre outras questões relevantes, o estudo sugere que as entrevistadas utilizam concepções baseadas em “certa essência feminina” como estratégia de visibilidade, permanência e poder no mercado de trabalho.

  8. Stochastic simulations of cargo transport by processive molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christian B; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2009-12-28

    We use stochastic computer simulations to study the transport of a spherical cargo particle along a microtubule-like track on a planar substrate by several kinesin-like processive motors. Our newly developed adhesive motor dynamics algorithm combines the numerical integration of a Langevin equation for the motion of a sphere with kinetic rules for the molecular motors. The Langevin part includes diffusive motion, the action of the pulling motors, and hydrodynamic interactions between sphere and wall. The kinetic rules for the motors include binding to and unbinding from the filament as well as active motor steps. We find that the simulated mean transport length increases exponentially with the number of bound motors, in good agreement with earlier results. The number of motors in binding range to the motor track fluctuates in time with a Poissonian distribution, both for springs and cables being used as models for the linker mechanics. Cooperativity in the sense of equal load sharing only occurs for high values for viscosity and attachment time.

  9. Multivalent viral capsids with internal cargo for fibrin imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie C Obermeyer

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is the cause of many cardiovascular syndromes and is a significant contributor to life-threatening diseases, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombus targeted imaging agents have the capability to provide molecular information about pathological clots, potentially improving detection, risk stratification, and therapy of thrombosis-related diseases. Nanocarriers are a promising platform for the development of molecular imaging agents as they can be modified to have external targeting ligands and internal functional cargo. In this work, we report the synthesis and use of chemically functionalized bacteriophage MS2 capsids as biomolecule-based nanoparticles for fibrin imaging. The capsids were modified using an oxidative coupling reaction, conjugating ∼90 copies of a fibrin targeting peptide to the exterior of each protein shell. The ability of the multivalent, targeted capsids to bind fibrin was first demonstrated by determining the impact on thrombin-mediated clot formation. The modified capsids out-performed the free peptides and were shown to inhibit clot formation at effective concentrations over ten-fold lower than the monomeric peptide alone. The installation of near-infrared fluorophores on the interior surface of the capsids enabled optical detection of binding to fibrin clots. The targeted capsids bound to fibrin, exhibiting higher signal-to-background than control, non-targeted MS2-based nanoagents. The in vitro assessment of the capsids suggests that fibrin-targeted MS2 capsids could be used as delivery agents to thrombi for diagnostic or therapeutic applications.

  10. Regulation of cargo-selective endocytosis by dynamin 2 GTPase-activating protein girdin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liang; Enomoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Asai, Naoya; Morone, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Ping; An, Jian; Kato, Takuya; Kuroda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Masato; Ishida-Takagishi, Maki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hideki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-09-17

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), specificity and selectivity for cargoes are thought to be tightly regulated by cargo-specific adaptors for distinct cellular functions. Here, we show that the actin-binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo-selective CME. Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase-activating protein. Interestingly, girdin depletion leads to the defect in clathrin-coated pit formation in the center of cells. Also, we find that girdin differentially interacts with some cargoes, which competitively prevents girdin from interacting with dynamin 2 and confers the cargo selectivity for CME. Therefore, girdin regulates transferrin and E-cadherin endocytosis in the center of cells and their subsequent polarized intracellular localization, but has no effect on integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis that occurs at the cell periphery. Our results reveal that girdin regulates selective CME via a mechanism involving dynamin 2, but not by operating as a cargo-specific adaptor.

  11. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra que los aspectos civiles de los cargos son indisociables de los rituales religiosos. Los cargos reunían funciones militares, judiciales y económicas, pero éstas han ido perdiendo vigencia por la violencia y por la compañía forestal, una notable fuente de recursos. Sin embargo, por el sistema de cargos los mestizos de Milpillas se han integrado a la organización política y la cultura de los tepehuanos.

  12. External forces influence the elastic coupling effects during cargo transport by molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Cellular transport is achieved by the cooperative action of molecular motors which are elastically linked to a common cargo. When the motors pull on the cargo at the same time, they experience fluctuating elastic strain forces induced by the stepping of the other motors. These elastic coupling forces can influence the motors' stepping and unbinding behavior and thereby the ability to transport cargos. Based on a generic single motor description, we introduce a framework that explains the response of two identical molecular motors to a constant external force. In particular, we relate the single motor parameters, the coupling strength and the external load force to the dynamics of the motor pair. We derive four distinct transport regimes and determine how the crossover lines between the regimes depend on the load force. Our description of the overall cargo dynamics takes into account relaxational displacements of the cargo caused by the unbinding of one motor. For large forces and weak elastic coupling these back-shifts dominate the displacements. To develop an intuitive understanding about motor cooperativity during cargo transport, we introduce a time scale for load sharing. This time scale allows us to predict how the regulation of single motor parameters influences the cooperativity. As an example, we show that up-regulating the single motor processivity enhances load sharing of the motor pair.

  13. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  14. Cargo-towing synthetic nanomachines: towards active transport in microchip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2012-05-08

    This review article discusses the use of synthetic catalytic nano motors for cargo manipulations and for developing miniaturized lab-on-chip systems based on autonomous transport. The ability of using chemically-powered artificial nanomotors to capture, transport and release therapeutic payloads or nanostructured biomaterials represents one of the next major prospects for nanomotor development. The increased cargo-towing force of such self-propelled nanomotors, along with their precise motion control within microchannel networks, versatility and facile functionalization, pave the way to new integrated functional lab-on-a-chip powered by active transport and perform a series of tasks. Such use of cargo-towing artificial nanomotors has been inspired by on-chip kinesin molecular shuttles. Functionalized nano/microscale motors can thus be used to pick a selected nano/microscale chemical or biological payload target at the right place, transport and deliver them to a target location in a timely manner. Key challenges for using synthetic nanomachines for driving transport processes along microchannel networks are discussed, including loading and unloading of cargo and precise motion control, along with recent examples of related cargo manipulation processes and guided transport in lab-on-a-chip formats. The exciting research area of cargo-carrying catalytic man-made nanomachines is expected to grow rapidly, to lead to new lab-on-a-chip formats and to provide a wide range of future microchip opportunities.

  15. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio and...

  16. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  17. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  18. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia; Juul, Sissel; Ottaviani, Alessio; Benvenuti, Claudia; Biocca, Silvia; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Desideri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous demonstration of temperature controlled reversible encapsulation of the cargo enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, in the cage with four hairpin forming strands. However, in this previous study the mechanism of cargo uptake was not directly addressed (Juul, et al., Temperature-Controlled Encapsulation and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724-9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening-closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation and showed that the two hairpin forming strands facilitated extension of at least one of the face surfaces of the cage scaffold, allowing entrance of the cargo protein into the cavity of the structure. Hence, the presented data demonstrate that cargo uptake does not involve a full opening of the structure. Rather, the uptake mechanism represents a feature of increased flexibility integrated in this nanocage structure upon the addition of at least two hairpin-forming strands.In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous

  19. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  20. FAM21 directs SNX27-retromer cargoes to the plasma membrane by preventing transport to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongju; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-03-09

    The endosomal network maintains cellular homeostasis by sorting, recycling and degrading endocytosed cargoes. Retromer organizes the endosomal sorting pathway in conjunction with various sorting nexin (SNX) proteins. The SNX27-retromer complex has recently been identified as a major endosomal hub that regulates endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling by preventing lysosomal entry of cargoes. Here, we show that SNX27 directly interacts with FAM21, which also binds retromer, within the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. This interaction is required for the precise localization of SNX27 at an endosomal subdomain as well as for recycling of SNX27-retromer cargoes. Furthermore, FAM21 prevents cargo transport to the Golgi apparatus by controlling levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which facilitates cargo dissociation at the Golgi. Together, our results demonstrate that the SNX27-retromer-WASH complex directs cargoes to the plasma membrane by blocking their transport to lysosomes and the Golgi.

  1. The iTRAPs: Guardians of Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Retrieval During Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sarah L; Cousin, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The reformation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed SVs must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional "fail-safe" mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II (sybII) and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that sybII and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other SV cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for sybII) and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1). In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both sybII and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of SV molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs) and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease.

  2. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns.

  3. LUCID: A Quantitative Assay of ESCRT-Mediated Cargo Sorting into Multivesicular Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Daniel P; Merz, Alexey J

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes are transportation nodes, mediating selective transport of soluble and transmembrane cargos to and from the Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane and lysosomes. As endosomes mature to become multivesicular bodies (MVBs), Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRTs) selectively incorporate transmembrane cargos into vesicles that bud into the endosome lumen. Luminal vesicles and their cargoes are targeted for destruction when MVBs fuse with lysosomes. Common assays of endosomal luminal targeting, including fluorescence microscopy and monitoring of proteolytic cargo maturation, possess significant limitations. We present a quantitative assay system called LUCID (LUCiferase reporter of Intraluminal Deposition) that monitors exposure of chimeric luciferase-cargo reporters to cytosol. Luciferase-chimera signal increases when sorting to the endosome lumen is disrupted, and silencing of signal from the chimera depends upon luminal delivery of the reporter rather than proteolytic degradation. The system presents several advantages, including rapidity, microscale operation and a high degree of reproducibility that enables detection of subtle phenotypic differences. Luciferase reporters provide linear signal over an extremely broad dynamic range, allowing analysis of reporter traffic even at anemic levels of expression. Furthermore, LUCID reports transport kinetics when applied to inducible trafficking reporters.

  4. Molecular motors pulling cargos in the viscoelastic cytosol: how power strokes beat subdiffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor; Kharchenko, Vasyl O; Metzler, Ralf

    2014-08-21

    The discovery of anomalous diffusion of larger biopolymers and submicron tracers such as endogenous granules, organelles, or virus capsids in living cells, attributed to the viscoelastic nature of the cytoplasm, provokes the question whether this complex environment equally impacts the active intracellular transport of submicron cargos by molecular motors such as kinesins: does the passive anomalous diffusion of free cargo always imply its anomalously slow active transport by motors, the mean transport distance along microtubule growing sublinearly rather than linearly in time? Here we analyze this question within the widely used two-state Brownian ratchet model of kinesin motors based on the continuous-state diffusion along microtubules driven by a flashing binding potential, where the cargo particle is elastically attached to the motor. Depending on the cargo size, the loading force, the amplitude of the binding potential, the turnover frequency of the molecular motor enzyme, and the linker stiffness we demonstrate that the motor transport may turn out either normal or anomalous, as indeed measured experimentally. We show how a highly efficient normal active transport mediated by motors may emerge despite the passive anomalous diffusion of the cargo, and study the intricate effects of the elastic linker. Under different, well specified conditions the microtubule-based motor transport becomes anomalously slow and thus significantly less efficient.

  5. Drive the Car(go)s—New Modalities to Control Cargo Trafficking in Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Payel; Khamo, John S.; Krishnamurthy, Vishnu V.; Cai, Qi; Zhang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is a fundamental molecular process underlying learning and memory. Successful synaptic transmission involves coupled interaction between electrical signals (action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters). Defective synaptic transmission has been reported in a variety of neurological disorders such as Autism and Alzheimer’s disease. A large variety of macromolecules and organelles are enriched near functional synapses. Although a portion of macromolecules can be produced locally at the synapse, a large number of synaptic components especially the membrane-bound receptors and peptide neurotransmitters require active transport machinery to reach their sites of action. This spatial relocation is mediated by energy-consuming, motor protein-driven cargo trafficking. Properly regulated cargo trafficking is of fundamental importance to neuronal functions, including synaptic transmission. In this review, we discuss the molecular machinery of cargo trafficking with emphasis on new experimental strategies that enable direct modulation of cargo trafficking in live cells. These strategies promise to provide insights into a quantitative understanding of cargo trafficking, which could lead to new intervention strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:28163671

  6. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J

    2016-06-29

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTA(H/KDEL)), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface.

  7. The iTRAPs: guardians of synaptic vesicle cargo retrieval during endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Louise Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reformation of synaptic vesicles during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed synaptic vesicles must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional fail-safe mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other synaptic vesicle cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for synaptobrevin II and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1. In this review we summarise current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of synaptic vesicle molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease.

  8. Superconducting bulk magnets for magnetic levitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, H.; Kamijo, H.

    2000-06-01

    The major applications of high-temperature superconductors have mostly been confined to products in the form of wires and thin films. However, recent developments show that rare-earth REBa 2Cu 3O 7- x and light rare-earth LREBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical-current density at 77 K and high magnetic fields. These superconductors will promote the application of bulk high-temperature superconductors in high magnetic fields; the superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train is one possible application. We investigated the possibility of using bulk magnets in the Maglev system, and examined flux-trapping characteristics of multi-superconducting bulks arranged in array.

  9. Measuring Bulk Flows in Large Scale Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1993-01-01

    We follow a formalism presented by Kaiser to calculate the variance of bulk flows in large scale surveys. We apply the formalism to a mock survey of Abell clusters \\'a la Lauer \\& Postman and find the variance in the expected bulk velocities in a universe with CDM, MDM and IRAS--QDOT power spectra. We calculate the velocity variance as a function of the 1--D velocity dispersion of the clusters and the size of the survey.

  10. Prospects for Detecting a Cosmic Bulk Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin; Garnavich, Peter M.; Mathews, Grant James

    2015-01-01

    The ΛCDM model is based upon a homogeneous, isotropic space-time leading to uniform expansion with random peculiar velocities caused by local gravitation perturbations. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation evidences a significant dipole moment in the frame of the Local Group. This motion is usually explained with the Local Group's motion relative to the background Hubble expansion. An alternative explanation, however, is that the dipole moment is the result of horizon-scale curvature remaining from the birth of space-time, possibly a result of quantum entanglement with another universe. This would appear as a single velocity (a bulk flow) added to all points in space. These two explanations differ observationally on cosmic distance scales (z > 0.1). There have been many differing attempts to detect a bulk flow, many with no detectable bulk flow but some with a bulk flow velocity as large as 1000 km/s. Here we report on a technique based upon minimizing the scatter around the expected cosine distribution of the Hubble redshift residuals with respect to angular distance on the sky. That is, the algorithm searches for a directional dependence of Hubble residuals. We find results consistent with most other bulk flow detections at z Type Ia Supernovae to be ~0.01, whereas the current error (~0.2.) is more than an order of magnitude too large for the detection of bulk flow beyond z~0.05.

  11. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-27

    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Binding to any ESCRT can mediate ubiquitin-independent cargo sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageswaran, Shrawan Kumar; Dixon, Megan Gorringe; Curtiss, Matt; Keener, James P.; Babst, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The ESCRT machinery is known to sort ubiquitinated transmembrane proteins into vesicles that bud into the lumen of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Although the ESCRTs themselves are ubiquitinated they are excluded from the intraluminal vesicles and recycle back to the cytoplasm for further rounds of sorting. To obtain insights into the rules that distinguish ESCRT machinery from cargo we analyzed the trafficking of artificial ESCRT-like protein fusions. These studies showed that lowering ESCRT-binding affinity converts a protein from behaving like ESCRT machinery into cargo of the MVB pathway, highlighting the close relationship between machinery and the cargoes they sort. Furthermore, our findings give insights into the targeting of soluble proteins into the MVB pathway and show that binding to any of the ESCRTs can mediate ubiquitin-independent MVB sorting. PMID:24148098

  13. Mechanized azobenzene-functionalized zirconium metal-organic framework for on-command cargo release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshi; Gui, Bo; Yuan, Daqiang; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained increasing attention recently for their potential applications in many areas. We report the design and synthesis of a water-stable zirconium MOF (Zr-MOF) that bears photoresponsive azobenzene groups. This particular MOF can be used as a reservoir for storage of cargo in water, and the cargo-loaded MOF can be further capped to construct a mechanized MOF through the binding of β-cyclodextrin with the azobenzene stalks on the MOF surface. The resulting mechanized MOF has shown on-command cargo release triggered by ultraviolet irradiation or addition of competitive agents without premature release. This study represents a simple approach to the construction of stimuli-responsive mechanized MOFs, and considering mechanized UiO-68-azo made from biocompatible components, this smart system may provide a unique MOF platform for on-command drug delivery in the future. PMID:27493996

  14. Solar-electric-propulsion cargo vehicles for split/sprint Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Christopher E.; Crowe, Michael D.; Swis, Matthew J.; Mickney, Marcus R.; Montgomery, C. Keith; Walters, Robert; Thoden, Scott

    1991-01-01

    In support of the proposed exploration of Mars, an unmanned cargo ferry SEMM1 (Solar Electric Mars Mission) was designed. The vehicle is based on solar electric propulsion, and required to transport a cargo of 61,000 kg. The trajectory is a combination of spirals; first, out from LEO, then around the sun, then spiral down to low Mars orbit. The spacecraft produces 3.03 MWe power using photovoltaic flexible blanket arrays. Ion thrusters using argon as a propellant were selected to drive the ship, providing about 60 Newtons of thrust in low Earth orbit. The configuration is based on two long truss beams to which the 24 individual, self-deployable, solar arrays are attached. The main body module supports the two beams and houses the computers, electrical, and control equipment. The thruster module is attached to the rear of the main body, and the cargo to the front.

  15. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGE OF CAIRO-DAMIETTA SELF-PROPELLED GRAIN BULK SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global logistics center for the storage and handling of grain which will be constructed at Damietta port will extremely increase the annual movement of grain through Cairo-Damietta waterway. Therefore, the demand for inland grain bulk ships has increased significantly in the recent years. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the fleet size and optimum characteristics of self-propelled grain bulk ships working between Cairo and Damietta through River Nile. The characteristics of the Cairo–Damietta waterway are investigated to define the constraints on dimensions and speed for such ship type. Also, mathematical model for the objective function was developed considering: powering, voyage, weight, stability and cost calculation. In this research, Specific cost (Sc, cost of transporting one ton of cargo a distance of one kilometre, is considered as the objective function for this optimization process. This optimization problem is handled as a single objective nonlinear constrained optimization problem using a specially developed computer program. Solutions are generated by varying design variables systematically in certain steps. The best of these solutions is then taken as the estimated optimum. Finally, the problem is presented, the main constrains analyzed and the optimum solution shown.

  16. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  17. Design and development of a focusing electromagnet for RF linac of a cargo scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, B., E-mail: biswaranjan.nayak1@gmail.com; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Chandan, Shiv; Choudhury, N.; Sharma, V.; Mittal, K.C.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2014-11-11

    Cargo scanning of contraband objects by high energetic X-rays requires compact and self-contained RF linacs. To achieve this goal, a 6 MeV, 700 W standing wave RF electron linac has been developed at Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, BARC. To obtain the image of scanned objects with good resolution requires a focused electron beam at the target. This paper presents the design, development and integration of a solenoid magnet with a compact RF linac and its performance with electron beam for cargo scanning applications.

  18. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  19. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  20. Enabling a Viable Technique for the Optimization of LNG Carrier Cargo Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakoya Rasheed Alaba; T C Nwaoha; M O Okwu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts’ judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  1. Dynamics modeling and control of large transport aircraft in heavy cargo extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a novel version of six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model for transport aircraft motion in cargo extraction is developed and validated by the theoretical mechanics and flight mechanics.In this model constraint force and moment reflecting the flight dynamic effects of inner moving cargo are formulated.A methodology for a control law design in this phase is presented,which linearizes the aircraft dynamics making use of piecewise linearization and utilizes robust control technique for interval sys...

  2. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724–9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin...... forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening–closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation...

  3. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S.; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L.

    2016-11-01

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  4. Boeing and EGAT Unveil World's First Large Cargo Freighter——Evergreen Aviation Technologies transforms Boeing747-400 for 787 Dreamliner cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation (EGAT), a subsidiary of the Evergreen Group, and The Boeing Company unveiled the first of three Boeing 747-400 Large Cargo Freighters (LCF) modified to exacting specifications to transport giant-sized Boeing 787 "Dreamliner" assemblages.Boeing selected EGAT to perform the specialized aircraft conversions and work began in 2005. The three-aircraft conversion program will be completed in 2007.

  5. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration...-cargo carriers. The collections of information that make up this ICR are security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air...

  6. Triple Emulsion Drops with An Ultrathin Water Layer: High Encapsulation Efficiency and Enhanced Cargo Retention in Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lee, Hyomin; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Kim, June Hwan; Fan, Jing; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Zhu, Taotao; Weitz, David A

    2016-05-01

    Triple emulsion drops with an ultrathin water layer are developed to achieve high encapsulation efficiency of hydrophobic cargo in a hydrophobic polymeric shell, directly dispersed in water. Furthermore, enhanced retention of volatile hydrophobic cargo is achieved by forming a hydrogel network within this water layer that serves as a physical barrier.

  7. PDE6δ-mediated sorting of INPP5E into the cilium is determined by cargo-carrier affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansa, Eyad Kalawy; Kösling, Stefanie Kristine; Zent, Eldar; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ismail, Shehab

    2016-04-11

    The phosphodiesterase 6 delta subunit (PDE6δ) shuttles several farnesylated cargos between membranes. The cargo sorting mechanism between cilia and other compartments is not understood. Here we show using the inositol polyphosphate 5'-phosphatase E (INPP5E) and the GTP-binding protein (Rheb) that cargo sorting depends on the affinity towards PDE6δ and the specificity of cargo release. High-affinity cargo is exclusively released by the ciliary transport regulator Arl3, while low-affinity cargo is released by Arl3 and its non-ciliary homologue Arl2. Structures of PDE6δ/cargo complexes reveal the molecular basis of the sorting signal which depends on the residues at the -1 and -3 positions relative to farnesylated cysteine. Structure-guided mutation allows the generation of a low-affinity INPP5E mutant which loses exclusive ciliary localization. We postulate that the affinity to PDE6δ and the release by Arl2/3 in addition to a retention signal are the determinants for cargo sorting and enrichment at its destination.

  8. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing information for vessel cargo. 103.31a Section 103.31a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. Into the Bulk: A Covariant Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    I propose a general, covariant way of defining when one region is "deeper in the bulk" than another. This definition is formulated outside of an event horizon (or in the absence thereof) in generic geometries; it may be applied to both points and surfaces, and may be used to compare the depth of bulk points or surfaces relative to a particular boundary subregion or relative to the entire boundary. Using the recently proposed "lightcone cut" formalism, the comparative depth between two bulk points can be determined from the singularity structure of Lorentzian correlators in the dual field theory. I prove that, by this definition, causal wedges of progressively larger regions probe monotonically deeper in the bulk. The definition furthermore matches expectations in pure AdS and in static AdS black holes with isotropic spatial slices, where a well-defined holographic coordinate exists. In terms of holographic RG flow, this new definition of bulk depth makes contact with coarse-graining over both large distances ...

  10. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  11. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  12. Survey of transportation of liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posti, A.; Hakkinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    This study is made as a part of the Chembaltic (Risks of Maritime Transportation of Chemicals in Baltic Sea) project which gathers information on the chemicals transported in the Baltic Sea. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of handling volumes of liquid bulk chemicals (including liquefied gases) in the Baltic Sea ports and to find out what the most transported liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea are. Oil and oil products are also viewed in this study but only in a general level. Oils and oil products may also include chemical-related substances (e.g. certain bio-fuels which belong to MARPOL annex II category) in some cargo statistics. Chemicals in packaged form are excluded from the study. Most of the facts about the transport volumes of chemicals presented in this study are based on secondary written sources of Scandinavian, Russian, Baltic and international origin. Furthermore, statistical sources, academic journals, periodicals, newspapers and in later years also different homepages on the Internet have been used as sources of information. Chemical handling volumes in Finnish ports were examined in more detail by using a nationwide vessel traffic system called PortNet. Many previous studies have shown that the Baltic Sea ports are annually handling more than 11 million tonnes of liquid chemicals transported in bulk. Based on this study, it appears that the number may be even higher. The liquid bulk chemicals account for approximately 4 % of the total amount of liquid bulk cargoes handled in the Baltic Sea ports. Most of the liquid bulk chemicals are handled in Finnish and Swedish ports and their proportion of all liquid chemicals handled in the Baltic Sea is altogether over 50 %. The most handled chemicals in the Baltic Sea ports are methanol, sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia, sulphuric and phosphoric acid, pentanes, aromatic free solvents, xylenes, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol and ethanol solutions. All of these chemicals

  13. Bulk fields from the boundary OPE

    CERN Document Server

    Guica, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established an equality between the geodesic integral of a free bulk field in AdS and the contribution of the conformal descendants of its dual CFT primary operator to the OPE of two other operators inserted at the endpoints of the geodesic. Working in the context of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$, we extend this relation to include all $1/N$ corrections to the bulk field obtained by dressing it with i) a $U(1)$ current and ii) the CFT stress tensor, and argue it equals the contribution of the Ka\\v{c}-Moody/the Virasoro block to the respective boundary OPE. This equality holds for a particular framing of the bulk field to the boundary that involves a split Wilson line.

  14. A Diphoton Resonance from Bulk RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Recent LHC data hints at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to Higges and to any other Standard Model particles are so far too low to be detected. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. We argue that if the state is a scalar, some form of sequestering is likely to be necessary to naturally explain the suppressed scalar-Higgs interactions. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  15. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  16. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  17. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  18. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites...... are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...

  19. A stereoscopic look into the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-07-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphisminvariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1 /N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields.

  20. Spherically symmetric brane spacetime with bulk gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2015-01-01

    Introducing term in the five-dimensional bulk action we derive effective Einstein's equation on the brane using Gauss-Codazzi equation. This effective equation is then solved for different conditions on dark radiation and dark pressure to obtain various spherically symmetric solutions. Some of these static spherically symmetric solutions correspond to black hole solutions, with parameters induced from the bulk. Specially, the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (electric part of Weyl curvature) affect the brane spherically symmetric solutions significantly. We have solved for one parameter group of conformal motions where the dark radiation and dark pressure terms are exactly obtained exploiting the corresponding Lie symmetry. Various thermodynamic features of these spherically symmetric space-times are studied, showing existence of second order phase transition. This phenomenon has its origin in the higher curvature term with gravity in the bulk.

  1. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  2. Making bulk-conductive glass microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jay J. L.; Niu, Lihong

    2008-02-01

    The fabrication of microchannel plate (MCP) with bulk-conductive characteristics has been studied. Semiconducting clad glass and leachable core glass were used for drawing fibers and making MCP. Co-axial single fiber was drawn from a platinum double-crucible in an automatic fiberizing system, and the fibers were stacked and redrawn into multifiber by a special gripping mechanism. The multifibers were stacked again and the boule was made and sliced into discs. New MCPs were made after chemically leaching process without the traditional hydrogen firing. It was shown that bulk-conductive glass MCP can operate at higher voltage with lower noise.

  3. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  4. Towards a Reconstruction of General Bulk Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the metric of a general holographic spacetime can be reconstructed (up to an overall conformal factor) from distinguished spatial slices - "light-cone cuts" - of the conformal boundary. Our prescription is covariant and applies to bulk points in causal contact with the boundary. Furthermore, we describe a procedure for determining the light-cone cuts corresponding to bulk points in the causal wedge of the boundary in terms of the divergences of correlators in the dual field theory. Possible extensions for determining the conformal factor and including the cuts of points outside of the causal wedge are discussed. We also comment on implications for subregion/subregion duality.

  5. 46 CFR 32.50-1 - Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after... TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-1 Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936—TB/ALL. On...

  6. 46 CFR 32.50-25 - Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior to November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior... SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-25 Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior to November 10,...

  7. Analysis of VGH data from two types of four-engine airplanes in commercial cargo service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, F. M.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented for derived gust velocities and for incremental normal accelerations due to gusts, maneuvers, and landing impacts. The data were obtained from NASA VGH recorders installed on three four-engine cargo airplanes operated by three airlines. Continental United States and trans-Pacific routes were covered.

  8. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  9. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is marked and used exclusively to transport carbon dioxide, or except when an MC 338 is used to transport argon, carbon dioxide, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, and xenon. However, if the cargo tank... that provides the venting capacity prescribed in § 178.345-10(e) of this subchapter. The...

  10. 76 FR 57941 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563: Cargo Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... public meeting will be broadcast live via Web streaming and a listen-only telephone line. The public may access the live Web streaming by a link from http://www.marad.dot.gov . Listen-only telephone line... assessing the cargo preference regulatory process. The recorded webcast video will remain...

  11. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  12. 76 FR 13313 - Hazardous Materials: Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Loading and Unloading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... cargo transfer hoses on an adjacent tank car resulted in the release of chlorine. Three plant employees... of the explosion propelled a 300-pound tank car dome housing about \\1/3\\ mile away from the tank car... repaired fill hose and began to unload the gas from his 8,000-gallon tanker truck. In less than a...

  13. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-08-23

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms-intended to improve the chances of capturing the target-are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau-a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer\\'s disease-coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines ] EPA is, pursuant... standards relating to the control of emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle...

  15. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipp

  16. Cargo Revenue Management: Bid-Prices for a 0-1 Multi Knapsack Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pak; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRevenue management is the practice of selecting those customers that generate the maximum revenue from a fixed and perishable capacity. Cargo revenue management differs from the well-known passenger revenue management problem by the fact that its capacity constraint is 2-dimensional, i.e

  17. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Sec24 marks transitional ER that exports a model cargo via a diacidic motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcus C S; Moura, Pedro A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Fidock, David A

    2008-06-01

    Exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often occurs at distinct sites of vesicle formation known as transitional ER (tER) that are enriched for COPII vesicle coat proteins. We have characterized the organization of ER export in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, by examining the localization of two components of the COPII machinery, PfSec12 and PfSec24a. PfSec12 was found throughout the ER, whereas the COPII cargo adaptor, PfSec24a, was concentrated at distinct foci that likely correspond to tER sites. These foci were closely apposed to cis-Golgi sites marked by PfGRASP-GFP, and upon treatment with brefeldin A they accumulated a model cargo protein via a process dependent on the presence of an intact diacidic export motif. Our data suggest that the cargo-binding function of PfSec24a is conserved and that accumulation of cargo in discrete tER sites depends upon positive sorting signals. Furthermore, the number and position of tER sites with respect to the cis-Golgi suggests a co-ordinated biogenesis of these domains.

  19. 49 CFR 1544.202 - Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft. 1544.202 Section 1544.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.202 Persons and property onboard an...

  20. 49 CFR 1549.101 - Acceptance, screening, and transfer of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved by TSA, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548, an aircraft operator under part 1544, or a... onboard an aircraft of any unauthorized explosives, incendiaries, and other destructive substances or items in cargo onboard an aircraft, as provided in the facility's security program. (b) Screening...

  1. 77 FR 50926 - Security Zones; Certain Dangerous Cargo Vessels, Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of... boarding and inspection of the vessel and persons onboard. The security zones would be enforced from 12:01... the vessel and persons onboard. (4) The Coast Guard will provide notice of the regulated areas...

  2. Endocytic Trafficking of Membrane-Bound Cargo: A Flotillin Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and highly conserved flotillin proteins, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, have been shown to be involved in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, signal transduction through receptor tyrosine kinases as well as in cellular trafficking pathways. Due to the fact that flotillins are acylated and form hetero-oligomers, they constitutively associate with cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains. In recent years, such microdomains have been appreciated as platforms that participate in endocytosis and other cellular trafficking steps. This review summarizes the current findings on the role of flotillins in membrane-bound cargo endocytosis and endosomal trafficking events. We will discuss the proposed function of flotillins in endocytosis in the light of recent findings that point towards a role for flotillins in a step that precedes the actual endocytic uptake of cargo molecules. Recent findings have also revealed that flotillins may be important for endosomal sorting and recycling of specific cargo molecules. In addition to these aspects, the cellular trafficking pathway of flotillins themselves as potential cargo in the context of growth factor signaling will be discussed.

  3. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense... 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD- exempted individuals who perform.... 109-364). Section 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and...

  4. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... transfer of ownership or title, in their capacity as carriers of goods or as instruments of such carriers... to sale or other transfer from ownership in the United States to ownership abroad. If a vessel,...

  5. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  6. Dragonair- Year-on-Year Rises Continue For Passengers And Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Passenger numbers at Dragonair rose 13.2% while cargo volumes climbed 23.9%in April compared with the same month in 2004. The airline flew 431,860 passengers last month, 50,274 more than one year ago,and 7.3% up on March.

  7. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section 1917.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply...

  8. 46 CFR 308.549 - Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Form MA-319. 308.549 Section 308.549 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319. Any domestic insurance company authorized to do a marine... by submitting to the Maritime Administrator a letter and Form MA-399, which may be obtained from...

  9. Intracellular Delivery of Molecular Cargo Using Cell-Penetrating Peptides and the Combination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs can cross cellular membranes in a non-toxic fashion, improving the intracellular delivery of various molecular cargos such as nanoparticles, small molecules and plasmid DNA. Because CPPs provide a safe, efficient, and non-invasive mode of transport for various cargos into cells, they have been developed as vectors for the delivery of genetic and biologic products in recent years. Most common CPPs are positively charged peptides. While delivering negatively charged molecules (e.g., nucleic acids to target cells, the internalization efficiency of CPPs is reduced and inhibited because the cationic charges on the CPPs are neutralized through the covering of CPPs by cargos on the structure. Even under these circumstances, the CPPs can still be non-covalently complexed with the negatively charged molecules. To address this issue, combination strategies of CPPs with other typical carriers provide a promising and novel delivery system. This review summarizes the latest research work in using CPPs combined with molecular cargos including liposomes, polymers, cationic peptides, nanoparticles, adeno-associated virus (AAV and calcium for the delivery of genetic products, especially for small interfering RNA (siRNA. This combination strategy remedies the reduced internalization efficiency caused by neutralization.

  10. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.92 Section 123.92 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance...

  11. 19 CFR 122.49 - Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill. 122.49 Section 122.49 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  12. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.91 Section 123.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance...

  13. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Equipment). CARB's Mobile Cargo Handling Equipment requirements are designed to use best available control... Alexander at (202) 343-9540, to learn if a hearing will be held or may check the following webpage for an... restricted by statute. EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality also maintains a webpage that...

  14. Supramolecular Controlled Cargo Release via Near Infrared Tunable Cucurbit[7]uril-Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanwei; Yang, Xiran; Liu, Yingzhu; Ai, Qiushuang; Liu, Simin; Sun, Chunyan; Liang, Feng

    2016-02-26

    The near infrared (NIR) absorption and average particle size of gold nanostars (GNSs) can be precisely controlled by varying the molar ratios of cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7]) and GNSs in aqueous solution. GNSs modified with CB[7] achieved high cargo loading with thermally activated release upon the NIR laser irradiation.

  15. Functional description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, W.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [SAIC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-15

    This Functional Description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) documents the purpose of and requirements for the ICDB in order to ensure a mutual understanding between the development group and the user group of the system. This Functional Description defines ICDB and provides a clear statement of the initial operational capability to be developed.

  16. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  17. Database specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, B.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Database Specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) describes the database organization and storage allocation, provides the detailed data model of the logical and physical designs, and provides information for the construction of parts of the database such as tables, data elements, and associated dictionaries and diagrams.

  18. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    .../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages...

  19. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    , ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. Methyl acetate and ETBE meet...

  20. Quantitative measurements and modeling of cargo-motor interactions during fast transport in the living axon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Pamela E.; Loewenberg, Michael; Pascal, Jennifer; Chauviere, Arnaud; Gonzales, Aaron; Cristini, Vittorio; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2012-10-01

    The kinesins have long been known to drive microtubule-based transport of sub-cellular components, yet the mechanisms of their attachment to cargo remain a mystery. Several different cargo-receptors have been proposed based on their in vitro binding affinities to kinesin-1. Only two of these—phosphatidyl inositol, a negatively charged lipid, and the carboxyl terminus of the amyloid precursor protein (APP-C), a trans-membrane protein—have been reported to mediate motility in living systems. A major question is how these many different cargo, receptors and motors interact to produce the complex choreography of vesicular transport within living cells. Here we describe an experimental assay that identifies cargo-motor receptors by their ability to recruit active motors and drive transport of exogenous cargo towards the synapse in living axons. Cargo is engineered by derivatizing the surface of polystyrene fluorescent nanospheres (100 nm diameter) with charged residues or with synthetic peptides derived from candidate motor receptor proteins, all designed to display a terminal COOH group. After injection into the squid giant axon, particle movements are imaged by laser-scanning confocal time-lapse microscopy. In this report we compare the motility of negatively charged beads with APP-C beads in the presence of glycine-conjugated non-motile beads using new strategies to measure bead movements. The ensuing quantitative analysis of time-lapse digital sequences reveals detailed information about bead movements: instantaneous and maximum velocities, run lengths, pause frequencies and pause durations. These measurements provide parameters for a mathematical model that predicts the spatiotemporal evolution of distribution of the two different types of bead cargo in the axon. The results reveal that negatively charged beads differ from APP-C beads in velocity and dispersion, and predict that at long time points APP-C will achieve greater progress towards the presynaptic

  1. 实货制条件下货运站装卸能力适应性研究%Study on Adaptability of Cargo Terminal Loading/unloading Capacity under Cargo Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程堪弟; 殷勇

    2016-01-01

    随着“实货制”货运站装卸作业方式的转变,货运站如何实现白货的装卸、配载是个棘手问题,加上我国铁路现有的货运装卸方法存在一定的不适应性等问题,导致货运站装卸能力严重紧张不足。结合我国货物运输组织改革及主要货运站能力现状,确定影响货运站装卸效率主要因素,进一步提出改进实货制条件下货运站装卸能力适应性的保障措施。%The implementation of the cargo registration system has transformed the activity mode of the cargo terminals and moreover the loading/unloading process of the railway system in China is still misaligned with the cargo registration system, leading to severe shortage of the loading/unloading capacity of the cargo terminals. In this paper, in view of the reform initiative of the cargo transportation organizations in China and the current status of the capacity of the major cargo terminals, we determined the major factors affecting the loading/unloading efficiency of the cargo terminals and then further proposed the measures to improve the adaptability of the cargo terminals with the cargo registration system.

  2. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  3. The Bulk Multicore Architecture for Improved Programmability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    dependences bundled together. In the Bulk Multi- core, the log must store only the total order of chunk commits, an approach we call DeLorean .13 The...ACM Press, New York, 2007, 69–80. 13. Montesinos, P., Ceze, L., and Torrellas, J. DeLorean : Recording and deterministically replaying shared

  4. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane she...

  5. Bulk viscosity effects on ultrasonic thermoacoustic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeffrey; Scalo, Carlo; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out unstructured fully-compressible Navier-Stokes simulations of a minimal-unit traveling-wave ultrasonic thermoacoustic device in looped configuration. The model comprises a thermoacoustic stack with 85% porosity and a tapered area change to suppress the fundamental standing-wave mode. A bulk viscosity model, which accounts for vibrational and rotational molecular relaxation effects, is derived and implemented via direct modification of the viscous stress tensor, τij ≡ 2 μSij +λ/2 μ ∂uk/∂xk δij , where the bulk viscosity is defined by μb ≡ λ +2/3 μ . The effective bulk viscosity coefficient accurately captures acoustic absorption from low to high ultrasonic frequencies and matches experimental wave attenuation rates across five decades. Using pressure-based similitude, the model was downscaled from total length L = 2 . 58 m to 0 . 0258 m, corresponding to the frequency range f = 242 - 24200 Hz, revealing the effects of bulk viscosity and direct modification of the thermodynamic pressure. Simulations are carried out to limit cycle and exhibit growth rates consistent with linear stability analyses, based on Rott's theory.

  6. Forming of bulk metallic glass microcomponents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wert, John A.; Thomsen, Christian; Jensen, Rune Debel

    2009-01-01

    The present article considers forward extrusion, closed-die forging and backward extrusion processes for fabrication of individual microcomponents from two bulk metallic glass (BMG) compositions: Mg60Cu30Y10 and Zr44Cu40Ag8Al8. Two types of tooling were used in the present work: relatively massive...

  7. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of substrate

  8. Fluctuating brane in a dilatonic bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Rodríguez-Martinez, M; Brax, Philippe; Langlois, David; Rodriguez-Martinez, Maria

    2003-01-01

    We consider a cosmological brane moving in a static five-dimensional bulk spacetime endowed with a scalar field whose potential is exponential. After studying various cosmological behaviours for the homogeneous background, we investigate the fluctuations of the brane that leave spacetime unaffected. A single mode embodies these fluctuations and obeys a wave equation which we study for bouncing and ever-expanding branes.

  9. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...

  10. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  11. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  12. 46 CFR 148.04-23 - Unslaked lime in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unslaked lime in bulk. 148.04-23 Section 148.04-23... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-23 Unslaked lime in bulk. (a) Unslaked lime in bulk must be transported in unmanned, all steel, double-hulled...

  13. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices.Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border?Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested.Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques.Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  14. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; Pappas, Andrea L; Cooper, Kirsten; Merrihew, Gennifer E; MacCoss, Michael J; Ailion, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment.

  15. 46 CFR Table 2 to Part 153 - Cargoes Not Regulated Under Subchapters D or O of This Chapter When Carried in Bulk on Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... D Dodecenylsuccinic acid, dipotassium salt solution D Drilling brine (containing Calcium, Potassium, or Sodium salts) (see also Potassium chloride solution (10% or more)) III Drilling brine (containing Zinc salts) B Drilling mud (low toxicity) (if non-flammable and...

  16. 西基散货码头机械系统可靠性分析%Analysis on Mechanical System Reliability in Xiji Bulk Cargo Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛延忠

    2010-01-01

    @@ 随着全球经济的复苏,我国南方对煤炭的需求越来越大.为提高港口的作业效率和安全可靠性,我公司组织技术力量完成了对装船机、斗轮堆取料机、皮带机和卸船机等装卸设备的技术改造.为保证改造工作科学合理,对散货码头机械系统可靠性进行了研究分析.

  17. 集装箱世界中的散杂贷物流%Bulk Cargo Logistics in the Modern Word Taking Containers as the Leading Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒金

    2007-01-01

    @@ 当今世界物流中集装箱化的主导地位正在不断增强,但是散杂货物流市场势力不仅没有退缩,反而在强劲扩大;散杂货物流甚至是选择和落实新建工厂地段的重大因素.

  18. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  19. Evaluation difference between mass of received cargo and mass of handed over the cargo in the determination of the masses by draft survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakuta I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the analysis of problems associated with the evaluation of difference between the mass of received and handed over cargo in determining the masses by draft survey and due to the difference in the measurement conditions at the loading and unloading ports (due to the change errors in various stages of the measurement procedures. The errors that may arise in determining the mass of the cargo due to roughness when measuring draft, due to using the inclinometer to determine the draft from one of boards, due to instrumental errors in the determination of the density of seawater, due to other possible errors have been investigated and evaluated. To estimate the errors of draft due to heaving and errors of inclinometer some formula are to be applied, their derivation has been done in this paper. It has been recommended to use the traditional formula of high-speed drawdown with the replacement of vessel speed on current rate to calculate the error of precipitation arising from the drawdowns ship on a current. The value per unit displacement draft from loading scale has been used to evaluate the error of the displacement appearing in the presence of draft errors. As a result two similar criteria (rigorous and statistical of allowable discrepancies calculated by draft survey mass of cargo in the port of loading and port of discharge have been substantiated. These criteria require the calculation and accumulation in a table of all the errors and calculate the total error of displacement. Criteria will allow the consignee and the carrier come to a reasonable and agreed decision about the significance of differences of the masses taking into account the indifference of conditions and measuring instruments.

  20. MAPEAMENTO DAS COMPETÊNCIAS E DESCRIÇÃO DE CARGOS DA LIVRARIA NOBEL DE PIRACICABA.

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Andreza Fernanda de; Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Brasil; Cremonezi, Graziela Oste Graziano; Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Brasil; Rocha, Maria Josilene Fontinele; Faculdade de Ensino Superior da Amazônia Reunida (FESAR), Brasil; Aguiar, Verônica Marinho; Faculdade de Ensino Superior da Amazônia Reunida (FESAR), Brasil; Franco, Ana Cristina Souza; Faculdade de Ensino Superior da Amazônia Reunida (FESAR), Brasil

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo mapear as competências e desenvolver a descrição de cargos da livraria Nobel de Piracicaba. Tendo num primeiro momento descritas as teorias referenciais sobre competências, descrição de cargo e as competências técnicas e comportamentais necessárias para o exercício da função/cargo. A pesquisa foi caracterizada quanto à abordagem do problema como qualitativa; A técnica escolhida para coleta de dados baseou-se na observação direta da pesquisadora, bem como nas inf...

  1. Towards a reconstruction of general bulk metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Horowitz, Gary T.

    2017-01-01

    We prove that the metric of a general holographic spacetime can be reconstructed (up to an overall conformal factor) from distinguished spatial slices—‘light-cone cuts’—of the conformal boundary. Our prescription is covariant and applies to bulk points in causal contact with the boundary. Furthermore, we describe a procedure for determining the light-cone cuts corresponding to bulk points in the causal wedge of the boundary in terms of the divergences of correlators in the dual field theory. Possible extensions for determining the conformal factor and including the cuts of points outside of the causal wedge are discussed. We also comment on implications for subregion/subregion duality.

  2. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  3. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  4. Portable design rules for bulk CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that for the past several years, one school of IC designers has used a simplified set of nMOS geometric design rules (GDR) which is 'portable', in that it can be used by many different nMOS manufacturers. The present investigation is concerned with a preliminary set of design rules for bulk CMOS which has been verified for simple test structures. The GDR are defined in terms of Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF), which is a geometry-description language that defines simple geometrical objects in layers. The layers are abstractions of physical mask layers. The design rules do not presume the existence of any particular design methodology. Attention is given to p-well and n-well CMOS processes, bulk CMOS and CMOS-SOS, CMOS geometric rules, and a description of the advantages of CMOS technology.

  5. Fully antisymmetrised dynamics for bulk fermion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vantournhout, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The neutron star's crust and mantel are typical examples of non-uniform bulk systems with spacial localisations. When modelling such systems at low temperatures, as is the case in the crust, one has to work with antisymmetrised many-body states to get the correct fermion behaviour. Fermionic molecular dynamics, which works with an antisymmetrised product of localised wave packets, should be an appropriate choice. Implementing periodic boundary conditions into the fermionic molecular dynamics formalism would allow the study of the neutron star's crust as a bulk quantum system. Unfortunately, the antisymmetrisation is a non-local entanglement which reaches far out of the periodically repeated unit cell. In this proceeding, we give a brief overview how periodic boundary conditions and fermionic molecular dynamics can be combined without truncating the long-range many-body correlation induced by the antisymmetry of the many-body state.

  6. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Bulk and Shear Viscosity in Hagedorn Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses $m<2\\,$GeV obeys the {\\it first-order} theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the {\\it in-medium} thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosities and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equlibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo and hydrodynamics equations of state.

  8. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  9. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    OpenAIRE

    M. Laine

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on whic...

  11. Depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhouse, D.A.R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598 (United States); Debnath, Ratan; Kramer, Illan J.; Zhitomirsky, David; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Quantum Solar Power Corporation, 1055 W. Hastings, Ste. 300, Vancouver, BC, V6E 2E9 (Canada); Etgar, Lioz; Graetzel, Michael [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Effects of bulk viscosity on cosmological evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, L O; Diaz-Rivera, L M

    1994-01-01

    Abstract:The effect of bulk viscisity on the evolution of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models is considered. Solutions are found, with a barotropic equation of state, and a viscosity coefficient that is proportional to a power of the energy density of the universe. For flat space, power law expansions, related to extended inflation are found as well as exponential solutions, related to old inflation; also a solution with expansion that is an exponential of an exponential of the time is found.

  13. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: hpardo@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-08-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  14. Modeling of Microimprinting of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming CHENG; John A. Wert

    2006-01-01

    A finite element analysis (FEA) model has been developed to analyze microimprinting of bulk metallic glasses (BMG) near the glass transition temperature (Tg). The results reveal an approximately universal imprinting response for BMG, independent of surface feature length scale. The scale-independent nature of BMG imprinting derives from the flow characteristics of BMG in the temperature range above Tg. It also shows that the lubrication condition has a mild influence on BMG imprinting in the temperature range above Tg.

  15. Pseudo-Riemannian Universe from Euclidean bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2015-01-01

    I develop the idea that our world is a brane-like object embedded in Euclidean bulk. In its ground state, the brane constituent matter is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, and of negligible influence on the bulk geometry. No action functional is initially specified. Instead, the brane dynamics is derived from the universally valid stress-energy conservation equations. The present work studies the cosmology of a $3$-sphere in the $5$-dimensional Euclidean bulk. It is shown that the conventional equation of state $p=\\alpha\\rho$ is universal in the sector of small energy densities, and so is the resulting brane dynamics. The inequality $\\alpha<0$ is found to be a necessary condition for the existence of a stable ground state of the Universe. It is demonstrated that the generic braneworld physics rules out the Big Bang cosmology, and in that matter, any cosmology of finite lifetime. I also demonstrate that stable brane vibrations satisfy Klein-Gordon-like equation with an effective metric of Minkowski s...

  16. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  17. Bulk Higgs with a heavy diphoton signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    We consider scenarios of warped extra dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk and in which both the hierarchy and the flavor puzzles of the Standard Model are addressed. Inspired by the puzzling excess of diphoton events at 750 GeV reported in the early LHC Run II data (since then understood as a statistical excess), we consider here the general question as to whether the simplest extra-dimensional extension of the Standard Model Higgs sector, i.e., a five-dimensional bulk Higgs doublet, can lead to an intermediate mass resonance (between 500 GeV and 1.5 TeV) of which the first signature would be the presence of diphoton events. This surprising phenomenology can happen if the resonance is the lightest C P -odd state coming from the Higgs sector. No new matter content is required, the only new ingredient being the presence of (positive) brane localized kinetic terms associated to the five-dimensional bulk Higgs (which reduce the mass of the C P -odd states). Production and decay of this resonance can naturally give rise to observable diphoton signals, keeping dijet production under control, with very low ZZ and WW signals and with a highly reduced top pair production in an important region of parameter space. We use the 750 GeV excess as an example case scenario.

  18. Cosmological Implications of QGP Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of the hot QCD matter indicate that the bulk viscosity ($\\zeta$) of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) rises sharply near the critical point of the QCD phase transition. In this work, we show that such a sharp rise of the bulk viscosity will lead to an effective negative pressure near the critical temperature, $T_{c}$ which in turn drives the Universe to inflate. This inflation has a natural graceful exist when the viscous effect evanesce. We estimate that, depending upon the peak value of $\\zeta$, universe expands by a factor of $10$ to $80$ times in a very short span ($\\Delta t\\sim 10^{-8}$ seconds). Another important outcome of the bulk viscosity dominated dynamics is the cavitation of QGP around $T \\sim 1.5T_{c}$. This would lead to the phenomenon of formation of cavitation bubbles within the QGP phase. The above scenario is independent of the order of QCD phase transition. We delineate some of the important cosmological consequences of the inflation and the cavitation.

  19. Bulk Rashba Semiconductors and Related Quantum Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramy, Mohammad Saeed; Ogawa, Naoki

    2017-03-29

    Bithmuth tellurohalides BiTeX (X = Cl, Br and I) are model examples of bulk Rashba semiconductors, exhibiting a giant Rashba-type spin splitting among their both valence and conduction bands. Extensive spectroscopic and transport experiments combined with the state-of-the-art first-principles calculations have revealed many unique quantum phenomena emerging from the bulk Rashba effect in these systems. The novel features such as the exotic inter- and intra-band optical transitions, enhanced magneto-optical response, divergent orbital dia-/para-magnetic susceptibility and helical spin textures with a nontrivial Berry's phase in the momentum space are among the salient discoveries, all arising from this effect. Also, it is theoretically proposed and indications have been experimentally reported that bulk Rashba semiconductors such as BiTeI have the capability of becoming a topological insulator under the application of a hydrostatic pressure. Here, we overview these studies and show that BiTeX are an ideal platform to explore the next aspects of quantum matter, which could ultimately be utilized to create spintronic devices with novel functionalities.

  20. Molecular imprinting of bulk, microporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alexander; Davis, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular imprinting aims to create solid materials containing chemical functionalities that are spatially organized by covalent or non-covalent interactions with imprint (or template) molecules during the synthesis process. Subsequent removal of the imprint molecules leaves behind designed sites for the recognition of small molecules, making the material ideally suited for applications such as separations, chemical sensing and catalysis. Until now, the molecular imprinting of bulk polymers and polymer and silica surfaces has been reported, but the extension of these methods to a wider range of materials remains problematic. For example, the formation of substrate-specific cavities within bulk silica, while conceptually straightforward, has been difficult to accomplish experimentally. Here we describe the imprinting of bulk amorphous silicas with single aromatic rings carrying up to three 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane side groups; this generates and occupies microporosity and attaches functional organic groups to the pore walls in a controlled fashion. The triethoxysilane part of the molecules' side groups is incorporated into the silica framework during sol-gel synthesis, and subsequent removal of the aromatic core creates a cavity with spatially organized aminopropyl groups covalently anchored to the pore walls. We find that the imprinted silicas act as shape-selective base catalysts. Our strategy can be extended to imprint other functional groups, which should give access to a wide range of functionalized materials.

  1. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  2. Cargo and Container X-Ray Inspection with Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy Method for Material Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Rommel, J. Martin

    The Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy (IPME) method of material discrimination mitigates main disadvantages of the traditional "interlaced" approach: ambiguity caused by sampling different regions of cargo and reduction of effective scanning speed. A novel concept of creating multi-energy probing pulses using a standing-wave structure allows maintaining a constant energy spectrum while changing the time duration of each sub-pulse and thus enables adaptive cargo inspection. Depending on the cargo density, the dose delivered to the inspected object is optimized for best material discrimination, maximum material penetration, or lowest dose to cargo. A model based on Monte-Carlo simulation and experimental reference points were developed for the optimization of inspection conditions.

  3. 75 FR 5846 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal...

  4. Influence of direct motor-motor interaction in models for cargo transport by a single team of motors

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzat, Sebastian; 10.1088/1478-3975/7/4/046009

    2010-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the effects of excluded-volume interactions between motors on the dynamics of a cargo driven by multiple motors. The model considered shares many commons with other recently proposed in the literature, with the addition of direct interaction between motors and motor back steps. The cargo is assumed to follow a continuum Langevin dynamics, while individual motors evolve following a Monte Carlo algorithm based on experimentally accessible probabilities for discrete forward and backward jumps, and attachment and detachment rates. The links between cargo and motors are considered as non linear springs. By means of numerical simulations we compute the relevant quantities characterizing the dynamical properties of the system, and we compare the results to those for non interacting motors. We find that interactions lead to quite relevant changes in the force-velocity relation for cargo, with a considerable reduction of the stall force, and cause also a notable decrease of the run length. The...

  5. 77 FR 19408 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal...

  6. 78 FR 20167 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal...

  7. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  8. On the possibility of the in-cell molecular motors working as cargo moorings only

    CERN Document Server

    Lisowski, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    Although active transport is considered the most efficient way of depositing materials in the appropriate compartments within living cells, free diffusion remains the energetically cheapest and most widespread determinant of the in-cell dynamics. Here we investigate the hypothesis of cargoes - vesicles or organelles - being transported by the means of free diffusion, limited spatially by the molecular motors. Routinely navigating through ever-changing and unsteady environment, utilizing chemical energy (e.g. from hydrolyzing ATP), as the result they transport cell's crucial components, such as neurotransmitters and organelles. In our model the motor, which we identify with kinesin-1 walking along the microtubule, tethers the cargo in the same manner as a mooring rope attached to a bollard holds a ship from drifting toward the open sea. We study the model behavior in the context of optical trap single molecule experiments, mimicking their procedures in our simulations and investigate how the mechanical propert...

  9. Attenuation Characteristic Modeling of Power-line Channel in Cargo Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Shinji; Ishii, Seiichiro; Nishioka, Jun; Yamada, Yoshio

    Power-line communication (PLC) based local area network (LAN) in cargo ships is one of the promising applications of the PLC technology. In this paper, the signal attenuation characteristic when transmitting with the differential-mode (DIF) and the common-mode (COM) has been modeled respectively to design the PLC network in a cargo ship. The characteristic has been analyzed from the measured transfer function of 440V power-line channels for reefer containers in two typical ships. The measured transfer function was averaged from 2M to 30MHz (or until the measurement limit frequency) and approximated by the number of branches and the length of a signal propagating route. The mean accuracy of the obtained approximation equations was ±4dB. The area where the signal attenuation of COM transmission is less than that of DIF transmission has been studied from the equations.

  10. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  11. Magnetically triggered release of molecular cargo from iron oxide nanoparticle loaded microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregal-Romero, Susana; Guardia, Pablo; Yu, Xiang; Hartmann, Raimo; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-12-01

    Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat-mediators for local heating, which can be triggered by applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). AMFs are much less absorbed by tissue than light and thus can penetrate deeper overcoming the above mentioned limitations. Here we present iron oxide nanocube-modified microcapsules as a platform for magnetically triggered molecular release. Layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte microcapsules with 4.6 μm diameter, which had 18 nm diameter iron oxide nanocubes integrated in their walls, were synthesized. The microcapsules were further loaded with an organic fluorescent polymer (Cascade Blue-labelled dextran), which was used as a model of molecular cargo. Through an AMF the magnetic nanoparticles were able to heat their surroundings and destroy the microcapsule walls, leading to a final release of the embedded cargo to the surrounding solution. The cargo release was monitored in solution by measuring the increase in both absorbance and fluorescence signal after the exposure to an AMF. Our results demonstrate that magnetothermal release of the encapsulated material is possible using magnetic nanoparticles with a high heating performance.Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat

  12. Technologies and technical tools of combined transportation of cargoes by factors of global logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Миколайович Котенко

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new piggybacks technology has been developed and presented taking into account the problems of global logistics. The technology allows cargo operations (loading and unloading of modules on platforms of varying floor height above rail head level and reload modules between platforms with different values and different ways between rails floor height platforms. The system of differential equations of Kolmogorov have been showed and modeling of combined transportation have been made

  13. Cargo Transport by Two Coupled Myosin Va Motors on Actin Filaments and Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Yusuf; Vilfan, Andrej; Trybus, Kathleen M; Warshaw, David M

    2016-11-15

    Myosin Va (myoVa) is a processive, actin-based molecular motor essential for intracellular cargo transport. When a cargo is transported by an ensemble of myoVa motors, each motor faces significant physical barriers and directional challenges created by the complex actin cytoskeleton, a network of actin filaments and actin bundles. The principles that govern the interaction of multiple motors attached to the same cargo are still poorly understood. To understand the mechanical interactions between multiple motors, we developed a simple in vitro model in which two individual myoVa motors labeled with different-colored Qdots are linked via a third Qdot that acts as a cargo. The velocity of this two-motor complex was reduced by 27% as compared to a single motor, whereas run length was increased by only 37%, much less than expected from multimotor transport models. Therefore, at low ATP, which allowed us to identify individual motor steps, we investigated the intermotor dynamics within the two-motor complex. The randomness of stepping leads to a buildup of tension in the linkage between motors-which in turn slows down the leading motor-and increases the frequency of backward steps and the detachment rate. We establish a direct relationship between the velocity reduction and the distribution of intermotor distances. The analysis of run lengths and dwell times for the two-motor complex, which has only one motor engaged with the actin track, reveals that half of the runs are terminated by almost simultaneous detachment of both motors. This finding challenges the assumptions of conventional multimotor models based on consecutive motor detachment. Similar, but even more drastic, results were observed with two-motor complexes on actin bundles, which showed a run length that was even shorter than that of a single motor.

  14. Differential cargo mobilisation within Weibel-Palade bodies after transient fusion with the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai I Kiskin

    Full Text Available Inflammatory chemokines can be selectively released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs during kiss-and-run exocytosis. Such selectivity may arise from molecular size filtering by the fusion pore, however differential intra-WPB cargo re-mobilisation following fusion-induced structural changes within the WPB may also contribute to this process. To determine whether WPB cargo molecules are differentially re-mobilised, we applied FRAP to residual post-fusion WPB structures formed after transient exocytosis in which some or all of the fluorescent cargo was retained. Transient fusion resulted in WPB collapse from a rod to a spheroid shape accompanied by substantial swelling (>2 times by surface area and membrane mixing between the WPB and plasma membranes. Post-fusion WPBs supported cumulative WPB exocytosis. To quantify diffusion inside rounded organelles we developed a method of FRAP analysis based on image moments. FRAP analysis showed that von Willebrand factor-EGFP (VWF-EGFP and the VWF-propolypeptide-EGFP (Pro-EGFP were immobile in post-fusion WPBs. Because Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP (small soluble cargo proteins were largely depleted from post-fusion WPBs, we studied these molecules in cells preincubated in the weak base NH4Cl which caused WPB alkalinisation and rounding similar to that produced by plasma membrane fusion. In these cells we found a dramatic increase in mobilities of Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP that exceeded the resolution of our method (∼ 2.4 µm2/s mean. In contrast, the membrane mobilities of EGFP-CD63 and EGFP-Rab27A in post-fusion WPBs were unchanged, while P-selectin-EGFP acquired mobility. Our data suggest that selective re-mobilisation of chemokines during transient fusion contributes to selective chemokine secretion during transient WPB exocytosis. Selective secretion provides a mechanism to regulate intravascular inflammatory processes with reduced risk of thrombosis.

  15. Differential cargo mobilisation within Weibel-Palade bodies after transient fusion with the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskin, Nikolai I; Babich, Victor; Knipe, Laura; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory chemokines can be selectively released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) during kiss-and-run exocytosis. Such selectivity may arise from molecular size filtering by the fusion pore, however differential intra-WPB cargo re-mobilisation following fusion-induced structural changes within the WPB may also contribute to this process. To determine whether WPB cargo molecules are differentially re-mobilised, we applied FRAP to residual post-fusion WPB structures formed after transient exocytosis in which some or all of the fluorescent cargo was retained. Transient fusion resulted in WPB collapse from a rod to a spheroid shape accompanied by substantial swelling (>2 times by surface area) and membrane mixing between the WPB and plasma membranes. Post-fusion WPBs supported cumulative WPB exocytosis. To quantify diffusion inside rounded organelles we developed a method of FRAP analysis based on image moments. FRAP analysis showed that von Willebrand factor-EGFP (VWF-EGFP) and the VWF-propolypeptide-EGFP (Pro-EGFP) were immobile in post-fusion WPBs. Because Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP (small soluble cargo proteins) were largely depleted from post-fusion WPBs, we studied these molecules in cells preincubated in the weak base NH4Cl which caused WPB alkalinisation and rounding similar to that produced by plasma membrane fusion. In these cells we found a dramatic increase in mobilities of Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP that exceeded the resolution of our method (∼ 2.4 µm2/s mean). In contrast, the membrane mobilities of EGFP-CD63 and EGFP-Rab27A in post-fusion WPBs were unchanged, while P-selectin-EGFP acquired mobility. Our data suggest that selective re-mobilisation of chemokines during transient fusion contributes to selective chemokine secretion during transient WPB exocytosis. Selective secretion provides a mechanism to regulate intravascular inflammatory processes with reduced risk of thrombosis.

  16. Cargo proteins of plasma astrocyte-derived exosomes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, Edward J; Mustapic, Maja; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Eitan, Erez; Lobach, Irina V; Goetzl, Laura; Schwartz, Janice B; Miller, Bruce L

    2016-11-01

    Efficient intercellular transfer of RNAs, proteins, and lipids as protected exosomal cargo has been demonstrated in the CNS, but distinct physiologic and pathologic roles have not been well defined for this pathway. The capacity to isolate immunochemically human plasma neuron-derived exosomes (NDEs), containing neuron-specific cargo, has permitted characterization of CNS-derived exosomes in living humans. Constituents of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)42-generating system now are examined in 2 distinct sets of human neural cells by quantification in astrocyte-derived exosomes (ADEs) and NDEs, enriched separately from plasmas of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and matched cognitively normal controls. ADE levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1), γ-secretase, soluble Aβ42, soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP)β, sAPPα, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), P-T181-tau, and P-S396-tau were significantly (3- to 20-fold) higher than levels in NDEs for patients and controls. BACE-1 levels also were a mean of 7-fold higher in ADEs than in NDEs from cultured rat type-specific neural cells. Levels of BACE-1 and sAPPβ were significantly higher and of GDNF significantly lower in ADEs of patients with AD than in those of controls, but not significantly different in patients with FTD than in controls. Abundant proteins of the Aβ42 peptide-generating system in ADEs may sustain levels in neurons. ADE cargo proteins may be useful for studies of mechanisms of cellular interactions and effects of BACE-1 inhibitors in AD.-Goetzl, E. J., Mustapic, M., Kapogiannis, D., Eitan, E., Lobach, I. V., Goetzl, L., Schwartz, J. B., Miller, B. L. Cargo proteins of plasma astrocyte-derived exosomes in Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Identification of Cargo for Adaptor Protein (AP) Complexes 3 and 4 by Sucrose Gradient Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Wu, Xu Na; Schrodt, Jens; Müdsam, Christina; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2016-09-01

    Intracellular vesicle trafficking is a fundamental process in eukaryotic cells. It enables cellular polarity and exchange of proteins between subcellular compartments such as the plasma membrane or the vacuole. Adaptor protein complexes participate in the vesicle formation by specific selection of the transported cargo. We investigated the role of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) in this selection process by screening for AP-3 and AP-4 dependent cargo proteins. Specific cargo proteins are expected to be mis-targeted in knock-out mutants of adaptor protein complex components. Thus, we screened for altered distribution profiles across a density gradient of membrane proteins in wild type versus ap-3β and ap-4β knock-out mutants. In ap-3β mutants, especially proteins with transport functions, such as aquaporins and plasma membrane ATPase, as well as vesicle trafficking proteins showed differential protein distribution profiles across the density gradient. In the ap-4β mutant aquaporins but also proteins from lipid metabolism were differentially distributed. These proteins also showed differential phosphorylation patterns in ap-3β and ap-4β compared with wild type. Other proteins, such as receptor kinases were depleted from the AP-3 mutant membrane system, possibly because of degradation after mis-targeting. In AP-4 mutants, membrane fractions were depleted for cytochrome P450 proteins, cell wall proteins and receptor kinases. Analysis of water transport capacity in wild type and mutant mesophyll cells confirmed aquaporins as cargo proteins of AP-3 and AP-4. The combination of organelle density gradients with proteome analysis turned out as a suitable experimental strategy for large-scale analyses of protein trafficking.

  18. United States Seaport Security: Protection Against a Nuclear Device Attack Delivered in a Shipping Cargo Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    phone, laptop, airline mechanic’s certificate, and security passes for airports in Egypt, Thailand , and Canada. The following year, in March 2002...major operation areas for federal crime, including drug trafficking , cargo theft, and smuggling of contraband and aliens. 3. Ports are open and...container’s latch and continuously collects and transmits data without human intervention. This procedure is concurrently utilized as part of the C-TPAT

  19. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  20. High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer Missions in Cislunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) in transporting cargo and propellant from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the first Earth-Moon Lagrange point (EML1) is examined. The baseline NEP vehicle utilizes a fission reactor system with Brayton power conversion for electric power generation to power multiple liquid hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Vehicle characteristics and performance levels are based on technology availability in a fifteen to twenty year timeframe. Results of numerical trajectory analyses are also provided.

  1. An Optimization Model of the Single-Leg Air Cargo Space Control Based on Markov Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-rong Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the single-leg air cargo issues, we establish a dynamic programming model to consider the overbooking and space inventory control problem. We analyze the structure of optimal booking policy for every kind of booking requests and show that the optimal booking decision is of threshold type (known as booking limit policy. Our research provides a theoretical support for the air cargo space control.

  2. TRE17/USP6 regulates ubiquitylation and trafficking of cargo proteins that enter cells by clathrin-independent endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Funakoshi, Yuji; Chou, Margaret M.; Kanaho, Yasunori; Julie G Donaldson

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins that enter cells by clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) are sorted either to lysosomes for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. Expression of some MARCH E3 ubiquitin ligases promotes trafficking of CIE cargo proteins to lysosomes by ubiquitylating the proteins. Here, we show that co-expression of the ubiquitin-specific protease TRE17/USP6 counteracts the MARCH-dependent targeting of CIE cargo proteins, but not that of transferrin receptor, to lysoso...

  3. Research on characteristics of radiated noise of large cargo ship in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the shipping industry, the number of the world's ship is gradually increasing. The characteristics of the radiated noise of the ship are also of concern. Since the noise source characteristics of multichannel interference, the surface wave and the sea temperature microstructure and other reasons, the sound signal received in the time-frequency domain has varying characteristics. The signal of the radiated noise of the large cargo ship JOCHOH from horizontal hydrophone array in some shallow water of China is processed and analyzed in the summer of 2015, and the results show that a large cargo ship JOCHOH has a number of noise sources in the direction of the ship's bow and stern lines, such as host, auxiliary and propellers. The radiating sound waves generated by these sources do not meet the spherical wave law at lower frequency in the ocean, and its radiated noise has inherent spatial distribution, the variation characteristics of the radiated noise the large cargo ship in time and frequency domain are given. The research method and results are of particular importance.

  4. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S; Driessen, Wouter H P; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D'Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P; Stafford, R Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-16

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. These results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications.

  5. Structural Design and Analysis of Un-pressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Zoran N.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, NASA has defined a family of vehicles to support lunar exploration and International Space Station (ISS) re-supply missions after the Shuttle s retirement. The Un-pressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle (UCDV) has been envisioned to be an expendable logistics delivery vehicle that would be used to deliver external cargo to the ISS. It would be launched on the Crew Launch Vehicle and would replace the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The estimated cargo would be the weight of external logistics to the ISS. Determining the minimum weight design of the UCDV during conceptual design is the major issue addressed in this paper. This task was accomplished using a procedure for rapid weight estimation that was based on Finite Element Analysis and sizing of the vehicle by the use of commercially available codes. Three design concepts were analyzed and their respective weights were compared. The analytical structural weight was increased by a factor to account for structural elements that were not modeled. Significant reduction in weight of a composite design over metallic was achieved for similar panel concepts.

  6. Development of nanoparticles incorporating a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide for efficient release of cargos into cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Itakura

    Full Text Available In anti-cancer therapy mediated by a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system (DDS, overall efficacy depends on the release efficiency of cargos from the nanoparticles in the cancer cells as well as the specificity of delivery to tumor tissue. However, conventional liposome-based DDS have no mechanism for specifically releasing the encapsulated cargos inside the cancer cells. To overcome this barrier, we developed nanoparticles containing a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide (LMDP that can destabilize membranes by cleavage with intramembranous proteases on/in cancer cells. Calcein encapsulated in liposomes modified with LMDP (LMDP-lipo was effectively released in the presence of a membrane fraction containing an LMDP-cleavable protease. The release was inhibited by a protease inhibitor, suggesting that LMDP-lipo could effectively release its cargo into cells in response to a cancer-specific protease. Moreover, when LMDP-lipo contained fusogenic lipids, the release of cargo was accelerated, suggesting that the fusion of LMDP-lipo with cellular membranes was the initial step in the intracellular delivery. Time-lapse microscopic observations showed that the release of cargo from LMDP-lipo occurred immediately after association of LMDP-lipo with target cells. Consequently, LMDP-lipo could be a useful nanoparticle capable of effective release of cargos specifically into targeted cancer cells.

  7. Higher-order assemblies of oligomeric cargo receptor complexes form the membrane scaffold of the Cvt vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertipaglia, Chiara; Schneider, Sarah; Jakobi, Arjen J; Tarafder, Abul K; Bykov, Yury S; Picco, Andrea; Kukulski, Wanda; Kosinski, Jan; Hagen, Wim Jh; Ravichandran, Arvind C; Wilmanns, Matthias; Kaksonen, Marko; Briggs, John Ag; Sachse, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Selective autophagy is the mechanism by which large cargos are specifically sequestered for degradation. The structural details of cargo and receptor assembly giving rise to autophagic vesicles remain to be elucidated. We utilize the yeast cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a prototype of selective autophagy, together with a multi-scale analysis approach to study the molecular structure of Cvt vesicles. We report the oligomeric nature of the major Cvt cargo Ape1 with a combined 2.8 Å X-ray and negative stain EM structure, as well as the secondary cargo Ams1 with a 6.3 Å cryo-EM structure. We show that the major dodecameric cargo prApe1 exhibits a tendency to form higher-order chain structures that are broken upon interaction with the receptor Atg19 in vitro The stoichiometry of these cargo-receptor complexes is key to maintaining the size of the Cvt aggregate in vivo Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we further visualize key stages of Cvt vesicle biogenesis. Our findings suggest that Atg19 interaction limits Ape1 aggregate size while serving as a vehicle for vacuolar delivery of tetrameric Ams1.

  8. The effect of nanoparticle permeation on the bulk rheological properties of mucus from the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, M D; Van Rooij, L K; Chater, P I; Pereira de Sousa, I; Pearson, J P

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of delivering oral therapeutic peptides, proteins and nucleotides is often hindered by the protective mucus barrier that covers mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in nanocarriers is a potential strategy to protect the cargo but they still have to pass the mucus barrier. Decorating nanoparticles with proteolytic enzymes has been shown to increase the permeation through mucus. Here we investigate the effect of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (BRO), a proteolytic enzyme from pineapple stem, on the bulk rheology of mucus as well as non-decorated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Porcine intestinal mucus from the small intestine was incubated for 30min in the presence of PLGA nanoparticles or polyacrylic nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (PAA-BRO). The effect of nanoparticles on the rheological properties, weight of gel, released glycoprotein content from mucus as well as the viscosity of liquid removed was assessed. Treatment with nanoparticles decreased mucus gel strength with PAA-BRO reducing it the most. PAA-BRO nanoparticles resulted in the release of increased glycoprotein from the gel network whereas mucus remained a gel and exhibited a similar breakdown stress to control mucus. Therefore it would be possible to use bromelain to increase the permeability of nanoparticles through mucus without destroying the gel and leaving the underlying mucosa unprotected.

  9. 46 CFR 35.35-1 - Persons on duty-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safely clean cargo tanks; and (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in bulk and each cleaning of a cargo tank... classification of cargo carried, are on duty to safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or safely clean cargo tanks... to safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or safely clean cargo tanks. (e) The person in charge of...

  10. Materials for Bulk Acoustic Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebl, Hans-Peter

    2003-03-01

    Highly selective solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (BAW) band pass filters are suited for mobile and wireless systems in the GHz frequency range between 0.8 and 10 GHz. Electro-acoustic thin film BAW resonators are the building blocks these BAW filters. Piezoelectric materials used in these resonators include mainly AlN or ZnO which can be deposited by dedicated thin film sputter deposition techniques. Using these piezo-electric materials and using suited materials for the acoustic Bragg reflector, BAW resonators with high quality factors can be fabricated. The achievable filter bandwidth is approximately 4Alternatively, also ferroelectric thin films might be used to achieve higher coupling coefficient and thus filter bandwidth. BAW resonators and filters have been designed and fabricated on 6" Silicon and glass wafers. Results are presented for resonators and filters operating between 1.95 and 8 GHz. The talk will give an overview of the material aspects which are important for BAW devices. It will be shown that modeling of the resonator and filter response using 1D electro-acoustic simulation (1,2) which includes losses is essential to extract acoustic and electrical material parameters. (1) Solidly Mounted Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters for the Ghz Frequency Range, H.P. Loebl, C. Metzmacher , D.N.Peligrad , R. Mauczok , M. Klee , W. Brand , R.F. Milsom , P.Lok , F.van Straten , A. Tuinhout , J.W.Lobeek, IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002. (2) Combined Acoustic-Electromagnetic Simulation Of Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, R.F. Milsom, H-P. Löbl, D.N. Peligrad, J-W. Lobeek, A. Tuinhout, R. H. ten Dolle IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002.

  11. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  12. Binary Cu-Zr Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mei-Bo; ZHAO De-Qian; PAN Ming-Xiang; WANG Wei-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be produced up to 2 mm by a copper mould casting in Cux Zr1-x binary alloy with a wide glass forming composition range (45 < x < 60 at.%). We find that the formation mechanism for the binary Cu-Zr binary BMG-forming alloy is obviously different from that of the intensively studied multicomponent BMGs. Our results demonstrate that the criteria for the multicomponent alloys with composition near deep eutectic and strong liquid behaviour are no longer the major concern for designing BMGs.

  13. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  14. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from......%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all...

  15. Fabrication of Porous Bulk Metallic Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keqiang QIU; Yinglei REN

    2005-01-01

    An open-cell porous bulk metallic glass (BMG)with a diameter of at least 6 mm was fabricated by using an U-turn quartz tube and infiltration casting aroundsoluble NaCl placeholders. The pore formation and glassy structure were examined by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the pores or cells are connected to each other and the specimenis composed of a mostly glassy phase.This paper provides a suitable method for fabrication of porous BMG and BMG with larger size in diameter.

  16. Hubble Parameter in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Wahba, M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss influences of bulk viscosity on the Early Universe, which is modeled by Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is relativistic viscous characterized by ultra-relativistic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations. We obtain a set of complicated differential equations, for which we suggest approximate solutions for Hubble parameter $H$. We find that finite viscosity in Eckart and Israel-Stewart fluids would significantly modify our picture about the Early Universe.

  17. Production, Properties and Applications of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Akihisa Inoue

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of recent work concerned with the production method, the characteristic properties(1) Bulk amorphous system; (2) Mechanical and magnetic properties of bulkamorphous alloys; (3)application of bulk amorphous alloys.

  18. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  19. Characterization of bulk superconductors through EBSD methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka, M. R.; Koblischka-Veneva, A.

    2003-10-01

    The application of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to bulk high- Tc superconductors is presented and reviewed. Due to the ceramic nature and the complex crystallographic unit cells of the perovskite-type high- Tc superconductors, the EBSD analysis is not yet as common as it deserves. We have successfully performed EBSD analysis on a variety of high- Tc compounds and samples including polycrystalline YBCO (pure and doped by alkali metals), melt-textured YBCO, thin and thick films of YBCO; the “green phase” Y 2BaCuO 5, thin film and melt-textured NdBa 2Cu 3O x and Bi-2212 single crystals and tapes. It is shown that the surface preparation of the samples is crucial due to the small information depth (up to 100 nm) of the EBSD technique. High quality Kikuchi patterns are the requirement in order to enable the automated EBSD mapping, which yields phase distributions, individual grain orientations and the misorientation angle distribution. The results can be presented in form of mappings, as charts, and as pole figures. These informations are required for a better understanding of the growth mechanism(s) of bulk high- Tc superconductors intended for applications.

  20. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  1. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  2. Bulk nanocrystalline Al prepared by cryomilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline Al was fabricated by mechanically milling at cryogenic temperature (cryomilling) and then by hot pressing in vacuum. By using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the microstructure evolution of the material during cryomilling and consolidation was investigated. With increasing the milling time, the grain size decreased sharply and reduced to 42 nm when cryomilled for 12 h. The grains had grown up, and the columnar grain was formed under the hot pressing and extrusion compared with the cryomilled powders. The grain size of as-extruded specimen was approximately 300-500 nm. The reason of high thermal stability of this bulk was attributed primarily to the Zener pinning from the grain boundary of the AlN arising from cryomilling and the solute drag of the impurity. Tensile tests show that the strength of nanocrystalline Al is enhanced with decreasing grain size. The ultimate tensile strength and tensile elongation were 173 MPa and 17.5%, respectively. It appears that the measured high strength in the cryomilled Al is related to a grain-size effect, dispersion strengthening, and dislocation strengthening.

  3. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  4. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk delivery vehicles. 56.6802 Section 56.6802... § 56.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle until the vehicle has been washed down and all explosive material has been removed. Before welding...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk delivery vehicles. 57.6802 Section 57.6802...-Surface and Underground § 57.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle until the vehicle has been washed down and all explosive material has...

  7. Design and model selection for unit cargo handling system at air cargo terminal%航空货运站集装货处理系统设计选型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宝兴

    2012-01-01

    航空货运站是专门处理航空货物的地面设施.根据近年来国内航空货运发展的新趋势,分析了集装货处理系统设计选型阶段需重点考虑的问题,并对存储容量、堆垛机数量等关键参数的确定进行了较为深入的研究,为航空货运集装货处理系统的设计优化提供了思路.%The air cargo terminal is the ground-level facility to specifically handle air cargoes. Based on the new trend of domestic air cargo market in recent years, certain key necessary problems jegarding design and model selection of unit cargo handling system are analyzed, with further research on determination of key parameters such as storage capacity and quantity of stackers, etc. , which provides ideas for design optimization of unit cargo handling system.

  8. Technical issues of a high-Tc superconducting bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki

    2000-06-01

    Superconducting magnets made of high-Tc superconductors are promising for industrial applications. It is well known that REBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical current density, Jc, at 77 K and high magnetic fields. The materials are very promising for high magnetic field applications as a superconducting permanent/bulk magnet with liquid-nitrogen refrigeration. Light rare-earth (LRE) BaCuO bulks, compared with REBaCuO bulks, exhibit a larger Jc in high magnetic fields and a much improved irreversibility field, Hirr, at 77 K. In this study, we discuss technical issues of a high-Tc superconducting bulk magnet, namely the aspects of the melt processing for bulk superconductors, their characteristic superconducting properties and mechanical properties, and trapped field properties of a superconducting bulk magnet. One of the possible applications is a superconducting bulk magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train in the future.

  9. 14 CFR 399.41 - Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (GCR's and SCR's) in the Atlantic region, 20 percent above the standard foreign rate level. (2) For all bulk rates (GCR's and SCR's) in the Pacific region, 15 percent above the standard foreign rate level. (3) For all bulk rates (GCR's and SCR's) in the Western Hemisphere region (except Mexico and...

  10. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  11. Bulk heterojunction solar cells of three polythienothiophenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Alturk Parlak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting conjugated copolymers poly(3-phenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh, poly(3-(4-methoxyphenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh-OMe and poly(3-(4-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh-N(CH 3 2, which were synthesized previously through Suzuki coupling method, were fabricated for solar cell applications. The devices had a structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer:PC61BM/Al. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were prepared as blends of PTTPh, PTTPh-OMe, PTTPh-N(CH 3 2 and PC61BM in a 1:1 ratio, which delivered power conversion efficiencies of 0.43%, 0.039% and 0.027%, respectively, without addition of additives or device optimization.

  12. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  13. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  14. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...... the generic family of so-called nested structures. Such designs allow keeping the cubic symmetry of the unit cell along with the electric and magnetic responses showed by different parts in separate. For extraction of effective parameters we employ homemade wave propagation retrieving method free from...... ambiguity generic to the standard S-parameters retrieval method. Accurateness of the method is highlighted by a set of numerical checks. To fabricate smooth metal three-dimensional structures we develop an electroless chemical technique. We present the results of silver deposition on the surface of a 30...

  15. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, futhermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form.

  16. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  17. Organoboron polymers for photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Sebastiano; Fabiano, Simone; Ferrante, Francesco; Previti, Francesco; Patanè, Salvatore; Pignataro, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    We report on the application of three-coordinate organoboron polymers, inherently strong electron acceptors, in flexible photovoltaic (PV) cells. Poly[(1,4-divinylenephenylene)(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylborane)] (PDB) has been blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form a thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on PET/ITO substrates. Morphology may be modulated to give a high percentage of domains (10-20 nm in size) allowing exciton separation. The photoelectric properties of the BHJs in devices with aluminium back electrodes were imaged by light beam induced current (LBIC) and light beam induced voltage (LBIV) techniques. Open circuit voltages, short circuit currents and overall external quantum efficiencies obtained are among the highest reported for all-polymer PV cells.

  18. New optical technique for bulk magnetostriction measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Samata, H; Uchida, T; Abe, S

    2000-01-01

    A new optical technique was applied to the measurement of magnetostriction in bulk samples. This technique utilizes an optical fiber bundle, AC-modulated light and lock-in detection. Deformation of the sample is determined from the ratio of the incident and reflected light intensities. Noise due to the instability of the light source is eliminated by obtaining the ratio of the incident and reflected light intensities, and the noise caused in the detector circuit can be reduced by lock-in detection. The performance of this method was characterized with a series of measurements using a gold film and crystal disks of pure iron and nickel. This technique offers a resolution of 0.5 nm and is sensitive enough to measure magnetostriction as small as 5x10 sup - sup 7 in 1 mm thick samples.

  19. Bulk semiconducting scintillator device for radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael

    2016-08-30

    A bulk semiconducting scintillator device, including: a Li-containing semiconductor compound of general composition Li-III-VI.sub.2, wherein III is a Group III element and VI is a Group VI element; wherein the Li-containing semiconductor compound is used in one or more of a first mode and a second mode, wherein: in the first mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to an electrical circuit under bias operable for measuring electron-hole pairs in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of neutrons and the Li-containing semiconductor compound is also coupled to current detection electronics operable for detecting a corresponding current in the Li-containing semiconductor compound; and, in the second mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to a photodetector operable for detecting photons generated in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of the neutrons.

  20. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.