WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulk carbohydrate grain

  1. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR......) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration to the...

  2. Assimilation, partitioning, and nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet compared with grain sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in stems are greater for sweet than grain sorghums [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Knowledge of plant characteristics associated with high nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet sorghum will air efforts to increase nonstructural carbohydrates in grain sorghum stems. This study tested the hypothesis that variation of CO2 assimilation rate, leaf area, branching at upper nodes, and partitioning of 14C-labeled assimilate to main stems are associated with variation of stem nonstructural carbohydrates. A sweet (Atlas X Rio) and a grain (ATx623 X RTx5388) hybrid, stages near and after physiological maturity, and defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments provided sources of variation for study. Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in lower and upper stems of the sweet hybrid were 1.4 and 2.7 times higher, respectively, than for the grain hybrid, after physiological maturity. Variation in branching, including 14C-assimilate partitioning to branches, was not consistently associated with hybrid differences in stem nonstructural carbohydrates. Increased recovery (twofold) of 14C-assimilate in roots and labeled leaves corresponded with lower percentages of 14C-assimilate and lower concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems of the grain hybrid. Leaf areas and leaf CO2 exchange rate were twice as great for the sweet hybrid. Although defoliation of the sweet hybrid minimized leaf area differences between hybrids, the sweet hybrid accumulated twice as much nonstructural carbohydrates in branches after physiological maturity. Greater potentials for CO2 assimilation and for 14C-assimilate accumulation in mature stem tissue were associated with higher levels of stem nonstructural carbohydrates in the sweet compared with the grain hybrid

  3. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D; Svensson, Birte; Smith, Alison M; Field, Robert A

    2016-02-15

    Starch is a major energy store in plants. It provides most of the calories in the human diet and, as a bulk commodity, it is used across broad industry sectors. Starch synthesis and degradation are not fully understood, owing to challenging biochemistry at the liquid/solid interface and relatively limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate-active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se. PMID:26862201

  4. Local and bulk melting of Cu at grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC; An, Qi [USTC/CALTECH; Fu, Rong - Shan [USTC; Zheng, Lianqing [FSU

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gain boundary (GB) melting using molecular dynamics simulations on face-centered-cubic Cu bicrystals with symmetric {l_angle}110{r_angle} tilt grain boundaries. Two representative types of GBs are explored: {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o} (low GB energy) and {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41{sup o} (high GB energy). The temperature and temporal evolutions of the Cu bicrystals under stepped heating are characterized in terms of order parameters and diffusion coefficients, as ell as the nucleation and growth of melt. Within the GB region, continuous local melting precedes discontinuous bulk melting, while continuous solid state disordering may precede local melting. Premelting may occur for local melting but not for bulk melting. For {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o}, premelting of the GB region is negligible, and local melting occurs near the thermodynamic melting temperature. The GB region as a whole is superheated by about 13% before its bulk melting. In the case of {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41, considerable premelting is observed for local melting, while the bulk melting occurs with negligible superheating. The exact melting behavior of a general GB depends on the GB energy, but is likely bracketed within these two cases.

  5. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G.; Noyes, Ronald T.; Potapovych, Larysa P.

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  6. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girls Eating healthy at restaurants Special food issues Vegetarian eating Eating for strong bones Quiz: Food Facts Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates (say: kar-boh- ...

  7. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumrad NA, Nassi F, Marcus A. Digestion and absorption of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. ...

  8. Model calculations for evaluation of bulk- and grain boundary diffusion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model calculations are developed for evaluation of bulk- and grain boundary diffusion coefficients in polycrystalline media in the case of a semi-infinite diffusion source. The Matrix is assumed to be either quasi-homogeneous or to be composed of grain material and ''grain boundary-material''. Using Whipple's solution of the diffusion equation the flux of material from the grain boundaries into the grain is considered additionally. Examples are given to show the possibility to classify experimentally found diffusion profiles. (author)

  9. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is fine because they contain important vitamins and minerals. But your body rapidly digests the starch in white potatoes. This can raise your blood glucose level. Healthy carbohydrates include: Natural sugars in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products Dietary fiber Starches in whole- ...

  10. Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...

  11. Photosynthesis, Carbohydrate Storage and Remobilization During Grain Filling as Affected by Sulphur Application in Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; YU Zhen-wen; XU Zhen-zhu

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthesis and carbohydrate storage and remobilization was investigated during grain filling of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Lumai 22) in sulphur application experiments where the available sulphur (S) content in the soil of 0-20 cm soil layer was 5.84 mg kg-1. Two levels of S were applied as S0 (0 kg S ha-1) and S1 (67.5 kg S ha-1). The results showed that net photosynthetic rate of flag leaf of S1 treatment was significantly higher than S0 treatment, and it increased gradually from anthesis to 35 DAA. Sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose content of S1 treatment were significantly higher than those of S0 treatment. The contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, fructose, glucose, DP3 and DP ≥ 4fructan in stem and sheath of S1 treatment were significantly higher than those of S0 treatment also. The amount of total soluble sugar and fructans remobilization from stem and sheath and the starch accumulating rate in grain of S1 treatment was significantly higher than those of S0 treatment. It is suggested that sulphur application increase photosynthate remobilization from stem and sheath to grain at later filling stage.

  12. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases

    OpenAIRE

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K.; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M...

  13. Scratch-induced deformation in fine- and ultrafine-grained bulk alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanoscratch behavior of two bulk α-alumina samples with 1.3 μm and 290 nm average grain sizes, respectively, was investigated using a nanoindenter in scratch mode, in combination with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. A ductile to brittle transition was observed in the fine-grained sample, while the ultrafine-grained sample exhibited predominantly ductile deformation with a fish-bone feature indicative of a stick-slip mechanism. These findings suggest that grain refinement can increase the potential for plastic deformation in ceramics.

  14. Watching the growth of bulk grains during recrystallization of deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Fæster Nielsen, Søren; Gundlach, C.;

    2004-01-01

    We observed the in situ growth of a grain during recrystallization in the bulk of a deformed sample. We used the three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscope located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The results showed a very heterogeneous growth pattern......, contradicting the classical assumption of smooth and spherical growth of new grains during recrystallization. This type of in situ bulk measurement opens up the possibility of obtaining experimental data on scientific topics that before could only be analyzed theoretically on the basis of the statistical...

  15. Carbohydrates accumulation and remobilization in wheat plants as influenced by combined waterlogging and shading stress during grain filling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Cai, J.; Jiang, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Wheat plants were subjected to combined waterlogging and shading stress (WS) at 0–7, 8–15, 16–23 and 24–31 days after anthesis (DAA), respectively. Compared to the non-stressed plants, WS significantly decreased the final grain yield. Grain number was dramatically lowered by WS imposed at 0–7 DAA......-fructosyltransferse. The results indicate that post-anthesis WS stimulated carbohydrate reserves remobilization by modifying the activities of the fructans-catalysing enzymes in the stem...

  16. Optimum processing conditions for the fabrication of large, single grain Ag-doped YBCO bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pseudo Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram has been constructed for the optimum melt processing conditions for the fabrication of large, single grain Ag-doped Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO/Ag) bulk superconductors. The thermal conditions for the formation of homogeneous nuclei have been investigated and the boundary between this region and that for no grain nucleation has been mapped as a function of holding time. YBCO/Ag bulk samples grow typically in the form of single grains when the processing temperature profile lies within the 'no nucleation' region of the pseudo TTT diagram. However, by studying the YBCO/Ag growth process, some samples have been grown in the form of single grains by employing a temperature profile within the homogeneous grain nucleation region of the phase diagram. Such growth may be achieved when the YBCO/Ag phase constitutes the majority of the volume of the pellet before the growth temperature reaches that at the nucleation boundary. A large, single YBCO/Ag grain of diameter 30 mm has been fabricated successfully based on these studies by both cold-seeding and seeded infiltration growth techniques

  17. Recrystallization kinetics of individual bulk grains in 90% cold-rolled aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recrystallization kinetics of a 90% cold-rolled commercial aluminium alloy AA1050 annealed at 270 deg. C has been investigated by use of 3-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy. For the first time growth curves of a large number of individual bulk grains have been measured in situ during recrystallization providing unique information on the nucleation and growth behaviour of the individual grains. From observations of 244 individual growth curves, it is found that each grain has its own growth kinetics. The orientation dependencies of the recrystallization kinetics are investigated by grouping the measured growth curves into cube, rolling and other orientation classes. Based on analysis of the growth curves, distributions of nucleation time, grain size and growth rate has been derived, and are used for a discussion of the recrystallization kinetics of aluminium AA1050

  18. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions. PMID:25964711

  19. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGE OF CAIRO-DAMIETTA SELF-PROPELLED GRAIN BULK SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global logistics center for the storage and handling of grain which will be constructed at Damietta port will extremely increase the annual movement of grain through Cairo-Damietta waterway. Therefore, the demand for inland grain bulk ships has increased significantly in the recent years. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the fleet size and optimum characteristics of self-propelled grain bulk ships working between Cairo and Damietta through River Nile. The characteristics of the Cairo–Damietta waterway are investigated to define the constraints on dimensions and speed for such ship type. Also, mathematical model for the objective function was developed considering: powering, voyage, weight, stability and cost calculation. In this research, Specific cost (Sc, cost of transporting one ton of cargo a distance of one kilometre, is considered as the objective function for this optimization process. This optimization problem is handled as a single objective nonlinear constrained optimization problem using a specially developed computer program. Solutions are generated by varying design variables systematically in certain steps. The best of these solutions is then taken as the estimated optimum. Finally, the problem is presented, the main constrains analyzed and the optimum solution shown.

  20. Properties of grain boundaries in bulk, melt processed Y–Ba–Cu–O fabricated using bridge-shaped seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single grain RE–Ba–Cu–O ((RE)BCO, where RE is a rare earth element or yttrium) bulk superconducting materials have significant potential for a variety of engineering applications due to their ability to trap high magnetic fields. However, it is well known that the presence of grain boundaries coupled with a high angle of misorientation (typically 5°) significantly reduces the critical current density, Jc, in all forms of high temperature superconducting materials. It is of considerable fundamental and technological interest, therefore, to investigate the grain boundary properties of bulk, film and tape (RE)BCO. We report a successful multi-seeding technique for the fabrication of fully aligned, artificial (0° misalignment) grain boundaries within large grain YBCO bulk superconductors using bridge-shaped seeds. The microstructure and critical current densities of the grain boundaries produced by this technique have been studied in detail. (paper)

  1. Microbial degradation of whole-grain complex carbohydrates and impact on short-chain fatty acids and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    polyphenolic ether lignin. The highest concentration of NSPs and lignin is found in the outer cell layers of the grain, and refined flour will consequently be depleted of a large proportion of insoluble DF components. The flow and composition of carbohydrates to the large intestine are directly related to the...... intake of DF. The type and composition of cereal DF can consequently be used to modulate the microbial composition and activity as well as the production and molar ratios of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Arabinoxylans and β-glucan in whole-grain cereals and cereal ingredients have been shown to...... augment SCFA production, with the strongest relative effect on butyrate. When arabinoxylans were provided as a concentrate, the effect was only on total SCFA production. Increased SCFA production in the large intestine was shown by the concentration in the portal vein, whereas the impact on the...

  2. Large transport current density in bulk oriented-grained 123/Ag composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on ceramic high temperature superconductors (HTS) that are inherently inferior in their mechanical properties. Addition of silver in bulk HTS has been shown to improve their mechanical properties. However, these HTS/Ag composites possess low transport critical current density typical of polycrystalline HTS. This paper deals with the development of a liquid-phase processing method that results in oriented-grained 123/Ag composites with large current carrying capability and enhanced mechanical properties. In this method, composites of 123 superconductor with up to 25 wt.% Ag addition are subjected to liquid-phase processing in air. Oriented-grained samples up to 10 mm long are obtained with Ag particles dispersed throughout the composites. Measurements on these oriented-grained samples using continuous direct current at 77K and zero applied magnetic field routinely give a transport critical current density in excess of 15,000 A/cm2. Magnetization measurements, however, show a Jc of 30,000 A/cm2 at 2 tesla. These results along with improved mechanical properties make these composites promising for bulk superconductivity applications. This work is supported by DARPA and the state of Texas

  3. Producing Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation: Ten Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiev, Ruslan Z.; Estrin, Yuri; Horita, Zenji; Langdon, Terence G.; Zehetbauer, Michael J.; Zhu, Yuntian

    2016-04-01

    It is now well established that the processing of bulk solids through the application of severe plastic deformation (SPD) leads to exceptional grain refinement to the submicrometer or nanometer level. Extensive research over the last decade has demonstrated that SPD processing also produces unusual phase transformations and leads to the introduction of a range of nanostructural features, including nonequilibrium grain boundaries, deformation twins, dislocation substructures, vacancy agglomerates, and solute segregation and clustering. These many structural changes provide new opportunities for fine tuning the characteristics of SPD metals to attain major improvements in their physical, mechanical, chemical, and functional properties. This review provides a summary of some of these recent developments. Special emphasis is placed on the use of SPD processing in achieving increased electrical conductivity, superconductivity, and thermoelectricity, an improved hydrogen storage capability, materials for use in biomedical applications, and the fabrication of high-strength metal-matrix nanocomposites.

  4. High thermoelectric performance of niobium-doped strontium titanate bulk material affected by all-scale grain boundary and inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large thermal conductivity of SrTiO3 bulk material limits its potential application for high-temperature thermoelectricity. The effects of all-scale grain boundaries and inclusions on the thermoelectric performance of Nb-doped bulk SrTiO3 materials are investigated in this study. Nano- to microscale grain boundaries and inclusions reduce the thermal conductivity by 30%. As a result, the ZT value is enhanced 2.6 times by a combination of all-sized crystals, energy filtering effect, multilevel scattering behaviors of nano/microscale grain boundaries and inclusions

  5. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  6. Effects of oxide coating on the growth of single grain YBCO bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface oxide coating and bottom inserting of oxide plates have been conducted to top seeded melt growth (TSMG) processed YBa2Cu3O7-y (Y123) bulk superconductors with an aim of controlling the Y123 nucleation and growth. The coating medium for surfaces was Yb2O3 solution and the bottom inserts were Yb2O3/Y2O3 powder compact. Many vertical cracks were found to develop at the compact/insert interfaces when an Yb2O3 insert was used, but the crack evolution was greatly reduced when a (Yb2O3 + Y2O3) insert was used. The formation of the vertical cracks is ascribed to the difference in thermal expansion between the YBCO compact and bottom insert. Presence of vertical cracks was found to be crucial to the trapped magnetic field and levitation forces of single grain YBCO bulk superconductors. The Y123 nucleation and growth in TSMG-processed YBCO bulk superconductors were successfully controlled by conducting surface coating and bottom plating using a (Yb2O3 + Y2O3) insert and as a result, the levitation properties were much enhanced.

  7. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.;

    2016-01-01

    -active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying...

  8. Grain size effect on electrical resistivity of bulk nanograined Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Oleg, E-mail: olniv@mail.ru; Maradudina, Oxana; Lyubushkin, Roman

    2015-01-15

    The bulk nanograined Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} material with various mean grain sizes changing from ~ 97 nm to ~ 51 nm was prepared by microwave assisted solvothermal method and hot pseudo-isostatic pressure. It was found that the specific electrical resistivity of the material increases as mean grain size decreases. Such kind of the grain effect on the resistivity can be attributed to enhanced electron scattering at the grain boundaries. The Mayadas–Shatzkes model was applied to explain experimental results. In this model the grain boundaries are regarded as potential barriers which have to be overcome by the electrons. The reflectivity R of the grain boundaries for the material under study was estimated to be equal to ~ 0.7. - Highlights: • The bulk nanograined Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} material with various mean grain sizes was prepared. • It was found that the electrical resistivity of the material increases as grain size decreases. • The Mayadas–Shatzkes model was applied to explain experimental results. • The reflectivity R of the grain boundaries was estimated to be equal to ~ 0.7.

  9. Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Canchaya, José G.; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve.

  10. Microbial degradation of whole-grain complex carbohydrates and impact on short-chain fatty acids and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2015-03-01

    Whole-grain cereals have a complex dietary fiber (DF) composition consisting of oligosaccharides (mostly fructans), resistant starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs); the most important are arabinoxylans, mixed-linkage β(1,3; 1,4)-d-glucan (β-glucan), and cellulose and the noncarbohydrate polyphenolic ether lignin. The highest concentration of NSPs and lignin is found in the outer cell layers of the grain, and refined flour will consequently be depleted of a large proportion of insoluble DF components. The flow and composition of carbohydrates to the large intestine are directly related to the intake of DF. The type and composition of cereal DF can consequently be used to modulate the microbial composition and activity as well as the production and molar ratios of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Arabinoxylans and β-glucan in whole-grain cereals and cereal ingredients have been shown to augment SCFA production, with the strongest relative effect on butyrate. When arabinoxylans were provided as a concentrate, the effect was only on total SCFA production. Increased SCFA production in the large intestine was shown by the concentration in the portal vein, whereas the impact on the concentration in peripheral blood was less because the majority of propionate and butyrate is cleared in the liver. Active microbial fermentation with increased SCFA production reduced the exposure of potentially toxic compounds to the epithelium, potentially stimulating anorectic hormones and acting as signaling molecules between the gut and the peripheral tissues. The latter can have implications for insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25770259

  11. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;

    2012-01-01

    -anthesis only (HC), heat at post-anthesis only (CH), and heat stress at both stages (HH). Post-anthesis heat stress decreased grain starch content, reduced the content of fructans and depressed activities of related synthesis enzymes of sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase and fructan......The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre......, led to less changed starch content and starch granule size distribution in grains of wheat under post-anthesis heat stress....

  12. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients. PMID:21605774

  13. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was...... determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  14. The effect of oxide particles on the strength and ductility of bulk iron with a bimodal grain size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, C.; Tejedor, R. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rodríguez-baracaldo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. Colombia (Colombia); Benito, J.A., E-mail: Josep.a.benito@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    The strength and ductility of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron containing 0.39% oxygen by weight was determined by tensile tests. Samples were obtained by consolidation of milled iron powder at 500 °C. Heat treatments were designed to cover a wide range of grain sizes spanning from 100 to 2000 nm with different percentages of coarse and nanostructured grain areas, which was defined as a bimodal grain size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the diameter, volume fraction and location of oxides in the microstructure. The strength was analysed following two approaches. The first one was based on the strong effect of oxides and involved the use of a mixed particle-grain boundary strengthening model, and the second one was based on simple grain boundary strengthening. The mixed model underestimated the strength of nanostructured samples, whereas the simple grain boundary model worked better. However, for specimens with a bimodal grain size, the fitting of the mixed model was better. In this case, the more effective particle strengthening was related to the dispersion of oxides inside the large ferrite grains. In addition, the bimodal samples showed an acceptable combination of strength and ductility. Again, the ferrite grains containing oxides promoted strain hardening due to the increase in dislocation activity.

  15. The effect of oxide particles on the strength and ductility of bulk iron with a bimodal grain size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength and ductility of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron containing 0.39% oxygen by weight was determined by tensile tests. Samples were obtained by consolidation of milled iron powder at 500 °C. Heat treatments were designed to cover a wide range of grain sizes spanning from 100 to 2000 nm with different percentages of coarse and nanostructured grain areas, which was defined as a bimodal grain size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the diameter, volume fraction and location of oxides in the microstructure. The strength was analysed following two approaches. The first one was based on the strong effect of oxides and involved the use of a mixed particle-grain boundary strengthening model, and the second one was based on simple grain boundary strengthening. The mixed model underestimated the strength of nanostructured samples, whereas the simple grain boundary model worked better. However, for specimens with a bimodal grain size, the fitting of the mixed model was better. In this case, the more effective particle strengthening was related to the dispersion of oxides inside the large ferrite grains. In addition, the bimodal samples showed an acceptable combination of strength and ductility. Again, the ferrite grains containing oxides promoted strain hardening due to the increase in dislocation activity

  16. Influence of thermal barrier effect of grain boundaries on bulk cascades in alpha-zirconium revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanan; Lai, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    The effect of grain boundaries (GBs) on bulk cascades in nano-structured alpha-zirconium has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It turns out that the existence of GBs increases the defect productivity in grains, suggesting that the GBs may act as a thermal barrier and postpone the annihilation of defects within grains. Moreover, it is found that the thermal barrier effect of GBs facilitates the shift of symmetric tilt GBs to the grain with higher temperature, and the smaller the tilt angle is, the easier the boundary shift will be. Thus, the influence of GBs on radiation damage in the nano-structured materials comes from the competition between damage increase in grains and defect annihilation at GBs.

  17. Microstructures, mechanical behavior, cellular response, and hemocompatibility of bulk ultrafine-grained pure tantalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, F L; Zheng, Y F; Wang, Y; Wang, J T

    2014-02-01

    Bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG) pure Ta had been successfully prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique till eight passes. The 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 8th ECAPed Ta samples were investigated in the current study, with the 0th ECAPed Ta sample as the microcrystalline counterpart control. The microstructure and grain size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffractometer patterns, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis by means of histogram. Although the mechanical behavior of all the experimental samples were analyzed through uniaxial tensile measurement and microhardness test, in vitro biological interactions onto the substrates such as protein adsorption, cellular responses derived from different types of cell lines, and the activity of erythrocyte and platelets were further evaluated and specifically assessed by bicinchoninic acid assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the method of colorimetric reading. A superior percentage of protein adsorption can be observed on the substrate of the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta (around 90%), even above those on the tissue culture plate (control) and the other ECAPed Ta samples. Furthermore, the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta shows no cytotoxic within 4 days culture when incubated with the murine fibroblast cell lines (L929). In addition, a priority order in the growth of endothelial cells (ECV304) other than vascular smooth muscle cells was observed in the case of the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta. In terms of hemolysis rate and adhered platelets (both the amount and the individual morphology), an evolutionary outcome of preferentially enhanced hemocompatibility can be concluded for the case of the UFG 8th ECAPed Ta. PMID:23908098

  18. Formation of multiple stoichiometric phases in binary systems by combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion: Experiments and model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.; Schillinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2013), s. 32-39. ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/1784 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Bulk diffusion * Thermodynamic modeling * Intermetallic phases * Grain-boundary diffusion Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.940, year: 2013

  19. Grain opacity and the bulk composition of extrasolar planets. II. An analytical model for the grain opacity in protoplanetary atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, C

    2014-01-01

    Context. We investigate the grain opacity k_gr in the atmosphere of protoplanets. This is important for the planetary mass-radius relation since k_gr affects the H/He envelope mass of low-mass planets and the critical core mass of giant planets. Aims. The goal of this study is to derive an analytical model for k_gr. Methods. Our model is based on the comparison of the timescales of microphysical processes like grain settling in the Stokes and Epstein regime, growth by Brownian motion coagulation and differential settling, grain evaporation, and grain advection due to envelope contraction. With these timescales we derive the grain size, abundance, and opacity. Results. We find that the main growth process is differential settling. In this regime, k_gr has a simple functional form and is given as 27 Q/8 H rho in the Epstein regime and as 2 Q/H rho for Stokes drag. Grain dynamics lead to a typical radial structure of k_gr with high ISM-like values in the top layers but a strong decrease in the deeper parts where...

  20. Deformation-induced orientation spread in individual bulk grains of an interstitial-free steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Wright, J.P.; Beaudoin, A.;

    2015-01-01

    axes near <522> were identified. Their rotation paths and intragranular orientation spread were analysed in detail, using crystal plasticity modelling to evaluate the nature of the orientation spread. It was found that the same set of most stressed slip systems are active in the three grains and that...... variations in the relative activities of the two most stressed systems account for the dominant orientation spread in the grains. The distribution of slip on these systems varies from grain to grain and also within each grain. While the grain orientation controls the identity of these slip systems, the...

  1. Nanoscale cracks at deformation twins stopped by grain boundaries in bulk and thin-film materials with nanocrystalline and ultrafine-grained structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale fracture processes initiated at intersections of deformation twins and grain boundaries (GBs) in nanocrystalline and ultrafine-grained materials are theoretically described. Within the suggested description scheme, nanocracks are formed at GBs at which deformation twins are stopped and thereby produce specific GB defect configurations that create high local stresses initiating nanocracks. The conditions for realization of this new fracture mode in nanocrystalline and ultrafine-grained materials with face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic crystal lattices are calculated. The free-surface effect on crack generation at deformation twins stopped by GBs in thin-film nanocrystalline specimens is theoretically described. The critical parameters for crack generation in nanocrystalline and ultrafine-grained bulk materials and thin films are revealed. It is shown that in bulk nanomaterials nanocracks are generated at twin thicknesses of several nanometres and grow very fast with increasing twin thickness. At the same time, in thin-film nanomaterials, the equilibrium nanocrack lengths significantly decrease if the distance between the twin lamella and the closest film surface does not exceed several twin thicknesses. (paper)

  2. The use of buffer pellets to pseudo hot seed (RE)-Ba-Cu-O-(Ag) single grain bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunhua; Namburi, Devendra Kumar; Zhao, Wen; Durrell, John H.; Dennis, Anthony R.; Cardwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable seeding of the superconducting (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-δ (RE-123) phase is a critical step in the melt growth of large, single grain, (RE)BaCuO ((RE)BCO) bulk superconductors. Recent improvements to the top seeded melt growth (TSMG) processing technique, which is an established method of fabricating bulk (RE)BCO superconductors, based on the use of a buffer layer between the seed and green body preform, has significantly improved the reliability of the single grain growth process. This technique has been used successfully for the primary TSMG and infiltration melt growth of all compositions within the ((RE)BCO-Ag) family of materials (where RE = Sm, Gd and Y), and in recycling processes. However, the mechanism behind the improved reliability of the melt process is not understood fully and its effect on the superconducting properties of the fully processed single grains is not clear. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the use of a buffer pellet between the seed and green body on the microstructure, critical current, critical temperature and trapped field of the bulk superconductor. We conclude that the introduction of the buffer pellet evolves the melt growth process towards that observed in the technologically challenging hot seeding technique, but has the potential to yield high quality single grain samples but by a commercially viable melt process.

  3. Grain Size Effect on Electrical Conductivity and Giant Magnetoresistance of Bulk Magnetic Polycrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei; ZHU Lin-Li; ZHENG Xiao-Jing

    2009-01-01

    By solving the Boltzmann transport equation and considering the spin-dependent grain boundary scattering, the distribution of electrons in grains and the electrical transport properties in the applied magnetic field are studied. With regard to the dominant influence of grain boundary scattering which is taken as a boundary condi-tion for the electrical transport, the grain size-dependent electrical conductivity is investigated. In addition, the reorientation of the relative magnetization between grains brings the change of the electron spin when the magne-tonanocrystalline material is subjected to the magnetic field, resulting in the remarkable giant magnetoresistance effect.

  4. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  5. In-situ measurement of annealing kinetics of individual bulk grains in nanostructured aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    G.L Wu; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) was used to characterise the coarsening and growth of bulk crystallites in very heavily deformed aluminium in-situ during isothermal annealing. It was found that initially during the annealing, coarsening by recovery dominates. Later recrystallisation starts and, by fast growth of recrystallisation nuclei, some very big grains evolve. This occurs simultaneously with recovery coarsening of other parts of the microstructure. Consequent...

  6. Lattice rotations of individual bulk grains. Part 1: 3D X-ray characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.F.; Margulies, L.; Schmidt, S.;

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray diffraction has been applied to characterise the plastic deformation of individualgrains deeply embedded in a 99.6% pure aluminium specimen. The specimen is 4 mm thick with an average grain size of 75 μm. The average latticerotation for each grain as well as the degree of...

  7. Ruggedness of 2D code printed on grain tracers for implementing a prospective grain traceability system to the bulk grain delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food-grade tracers were printed with two-dimensional Data Matrix (DM) barcode so that they could carry simulated identifying information about grain as part of a prospective traceability system. The key factor in evaluating the tracers was their ability to be read with a code scanner after being rem...

  8. Effect of ball milling time on nanocrystalline powders and bulk ultrafine-grained Mg-3Al-Zn alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk ultrafine-grained Mg-3Al-Zn alloy has been made of elemental powders by mechanical milling, vacuum hot pressing and warm extrusion sequentially. As the only variable, ball milling time was 20 h, 40 h, 60 h and 80 h, respectively. Microstructural studies and mechanical strength were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM and tensile tests. At 60 h, the particle size of the milled powders decreased to 10 μm. With extension of time, the grain sizes of nanocrystalline powders were 41, 39.5, 38.5 and 38 nm. Under the same hot pressing and extrusion conditions, the grain sizes of extruded materials were 600, 565, 555 and 550 nm, respectively. The results of tensile tests showed that increasing milling time under 60 h improved the strength of the extruded alloys, however, reduced the ductility due to lower relative density and more defects. This also indicated that better ductility with high strength should be obtained if densification process was further improved. Meanwhile, the high ultimate strength of 419 MPa results from oxide dispersion strengthening and dislocation strengthening besides grain refinement strengthening.

  9. In-situ measurement of annealing kinetics of individual bulk grains in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) was used to characterise the coarsening and growth of bulk crystallites in very heavily deformed aluminium in-situ during isothermal annealing. It was found that initially during the annealing, coarsening by recovery dominates. Later...... that end up being very large by fast recrystallisation growth) do not have an initial size advantage compared to those coarsening much slower by recovery. Kinetics curves for these two categories of grains are determined. Data of this type are considered very important for understanding the thermal...

  10. The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a field study with six winter wheat genotypes losses of dry matter from the stems between 30 June and maturity averaged 172 g m-2 (range 82 to 256), there being significant differences in loss between genotypes. Respiration from the stems during the same period was estimated to amount to 106 g m-2 (range 104 to 225). The amount of dry matter mobilized from the stems, calculated by difference, was estimated as 66 g m-2. The loss of ethanol- and water-soluble carbohydrate from the stems (170 g m-2; range 124 to 215) was very similar to the dry weight loss. Carbon-14 labelling was used to trace the time course and the amount of the movement of assimilates from the vegetative organs to the grain. Only 14.3 per cent (range 10.3 to 21.0) of the products of photosynthesis over the period 21 May to 20 June were relocated to the grains. This relocation amounted to an average of 7 per cent (range 5.7 to 11.4) of the final grain weight. It was estimated that during the 18 days following anthesis on 20 June photosynthesis contributed 48 per cent (range 39 to 55) of the final grain dry weight. Of this, about half was translocated to the grain within 10 days of initial assimilation. The remainder appeared to be stored temporarily in the stems and leaves and translocated to the grains during the period 17 to 29 July. In general, relocation of dry matter from the vegetative organs to the grains, assessed by carbon-14 labelling, was greatest in those genotypes (Hobbit and Sportsman) which lost most dry weight from the stems and leaves. (author)

  11. Large Tc depression at low angle [100] tilt grain boundaries in bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ bicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large depression of Tc at 7 degree [100] tilt grain boundaries was observed in bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) bicrystals by measuring the zero-field electrical transport properties of the grain boundaries and the constituent single crystals over an extended range of currents and voltages. The Tc-depressed region was determined to be around 20 nm, comparable to the width of the strain field associated with the observed array of grain-boundary dislocations. Superconducting coupling of the grain boundaries increases sharply as temperature decreases below the grain-boundary Tc congruent 68 K. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Magnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor–soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Large grain, bulk YBaCuO superconductor (SC) combined with ferromagnetic elements. • The flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet in the remanent state. • The trapped field in the SC is enhanced by the presence of the ferromagnet. • The effects of the SC and the ferromagnet add when the ferromagnet is saturated. - Abstract: Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the

  13. Magnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor–soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, M.P., E-mail: M.Philippe@ulg.ac.be [SUPRATECS and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (B28), University of Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Fagnard, J.-F.; Kirsch, S. [SUPRATECS and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (B28), University of Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Xu, Z.; Dennis, A.R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D.A. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P. [SUPRATECS and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (B28), University of Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Large grain, bulk YBaCuO superconductor (SC) combined with ferromagnetic elements. • The flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet in the remanent state. • The trapped field in the SC is enhanced by the presence of the ferromagnet. • The effects of the SC and the ferromagnet add when the ferromagnet is saturated. - Abstract: Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the

  14. Favorable alleles for stem water-soluble carbohydrates identified by association analysis contribute to grain weight under drought stress conditions in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  15. Anisotropic grain connectivity in shock consolidated MgB2 bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ohashi, Wataru; Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Takano, Yoshihiko; Atou, Toshiyuki; Fukuoka, Kiyoto; Kikuchi, Masae; Kawasaki, Masashi; Kakimoto, Etsuji; Dohke, Kiyotaka

    2004-06-01

    We consolidated commercial MgB2 powders by two different shock consolidation methods: the single-stage propellant gun method and the underwater shock consolidation method. The samples prepared had anisotropic resistance-temperature features; the narrowest resistive transition width was observed along the directions of shock loading. In contrast, onset temperatures were independent of the directions and methods. No grain orientation previously observed would have resulted from the consolidation processes with a very short duration of {\\sim } 1~\\micmu {\\mathrm {s}} . The samples showed higher diamagnetism than a cold isostatic pressed (CIPed) sample at a low field of 1 Oe. However, their diamagnetism relatively degraded with increasing fields and eventually became much less than even that of the CIPed sample. This is due possibly to thick, much distorted grain boundaries that would have behaved as weak links at high fields.

  16. Anisotropic grain connectivity in shock consolidated MgB2 bulk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consolidated commercial MgB2 powders by two different shock consolidation methods: the single-stage propellant gun method and the underwater shock consolidation method. The samples prepared had anisotropic resistance-temperature features; the narrowest resistive transition width was observed along the directions of shock loading. In contrast, onset temperatures were independent of the directions and methods. No grain orientation previously observed would have resulted from the consolidation processes with a very short duration of ∼1 μs. The samples showed higher diamagnetism than a cold isostatic pressed (CIPed) sample at a low field of 1 Oe. However, their diamagnetism relatively degraded with increasing fields and eventually became much less than even that of the CIPed sample. This is due possibly to thick, much distorted grain boundaries that would have behaved as weak links at high fields

  17. Investigation of the bulk modulus of silica aerogel using molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Rangel, Carlos A; Gelb, Lev D

    2013-06-13

    Structural and mechanical properties of silica aerogels are studied using a flexible coarse-grained model and a variety of simulation techniques. The model, introduced in a previous study (J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 15792-15802), consists of spherical "primary" gel particles that interact through weak nonbonded forces and through microscopically motivated interparticle bonds that may break and form during the simulations. Aerogel models are prepared using a three-stage protocol consisting of separate simulations of gelation, aging, and a final relaxation during which no further bond formation is permitted. Models of varying particle size, density, and size dispersity are considered. These are characterized in terms of fractal dimensions and pore size distributions, and generally good agreement with experimental data is obtained for these metrics. The bulk moduli of these materials are studied in detail. Two different techniques for obtaining the bulk modulus are considered, fluctuation analysis and direct compression/expansion simulations. We find that the fluctuation result can be subject to systematic error due to coupling with the simulation barostat but, if performed carefully, yields results equivalent with those of compression/expansion experiments. The dependence of the bulk modulus on density follows a power law with an exponent between 3.00 and 3.15, in agreement with reported experimental results. The best correlate for the bulk modulus appears to be the volumetric bond density, on which there is also a power law dependence. Polydisperse models exhibit lower bulk moduli than comparable monodisperse models, which is due to lower bond densities in the polydisperse materials. PMID:23631801

  18. Explanation of low critical currents in flat, bulk versus meandering, thin-film [001] tilt bicrystal grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-film and bulk [001] tilt, bicrystal grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7 exhibit a strong dependence of critical current density on misorientation angle. What is particularly difficult to understand is its thirty times lower magnitude in bulk grain boundaries which are microscopically more perfect, i.e., flatter, minimally faceted, and free of impurity phases. A plausible explanation, based on differences of the pinning of Josephson vortices in these grain boundary types, is proposed here. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Microbial Degradation of Whole-Grain Complex Carbohydrates and Impact on Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Health1234

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    Whole-grain cereals have a complex dietary fiber (DF) composition consisting of oligosaccharides (mostly fructans), resistant starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs); the most important are arabinoxylans, mixed-linkage β(1,3; 1,4)-d-glucan (β-glucan), and cellulose and the noncarbohydrate polyphenolic ether lignin. The highest concentration of NSPs and lignin is found in the outer cell layers of the grain, and refined flour will consequently be depleted of a large proportion of insoluble...

  20. Thermally actuated magnetization flux pump in single-grain YBCO bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Yu; Li Quan; Coombs, T A, E-mail: yy300@cam.ac.u, E-mail: ql229@cam.ac.u, E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity Group, Electrical Engineering Department, Cambridge University, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Recent progress in material processing has proved that high temperature superconductors (HTS) have a great potential to trap large magnetic fields at cryogenic temperatures. For example, HTS are widely used in MRI scanners and in magnetic bearings. However, using traditional ways to magnetize, the YBCO will always need the applied field to be as high as the expected field on the superconductor or much higher than it, leading to a much higher cost than that of using permanent magnets. In this paper, we find a method of YBCO magnetization in liquid nitrogen that only requires the applied field to be at the level of a permanent magnet. Moreover, rather than applying a pulsed high current field on the YBCO, we use a thermally actuated material (gadolinium) as an intermedia and create a travelling magnetic field through it by changing the partial temperature so that the partial permeability is changed to build up the magnetization of the YBCO gradually after multiple pumps. The gadolinium bulk is located between the YBCO and the permanent magnet and is heated and cooled repeatedly from the outer surface to generate a travelling thermal wave inwards. In the subsequent experiment, an obvious accumulation of the flux density is detected on the surface of the YBCO bulk.

  1. Thermally actuated magnetization flux pump in single-grain YBCO bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in material processing has proved that high temperature superconductors (HTS) have a great potential to trap large magnetic fields at cryogenic temperatures. For example, HTS are widely used in MRI scanners and in magnetic bearings. However, using traditional ways to magnetize, the YBCO will always need the applied field to be as high as the expected field on the superconductor or much higher than it, leading to a much higher cost than that of using permanent magnets. In this paper, we find a method of YBCO magnetization in liquid nitrogen that only requires the applied field to be at the level of a permanent magnet. Moreover, rather than applying a pulsed high current field on the YBCO, we use a thermally actuated material (gadolinium) as an intermedia and create a travelling magnetic field through it by changing the partial temperature so that the partial permeability is changed to build up the magnetization of the YBCO gradually after multiple pumps. The gadolinium bulk is located between the YBCO and the permanent magnet and is heated and cooled repeatedly from the outer surface to generate a travelling thermal wave inwards. In the subsequent experiment, an obvious accumulation of the flux density is detected on the surface of the YBCO bulk.

  2. Engineering α-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development

    OpenAIRE

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of sol...

  3. A multiscale coarse-grained polarizable solvent model for handling long tail bulk electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Michel; Borgis, Daniel; Cuniasse, Philippe

    2013-05-15

    A multiscale coarse-grained approach able to handle efficiently the solvation of microscopic solutes in extended chemical environment is described. That approach is able to compute readily and efficiently very long-range solute/solvent electrostatic microscopic interactions, up to the 1-μm scale, by considering a reduced amount of computational resources. All the required parameters are assigned to reproduce available data concerning the solvation of single ions. Such a strategy makes it possible to reproduce with good accuracy the solvation properties concerning simple ion pairs in solution (in particular, the asymptotic behavior of the ion pair potentials of mean force). This new method represents an extension of the polarizable pseudoparticle solvent model, which has been recently improved to account for the main features of hydrophobic effects in liquid water (Masella et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 2664). This multiscale approach is well suited to be used for computing the impact of charge changes in free energy computations, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. PMID:23382002

  4. Manufacturing Ultrafine-Grained Ti-6Al-4V Bulk Rod Using Multi-Pass Caliber-Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine-grained (UFG Ti-6Al-4V alloy has attracted attention from the various industries due to its good mechanical properties. Although severe plastic deformation (SPD processes can produce such a material, its dimension is generally limited to laboratory scale. The present work utilized the multi-pass caliber-rolling process to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V bulk rod with the equiaxed UFG microstructure. The manufactured alloy mainly consisted of alpha phase and showed the fiber texture with the basal planes parallel to the rolling direction. This rod was large enough to be used in the industry and exhibited comparable tensile properties at room temperature in comparison to SPD-processed Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The material also showed good formability at elevated temperature due to the occurrence of superplasticity. Internal-variable analysis was carried out to measure the contribution of deformation mechanisms at elevated temperatures in the manufactured alloy. This revealed the increasing contribution of phase/grain-boundary sliding at 1073 K, which explained the observed superplasticity.

  5. Grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

  6. Understanding the Differences in Molecular Conformation of Carbohydrate and Protein in Endosperm Tissues of Grains with Different Biodegradation Kinetics Using Advanced Synchrotron Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, thereby altering native seed structures leaving them unable to detect any original inherent structures within an intact tissue sample. A synchrotron is a giant particle accelerator that turns electrons into light (million times brighter than sunlight) which can be used to study the structure of materials at the molecular level. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of the brightness of synchrotron light and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of plant seed tissue in relation to nutrient utilization. The objective of this study was to use novel synchrotron radiation-based technology (SR-FTIRM) to identify the differences in the molecular chemistry and conformation of carbohydrate and protein in various plant seed endosperms within intact tissues at cellular and subcellular level from grains with different biodegradation kinetics. Barley grain (cv. Harrington) with a high rate (31.3%/h) and extent (78%), corn grain (cv. Pioneer) with a low rate (9.6%/h) and extent of (57%), and wheat grain (cv. AC Barrie) with an intermediate rate (23%/h) and extent (72%) of ruminal DM degradation were selected for evaluation. SR-FTIRM evaluations were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven, NY). These results suggest that SR-FTIRM plus

  7. Interstellar simulations using a unified microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo model with a full gas-grain network including bulk diffusion in ice mantles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed an improved algorithm that enables us to simulate the chemistry of cold dense interstellar clouds with a full gas-grain reaction network. The chemistry is treated by a unified microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo approach that includes photon penetration and bulk diffusion. To determine the significance of these two processes, we simulate the chemistry with three different models. In Model 1, we use an exponential treatment to follow how photons penetrate and photodissociate ice species throughout the grain mantle. Moreover, the products of photodissociation are allowed to diffuse via bulk diffusion and react within the ice mantle. Model 2 is similar to Model 1 but with a slower bulk diffusion rate. A reference Model 0, which only allows photodissociation reactions to occur on the top two layers, is also simulated. Photodesorption is assumed to occur from the top two layers in all three models. We found that the abundances of major stable species in grain mantles do not differ much among these three models, and the results of our simulation for the abundances of these species agree well with observations. Likewise, the abundances of gas-phase species in the three models do not vary. However, the abundances of radicals in grain mantles can differ by up to two orders of magnitude depending upon the degree of photon penetration and the bulk diffusion of photodissociation products. We also found that complex molecules can be formed at temperatures as low as 10 K in all three models.

  8. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  9. Bulk tungsten in the JET divertor: Potential influence of the exhaustion of ductility and grain growth on the lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ph.; Thompson, V.; Matthews, G. F.; Nicolai, D.; Pintsuk, G.; Riccardo, V.; Devaux, S.; Sieglin, B.; JET-EFDA contributors

    2013-07-01

    The divertor of the ITER-like Wall in JET currently includes a solid tungsten row for the outer strike point. The use of plasma-facing tungsten in fusion devices is limited by its brittleness in the low temperature domain (arbitrarily ˜TW 1200 °C). In the absence of active cooling, an extreme case of thermal cycling is represented by the situation in JET: the plasma-facing surface of the bulk tungsten tile experiences cyclic excursions from 200 °C to about 2000 °C. Thermal fatigue for impact factors of 11-24 MW m-2 s0.5 is investigated with a Manson-Coffin model; tungsten properties come from production samples. Recrystallization is studied in metallographic cuts of tungsten lamellae identical to those installed in the torus which were exposed in the MARION facility to JET relevant heat fluxes for >300 pulses (Pdep ⩽ 9 MW/m2, angle of attack 6°). The calculations suggest that the number of high temperature cycles should be limited with appropriate budgeting, especially if the grain growth degrades material properties. Values for JET range from 150 to thousands of pulses depending on the temperatures reached.

  10. A novel, two-step top seeded infiltration and growth process for the fabrication of single grain, bulk (RE)BCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburi, Devendra K.; Shi, Yunhua; Palmer, Kysen G.; Dennis, Anthony R.; Durrell, John H.; Cardwell, David A.

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental requirement of the fabrication of high performing, (RE)–Ba–Cu–O bulk superconductors is achieving a single grain microstructure that exhibits good flux pinning properties. The top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process is a well-established technique for the fabrication of single grain (RE)BCO bulk samples and is now applied routinely by a number of research groups around the world. The introduction of a buffer layer to the TSMG process has been demonstrated recently to improve significantly the general reliability of the process. However, a number of growth-related defects, such as porosity and the formation of micro-cracks, remain inherent to the TSMG process, and are proving difficult to eliminate by varying the melt process parameters. The seeded infiltration and growth (SIG) process has been shown to yield single grain samples that exhibit significantly improved microstructures compared to the TSMG technique. Unfortunately, however, SIG leads to other processing challenges, such as the reliability of fabrication, optimisation of RE2BaCuO5 (RE-211) inclusions (size and content) in the sample microstructure, practical oxygenation of as processed samples and, hence, optimisation of the superconducting properties of the bulk single grain. In the present paper, we report the development of a near-net shaping technique based on a novel two-step, buffer-aided top seeded infiltration and growth (BA-TSIG) process, which has been demonstrated to improve greatly the reliability of the single grain growth process and has been used to fabricate successfully bulk, single grain (RE)BCO superconductors with improved microstructures and superconducting properties. A trapped field of ∼0.84 T and a zero field current density of 60 kA cm‑2 have been measured at 77 K in a bulk, YBCO single grain sample of diameter 25 mm processed by this two-step BA-TSIG technique. To the best of our knowledge, this value of trapped field is the highest value ever reported for a

  11. Interface Orientation Distribution during Grain Growth in Bulk SrTiO3 Measured by Means of 3D X-Ray Diffraction Contrast Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syha, Melanie; Rheinheimer, Wolfgang; Bäurer, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    interface normal distribution clearly shows a preference for (100) oriented interfaces in the selected grains when annealed at 1600°C. This observation can be connected to existent interfacial energy estimations resulting from capillarity vector reconstructions. © 2012 Materials Research Society.......3D x-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) is a non-destructive technique for the determination of grain shape and crystallography in polycrystalline bulk materials. Using this technique, a strontium titanate specimen was repeatedly measured between annealing steps.. A systematic analysis of...

  12. Enhancement of trapped field in single grain Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk superconductors by a modified top-seeded melt-textured growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian-wei; Wu, Dong-jie; Xu, Ke-Xi

    2016-08-01

    The modified top-seeded melt-textured growth technique for fabricating single grain Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) bulk superconductors with high field-trapping ability by using modified precursor pellets was reported. The modified precursor pellets are composed of different precursor powders YBa2Cu3O{}7-δ (Y123) + x mol% Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) + 1 wt% CeO2 without any further chemical doping. The modified YBCO bulks up to 25 and 34 mm in diameter were successfully fabricated from the modified precursor pellets. Microstructural observation results showed that the modified YBCO bulk exhibited a homogeneous distribution of Y211 phase particles, which was qualitatively explained by the solute diffusion growth model in combination with the trapping/pushing theory. As a result, it is notable that the peak trapped field values of 0.91 T (maximum 0.96 T) and 1.2 T (maximum 1.28 T) at 77 K were achieved for 25 and 34 mm modified YBCO bulks, respectively. In a word, the results from present work are very helpful to understand the melt growth mechanism and to further improve the properties of YBCO bulk superconductors for practical applications.

  13. [Effects of source-sink regulation on water soluble carbohydrates of vegetative organs and thousand-grain mass of wheat under different water conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, De-Long; Li, Meng-Fei; Chang, Lei; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Chai, Shou-Xi; Li, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Two winter wheat cultivars with different drought tolerance were selected to investigate the effects of source-sink regulation on the vegetative organs water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content and 1000-grain mass (TGM) of wheat under drought stress (DS) and well watered (WW) conditions. Sink-cutting increased the WSC content of different vegetative organs significantly, and promoted the relative transportation of the WSC positively; while source-cutting caused opposite responses. The effects of source-sink regulation on the WSC content and its relative transportation amount (TA) and transportation rate (TR) were significantly higher under DS and sink-cutting than under WW and source-cutting, for drought-resistant cultivar (Longjian 19) than for drought-sensitive Q9086, and for peduncle internode and PedI than for penultimate internode and PenI. Under source-cutting, the superior organs of Longjian 19 in the TR of total WSC were sheath, PedI, and PenI, which also contributed to the fructan TR of the two cultivars, while those of Q9086 were the PenI and the third internode from top (ThiI). Source-cutting decreased the TGM of Longjian 19 and Q9086 significantly, with the decrement being 27.3% and 31.7% under DS and 25.3% and 12.1% under WW, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the WSC content and its TA and TR and the TGM were significantly higher under sink-cutting than under source-cutting, and also, under DS than under WW. There existed a higher correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.900) of the TGM and the total WSC and fructan contents in different vegetative organs. The vegetative organs with closer correlation between their WSC content and its TA and TR and the TGM were mainly sheath and PedI. Under DS, the traits associated with the total WSC content had a higher correlation with TGM; under WW, the traits associated with sucrose and glucan contents generally showed a higher correlation with TGM. It was suggested that the effects of source-sink regulation on

  14. Dynamic bulk and shear moduli due to grain-scale local fluid flow in fluid-saturated cracked poroelastic rocks: Theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.

  15. The Impact of Grain Alignment of the Electron Transporting Layer on the Performance of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2015-08-13

    This report presents a new strategy for improving solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) through grain alignment and morphology control of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The systematic control over the ETL\\'s grain alignment and thickness is shown, by varying the deposition pressure and operating substrate temperature during the deposition. Notably, a high PCE of 6.9%, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 12.8 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 910 mV, and fill factor of 59% are demonstrated using the poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester polymer blend with ETLs prepared at room temperature exhibiting oriented and aligned rod-like ZnO grains. Increasing the deposition temperature during the ZnO sputtering induces morphological cleavage of the rod-like ZnO grains and therefore reduced conductivity from 7.2 × 10-13 to ≈1.7 × 10-14 S m-1 and PCE from 6.9% to 4.28%. An investigation of the charge carrier dynamics by femtosecond (fs) transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability reveals clear evidence of faster carrier recombination for a ZnO layer deposited at higher temperature, which is consistent with the conductivity and device performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A Unified Monte Carlo Treatment of Gas-Grain Chemistry for Large Reaction Networks. II. A Multiphase Gas-Surface-Layered Bulk Model

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyunin, A I

    2012-01-01

    The observed gas-phase molecular inventory of hot cores is believed to be significantly impacted by the products of chemistry in interstellar ices. In this study, we report the construction of a full macroscopic Monte Carlo model of both the gas-phase chemistry and the chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. Our model treats icy grain mantles in a layer-by-layer manner, which incorporates laboratory data on ice desorption correctly. The ice treatment includes a distinction between a reactive ice surface and an inert bulk. The treatment also distinguishes between zeroth and first order desorption, and includes the entrapment of volatile species in more refractory ice mantles. We apply the model to the investigation of the chemistry in hot cores, in which a thick ice mantle built up during the previous cold phase of protostellar evolution undergoes surface reactions and is eventually evaporated. For the first time, the impact of a detailed multilayer approach to grain mantle formation on ...

  17. Direct observation of grain boundary migration during recrystallization within the bulk of a moderately deformed aluminium single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Boxel, Steven; Schmidt, Søren; Ludwig, Wolfgang;

    2014-01-01

    planar boundary segments (facets) are analyzed using a method that determines the displacements of local boundary segments along parallel lines perpendicular to the facet plane. Facets are observed to form after a certain annealing time. They migrate at a constant rate for extended periods of time and...... remain planar during their migration. A change in the migration rate for one facet has been observed which is not related to changes in the experimental conditions and is most likely to be driven by the changes in grain orientation and/or the local deformation microstructure. The crystallography of the...

  18. A UNIFIED MONTE CARLO TREATMENT OF GAS-GRAIN CHEMISTRY FOR LARGE REACTION NETWORKS. II. A MULTIPHASE GAS-SURFACE-LAYERED BULK MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observed gas-phase molecular inventory of hot cores is believed to be significantly impacted by the products of chemistry in interstellar ices. In this study, we report the construction of a full macroscopic Monte Carlo model of both the gas-phase chemistry and the chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. Our model treats icy grain mantles in a layer-by-layer manner, which incorporates laboratory data on ice desorption correctly. The ice treatment includes a distinction between a reactive ice surface and an inert bulk. The treatment also distinguishes between zeroth- and first-order desorption, and includes the entrapment of volatile species in more refractory ice mantles. We apply the model to the investigation of the chemistry in hot cores, in which a thick ice mantle built up during the previous cold phase of protostellar evolution undergoes surface reactions and is eventually evaporated. For the first time, the impact of a detailed multilayer approach to grain mantle formation on the warm-up chemistry is explored. The use of a multilayer ice structure has a mixed impact on the abundances of organic species formed during the warm-up phase. For example, the abundance of gaseous HCOOCH3 is lower in the multilayer model than in previous grain models that do not distinguish between layers (so-called two phase models). Other gaseous organic species formed in the warm-up phase are affected slightly. Finally, we find that the entrapment of volatile species in water ice can explain the two-jump behavior of H2CO previously found in observations of protostars.

  19. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola; Shin, Injae

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray-based technol......In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray......-based technology has been widely employed for rapid analysis of the glycan binding properties of lectins and antibodies, the quantitative measurements of glycan-protein interactions, detection of cells and pathogens, identification of disease-related anti-glycan antibodies for diagnosis, and fast assessment of...

  20. The microstructure and properties of single grain bulk Ag-doped Y-Ba-Cu-O fabricated by seeded infiltration and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single grain, Ag-doped Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors of up to 30 mm in diameter have been fabricated successfully by a seeded infiltration and growth (IG) technique. These samples exhibit low porosity compared with samples grown by conventional top seeded melt growth (TSMG). The density of voids within as-processed IG samples can be reduced further by adding metallic Ag, rather than Ag2O, to the Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) pre-form. An inhomogeneous distribution of Y-211 has been observed in these samples. Finally, a maximum trapped magnetic field of 0.5 T was observed for Ag-doped Y-Ba-Cu-O of diameter 30 mm at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K)

  1. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  2. Effects of local structure on helium bubble growth in bulk and at grain boundaries of bcc iron: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kurtz, Richard J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zu, Xiaotao [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Peng, S. M. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China); Long, X. G. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China); Zhou, X. S. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2015-07-15

    The nucleation and growth of helium (He) bubbles in the bulk and at Σ3 <110> {112} and Σ73b <110> {661} grain boundaries (GBs) in bcc iron have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that a 1/2 <111> {111} dislocation loop is formed with the sequential collection of <111> interstitial crowdions at the periphery of the He cluster and is eventually emitted from the He cluster. Insertion of 45 He atoms into a He cluster leads to the formation of a 1/2 <111> dislocation loop in Σ3 GB. It is of interest to notice that the transition of a dislocation segment through the GB leads to the formation of a step at the GB plane following the loop formation, accounting for the formation of a residual GB defect. A 1/2 <111> loop, with a {110} habit plane, is emitted with further increase of the He bubble size in the Σ3 GB. In contrast, the sequential insertion of He atoms in Σ73b GB continuously emits self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), but these SIAs rearrange at the core of the inherent GB dislocation, instead of forming a dislocation loop, which leads the GB dislocation to propagate along the [1¯1¯ 1 2] direction. In the bulk and Σ3 GB, the He bubble exhibits three-dimensionally spherical shape, but it forms longitudinal shape along the dislocation line in the Σ73 GB, a shape commonly observed at GBs in experiments.

  3. First-principles-aided design of a new Ni-base superalloy: Influence of transition metal alloying elements on grain boundary and bulk cohesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to the design of Ni-base polycrystalline superalloys is proposed. In this approach, we assume that the creep–rupture characteristics of a superalloy are mostly determined by the strength of interatomic bonding at grain boundaries (GBs) and in the bulk of γ matrix. The ideal work of separation, Wsep, of a GB is used as a fundamental thermodynamic quantity that controls the mechanical strength of an interface, whereas the partial cohesive energy, χ, of an alloy component serves to characterize its contribution into the strength of the bulk. Using the Σ5 (2 1 0)[1 0 0] symmetric tilt GB as a representative high-angle GB in Ni, we calculate Wsep,χ, and GB segregation energies, Eseg, for the complete set of 4d and 5d transition metal impurities, to which we add B (a typical microalloying addition), S and Bi (notoriously known as harmful impurities in Ni-base superalloys). The purpose of the analysis is to identify the elements that demonstrate a high tendency to segregate to GBs, have positive (preferably high) partial cohesive energies in the bulk, and have positive impact on Wsep of GBs. We refer to these elements as low-alloying additions. Our study reveals Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and B as the most promising low-alloying additions. Our next step is to introduce the elements found in the first step into a new powder metallurgy (P/M) Ni-base superalloy. The results of the subsequent testing confirm that the newly created P/M superalloy indeed demonstrates superior mechanical properties at high temperatures compared to the existing Russian P/M alloy EP741NP

  4. Thermal stability, thermal expansion and grain-growth in exchange-coupled Fe-Pt-Ag-B bulk nanocomposite magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicula, R., E-mail: radu.nicula@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Crisan, O.; Crisan, A.D.; Mercioniu, I. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Stir, M. [University of Berne, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland); Vasiliu, F. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Formation of the L10 FePt hard-magnetic phase (>90%) directly in the as-cast state. • Specific alternating hard/soft nanostructure is stable to 600 °C without grain growth. • Anisotropic and non-linear thermal expansion effects. • The FePtAgB alloy behaves like a single magnetic phase (full exchange coupling). - Abstract: Rare-earth free (RE-free) exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets are intensively studied nowadays due to their potential use in applications demanding stable high-temperature operation and corrosion resistance. In this respect, the FePt alloy system is one of the most actively addressed potential permanent magnet solutions. In FePt alloys, promising magnetic features arise from the co-existence of hard magnetic L1{sub 0} FePt and soft magnetic L1{sub 2} Fe{sub 3}Pt phases emerged from the same metastable precursor. The present work deals with an in-situ temperature-resolved synchrotron radiation study of the thermal stability, thermal expansion and microstructure evolution in exchange-coupled FePtAgB alloys. The as-cast microstructural state as well as the optimized magnetic behavior are given as reference and correlated to the observed microstructural evolution with temperature. The melt-spun Fe{sub 48}Pt{sub 28}Ag{sub 6}B{sub 18} alloy ribbons were examined in situ by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction from ambient temperature up to 600 °C. The FePt-Fe{sub 3}Pt exchange-coupled microstructure achieved by rapid solidification is not significantly altered during the high temperature exposure. The thermal expansion of the FePt L1{sub 0} unit cell has been found to be strongly anisotropic, being essentially an in-plane expansion which may be seen as an anisotropic invar effect. For the FePt L1{sub 0} phase, a significant deviation from linear thermal expansion is observed at the Curie temperature T{sub C} = 477 °C. This non-linear behavior above T{sub C} is tentatively linked to a diffusion/segregation mechanism of Ag

  5. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low-calorie sweeteners are also called artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes or non-nutritive sweeteners. They can be used to sweeten food and drinks for less calories and carbohydrate when they replace sugar. Sugar and Desserts With diabetes, it's important to ...

  6. Healthy carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional foods include dietary fiber consisting of health-promoting carbohydrates. We have produced novel prebiotics from orange peel and observed that they extend the shelf life of probiotic bacteria in synbiotics. Some pectic-oligosaccharides and xyloglucan-oligosaccharides also have anti-adhesi...

  7. Effects of Exogenous Microbial Inoculants on Degradation of Carbohydrate in Spent Grains Compost%外源微生物菌剂对啤酒糟堆肥碳水化合物降解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻夜兰; 刘强; 荣湘民; 谢桂先

    2011-01-01

    In order to compost organic waste spent grains to organic fertilizer, the change of carbohydrate content during composting process was studied. The results showed that exogenous microbial inoculants can accelerate degradation rate of total carbon, water-soluble carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, reduce the content of total carbon, water-soluble carbon, hemicellulose and lignin. But, the effects of exogenous microbial inoculants on cellulose content were not consistent.%为了研究将有机废弃物啤酒糟堆制成有机肥而变废为宝的过程,探讨了啤酒糟堆制有机肥过程中碳水化合物含量的变化.结果表明:添加外源微生物菌剂有利于促进碳的代谢,有效提高堆体的总碳、水溶性碳、纤维素、半纤维素、木质素的降解率;并能促进堆体的总碳、水溶性碳、半纤维素、木质素的含量下降,但对纤维素含量的影响不一致,既有增强的,也有减弱的.

  8. A Unified Monte Carlo Treatment of Gas-Grain Chemistry for Large Reaction Networks. II. A Multiphase Gas-Surface-Layered Bulk Model

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyunin, A. I.; Herbst, E.

    2012-01-01

    The observed gas-phase molecular inventory of hot cores is believed to be significantly impacted by the products of chemistry in interstellar ices. In this study, we report the construction of a full macroscopic Monte Carlo model of both the gas-phase chemistry and the chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. Our model treats icy grain mantles in a layer-by-layer manner, which incorporates laboratory data on ice desorption correctly. The ice treatment includes a distinct...

  9. Fabrication of single-grain GdBa2Cu3O7− bulk superconductors with a new kind of liquid source by the top seeded infiltration and growth technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo-Zheng Li; Wan-Min Yang; Xiao-Fang Cheng; Jing Fan; Xiao-Dan Guo

    2010-05-01

    Compared to the conventional melt growth (MG) method, the top seeded infiltration and growth (TSIG) process is an effective way for preparing bulk REBa2Cu3O7− (RE-123) with finely dispersed RE2BaCuO5 (RE-211) particles. However, it is more complicated and time-consuming, because three kinds of precursor powders, namely, RE-211, RE-123 and BaCuO2, have to be prepared for the conventional TSIG process. In this paper, a new liquid source (NLS) composed of RE-211 and Ba3Cu5O8, was proposed for simplifying the TSIG process, which is different from the regular liquid source (RLS) composed of RE-123 and Ba3Cu5O8. In this modified TSIG technique, we need to prepare only RE-211 and BaCuO2 powders. Single-grain GdBa2Cu3O7− (GdBCO) bulk super-conductors have been fabricated using the RLS and NLS separately. The morphology, microstructure and levitation force of the bulk GdBCO have also been investigated. The results indicate that the NLS can be used to simplify the process flow and improve the efficiency on the fabrication of single-grain GdBCO superconductors.

  10. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body tissues. If you have a metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose ( ...

  11. Relationship between grain filling and accumulation and remobilization of water soluble carbohydrates in leaf and stem of winter wheat during the grain filling in different water conditions%不同水分条件下冬小麦灌浆期茎叶可溶性碳水化合物积累转运与籽粒灌浆的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马召朋; 栗孟飞; 杨德龙; 陈晓平; 陈菁菁; 刘媛; 李唯

    2014-01-01

    Two winter wheat cultivars with different drought tolerance were performed to investigate the rela-tionship between the grain filling and the accumulation and remobilization of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC)in flag leaves and different internodes of main stems during the grain filling in the drought stress (DS) and well watered (WW)conditions.Such tested traits as WSC contents,WSC remobilization rates and WSC contribution rates of different organs,grain weight and grain-filling rate were more significantly affected by the water condition,growth stage and/or organ,whereas different tested traits showed significant specificity in re-sponse to above-mentioned factors.The variation trend in WSC contents of different organs was of a rise first and then fall during the grain filling.The maximum WSC content of drought-tolerant cultivar Longjian 19 oc-curred on 18 DAA (days after anthesis)under both the DS and the WW,while did on 12 DAA in water-sensi-tive cultivar Q9086 in the DS.The DS might substantially increase WSC accumulation in different organs and improve WSC contribution rates to grain weight by remobilizing WSC built up in different organs during the pre-anthesis.The profit was more conducted in peduncle and penultimate internodes of Longjian 19.In this case,WSC contents,in turn,were up to 196.83 and 242.35 mg/g DW,WSC remobilization rates reached to 66.15% and 63.21%,and WSC contribution rates were up to a maximum of 12.48% and 8.67%,respective-ly.Although the DS shortened the course of grain filling,Longjian 19 still performed higher grain-filling rate and greater grain weight of main spikes.Positive correlations were found not only between WSC contents of different organs and grain-filling rates of main spikes,but also between WSC remobilization rates and its con-tribution rates.Furthermore,these correlations were significantly higher under the DS than the WW condi-tion .It indicated that drought stress could enhance the accumulation and remobilization of

  12. A novel approach to measure grain boundary segregation in bulk polycrystalline materials in dependence of the boundaries’ five rotational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a simplified nondestructive 3-D electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) methodology that enables the measurement of all five degrees of freedom of grain boundaries (GBs) combined with segregation analysis using atom probe tomography (APT). The approach is based on two 2-D EBSD measurements on orthogonal surfaces at a sharp edge of the specimen followed by site-specific GB composition analysis using APT. An example of an asymmetric Σ9 boundary exhibiting GB segregation emphasizes the need for complete GB characterization in this context

  13. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders....... In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the role of cereal grain fibre in increasing faecal bulk in humans is well established, that the mechanisms by which cereal grain fibre exerts the claimed effect are known, that oat fibre has a significant bulking effect in humans, and that a...

  15. POTENCIAL DE SECAGEM DO MILHO A GRANEL COM AR NATURAL EM BOTUCATU – SP DRYING POTENTIAL OF MAIZE GRAINS IN BULK WITH NATURAL AIR IN BOTUCATU, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente A. Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A secagem de grãos com ar natural é um processo dependente das condições climáticas locais, constantemente oscilantes no tempo. Através do emprego de modelos matemáticos de simulação foi avaliada a possibilidade de realização da secagem do milho a granel com ar natural para as condições climáticas de Botucatu, com base nos registros horários de temperatura de bulbo seco e umidade relativa dos anos de 1971 a 1975 e de 1977 a 1981. O processo contínuo de secagem do milho com ar natural, nas condições analisadas, não permite a redução do teor de umidade final ao nível recomendado ao armazenamento seguro. A simulação da secagem intermitente, realizada nos períodos das 9 às 17 h, 9 às 18 h e 8 às 18 h, indica a possibilidade de redução do teor de umidade do milho, base úmida, a nível entre 12,1 e 17,3%, para o teor de unidade inicial de 22%, entre 12,4 e 15,5%, para o teor de umidade inicial de 20% e entre 13,1 e 14,7% para o de 18%, quando realizada a secagem no período máximo admissível.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Secagem; Ar natural; Milho; Teor de umidade de equilíbrio.

    Grain drying using ambient was simulated under weather conditions in Botucatu. Hourly weather records, fry bulb temperature and relative humidity, from 1971 through 1975 and from 1977 through 1981, were used to calculate adiabatic drying potential of the ambient air. Historical weather records from 1971 were selected to simulate ambient air corn drying. Ambient air corn drying systems operating continuously are not feasible to reduce the moisture content of the grain to the moisture levels recommended for safe storage. Selective fan operation, from 9 a. m. to 5 a. m. , from 9 a. m. to 6 p. m. and from 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. , indicates the possibility to reduce corn moisture contents, wet

  16. Insulin and carbohydrate dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, Marie C

    2003-04-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may experience abnormal body composition changes as well as metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, increases in triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, ranging from insulin resistance with and without glucose intolerance to frank diabetes. Whether the body composition changes (i.e., increased visceral adiposity and fat wasting in the peripheral tissues) are linked to abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism is unclear. The use of HAART with and without therapy with protease inhibitors (PIs) is related to carbohydrate abnormalities and changes in body composition. Regimens that include PIs appear to have a higher incidence of insulin resistance (up to 90%) and diabetes mellitus (up to 40%). The etiology of these abnormalities is not well understood; what is known about insulin and carbohydrate dysregulation with HAART is discussed. PMID:12652377

  17. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann

    2012-09-01

    This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption. PMID:22917167

  18. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  19. Contribution of plant carbohydrates to sedimentary carbon mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichkovitten, T.; Holmer, M. [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark). Institute of Biology

    2004-09-01

    The decomposition of different types of organic matter in marine sediments, including eelgrass (Zostera marina) leaves, roots and rhizomes and a macroalga (Polysiphonia spp.), was studied under anoxic conditions using decomposition bags over a period of 24 weeks. The carbohydrate composition of the plant materials and sediment was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) and the total sum of individual sugars was taken to represent the total carbohydrate content. The alga was degraded more rapidly than other plant materials, while eelgrass rhizome was recalcitrant to decomposition. The non-structural carbohydrate pool from all plant materials degraded quickly and was gone within the 24-week experiment. A clear reduction in carbohydrate yield for the plant materials provided the most consistent indicator of decomposition status. There was no evident change in carbohydrate amount and composition in the sediment during the decomposition experiments and the non-structural carbohydrates from plant materials were thus more labile and readily available for bacterial decomposition than the bulk of carbohydrates in the sediments. (author)

  20. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.;

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  2. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  3. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as cakes, cookies, candy, and other desserts juices, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks that ... of added sugars for Americans are sugar-sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks grain- ...

  4. Stover Composition in Maize and Sorghum Reveals Remarkable Genetic Variation and Plasticity for Carbohydrate Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for non-structural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11–24%) and sorghum (7–36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8–19%) and sorghum (9–27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9–21%) and sorghum (16–27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15–18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. Availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. PMID:27375668

  5. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan;

    2014-01-01

    Three-Dimensional X-ray Diraction (3DXRD) Microscopy is a generic term covering a variety of dierent techniques for characterising the mi- crostructure within the bulk of polycrystalline materials. One strategy | namely grain centre mapping | enables fast measurements of the av- erage...... characteristics of each grain (such as their centre-of-mass positions, volumes, phases, orientations and/or elastic strain tensor components), while the exact locations of the grain boundaries are unknown. In the present chapter a detailed description of the setup and software for both grain centre mapping and...

  6. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  7. Organizing multivalency in carbohydrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; Despras, Guillaume; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2016-06-01

    The interactions of cell surface carbohydrates as well as of soluble glycoconjugates with their receptor proteins rule fundamental processes in cell biology. One of the supramolecular principles underlying and regulating carbohydrate recognition is multivalency. Many multivalent glycoconjugates have therefore been synthesized to study multivalency effects operative in glycobiology. This review is focused on smaller multivalent structures such as glycoclusters emphasizing carbohydrate-centered and heteromultivalent glycoconjugates. We are discussing primary, secondary and tertiary structural aspects including approaches to organize multivalency. PMID:27146554

  8. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  9. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal grain growth as the abrupt growth of a group of the largest grains in a multi-grain system is treated within the context of unequal retardation of grain growth due to the segregation of solute atoms from the bulk of the grains into the grain boundaries. During grain boundary migration, the segregated solute atoms are dragged under a small driving force or left behind the migrating grain boundary under a large driving force. Thus, the solute atoms in the grain boundaries of large grains, exhibiting a large driving force, can be released from the grain boundary. The mobility of these grain boundaries becomes significantly higher and abnormal grain growth is spontaneously provoked. The mean-field model presented here assumes that each grain is described by its grain radius and by its individual segregation parameter. The thermodynamic extremal principle is engaged to obtain explicit evolution equations for the radius and segregation parameter of each grain. Simulations of grain growth kinetics for various conditions of segregation with the same initial setting (100 000 grains with a given radius distribution) are presented. Depending on the diffusion coefficients of the solute in the grain boundaries, abnormal grain growth may be strongly or marginally pronounced. Solute segregation and drag can also significantly contribute to the stabilization of the grain structure. Qualitative agreement with several experimental results is reported. (paper)

  10. Dietary carbohydrates and endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W J; Hughes, V A

    1985-05-01

    Antecedent diet can greatly influence both substrate utilization during exercise and exercise performance itself. A number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that short-term (three to seven days) adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet results in greatly reduced liver and muscle glycogen stores. While carbohydrate utilization after such a diet is reduced, the limited glycogen stores can severely limit endurance exercise performance. High carbohydrate diets on the other hand expand carbohydrate stores which can limit performance. However, long-term adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet can greatly alter muscle and whole body energy metabolism to drastically limit the oxidation of limited carbohydrate stores with no adverse effect on performance. Glycogen loading techniques can result in supercompensation of muscle stores. Exercise induced depletion of muscle glycogen is the most important single factor in this phenomenon. Following the exercise a low carbohydrate diet for two to three days after which a high carbohydrate diet is eaten seemingly has the same effect on increasing muscle glycogen stores as simply eating a high carbohydrate diet. The form of the dietary carbohydrate during glycogen loading should be high in complex carbohydrates; however, the type of dietary starch that effects the greatest rate of resynthesis has not been investigated. Rapid resynthesis of glycogen following exercise is at least in part due to increased insulin sensitivity. The enhanced glucose transport caused by the increased sensitivity provides substrate for glycogen synthase. How rapidly this enhanced sensitivity returns to pre-exercise levels in humans is uncertain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3993621

  11. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  12. Pauli-Limited Superconductivity in Small Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsager, M. C.; MacDonald, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    We report on an exploration of the mean-field phase diagram for Pauli-limited superconductivity in small metallic grains. Emphasis is placed on the crossover from the ultra-small grain limit where superconductivity disappears to the bulk thin-film limit as the single-particle level spacing in the grain decreases. We find that the maximum Zeeman coupling strength compatible with superconductivity increases with decreasing grain size, in spite of a monotonically decreasing condensation energy p...

  13. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  14. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of diet foods. These foods may contain extra sugar as a substitute for fat calories. Try to include your child or teen as you evaluate and select healthy carbohydrate-containing foods. With ... blood sugar. By taking a smart approach to balancing carbohydrates, ...

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically...... process could prove to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of...... production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...

  16. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. PMID:27184288

  17. Antioxidant Properties of Whole Grain Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Čukelj, Nikolina; Novotny, Dubravka; Ćurić, Duška

    2010-01-01

    Cereals have a long history of use by humans. Cereals and cereal products are staple foods, and are important source of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamins (E, B) and minerals (Zn, Mg, Fe) in both developed and developing countries. The health aspects of whole grain cereals have long been known, but the antioxidant profile of whole grains has only recently been introduced to the antioxidant research community where mostly fruits and vegetables are in focus. In vitro experiments con...

  18. Interstellar Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Draine, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    Our current understanding of interstellar dust is summarized at an introductory level. Submicron-sized interstellar dust grains absorb and scatter light, and reradiate the absorbed energy in the infrared. The grain population spans a range of sizes, from molecules containing only tens of atoms, to particles containing 10^{10} atoms. Most of the grain mass appears to be due to two types of solid, in approximately equal amounts: amorphous silicate mineral, and carbonaceous material. Approximate...

  19. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  20. Cinética ruminal das frações de carboidratos, produção de gás, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e NDT estimado da silagem de milho com diferentes proporções de grãos Ruminal kinetic of carbohydrate fractions, gas production, dry matter in vitro digestibility and estimated TDN of corn silage with different grain proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Cabral

    2002-11-01

    ,03 a 28,47 mL, 62,19 a 83,21 e 56,08 a 81,40%, respectivamente.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the chemical composition alteration, the nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions changes, to estimate the digestion rate of non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC and fiber carbohydrate (FC, to determine the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and to estimate the TDN of corn silage with different grain proportions. The silage were done in the following proportions: 0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% of grain. The amount of dry matter (DM, nitrogen compounds (N, ether extract (EE, ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, as well the non-protein nitrogen compounds (NPN and the B1+B2, B3 and C nitrogen fractions, were determined. The amount of non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC and of potentially digestible (B2 and indigestible (C fractions of NDF were also determined. The rate digestion of NFC and B2 fraction of carbohydrate were estimated by mean of gas production technique. IVDMD was determined by the two-stage technique and the TDN content was estimated by the chemical composition. The addition of grain to the corn silage showed linear increase in DM, N and NFC contents and reduced the ash, NDF, ADF and lignin. The NPN and B3 and C fractions ranged from 34.04 to 54.62, from 6.63 to 2.61 and from 7.83 to 1.32% of the total N. The amount of the NFC and B2 and C fractions of carbohydrate were linearly influenced by grain addition in the corn silage, that ranged from 135.55 to 558.10, 489.57 to 203.29 and from 233.50 to 85.51 g/kg of DM. The digestion rate of the NFC and B2 fraction were quadraticly affected, and the maximum estimated values were of 0.2723 and 0.02771 h-1, for the silage with 40.08 and 14.57% of grains, respectively. The total gas production, IVDMD and TDN increased linearly as a function of grain percentage, that ranged from 20.03 to 28.47, from 62.19 to 83.21 and from 56.08 to 81.40, respectively.

  1. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  2. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  3. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  4. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Kumar ADAK; Nirmalya GHOSH; Dilip Kumar DASGUPTA; Sudha GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation.It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield.The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose,starch,sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e.non-submerged) condition.The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.However,under normal or control condition,there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.Still,photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield.Finally,plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues.It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles,in this case) as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  5. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  6. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  7. Carbohydrates - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbohydrates URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbohydrates.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  8. 7 CFR 800.98 - Weighing grain in combined lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weighing grain in combined lots. 800.98 Section 800.98... Provisions and Procedures § 800.98 Weighing grain in combined lots. (a) General. The weighing of bulk or sacked grain loaded aboard, or being loaded aboard, or unloaded from two or more carriers as a...

  9. Grain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  10. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relation between a whole grain consumption and risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One tentative mechanism relates to colonic metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates. In a previous study, we reported a positive relation between coloni...

  11. Fluorous-based carbohydrate quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Guosong

    2015-03-20

    Fluorous chemistry has brought many applications from catalysis to separation science, from supramolecular materials to analytical chemistry. However, fluorous-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has not been reported so far. In the current paper, fluorous interaction has been firstly utilized in QCM, and carbohydrate-protein interaction and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction have been detected afterward. PMID:25541017

  12. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  13. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  14. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Sugai; M.S.R. Figueiredo; R.V. Antônio; P.M Oliveira; V.A Cardoso; Ricardo, J.; Merino, E; Figueiredo, L. F.; D.N. Heidrich

    2004-01-01

    Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approach...

  15. Carbohydrate speciation and Py-MS mapping of peat samples from a subtropical open marsh environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, M. E. C.; Boon, J. J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Baas, M.; Schenck, P. A.

    1989-08-01

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates in the hydrolysates of fractionated peat samples from different depths from Rookery Branch (Florida Everglades), and of a Mariscus rhizome. The fine grained samples showed a major contribution of microbial sugars indicated by comparatively low total carbohydrate yields together with high relative contributions of galactose, mannose, ribose, fucose, rhamnose, partially methylated aldoses, amino sugars, heptoses, tetroses, glycerol, allose and altrose. The coarse grained samples showed a major contribution of vascular plant sugars indicated by comparatively high total carbohydrate yields together with high relative contributions of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Analysis of the fractionated peat samples by Curie point pyrolysis-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis of the pyrolysis data yielded two discriminant functions. Depth profiles for the first discriminant function show a relative accumulation of lignified vascular plant material with increasing depth in coarse and fine grained samples. The finest grained samples show most of the markers indicative for microbial activity and the presence of refractory fine grained matter and least of the lignin markers. Plots of the second discriminant function versus depth reveal an initial increase in markers for modified lignin, indicating degradation. The deepest sample, however, again shows increased characteristics for intact vascular plant polysaccharides. The results from both wet chemical analysis and Py-MS suggest the presence of living and/or senescent rootlets at the deepest level in the peat.

  16. 不同水分条件下源库调节对小麦营养器官可溶性碳水化合物和籽粒千粒重的影响%Effects of source-sink regulation on water soluble carbohydrates of vegetative organs and thousand-grain mass of wheat under different water conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 杨德龙; 栗孟飞; 常磊; 程宏波; 柴守玺; 李唯

    2013-01-01

    以抗旱性有显著差异的两个冬小麦品种为材料,在干旱胁迫(DS)和正常灌溉(WW)条件下,研究了源库调节对小麦营养器官中可溶性碳水化合物(WSC)和籽粒千粒重(TGM)的影响.结果表明:缩库处理显著增加了小麦各营养器官WSC含量,且正向促进WSC的相对转运;减源处理反之.源库调节WSC含量及其相对转运量/率的效应为:干旱胁迫显著高于正常灌溉,抗旱品种(陇鉴19)显著高于水分敏感品种(Q9086),缩库处理对WSC含量的影响强度显著高于减源处理,穗下节和倒二节普遍高于倒三节、叶鞘和叶.减源处理下,陇鉴19的总WSC相对转运率的强势器官主要为叶鞘、穗下节和倒二节,而Q9086主要表现在倒二节和倒三节;两小麦品种果聚糖相对转运率的强势器官均为叶鞘、穗下节和倒二节.减源处理使陇鉴19和Q9086的TGM在干旱胁迫下分别下降27.3%和31.7%,在正常灌溉下分别下降25.3%和12.1%.缩库处理的WSC含量及其相对转运与TGM的相关系数显著大于减源处理;干旱胁迫处理显著高于正常灌溉处理,不同器官中WSC总含量和果聚糖含量与TGM普遍表现出较高的相关系数(r2 >0.900);小麦WSC含量及其相对转运与TGM关联度较为密切的器官主要集中在叶鞘和穗下节.在干旱胁迫条件下,WSC总含量有关性状与TGM表现出较高关联度,而在正常灌溉条件下,蔗糖和葡聚糖有关性状与TGM普遍表现出较高关联度.源库关系对小麦不同营养器官WSC及籽粒千粒重的调节易受水分环境、基因型和营养器官位置的显著影响.%Two winter wheat cultivars with different drought tolerance were selected to investigate the effects of source-sink regulation on the vegetative organs water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content and 1000-grain mass (TGM) of wheat under drought stress (DS) and well watered (WW) conditions.Sink-cutting increased the WSC content of different vegetative

  17. Detecting grain rotation at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Lutker, Katie; Lei, Jialin; Yan, Jinyuan; Yang, Shizhong; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2014-01-01

    It is well-believed that below a certain particle size, grain boundary-mediated plastic deformation (e.g., grain rotation, grain boundary sliding and diffusion) substitutes for conventional dislocation nucleation and motion as the dominant deformation mechanism. However, in situ probing of grain boundary processes of ultrafine nanocrystals during plastic deformation has not been feasible, precluding the direct exploration of the nanomechanics. Here we present the in situ texturing observation of bulk-sized platinum in a nickel pressure medium of various particle sizes from 500 nm down to 3 nm. Surprisingly, the texture strength of the same-sized platinum drops rapidly with decreasing grain size of the nickel medium, indicating that more active grain rotation occurs in the smaller nickel nanocrystals. Insight into these processes provides a better understanding of the plastic deformation of nanomaterials in a few-nanometer length scale. PMID:24550455

  18. Short-chain carbohydrates and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Susan J; Lomer, Miranda C E; Gibson, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates occur across a range of foods regularly consumed including grains such as wheat and rye, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates with chains of up to 10 sugars vary in their digestibility and subsequent absorption. Those that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These two effects alone may underlie most of the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms after they are ingested in moderate amounts via luminal distension in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. This has been the basis of the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose malabsorption and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. However, application of such dietary approaches in patients with functional bowel disorders has been restricted to observational studies with uncertain efficacy. As all dietary poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, there is now an accumulating body of evidence, based on observational and comparative studies, and on randomized-controlled trials that supports the notion that FODMAPs trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional bowel disorders, and that a diet low in FODMAPs offers considerable symptom relief in the majority of patients who use it. PMID:23588241

  19. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  20. Nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain copper obtained by mechanical attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Baracaldo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for the sample preparation and characterisation of bulk copper having grain size lower than 1 μm (ultra-fine grain and lower than 100 nm grain size (nanocrystalline. Copper is initially manufactured by a milling/alloying me- chanical method thereby obtaining a powder having a nanocrystalline structure which is then consolidated through a process of warm compaction at high pressure. Microstructural characterisation of bulk copper samples showed the evolution of grain size during all stages involved in obtaining it. The results led to determining the necessary conditions for achieving a wide range of grain sizes. Mechanical characterisation indicated an increase in microhardness to values of around 3.40 GPa for unconsolida- ted nanocrystalline powder. Compressivee strength was increased by reducing the grain size, thereby obtaining an elastic limit of 650 MPa for consolidated copper having a ~ 62 nm grain size.

  1. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.; Ahl, Louise Isager; Salmean, A.A.; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also importa...... plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.......Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespell, R B; Canale-Parola, E

    1970-07-01

    The pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta, a free-living, strictly anaerobic spirochete, were studied. The organism fermented glucose to ethyl alcohol, acetate, lactate, CO(2), and H(2). Assays of enzymatic activities in cell extracts, and determinations of radioactivity distribution in products formed from (14)C-labeled glucose indicated that S. stenostrepta degraded glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The spirochete utilized a clostridial-type clastic reaction to metabolize pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, CO(2), and H(2), without production of formate. Acetyl-coenzyme A was converted to ethyl alcohol by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyzed the formation of acetate from acetyl-coenzyme A. Hydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in cell extracts. A rubredoxin was isolated from cell extracts of S. stenostrepta. Preparations of this rubredoxin stimulated acetyl phosphate formation from pyruvate by diethylaminoethyl cellulose-treated extracts of S. stenostrepta, an indication that rubredoxin may participate in pyruvate cleavage by this spirochete. Nutritional studies showed that S. stenostrepta fermented a variety of carbohydrates, but did not ferment amino acids or other organic acids. An unidentified growth factor present in yeast extract was required by the organism. Exogenous supplements of biotin, riboflavin, and vitamin B(12) were either stimulatory or required for growth. PMID:5423371

  3. Glycosyltransferase engineering for carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John B; Chen, Xi

    2016-02-01

    Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are powerful tools for the synthesis of complex and biologically-important carbohydrates. Wild-type GTs may not have all the properties and functions that are desired for large-scale production of carbohydrates that exist in nature and those with non-natural modifications. With the increasing availability of crystal structures of GTs, especially those in the presence of donor and acceptor analogues, crystal structure-guided rational design has been quite successful in obtaining mutants with desired functionalities. With current limited understanding of the structure-activity relationship of GTs, directed evolution continues to be a useful approach for generating additional mutants with functionality that can be screened for in a high-throughput format. Mutating the amino acid residues constituting or close to the substrate-binding sites of GTs by structure-guided directed evolution (SGDE) further explores the biotechnological potential of GTs that can only be realized through enzyme engineering. This mini-review discusses the progress made towards GT engineering and the lessons learned for future engineering efforts and assay development. PMID:26862198

  4. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  5. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  6. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized. PMID:18272925

  7. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  8. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    D.N. Heidrich; M.S.R.B. Figueiredo; R.V. Antonio,; da Costa, J. G.; P.B. Arantes; Figueiredo, L. F.; J.K. Sugai

    2005-01-01

    Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  map...

  9. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J;

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...... involvement of skeletal muscle was examined in lean, healthy subjects by measuring the response in forearm oxygen consumption to an oral glucose load. The study demonstrates an early component of skeletal muscle thermogenesis coinciding with the local glucose uptake, followed by a late facultative...... thermogenesis. The arterial epinephrine concentration increased to a maximum of 200% above base-line values 4 h after glucose. This value greatly exceeds the physiological threshold for the thermogenic action of epinephrine. In forearm venous blood the corresponding increase in epinephrine was only...

  10. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A N; Echarte, María M

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ') while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way. PMID:27242809

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A. N.; Echarte, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ′) while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way. PMID:27242809

  12. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  13. Study of some properties of point defects in grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of deducing simple informations on the grain boundary core structure, we investigated self diffusion under hydrostatic pressure, impurity diffusion (In and Au), electromigration (Sb) along certain types of grain boundaries in Ag bicrystals, and the Moessbauer effect of 57Co located in the grain boundaries of polycrystalline Be. Our results lead to the following conclusions: the formation of a vacancy like defects is necessary to grain boundary diffusion; solute atoms may release most of their elastic energy of dissolution as they segregate at the boundary; in an electrical field, the drift of Sb ions parallel to the boundary takes place toward the anode as in the bulk. The force on the grain boundary ions is larger than in the bulk; Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed the formation of Co-rich aggregates, which may proves important in the study of early stages of grain boundary precipitation. (author)

  14. Grain-boundary melting: A Monte Carlo study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besold, Gerhard; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1994-01-01

    Grain-boundary melting in a lattice-gas model of a bicrystal is studied by Monte Carlo simulation using the grand canonical ensemble. Well below the bulk melting temperature T(m), a disordered liquidlike layer gradually emerges at the grain boundary. Complete interfacial wetting can be observed...

  15. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farbaniec, L., E-mail: lfarban1@jhu.edu [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F. [Université Paul Sabatier, CEMES, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055 Toulouse (France); Couque, H. [Nexter Munitions, 7 route de Guerry, 18200 Bourges (France); Naimi, F.; Bernard, F. [Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon (France); Tingaud, D. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ∼ 135 μm) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ∼ 1.5 μm) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ∼ 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (∼ 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  16. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ∼ 135 μm) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ∼ 1.5 μm) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ∼ 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (∼ 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries

  17. Cereal Grains: Their Impacts on Health and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Rayas-Duarte; J Uriyapongson

    2006-01-01

    Cereal grains can contribute to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases by supplying biologically active components. The exact mechanism of action of these components is not completely understood, but extensive evidence suggests the antioxidants that are present in the grains are the likely source of benefits. These activities or properties might protect against coronary heart disease and diabetes. The relationships of complex carbohydrates, whole grain products and the prevention of diseases, including type2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease continue to challenge the scientific community. Though cereal grains contribute to a healthy diet there are some people that can not tolerate the proteins present in the grain. This can lead to food allergies and when severe can be diagnosed as celiac disease.

  18. Carbohydrates - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 5

    OpenAIRE

    Bolder, U; Ebener, C.; Hauner, H.; Jauch, KW; Kreymann, G.; Ockenga, J.; Traeger, K.; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-01-01

    The main role of carbohydrates in the human body is to provide energy. Carbohydrates should always be infused with PN (parenteral nutrition) in combination with amino acids and lipid emulsions to improve nitrogen balance. Glucose should be provided as a standard carbohydrate for PN, whereas the use of xylite is not generally recommended. Fructose solutions should not be used for PN. Approximately 60% of non-protein energy should be supplied as glucose with an intake of 3.0-3.5 g/kg body weigh...

  19. Molecular simulations of carbohydrate-protein complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Sameh Mansour Abbas

    2013-01-01

    I. Generation and validation of a free-energy model for carbohydrate binding. Carbohy-drates play a key role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and, hence, represent a rich source for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Being able to predict binding mode and binding affinity is an essential, yet lacking, aspect of the stru-cture-based design of carbohydrate-based ligands. To this end, we assembled a diverse data set of 316 carbohydrate–protein crystal structu...

  20. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  1. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  2. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.; Peterson, Michael L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Lee, Cindy

    Neutral carbohydrate compositions were determined for particulate samples from plankton net tows, shallow floating sediment traps, mid-depth and deep moored sediment traps, and sediment cores collected along a north-south transect in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the U.S. JGOFS EqPac program. Total neutral carbohydrate depth profiles and patterns along the transect follow essentially the same trends as bulk and organic carbon (OC) fluxes—attenuating with depth, high near the equator and decreasing poleward. OC-normalized total aldose (TCH 2,O) yields along the transect and with depth do not show any consitent patterns. Relative to a planktonic source, neutral carbohydrate compositions in sediment trap and sediment core samples reflect preferential loss of ribose and storage carbohydrates rich in glucose, and preferential preservation of structural carbohydrates rich in rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and mannose. There is also evidence for an intermediately labile component rich in galactose. It appears that compositional signatures of neutral carbohydrates in sediments are more dependent upon their planktonic source than on any particular diagenetic pathway. Relative to other types of organic matter, neutral carbohydrates are better preserved in calcareous oozes from 12°S to 5°N than in red clays at 9°N based on OC-normalized TCH 2O yields, due to either differing sources or sorption characteristics. Weight per cent glucose generally decreases with increased degradation of organic material in the central equatorial Pacific region. Based on weight per cent glucose, comparisons of samples between Survey I (El Niõn) and Survey II (non-El Niño) indicate that during Survey I, organic material in the epipelagic zone in the northern hemisphere may have undergone more degradation than organic material in the southern hemisphere.

  3. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  4. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. PMID:26553494

  5. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. PMID:27355647

  6. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  7. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  8. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  9. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-04

    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  10. Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, A. M.; Islam, M. F.; Zhang, J.; Collings, P. J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2005-08-01

    Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at temperatures below the bulk melting transition. It can be thought of as the nucleation of the melting process. Premelting has been observed at the surfaces of crystals but not within. We report observations of premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals using real-time video microscopy. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed, three-dimensional colloidal structures made from thermally responsive microgel spheres. Particle tracking reveals increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. Our observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and atomic-scale crystals.

  11. The influence of vortex pinning and grain boundary structure on critical currents across grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used studies of single grain boundaries in YBCO thin films and bulk bicrystals to study the influence of vortex pinning along a grain boundary on dissipation. The critical current density for transport across grain boundaries in thin films is typically more than an order of magnitude larger than that measured for transport across grain boundaries in bulk samples. For low disorientation angles, the difference in critical current density within the grains that form the boundary can contribute to the substantial differences in current density measured across the boundary. However, substantial differences exist in the critical current density across boundaries in thin film compared to bulk bicrystals even in the higher angle regime in which grain boundary dissipation dominates. The differences in critical current density in this regime can be understood on the basis of vortex pinning along the boundary

  12. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion subsequent to carbohydrate supercompensation on endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Robertson, R J; Denys, B G; DaSilva, S G; Visich, P; Suminski, R R; Utter, A C; Goss, F L; Metz, K F

    1995-12-01

    This investigation determined whether carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise enhanced endurance performance when the exercise was preceded by carbohydrate supercompensation. Seven male trained cyclists performed two trials at an initial power output corresponding to 71 +/- 1% of their peak oxygen consumption. During the trials, subjects ingested either a 6% glucose/sucrose (C) solution or an equal volume of artificially flavored and sweetened placebo (P) every 20 min throughout exercise. Both C and P were preceded by a 6-day carbohydrate supercompensation procedure in which subjects undertook a depletion-taper exercise sequence in conjunction with a moderate- and high-carbohydrate diet regimen. Statistical analysis of time to exhaustion, plasma glucose concentration, carbohydrate oxidation rate, fat oxidation rate, and plasma glycerol concentration indicated that in spite of a carbohydrate supercompensation procedure administered prior to exercise, carbohydrate ingestion during exercise can exert an additional ergogenic effect by preventing a decline in blood glucose levels and maintaining carbohydrate oxidation during the later stages of moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:8605519

  13. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle. PMID:26035740

  14. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  15. Studies of the bulk orientation in Y and Bi superconducting phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here some of our studies on the bulk orientation of the grains in the Y superconductor with various experimental techniques and also the first results of Bi superconducting phases. (orig./BHO)

  16. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  17. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000. PMID:25954862

  18. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  19. Interstellar grains in elliptical galaxies grain evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, J C; Tsai, John C; Mathews, William G

    1995-01-01

    We consider the lifecycle of dust introduced into the hot interstellar medium in isolated elliptical galaxies. Dust grains are ejected into galactic-scale cooling flows in large ellipticals by normal mass loss from evolving red giants. Newly introduced dust rapidly enters the hot gas environment and is sputtered away by thermal collisions with ions. Before the grains are completely sputtered away, they emit prodigious amounts of infrared radiation which may contribute to the large far infrared luminosities observed in ellipticals. In order to study the global properties of grains in ellipticals we construct a new series of King-type galactic models which are consistent with the fundamental plane, galactic mass to light ratios and other relevant observational correlations. We describe a new ``continuity'' procedure to construct simple time-dependent gas dynamic models for cooling flows. In all galaxy models, although grains can flow a considerable distance from their radius of origin before being sputtered awa...

  20. Incorporation of Whole, Ancient Grains into a Modern Asian Indian Diet: Practical Strategies to Reduce the Burden of Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Anjali A.; Azar, Kristen M.J.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-01-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptabl...

  1. Does Exogenous Application of Kinetin and Spermine Mitigate the Effect of Seawater on Yield Attributes and Biochemical Aspects of Grains?

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy; Baka, Zakaria A.; Mickky, Bardees M.

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of grain presoaking in kinetin (0.1 mM), spermine (0.3 mM) and their interaction on yield components and biochemical aspects of yielded grains of wheat plants irrigated with 25% seawater. Seawater induced marked reduction in biochemical aspects of yielded grains especially carbohydrates content, nitrogenous constituents, total protein and nucleic acids contents as well as proline and organic acids (citric and keto acids) contents. Converse...

  2. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  3. Quantitative characterization of the microstructure and properties of nanocrystalline WC–Co bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Microstructure of the nanocrystalline WC–Co cermet bulk was quantitatively described by transmission electron microscopy based precession electron diffraction technology. It is discovered that the fraction of the Σ2 grain boundaries increases with the decrease of WC grain size. The effect of microstructure on mechanical properties depends on Co distribution, Σ2 boundaries fraction and WC grain contiguity. -- Nanocrystalline WC–Co bulk was prepared using a novel route that combined in situ reactions and subsequent spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy-based precession electron diffraction technology. The nanocrystalline microstructure has a high WC grain contiguity. The fraction of Σ2 boundaries increases with a decrease in WC grain size. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties was analyzed in terms of the correlations between Co distribution, Σ2 boundary fraction and WC grain contiguity.

  4. Developing grain boundary diagrams for multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impurity-based, premelting-like, intergranular films (IGFs, a common type of grain boundary complexion) can form in various materials and influence sintering, creep, and microstructure development. A thermodynamic framework is presented to forecast the formation and stability of these premelting-like grain boundary complexions (a.k.a. interfacial “phases” that are thermodynamically two dimensional) in multicomponent alloys to consider the interactions of multiple alloying elements. Key thermodynamic parameters that control the interfacial segregation and disordering behaviors have been identified and systematically examined. Subsequently, ternary and quaternary grain boundary diagrams have been computed and used to forecast the sintering behaviors of W–Ni–M (M = Fe, Co, Cr, Zr, Nb and Ti) and Mo–Si–B–M (M = Ni, Co and Fe) systems. This work supports a long-range scientific goal of extending bulk computational thermodynamics and CALPHAD methods to interfaces and developing grain boundary complexion (interfacial “phase”) diagrams as extensions to bulk phase diagrams, which can be a generally useful materials science tool

  5. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640. ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  6. The diagenesis of carbohydrates by hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Frank D.

    1983-08-01

    Carbohydrates react with hydrogen sulfide under low temperature (100° to 200°C) yielding a variety of organosulfur compounds including thiophenes, thiols, sulfides and sulfones. A polymer is also produced, whose elemental composition is within the range of natural coals. When reductive dehydration is carried out in the presence of hydrocarbon, organosulfur compounds are formed in the carbon number range of the hydrocarbon used. In these processes, an active hydrogen transfer catalyst is produced which facilitates the passage of hydrogen between normal paraffins and saccharide units, distributing sulfur between these two families primarily in the form of thiophene rings. The simplicity of these systems - H 2S, carbohydrates, H 2O, hydrocarbon - and the facility of the chemistry would suggest that the carbohydrates and hydrogen sulfide may be important agents in the diagenetic processes leading to petroleum and coal. Carbohydrate reduction by hydrogen sulfide may constitute an important route through which certain organosulfur compounds found in petroleum and coal entered these materials in early diagenesis.

  7. The clinical impact of carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Malabsorption of carbohydrates such as fructose, lactose or sorbitol can often be detected among patients suffering from so-called non specific abdominal complaints. Sometimes the differential diagnosis may be difficult. So far successful treatment consists of dietary interventions only. Nevertheless, many questions are remaining still unanswered. PMID:21429446

  8. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23177152

  9. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  10. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  11. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  12. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    controls (n = 8), which indicates a slow turnover rate of carbohydrate deficient transferrin. Food ingestion did not affect the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, and the analysis of carbohydrate deficient transferrin was almost unaffected by the presence of ethanol in plasma within...... alcohol intake, but the overlap is substantial in patients with cirrhosis. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has a low turnover rate in both patients with cirrhosis and normals....

  13. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-06-01

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend bread, soft drinks/soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend < 0·001), while the intake of ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, fruits, dairy products, candy and ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not met in this cohort. PMID:24661608

  14. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  15. Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Björck, I.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Cereal foods are an important source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in our diet. Epidemiological evidence increasingly demonstrates that a diet rich in whole grain is protective against development of diet-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of cere

  16. Explosive bulk charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  17. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  18. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  19. Incorporation of whole, ancient grains into a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce the burden of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anjali A; Azar, Kristen Mj; Gardner, Christopher D; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:21790614

  20. Incorporation of Whole, Ancient Grains into a Modern Asian Indian Diet: Practical Strategies to Reduce the Burden of Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anjali A.; Azar, Kristen M. J.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2011-01-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet, in an effort to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:21790614

  1. Digestion rate of legume carbohydrates and glycemic index of legume-based meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Héctor; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Alviña, Marcela

    2003-03-01

    A study was performed to examine the rate of digestion of available carbohydrate in legumes and its mixtures with cereals, prepared as commonly eaten. The legumes and cereals studied were lentil (Lens sculenta), pea (Pisum sativum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, var tortola), rice (Oryza sativa) and spaghetti. Foods were purchased at the city market. Total starch content and the carbohydrate digestion rates were determined using the enzymatic method proposed by Englyst et al. Total starch levels ranged from 7.78 g/100 g in cooked flour bean to 20.6 g/100 g in a bean-spaghetti dish, and dietary fiber contents ranged from 2.4 g/100 g in a cooked 70:30 lentil-rice mixture to 5.26 g/100 g in a cooked whole bean. The rapid digestion rate carbohydrates showed values from 4.8 in the bean soup to 8.9 in the bean-spaghetti combination. The same results show, expressed as rapid available glucose (RAG), the amount of rapid carbohydrate/100 g food or meal as eaten, and as the starch digestion index (SDI), the percentage of rapid carbohydrate digestion rate in relation to the total amount of carbohydrate. The RAG values ranged between 5.0 for cooked beans and 10 for cooked beans and spaghetti, and the SDI ranged between 40 for cooked pea flour and 62 for cooked bean flour. Legumes prepared as soup showed a higher rapid digestion rate than legumes prepared as whole grain. The bean-spaghetti based-meal and the lentil-based meal showed glycemic index mean and standard deviation values of 76.8 +/- 43.4 and 49.3 +/- 29.5, RAG values of 7.0 and 6.0, and SDI values of 57 and 54, respectively. The knowledge of the importance of the carbohydrate digestion rates in human health in increasing, and probably will soon be used in the development of the food pyramid. The foods with a moderate fraction of rapid digestion rate, such as legumes, should be included in the base of the pyramid. PMID:12701368

  2. GrainSpotter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for indexing multigrain diffraction data is presented. It is based on the use of a monochromatic beam simultaneously illuminating all grains. By operating in sub-volumes of Rodrigues space, a powerful vertex-finding algorithm can be applied, with a running time that is compatible...... with online analysis. The resulting program, GrainSpotter, is sufficiently fast to enable online analysis during synchrotron sessions. The program applies outlier rejection schemes, leading to more robust and accurate data. By simulations it is shown that several thousand grains can be retrieved. A new...... method to derive partial symmetries, called pseudo-twins, is introduced. Uniquely, GrainSpotter includes an analysis of pseudo-twins, which is shown to be critical to avoid erroneous grains resulting from the indexing....

  3. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela ePeukert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages (ß(2,1; ß(2,6-fructans or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses. Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed.

  4. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k......Da and HES 450 kDa) and dextran (DEX 500 kDa). Particle size and molecular weight distribution were determined by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The biodistribution was investigated non-invasively in nude mice using multispectral optical imaging. The most promising polymer conjugate was...

  5. Fine carbohydrate recognition of Euphorbia milii lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui, Fernando J; Vozari-Hampe, Magdolna M; Lardone, Ricardo D; Villarreal, Marcos A; Sendra, Victor G; Montich, Guillermo G; Trindade, Vera M; Clausen, Henrik; Nores, Gustavo A

    2005-10-14

    Glycans are key structures involved in biological processes such as cell attachment, migration, and invasion. Information coded on cell-surface glycans is frequently deciphered by proteins, as lectins, that recognize specific carbohydrate topology. Here, we describe the fine carbohydrate specificity of Euphorbia milii lectin (EML). Competitive assays using various sugars showed that GalNAc was the strongest inhibitor, and that the hydroxyl axial position of C4 and acetamido on C2 of GalNAc are critical points of EML recognition. A hydrophobic locus adjacent to GalNAc is also an important region for EML binding. Direct binding assays of EML revealed a stereochemical requirement for a structure adjacent to terminal GalNAc, showing that GalNAc residue is a necessary but not sufficient condition for EML interaction. The capacity of EML to bind epithelial tumor cells makes it a potentially useful tool for study of some over-expressed GalNAc glycoconjugates. PMID:16122701

  6. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  7. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  8. Mechanical behavior of a bulk nanostructured iron alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsley, J. E.; Fisher, A.; Milligan, W. W.; Aifantis, E. C.

    1998-09-01

    Bulk, fully dense materials were prepared from Fe-10Cu with grain diameters between 45 nm and 1.7 µm. The materials were prepared by ball milling of powders in a glove box, followed by hot isostatic pressing (hipping) or powder forging. Larger grain sizes were obtained by thermal treatment of the consolidated powders. The bulk materials were relatively clean, with oxygen levels below 1500 wpm and other contaminants less than 0.1 at. pct. The mechanical behavior of these materials was unique. At temperatures from 77 to 470 K, the first and only mechanism of plastic deformation was intense shear banding, which was accompanied by a perfectly plastic stress-strain response (absence of strain hardening). There was a large tension-compression asymmetry in the strength, and the shear bands did not occur on the plane of maximum shear stress or the plane of zero extension. This behavior, while unusual for metals, has been observed in amorphous polymers and metallic glasses. On the other hand, the fine-grained Fe-10Cu materials behaved like coarse-grained iron in some respects, particularly by obeying the Hall-Petch equation with constants reasonably close to those of pure iron and by exhibiting low-temperature mechanical behavior which was very similar to that of steels. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies found highly elongated grains within shear bands, indicating that shear banding occurred by a dislocation-based mechanism, at least at grain sizes above 100 nm. Similarities and differences between the fine-grained Fe-10Cu and metals, polymers, metallic glasses, radiation-damaged metals, and quench-damaged metals are discussed.

  9. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique......Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... tumour carbohydrate structure, since certain structures which are tumour-related in one organ may be normal constituents of other tissues. Tumour-associated carbohydrate changes have been used in the diagnosis of human cancers. Recently, however, it has been demonstrated that the expression of some...

  10. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  11. Inflation from bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the perfect fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model with the bulk-viscosity term. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit equation of state (EoS) of the viscous fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Furthermore, we show that the singular inflation can occur in the viscous fluid ...

  12. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and...... three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low...

  13. The effects of grain size and grain boundary characteristics on the thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, David; Anaya, Julian; Kuball, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the effects of each grain dimension and of grain boundary characteristics on the inter-grain thermal boundary resistance (TBR) and intragrain thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond. The effect of the grain boundaries perpendicular to the heat flow was studied using a multiple slab configuration, which greatly reduced the artifacts associated with the heat source/sink. The TBR between the slabs was found to be more sensitive to the atomic arrangement at the boundary than to the tilt angle between the slabs. When the atomic arrangement at the interface was altered from the minimum energy configuration, the TBR increased by a factor of three, suggesting that a sub-optimal interface quality between the grains could play a large role in reducing the thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond. The thermal conductivity between the boundaries was found to be similar to the bulk value, even when the boundaries were only 25 nm apart. The effect of grain boundaries parallel to the heat flow was found to have a large dependence on the microstructural details. Parallel boundaries which were 2 nm apart reduced the thermal conductivity of defect-free diamond by between one third and a factor of ten.

  14. Project of RE123 bulk superconductors fabrication in a microgravity environment; Bishojuryokuka chodensotai seizo purojekuto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, N; Murakami, M [International Superconductivity Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan); Shisa, A [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toky o(Japan); Hirata, H [Institute for Unmanned Space Experiment Free Flyer, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    Large single-grain bulk rare earth element (RE)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors can be used for various applications such magnetic bearings, load trapped field magnets. The magnetic field generated by bulk RE-Ba-Cu-O superconductors is proportional to its radius, however, the growth of a large single-grain bulk with good quality is difficult due to contamination from the substrate or the crucible and also due to liquid loss. Such problems can be solved by growing RE-Cu-O bulk in a microgravity environment, where the bulk can be supported by a seed crystal alone during crystal growth. Such experiments will be conducted in the Unmanned Space Experiment Recovery System (USERS) project. In this paper, the experiment plan and the present status of the system development are reported. (author)

  15. Bulk nanoscale materials in steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a number of nanoscale metallic materials exhibit interesting mechanical properties the fabrication paths are often complex and difficult to apply to bulk structural materials. However a number of steels which exhibit combinations of plasticity and phase transitions can be deformed to produce ultra high strength levels in the range 1 to 3 GPa. The resultant high stored energy and complex microstructures allow new nanoscale structures to be produced by combinations of recovery and recrystallisation. The resultant structures exhibit totally new combinations of strength and ductility to be achieved. In specific cases this also enables both the nature of the grain boundary structure and the spatial variation in structure to be controlled. In this presentation both the detailed microstructural features and their relation to the strength, work-hardening capacity and ductility will be discussed for a number of martensitic and austenitic steels.

  16. APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA TO RUNNER BEAN INCREASES SEED CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of two rhizobacterial strains with plant growth promoting capabilities (mineral phosphate solubilization and IAA production traits to influence the nutritive value of runner bean grains was assessed on plants cultivated in organic crop system. Seed inoculation with rhizobacterial strains improve the nutritive value of the harvested grains by enhancing the soluble protein content up to 11.97 % and total reducing carbohydrates content up to 28.97%. The number of fractions detected by SDS-PAGE analysis in the all extracts was around 20, without any significant differences between the control and the inoculated samples. Our study suggests that the two PGPR strains may be used as biofertilizer for vegetable production in sustainable and ecological agricultural systems.

  17. Continuous and discontinuous grain coarsening in a fine-grained particle-containing Al-Sc alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Al-0.2 wt% Sc alloy was solution treated, deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) to an effective true strain of 9.2 then aged for 3 h at 350 deg C to produce a fine-grained (0.8 μm diameter) microstructure containing a large fraction (∼0.7) of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). This ageing treatment also generated a relatively uniform dispersion of 5 nm diameter Al3Sc particles. Grain stability was investigated at temperatures up to 550 deg C using SEM, EBSD and TEM. It was found that the fine-grain structure was remarkably stable at temperatures up to 500 deg C with grain coarsening occurring gradually with no marked change in the grain size distribution, texture and grain boundary character. This homogeneous coarsening behaviour is usually termed continuous recrystallization. In this regime, both the fine-grained microstructure and Al3Sc particles exhibit third order coarsening kinetics with dR/dt ∝ dr/dt which indicates that grain coarsening is controlled by the rate of particle growth with the latter controlled by bulk diffusion of scandium in the Al matrix. During extended annealing at 500 deg C and for short times at higher temperatures, there is a notable transition from continuous to discontinuous grain coarsening whereby a small number of grains grow rapidly to produce a coarse (>10 μm) grain size. An analytical mean field model of grain coarsening in particle-containing alloys was shown to adequately predict this transition in coarsening behaviour

  18. Heterogeneous grain-scale response in ferroic polycrystals under electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, John E.; Majkut, Marta; Cao, Qingua; Schmidt, Søren; Wright, Jon; Jo, Wook; Oddershede, Jette

    2016-03-01

    Understanding coupling of ferroic properties over grain boundaries and within clusters of grains in polycrystalline materials is hindered due to a lack of direct experimental methods to probe the behaviour of individual grains in the bulk of a material. Here, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) is used to resolve the non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strain components of 191 grains from the bulk of a polycrystalline electro-ceramic that has undergone an electric-field-induced phase transformation. It is found that while the orientation of a given grain relative to the field direction has a significant influence on the phase and resultant domain texture, there are large deviations from the average behaviour at the grain scale. It is suggested that these deviations arise from local strain and electric field neighbourhoods being highly heterogeneous within the bulk polycrystal. Additionally, the minimisation of electrostatic potentials at the grain boundaries due to interacting ferroelectric domains must also be considered. It is found that the local grain-scale deviations average out over approximately 10–20 grains. These results provide unique insight into the grain-scale interactions of ferroic materials and will be of value for future efforts to comprehensively model these and related materials at that length-scale.

  19. Effect of temperature on the AC impedance of protein and carbohydrate biopolymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Muthulakshmi; S Iyyapushpam; D Pathinettam Padiyan

    2014-12-01

    The influence of temperature on the electrical behaviour of protein biopolymer papain and carbohydrate biopolymers like gum acacia, gum tragacanth and guar gum has been investigated using AC impedance technique. The observed semi-circles represent the material’s bulk electrical property that indicate the single relaxation process in the biopolymers. An increase in bulk electrical conductivity in the biopolymers with temperature is due to the hopping of charge carriers between the trapped sites. The depression parameter reveals the electrical equivalent circuit for the biopolymers. The AC electrical conductivity in the biopolymers follows the universal power law. From this, it is observed that the AC conductivity is frequency dependent and the biopolymer papain obeys large polaron tunnelling model, gum acacia and gum guar obey ion or electron tunnelling model, and gum tragacanth obeys the correlated barrier hopping model of conduction mechanisms.

  20. Multimodal grain size distribution and high hardness in fine grained tungsten fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Cross-sectional micrograph of spark plasma sintered tungsten with multimodal grain size distribution: (a) using focused ion beam (b) Bright field TEM image. Highlights: → High applied external pressure during SPS led to high density of the samples. → The consolidated samples by SPS had a multimodal size distribution. → Ultrafine grains were present within the samples sintered at low temperatures. → High Vickers hardness was obtained compared to commercial tungsten. → The consolidated samples were proved to be pure by chemical analysis. - Abstract: Preparation of fine grained, hard and ductile pure tungsten for future fusion reactor applications was tested using the bottom-up approach via powder consolidation by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperature (1300-1800 deg. C) and pressure (90-266 MPa) conditions. Pure tungsten powders with an average particle size of about 1 μm were sintered to high density (about 94%) with almost no grain growth at a temperature below 1400 deg. C and an applied pressure up to 266 MPa. These samples had a multi-modal grain size distribution (resembling the size distribution of the initial powder) and a very high Vickers hardness (up to 530 kg/mm2). Above 1500 deg. C fast grain growth occurred and resulted in a drop in hardness. XRD on the surface of bulk samples showed a small amount of tungsten oxides; however, XPS and EDS indicated that these oxides were only surface contaminants and suggested a high purity for the bulk samples. The results demonstrate that SPS can lead to ultrafine and nanocrystalline tungsten if used to consolidate pure nano tungsten powders.

  1. Ferroelectric properties of bulk and thin films of PMNT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite phase development study for bulk and thin films of PMNT 68/32 composition was carried out. B-site Columbite precursor technique was used for bulk system preparation whereas, sol-gel technique was used for thin film deposition on ITO coated glass substrates. Approximately 100% and 95% perovskite phase with grains of micron and sub-micron sizes were observed in bulk and thin films, respectively. Curie transition temperature, T c, for bulk and thin films were ∼150 deg. C and 190 deg. C, respectively. Polarization vs. electric field, P-E, hysteresis loops of PMNT 68/32 bulk and thin films showed remnant polarization, P r, ∼21.67 μC/cm2 and 1.1 μC/cm2 and coercive fields, E c, ∼3.9 and 7.7 kV/cm, respectively. Strain vs. electric field, S-E, behavior of PMNT 68/32 bulk ceramic showed piezoelectric nature of the material with a high value of maximum strain ∼1% at 19 kV/cm

  2. Artabas of grain or artabas of grains?

    OpenAIRE

    Clarysse, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Survey of the use of the singular and plural with Greek words for grain. The original plural gives way to the singular in the course of the Hellenistic period, but the plural reappears in the later Roman period for barley, whereas wheat, for which σῖτος is then used rather than πυρός, occurs in the singular. There are, however, a number of exceptions to the general picture, often depending on the case in which the words occur.

  3. 'Age-hardened alloy' based on bulk polycrystalline oxide ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Luv; Singh, Mahesh Kumar; Bhargava, Parag; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya

    2015-05-01

    We report here for the first time the development of 'age-hardened/toughened' ceramic alloy based on MgO in the bulk polycrystalline form. This route allows for the facile development of a 'near-ideal' microstructure characterized by the presence of nanosized and uniformly dispersed second-phase particles (MgFe2O4) within the matrix grains, as well as along the matrix grain boundaries, in a controlled manner. Furthermore, the intragranular second-phase particles are rendered coherent with the matrix (MgO). Development of such microstructural features for two-phase bulk polycrystalline ceramics is extremely challenging following the powder metallurgical route usually adopted for the development of bulk ceramic nanocomposites. Furthermore, unlike for the case of ceramic nanocomposites, the route adopted here does not necessitate the usage of nano-powder, pressure/electric field-assisted sintering techniques and inert/reducing atmosphere. The as-developed bulk polycrystalline MgO-MgFe2O4 alloys possess considerably improved hardness (by ~52%) and indentation toughness (by ~35%), as compared to phase pure MgO.

  4. Breakdown of Superconductivity in Small Metallic Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-Qian; ZHENG Ren-Rong

    2000-01-01

    Superconductivity in small metallic grains is carefully checked as their size is decreased to a few nm when the average level spacing d could be compared with the bulk gap Δ. Using random matrix theory to the mean field, we find that the average theoretical values of the critical level spacing for both odd and even numbers of electrons and the transition temperature Tc in three Gauss ensembles are quite different for those from the model of uniformly spaced levels. For Sz = 1/2, as grain size is reduced, the transition temperature or the granular gap decreases monotonously, and the relation 2△(0)/kB Tc ≤ 3.53 always exists.

  5. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  6. Chapter 22 (Part 3): Carbohydrate Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Mike A

    2012-01-01

    In this video I'll continue teaching you about carbohydrate chemistry. I'll teach you how to inter-covert between open- and close-chained forms of monosaccharides, illustrating their pyranose and furanose forms. I also teach you about alpha vs. beta sugars, which are called anomers, and I compare chair conformations with Haworth projections. I'll also teach you how to form glycosides from simple monosaccharides, with the mechanism. I'll introduce you to a few polysaccharides, which include st...

  7. Multiple grain boundary transitions in ceramics: A case study of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing body of the literature that suggests that there are grain boundary structures that exist in ceramic systems that are not predicted by bulk thermodynamics. Transitions between the various grain boundary structures are not well understood either experimentally or theoretically. This study identifies six different types of grain boundary structures present in the alumina system. These grain boundary structures were directly correlated with significantly different grain boundary mobilities. There is a general trend towards increasing grain boundary disorder and increasing grain boundary mobility with increasing temperature. This is the first time such a broad range of behavior has been observed in a single system. The results have many implications on understanding grain boundary transport phenomena in ceramic systems

  8. Microstructural evolutions and stability of gradient nano-grained copper under tensile tests and subsequent storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; You, Z. S.; Tao, N. R.; Lu, L.

    2015-08-01

    A gradient nano-grained (GNG) surface layer is produced on a bulk coarse-grained Cu by means of a surface mechanical grinding treatment. Homogeneous grain coarsening induced by mechanical deformation is observed in the GNG Cu layer under tensile tests at both 300 K and 123 K. The concurrent grain coarsening during tensile deformation is proven to be also thermally activated, because the extent of grain coarsening of the GNG Cu layer is less significant at 123 K than at 300 K, although a higher flow stress is achieved at 123 K. During the subsequent storage at 258 K after tensile tests, no obvious change can be found for the grain size in the GNG Cu layer deformed at 300 K. In contrast, widespread abnormal grain coarsening is frequently observed in the GNG Cu layer deformed at 123 K and stored for 100 days, which may be caused by the higher stored energy in the non-equilibrium grain boundary structures.

  9. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  10. Carbohydrate incorporation in plasma membranes of mouse thymocytes stimulated by concanavalin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thymocytes from CBA/J mice were stimulated with concanavalin A. Incorporation of various carbohydrates labelled with 14C and T, leucine and thymidine into trichloroacetic-acid-precipitable material was compared in stimulated and control cells. Incorporation of all carbohydrates, was enhanced in concanavalin-A-treated cells. Leucine and thymidine incorporation was increased 2 and 50-fold in stimulated cultures. The kinetics of fucose, galactose, glucosamine, leucine and thymidine incorporation were studied using 10-h pulses at various times during the cultivation. The incorporation of fucose, galactose and thymidine showed two maxima 5 and 30 h after the beginning of the cultivation. No pronounced maxima were seen with glucosamine and leucine. Plasma membranes from stimulated cells were prepared by a modified procedure of McCollester. When prepared from cells radioactively labelled with fucose or galactose, the plasma membrane fraction was enriched incarbohydrate label. Gel filtration experiments showed that fucose was only attached to glycoprotein, while other carbohydrate label was distributed between glycoprotein and a fraction containing glycolipids. Analysis of hydrolysed, carbohydrate-labelled membranes by paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis revealed that the bulk of the fucose and galactose label had not been converted into other substances, although some (10%) galactose is converted into glucose. Mannose label had been partially (14%) converted into fucose. Glucosamine label was found to be distributed in sialic acid (25%), glucosamine (40%), galactosamine (30%) and neutral compounds (5%). The data are discussed in relation to the sequence of biochemical events occurring at the cell surface during stimulation of thymocytes with concanavalin A. (orig.)

  11. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  12. Tools for glycomics: mapping interactions of carbohydrates in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Daniel M; Adams, Eddie W; Disney, Matthew D; Seeberger, Peter H

    2004-10-01

    The emerging field of glycomics has been challenged by difficulties associated with studying complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Advances in the development of synthetic tools for glycobiology are poised to overcome some of these challenges and accelerate progress towards our understanding of the roles of carbohydrates in biology. Carbohydrate microarrays, fluorescent neoglycoconjugate probes, and aminoglycoside antibiotic microarrays are among the many new tools becoming available to glycobiologists. PMID:15457538

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of novel carbocyclic carbohydrate analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Christopher William

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate analogues play an indispensible role in the study of glycan processing enzymes. These compounds have attracted attention as probes of enzyme mechanisms, as chemical tools for the elucidation of enzyme function and as potential pharmaceuticals. The development of organocatalytic aldol chemistry has fundamentally altered the way chemists approach the synthesis of carbohydrate analogues. In this thesis I highlight a novel strategy toward the synthesis of carbocyclic carbohydrate ana...

  14. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  15. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  16. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  17. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrially used carbohydrate oxidase was successfully crystallized in several forms, diffraction data suitable for structural analysis were collected. Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 Å and apparent space group P6222. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 Å, β = 95.7°. Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress

  18. Postexercise recovery period: carbohydrate and protein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viru, A

    1996-02-01

    The essence of the postexercise recovery period is normalization of function and homeostatic equilibrium, and replenishment of energy resources and accomplishment of the reconstructive function. The repletion of energy stores is actualized in a certain sequence and followed by a transitory supercompensation. The main substrate for repletion of the muscle glycogen store is blood glucose derived from hepatic glucose output as well as from consumption of carbohydrates during the postexercise period. The repletion of liver glycogen is realized less rapidly. It depends to a certain extent on hepatic gluconeogenesis but mainly on supply with exogenous carbohydrates. The constructive function is founded on elevated protein turnover and adaptive protein synthesis. Whereas during and shortly after endurance exercise intensive protein breakdown was found in less active fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, during the later course of the recovery period the protein degradation rate increased together with intensification of protein synthesis rate in more active fast-twitch glycolytic oxidative and slow-twitch oxidative fibers. PMID:8680938

  19. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  2. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Jelena D.; Radosavljević Miloš S.; Grujić Olgica S.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Nikolić Svetlana B.; Đukić-Vuković Aleksandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer) throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products) and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage cos...

  3. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  4. 19 CFR 19.31 - Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to be commingled in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Standards for Grain, see 7 CFR part 810. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.31 Bulk wheat of...

  5. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  6. Heterogeneous grain-scale response in ferroic polycrystals under electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniels, John E.; Majkut, Marta; Cao, Qingua;

    2016-01-01

    -ray diffraction (3D-XRD) is used to resolve the non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strain components of 191 grains from the bulk of a polycrystalline electro-ceramic that has undergone an electric-field-induced phase transformation. It is found that while the orientation of a given grain relative...... to the field direction has a significant influence on the phase and resultant domain texture, there are large deviations from the average behaviour at the grain scale. It is suggested that these deviations arise from local strain and electric field neighbourhoods being highly heterogeneous within the bulk...

  7. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  8. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1998-01-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge preserving between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singlely charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped a...

  9. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  10. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    James Wilfred Navalta; Brian Keith McFarlin; Scott Lyons; Scott Wesley Arnett; Mark Anthony Schafer

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: E...

  11. Calibration of DEM models for granular materials using bulk physical tests

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Mical William

    2010-01-01

    From pharmaceutical powders to agricultural grains, a great proportion of the materials handled in industrial situations are granular or particulate in nature. The variety of stesses that the matierals may experience and the resulting bulk behaviours may be complex. In agricultural engineering, a better understanding into agricultural processes such as seeding, harvesting, transporting and storing will help to improve the handling of agricultural grains with optimised solutions. A detailed un...

  12. Stable radicals and biochemical compounds in embryos and endosperm of wheat grains differentiating sensitive and tolerant genotypes--EPR and Raman studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdziel, Magdalena; Dłubacz, Aleksandra; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Filek, Maria; Łabanowska, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover the specific species in grains that might differentiate the wheat genotypes according to their tolerance to oxidative stress. Measurements by EPR and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used to examine whole grains and their parts (embryo, endosperm, seed coat) originating from four wheat genotypes with differing tolerance to drought stress. Raman spectra showed that, in spite of the similar amounts of proteins in whole grains from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, in tolerant ones they were accumulated mainly in embryos. Moreover, in embryos from these grains, a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids was observed. Endosperm of grains from the tolerant genotype, richer with starch than that of sensitive one, exhibited higher content of amylopectin. Detailed analysis of EPR signals and simulation procedures of the spectra allowed the estimation of the nature of interactions of Fe(III) and Mn(II) with organic and inorganic structures of grains and the character of organic stable radicals. Three types of these radicals: carbohydrate, semiquinone and phenoxyl, were identified. The amounts of these radicals were higher in grains of sensitive genotypes, mostly because of differences in carbohydrate radical content in endosperm. Taking into account the level of radical concentration and greater capacity for radical formation in grains from plants of lower tolerance to stress, the content of radicals, especially of a carbohydrate nature, was considered as a marker of the plant resistance to stress conditions. PMID:26121078

  13. [Determination of the total quantity of carbohydrates in dried yeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, O A; Ziukova, L A; Fedorovich, R M

    1975-01-01

    Different colourimetric methods for measuring carbohydrates in yeast have been compared. A method using 5% phenol aqueous solution in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid has been developed to quantitate carbohydrates. The method has been described as applied to an analysis of dry yeast. PMID:1129224

  14. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is...

  15. Why use DFT methods in the study of carbohydrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) and computer technology allow us to study systems with more than 100 atoms routinely. This makes it feasible to study large carbohydrate molecules via quantum mechanical methods, whereas in the past, studies of carbohydrates were restricted to ...

  16. Reinforcement effect of soy protein and carbohydrates in polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modulus of soft polymer material can be increased by filler reinforcement. A review of using soy protein and carbohydrates as alternative renewable reinforcement material is presented here. Dry soy protein and carbohydrates are rigid and can form strong filler networks through hydrogen-bonding...

  17. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  18. Structural and Functional Studies of Peptide-Carbohydrate Mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Pinto, B. Mario

    Certain peptides act as molecular mimics of carbohydrates in that they are specifically recognized by carbohydrate-binding proteins. Peptides that bind to anti-carbohydrate antibodies, carbohydrate-processing enzymes, and lectins have been identified. These peptides are potentially useful as vaccines and therapeutics; for example, immunologically functional peptide molecular mimics (mimotopes) can strengthen or modify immune responses induced by carbohydrate antigens. However, peptides that bind specifically to carbohydrate-binding proteins may not necessarily show the corresponding biological activity, and further selection based on biochemical studies is always required. The degree of structural mimicry required to generate the desired biological activity is therefore an interesting question. This review will discuss recent structural studies of peptide-carbohydrate mimicry employing NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling, as well as relevant biochemical data. These studies provide insights into the basis of mimicry at the molecular level. Comparisons with other carbohydrate-mimetic compounds, namely proteins and glycopeptides, will be drawn. Finally, implications for the design of new therapeutic compounds will also be presented.

  19. Helium bubbles at grain boundaries of high-density 238PuO2 shards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxide- and oxalate-base 238PuO2 shards that were sintered to high density at 1200 or 16000C and then aged for 6 months or more exhibited grain-boundary gas bubbles due to agglomeration of alpha-decay helium when heated to 12000C and above. Conditions for bubble formation depended markedly on shard microstructure; large-grained shards with few large residual sintering pores formed gas bubbles at lower temperatures than small-grained shards with many pores. This behavior was especially apparent in oxalate-base 238PuO2, in which small-grained shards resisted bubble formation to above 15000C; small-grained hydroxide-base shards with less internal porosity than oxalate-base shards formed bubbles at lower temperatures. Helium is apparently released from aged 238PuO2 shards at high temperatures by bulk diffusion within grains to the grain boundaries, where bubbles are formed and interconnect into networks which permit helium escape. It is postulated that helium is released by grain boundary diffusion at temperatures below thresholds for grain boundary bubble formation. Small grain size and high residual porosity within grains inhibit the formation of the grain-boundary gas bubbles by reducing the concentration of helium gas at the grain boundaries. (10 fig)

  20. Carbohydrate loading in the preoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L T; Miller, M G A

    2015-03-01

    Nutrition support is an evolving field, and modern clinical nutrition practice should actively incorporate strategies to enhance various clinical outcomes. In surgical patients, clinical benefits can be maximised by nutritional support protocols that minimise and manage the perioperative fasting period. This approach, which includes the perioperative provision of clear carbohydrate-containing fluids, has been shown to be safe, is evidence based, and is supported by many professional societies. Such a strategy has been shown to aid the anaesthetic process and maintain an optimal metabolic state, including improved insulin sensitivity and blunted muscle catabolic activity. Some important consequences of this improved metabolic control include shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications. A proactive multidisciplinary team approach is essential to use this nutrition support strategy with success across a hospital's surgical service. PMID:26294840

  1. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  2. Structure of a streptococcal adhesion carbohydrate receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interactions between complementary protein and carbohydrate structures on different genera of human oral bacteria have been implicated in the formation of dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Streptococcus sanguis H1 that is specific for the adhesion on Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 has been isolated from the streptococcal cell wall, purified, and structurally characterized. The hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was purified by reverse-phase, amino-bonded silica, and gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography. Earlier studies established that the repeating unit was a hexasaccharide composed of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose in the ration of 2:3:1, respectively. In the present study, determination of absolute configuration by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl (+)-2-butyl glycosides revealed that the rhamnose residues were of the L configuration while the hexoses were all D. 252Californium plasma desorption mass spectrometry of the native, the acetylated and the reduced and acetylated hexasaccharide determined that the molecular mass of the native hexasaccharide was 959, and that the 2 rhamnose residues were linked to each other at the nonreducing terminus of the linear molecule. Methylation analysis revealed the positions of the glycosidic linkages in the hexasaccharide and showed that a galactose residue was present at the reducing end. The structural characterization of the hexasaccharide was completed by one and two dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Complete 1H and 13C assignments for each glycosyl residue were established by two-dimensional (1H,1H) correlation spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, and (13C,1H) correlation experiments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages were inferred from the chemical shifts and coupling constants of the anomeric 1H and 13C resonances

  3. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  4. Sensitive LC MS quantitative analysis of carbohydrates by Cs+ attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatsky, Eduard; Jayatillake, Harsha; Goswami, Gayotri; Tomuta, Vlad; Stein, Daniel

    2005-11-01

    The development of a sensitive assay for the quantitative analysis of carbohydrates from human plasma using LC/MS/MS is described in this paper. After sample preparation, carbohydrates were cationized by Cs(+) after their separation by normal phase liquid chromatography on an amino based column. Cesium is capable of forming a quasi-molecular ion [M + Cs](+) with neutral carbohydrate molecules in the positive ion mode of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode, and transitions [M + 133] --> 133 were monitored (M, carbohydrate molecular weight). The new method is robust, highly sensitive, rapid, and does not require postcolumn addition or derivatization. It is useful in clinical research for measurement of carbohydrate molecules by isotope dilution assay. PMID:16182559

  5. Mining anaerobic digester consortia metagenomes for secreted carbohydrate active enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo;

    . To gain insight into both the degradation of the carbohydrates and the various roles of the microbes in the ADs we have mined metagenomes from both types of ADs for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, polysaccharide lyases, auxiliary activities, and carbohydrate binding modules. The mining...... thermophilic and mesophilic ADs a wide variety of carbohydrate active enzyme functions were discovered in the metagenomic sequencing of the microbial consortia. The most dominating type of glycoside hydrolases were β-glucosidases (up to 27%), α-amylases (up to 10%), α-glucosidases (up to 8%), α......-galactosidases (up to 9%) and β-galactosidases (up to 7%). For carbohydrate esterases the by far most dominating type was acetylxylan esterases (up to 59%) followed by feruloyl esterases (up to 16%). Less than 15 polysaccharide lyases were identified in the different metagenomes and not surprisingly...

  6. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and ...

  7. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology–cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and ...

  8. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  9. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  10. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  11. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  12. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring. PMID:27182176

  13. Grain Marketing Tools: A Survey of Illinois Grain Elevators

    OpenAIRE

    Whitacre, Rick C.; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2007-01-01

    As with most sectors of the agriculture economy, the U. S. country grain elevator industry has experienced considerable consolidation and concentration. By the same token, the country elevator's customer base (grain producers and landlords) has also changed rather dramatically as grain production takes place on larger and fewer farms. The profitability of operating a country elevator is directly related to the volume of grain the country elevator purchases over the course of a marketing year....

  14. Communication Optimizations for Fine-Grained UPCApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Iancu, Costin; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-07-08

    Global address space languages like UPC exhibit high performance and portability on a broad class of shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. The most scalable applications use bulk memory copies rather than individual reads and writes to the shared space, but finer-grained sharing can be useful for scenarios such as dynamic load balancing, event signaling, and distributed hash tables. In this paper we present three optimization techniques for global address space programs with fine-grained communication: redundancy elimination, use of split-phase communication, and communication coalescing. Parallel UPC programs are analyzed using static single assignment form and a data flow graph, which are extended to handle the various shared and private pointer types that are available in UPC. The optimizations also take advantage of UPC's relaxed memory consistency model, which reduces the need for cross thread analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis and optimizations using several benchmarks, which were chosen to reflect the kinds of fine-grained, communication-intensive phases that exist in some larger applications. The optimizations show speedups of up to 70 percent on three parallel systems, which represent three different types of cluster network technologies.

  15. Effect of Grain Position within a Panicle and Variety on As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb Concentrations in japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Two japonica rice varieties, a compact panicle (CP) Xiushui 63 and a loose panicle (LP) Xiushui 11 were grown in a slightly contaminated paddy field, to determine the effect of grain positions within a panicle and variety on grain As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb concentrations. There wasa significant difference in grain As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb concentrations among grain positions, and the extent of the difference was variety- and metal-specific; Xiushui 63 showed greater difference than Xiushui 11, and As, Cd, Cr and Pb being greater than Ni. The top grains (TG) of a panicle had higher As, Cd and Ni concentrations than the middle ones (MG), and the bottom ones (BG) contained the lowest. With regard to Cr and Pb, the case was opposite. Significantly positive correlations were found between grain weight and As, Cd, Ni concentrations, but there was a negative correlation between grain weight and Cr, and Pb concentrations. There was a remarkable variation in grain filling pattern among grains within a panicle, and between Xiushui 63 and Xiushui 11. In comparison with MG and TG, BG had the lowest grain filling rate and grain weight, leading to obvious difference in grain weight among grains within a panicle, and a greater difference for Xiushui 63 than for Xiushui 11. The regression analysis showed that grain As and Cd concentrations were positively correlated with the maximum grain filling rate (GRm),while negatively correlated with the required time for reaching the maximum grain filling rate (Tpoi). Concerning Cr and Pb, the case was just reverse. It is suggested that As and Cd accumulation in grains might be accompanied by the carbohydrate accumulations, while Cr and Pb accumulation displayed a different pattern.

  16. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  17. Gamma probe dry bulk densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma density probe is a useful instrument for measuring water content in small volumes of soil. Essentially, the gamma probe measures the density of the soil and water between a source and a detector. To transpose the gamma densities into water content, the dry bulk density of the soil is needed. A nondestructive method for estimating dry bulk densities for use with the gamma probe is proposed. The procedure is based on the assumption that water content values in a field dry condition were more stable than the dry bulk density values and could be transferred from one point to another. The procedure was successfully used on three areas in Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho. (U.S.)

  18. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  19. Enhanced ion irradiation resistance of bulk nanocrystalline TiNi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilmametov, A.R. [Institute for Nanotechnology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Buchig (Germany); Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, 12 K. Marx Street, 450000 Ufa (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ascar2@yandex.ru; Gunderov, D.V.; Valiev, R.Z. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, 12 K. Marx Street, 450000 Ufa (Russian Federation); Balogh, A.G. [Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hahn, H. [Institute for Nanotechnology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Buchig (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Bulk ordered nanocrystalline Ti{sub 49.4}Ni{sub 50.6} alloys with a grain size of 23-31 nm were prepared using severe plastic deformation. Nanocrystalline and coarse-grained alloys were subjected to 1.5 MeV Ar{sup +} ion irradiation at room temperature. At the same damage dose the nanocrystalline alloy retained the long-range order while the coarse-grained counterpart was amorphized. In contrast to former irradiation studies, fully dense nanocrystalline materials are used in the present study for the first time.

  20. Growth of crystalline grains in microcrystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of crystalline grains has been studied using atomic hydrogen plasma exposure on thick(∼190 nm) microcrystalline silicon films (μc-Si:H) with a low crystalline volume fraction (∼7%). Raman spectra reveal that the intensity near 520 cm-1 increases after hydrogen exposure. Cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of μc-Si:H films exposed to atomic hydrogen show the growth of crystalline grains extending from surface to bulk, approximately 100 nm. These results suggest that crystal formation in μc-Si:H films is likely to be caused by chemical annealing

  1. Oxalate in grain amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Bruce; Seguin, Philippe

    2007-06-13

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) is a widely adaptable C4 pseudo-cereal crop that has interesting nutritional characteristics including high protein and calcium concentrations and a lack of gluten. To date, no antinutrient has been found at problematic levels in grain amaranth; however, oxalate has not been thoroughly studied. Dietary oxalate is a potential risk factor for kidney stone development, and its presence in food lowers calcium and magnesium availability. Oxalate concentration and forms and calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in 30 field-grown grain amaranth genotypes from the species A. cruentus, A. hybrid, and A. hypochondriacus. The effects of seeding date and fertilization with calcium ammonium nitrate were evaluated in field experiments conducted in multiple environments; the effects of cooking were also evaluated. Mean total oxalate concentration in the 30 genotypes analyzed was 229 mg/100 g, with values ranging between 178 and 278 mg/100 g, the greatest proportion being insoluble (average of 80%). Calcium concentration averaged 186 mg/100 g and ranged between 134 and 370 mg/100 g, whereas magnesium averaged 280 mg/100 g and ranged between 230 and 387 mg/100 g. Fertilization only marginally increased total oxalate concentration and had no effects on other variables. Seeding date had no effects on any of the variables studied. Boiling increased the proportion of soluble oxalate but did not affect total oxalate concentration. Grain amaranth can be considered a high oxalate source, however, as most is in insoluble form, and due to its high calcium and magnesium concentrations, oxalate absorbability could be low. This should be confirmed by bioavailability studies. PMID:17511467

  2. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  3. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  4. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed

  5. Relative entropy and optimization-driven coarse-graining methods in VOTCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss recent advances of the VOTCA package for systematic coarse-graining. Two methods have been implemented, namely the downhill simplex optimization and the relative entropy minimization. We illustrate the new methods by coarse-graining SPC/E bulk water and more complex water-methanol mixture systems. The CG potentials obtained from both methods are then evaluated by comparing the pair distributions from the coarse-grained to the reference atomistic simulations.We have also added a parallel analysis framework to improve the computational efficiency of the coarse-graining process

  6. Atomistic investigation of the structure and transport properties of tilt grain boundaries of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply atomistic simulation techniques to address whether oxygen shows higher diffusivity at the grain boundary region compared to that in bulk UO2, and whether the relative diffusivity is affected by the choice of the grain boundary. We consider coincident site lattice grain boundaries, Σ3, Σ5, Σ9, Σ11 and Σ19, expressing the {n n 1}, {n 1 1}, and {n 1 0} surfaces, and evaluate the extent that the grain boundary structures affect the diffusion of oxygen. We found that oxygen diffusion is enhanced at all boundaries and in the adjacent regions, with strong dependence on the temperature and local structure

  7. Processing of MnBi bulk magnets with enhanced energy product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Wang, Wei; Nguyen, V. Vuong; Ma, Yilong; Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Liu, J. Ping; Sun, Kewei; Kramer, M. J.; Cui, Jun

    2016-05-01

    We report magnetic properties and microstructure of high energy-product MnBi bulk magnets fabricated by low-temperature ball-milling and warm compaction technique. A maximum energy product (BH)max of 8.4 MGOe and a coercivity of 6.2 kOe were obtained in the bulk MnBi magnet at room temperature. Magnetic characterization at elevated temperatures showed an increase in coercivity to 16.2 kOe while (BH)max value decreased to 6.8 MGOe at 400 K. Microstructure characterization revealed that the bulk magnets consist of oriented uniform nanoscale grains with average size about 50 nm.

  8. Modeling the Role of Small Scale Physics in Sediment Transport From Grain Size to Grain Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calantoni, J.; Holland, K. T.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years work has focused on the detailed physics of sediment transport at or near the grain scale. Although computational resources often restrict the domain size, deterministic models for sediment motions can prove useful in improving our understanding of sediment dynamics. Using a discrete particle model (DPM), we have performed computer simulations that describe the collective and individual motions of sediment grains immersed in fluid in an effort to emulate the physics of the sea floor, at the fluid-sediment interface, in shallow water under forcing from waves and currents. Examples of our DPM (briefly described) are shown for research applications at a range scales from millimeters to meters involving fluid flow models from simple one- dimensional eddy viscosity up to three-dimensional direct numerical simulation. Based on hundreds of different simulations over the past decade, our findings have shown: how a parameterization of pressure gradients or equivalently fluid accelerations on particle motions under waves influences sand bar migration in the surf zone; how grain shape changes bulk bedload transport rates; how efforts to model sediment particle motions in the swash zone can yield insight toward models for shoreline erosion and accretion; how recently simulated bedload transport using bimodal size distributions has uncovered a new power law; how upcoming work focuses on simulating the role of grain size distributions in small-scale sand ripple dynamics. Good agreement is found between comparisons of model output for both bulk transport rates and time dependent concentration profiles with laboratory data. Likewise, parameterizations obtained from simulation results have demonstrated skill in hindcast applications to both field and laboratory measurements. Conclusions will discuss the future role of reductionism in sediment transport modeling.

  9. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  10. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  11. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K; Siezen, Roland J; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  12. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela ePeukert; Johannes eThiel; Hans-Peter eMock; Doris eMarko; Winfriede eWeschke; Andrea eMatros

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages (ß(2,1); ß(2,6)-fructans) or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, whic...

  13. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, whic...

  14. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.

    1998-07-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge. Solutions involving anomaly terms preserve between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries but Chern-Simons fluxes generally break all of the remaining supersymmetry. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singly charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped around a space with non-zero first Pontryagin class picks up an electric charge proportional to the Pontryagin number.

  15. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  16. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  17. The carbohydrates in relation to mineralogic and granulometric composition of surface sediments in the karst estuary (River Krka estuary, Yugoslavia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadz̆ija, Olga; Jurac̆ić, Mladen; Luić, Marija; Tonković, Maja; Jeric̆ević, Biserka

    1985-11-01

    The investigation of mineral, granulometric and chemical composition of sediments of the River Krka estuary (Yugoslavia) were performed in order to elucidate the origin of the sediments and the pattern of sedimentation. Estuarine surface sediments were found to be fine-grained with a bimodal distribution. Environmental conditions in estuarine sediments favour conservation of the organic matter (anoxic conditions). The carbohydrates in the sediments were investigated to determine whether they are of terrigenous or authigenous origin. Glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, rhamnose, glucosamine and glucuronic acid were detected in the sediments. Their mutual relationship indicates a preferentially terrigenous source of sedimented organic material in estuarine sediments.

  18. Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox conditions (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C.; Disnar, J. R.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Lottier, N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of lignin and neutral carbohydrate compositions, combined with C, N and δ 13C analyses, was carried out on sedimentary cores, and on various vascular plant species collected in mangrove swamps of French Guiana. The main purpose of this study was to assess the diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in brackish to hypersaline fine-grained mangrove sediments characterized by great changes in redox conditions. Distribution of carbohydrates in sediments reflects both the lability of these compounds and their efficient recycling. They are subject to selective degradation, cellulosic glucose and xylose appearing to be the two most labile neutral sugars. In contrast a relative increase in arabinose, rhamnose, fucose and hemicellulosic glucose between plants and sediments, suggests that they may be more refractory and/or that they also derive from microbial synthesis. The total carbon from lignin-derived phenols is higher in sediments than in mangrove plants as a consequence of their rather refractory character. Nevertheless, evidence of lignin decomposition was found to be independent of local environmental conditions. The various redox processes that occur in mangrove sediments depend on plant species, stages in forest development and season. Different redox conditions induce different mechanisms for the decomposition of lignin and thus induce changes in phenol distributions. At depth, in most mangroves, an increase in (Ad/Al) v ratios and in deoxy sugars (fucose and rhamnose) content was significantly correlated with increased proportions of oxidized allochthonous organic debris deriving from the Amazonian detrital discharge, thus suggesting a specific source effect rather than a diagenesis induced change. Therefore, this study illustrates that both lignin and cellulose, derived from vascular plant debris, can be degraded in waterlogged mangrove sediments, and that their distribution depends on environmental conditions.

  19. Carbohydrates – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 5

    OpenAIRE

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine; Traeger, K.; Ockenga, J.; Kreymann, G.; Jauch, K.W.; Hauner, H.; Ebener, C.; Bolder, U

    2009-01-01

    The main role of carbohydrates in the human body is to provide energy. Carbohydrates should always be infused with PN (parenteral nutrition) in combination with amino acids and lipid emulsions to improve nitrogen balance. Glucose should be provided as a standard carbohydrate for PN, whereas the use of xylite is not generally recommended. Fructose solutions should not be used for PN. Approximately 60% of non-protein energy should be supplied as glucose with an intake of 3.0–3.5 g/kg body weigh...

  20. Pr0.67Ba0.33MnO3 in Bulk and Thin Film Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk polycrystalline of Pr0.67Ba0.33MnO3(PBMO) ceramic prepared via solid-state reaction and converted into thin films on corning glass, fused silica and MgO (100) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. As compared to bulk PBMO, the unit cell in thin film PBMO experienced positive misfit due to lattice strain induced by substrate used resulting MnO6 to deform (change in Mn-O-Mn bond angle and Mn-O bond length). Bulk PBMO had large grains (∼1.5μm) as compared to thin film which are nano-sized (P(156 K and 190 K) were observed in bulk due to core-shell effect as proposed by Zhang et al.. In summary, variation of electrical behaviour was observed between bulk and thin film samples which believed to be due to the difference of ordering in core (body) and grain surface.

  1. The Acute Impact of Ingestion of Sourdough and Whole-Grain Breads on Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Incretins in Overweight and Obese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Mofidi; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Stewart, Katherine A.; Tulk, Hilary M. F.; Robinson, Lindsay E.; Duncan, Alison M.; Graham, Terry E

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g) in part 1 (n = 12) and bread mass (107 g) in part 2 (n = 11), and blood gluco...

  2. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, D M; Romeo, P A; Olenchock, S A

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different popula...

  3. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Østergaard, Lars Henrik; Fuglsang, Claus Crone; Kolenko, Petr; Stepánková, Andrea; Hasek, Jindrich

    2009-06-01

    Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 A resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 A and apparent space group P6(2)22. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 A, beta = 95.7 degrees . Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 A. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress. PMID:19478452

  4. Carbohydrate degrading polypeptide and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Roubos, Johannes Andries; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2015-10-20

    The invention relates to a polypeptide having carbohydrate material degrading activity which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 4, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional protein and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  5. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  6. Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele: Untersuchung der Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen bzgl. Konversionsrate (degree of conversion = DC), Vickers-Härte (HV), Polymerisationsschrumpfungsstress (PSS) und Polymerisationsvolumenschrumpfung (PVS) im Vergleich zu konventionellen Kompositen. Material und Methode: Untersucht wurden die Bulk-Fill Komposite Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBF, 3M ESPE, Seefeld), Surefil Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR, Dentsply, Konstanz), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill...

  7. Discovering the Role of Grain Boundary Complexions in Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmer, Martin P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Grain boundaries are inherently an area of disorder in polycrystalline materials which define the transport and various other material properties. The relationship between the interfacial chemistry, structure and the material properties is not well understood. Among the various taxonomies for grain boundaries, Grain Boundary Complexion is a relatively new conceptual scheme that relates the structure and kinetic properties of grain boundaries. In this classification scheme, grain boundaries are considered to be distinct three dimensional (the thickness being considerably smaller as compared to the other two dimensions but nonetheless discernible) equilibrium thermodynamic phases abutted between two crystalline phases. The stability and structure of these interfacial phases are dictated by various thermodynamic variables such as temperature, stress (pressure), interfacial chemistry (chemical potential) and most importantly by the energies of the adjoining crystal surfaces. These phases are only stable within the constraint of the adjoining grains. Although these interfacial phases are not stable in bulk form, they can transform from one complexion to another as a function of various thermodynamic variables analogous to the behavior of bulk phases. Examples of different complexions have been reported in various publications. However, a systematic investigation exploring the existence of grain boundary complexions in material systems other than alumina remains to be done. Although the role of interfacial chemistry on grain boundary complexions in alumina has been addressed, a clear understanding of the underlying thermodynamics governing complexion formation is lacking. Finally, the effects of grain boundary complexions in bulk material properties are widely unknown. Factors above urge a thorough exploration of grain boundary complexions in a range of different materials systems The purpose of the current program is to verify the existence of grain boundary complexion

  8. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration in Antarctic Carbonaceous Chondrites from Comparative ICP-MS Bulk Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites (CC) indicate that these meteorites have been preserved in or on ice for, at least, tens of thousands of years. Due to the porous structure of these chondrites formed by the aggregation of silicate-rich chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal grains, and fine-grained matrix materials, the effect of pervasive terrestrial water is relevant. Our community defends that pristine CC matrices are representing samples of scarcely processed protoplanetary disk materials as they contain stellar grains, but they might also trace parent body processes. It is important to study the effects of terrestrial aqueous alteration in promoting bulk chemistry changes, and creating distinctive alteration minerals. Particularly because it is thought that aqueous alteration has particularly played a key role in some CC groups in modifying primordial bulk chemistry, and homogenizing the isotopic content of fine-grained matrix materials. Fortunately, the mineralogy produced by parent-body and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes is distinctive. With the goal to learn more about terrestrial alteration in Antarctica we are obtaining reflectance spectra of CCs, but also performing ICP-MS bulk chemistry of the different CC groups. A direct comparison with the mean bulk elemental composition of recovered falls might inform us on the effects of terrestrial alteration in finds. With such a goal, in the current work we have analyzed some members representative of CO and CM chondrite groups.

  9. The Effects of Grain Size and Temperature Distributions on the Formation of Interstellar Ice Mantles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T.

    2016-02-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry of dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote grain-mantle build-up, with most ices forming on the mid-sized grains. As collapse proceeds, the more abundant, smallest grains cool and become the dominant ice carriers; the large population of small grains means that this ice is distributed across many grains, with perhaps no more than 40 monolayers of ice each (versus several hundred assuming a single grain size). This effect may be important for the subsequent processing and desorption of the ice during the hot-core phase of star formation, exposing a significant proportion of the ice to the gas phase, increasing the importance of ice-surface chemistry and surface-gas interactions.

  10. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  11. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon....... Due to the large interindividual variations of hydrogen excretion, unabsorbable standards should be used. The intraindividual variations of H2 production/excretion and differences in fermentability of different carbohydrate substrates only allow for semiquantitative estimates of malabsorbed amounts of...... some carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under...

  12. Synthesis of Heterocylic Compounds of Biological Interest from Carbohydrate Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Martinez Esperón; Fascio, M. L.; N. B. D’Accorso

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of some isoxazolic compounds from carbohydrate derivatives is described. These products are obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction and their functionalization leads to derivatives with potential biological activities.

  13. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... zucchini. Foods that do not contain carbohydrates include meat, fish, and poultry; most types of cheese; nuts; ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  14. Carbohydrate and steroid analysis by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Talaty, Nari; Jackson, Ayanna U; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Cooks, R Graham

    2008-06-21

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is applied to the analysis of carbohydrates and steroids; the detection limits are significantly improved by the addition of low concentrations of salts to the spray solvent. PMID:18535704

  15. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J; Christensen, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well-defined monoc......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... were predominantly observed in the cell cytoplasm, most often in the supranuclear area, suggesting localization to the Golgi region, whereas ductal contents were unstained. Mucous acinar cells expressed Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and H and A antigens, regardless of glandular location. Serous acinar cells, on the...

  16. Carbohydrate vaccines: developing sweet solutions to sticky situations?

    OpenAIRE

    Astronomo, Rena D.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The realm of carbohydrate vaccines has expanded far beyond the capsular polysaccharides of bacterial pathogens to include a diverse collection of targets representing nearly every biological kingdom. Recent technological advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry are paving the way for a new era in carbohydrate vaccine design enabling greater efficiency in the identification, synthesis and evaluation of unique glycan epitopes found on a plethora of pathogens and malignant cells. This article...

  17. Synthesis of carbohydrate-scaffolded thymine glycoconjugates to organize multivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Anna K. Ciuk; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2015-01-01

    Multivalency effects are essential in carbohydrate recognition processes as occurring on the cell surface. Thus many synthetic multivalent glycoconjugates have been developed as important tools for glycobiological research. We are expanding this collection of molecules by the introduction of carbohydrate-scaffolded divalent glycothymine derivatives that can be intramolecularily dimerized by [2 + 2] photocycloaddition. Thus, thymine functions as a control element that allows to restrict the co...

  18. Co-occurrence of carbohydrate malabsorption and primary epiploic appendagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Kalmar, Peter; Mangge, Harald; Krause, Robert; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Unspecific abdominal complaints including bloating and irregular bowel movements may be caused by carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes, e.g., lactose and fructose malabsorption. These symptoms were investigated with hydrogen (H2) breath tests and correlated to carbohydrate malabsorption. During performing these H2-breath tests the patient presented with an acute, localized, non-migratory pain in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Primary epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of abdominal acut...

  19. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Samy I; Arora Surender K

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by ...

  20. Economics of Grain Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three years, in which preliminary designs were prepared, a grain irradiation plant has been designed and is being built into an existing silo installation. From this experience actual costs of plant construction are available for a plant using cobalt-60 and this experience is incorporated in estimates for machine installations for high grain throughput. Costs are compared for plants of comparable complexity and they indicate those areas in which each type of plant is pre-eminently suitable and those areas where either type may be best, dependent upon local site conditions, the standard of local technology and methods of operation. The two plants compared are described in sufficient detail to enable the precise extent of the equipment supply covered by the costs to be appreciated. The accounting methods employed have been discussed with industrial accountants to ensure that they are acceptable to the potential users. The methods employed are explained so that they can be applied to problems of a similar nature. (author)

  1. A Forecasting Model of Required Number of Wheat Bulk Carriers for Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayoshi Kubo

    2008-01-01

    <正>The ocean transportation of grain bulk carriers is promoted by development of ocean economic.With the development of coastal region,the cargo transportation wi11 become more and more important,especially for the resource such as grain,oil and coal.In this study,a model is built to estimate the number of grain bulk carriers needed for wheat based upon analyzing the relationships between Tons and Ton-miles of Africa wheat transportation.We find that the agricultural policies greatly affect the wheat transportation to Africa.Then,using two scenarios, we predict how many ships are necessary for the maritime transportation of wheat from other places to Africa in the future.We believe that this research is extremely useful to maritime transportation of wheat to Africa.

  2. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  3. Carbohydrate catabolic diversity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Heather P; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari; Stanton, Catherine; Paul Ross, R; Brulc, Jennifer; Menon, Ravi; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-06-16

    Because increased proportions of particular commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been linked to human health through a variety of mechanisms, there is corresponding interest in identifying carbohydrates that promote growth and metabolic activity of these bacteria. We evaluated the ability of 20 carbohydrates, including several commercially available carbohydrates that are sold as prebiotic ingredients, to support growth of 32 human-derived isolates belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, including those isolated from healthy elderly subjects. In general, bifidobacterial strains were shown to display more diverse carbohydrate utilization profiles compared to the tested Lactobacillus species, with several bifidobacterial strains capable of metabolizing xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), arabinoxylan, maltodextrin, galactan and carbohydrates containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) components. In contrast, maltodextrin, galactan, arabinogalactan and galactomannan did not support robust growth (≥0.8 OD600 nm) of any of the Lactobacillus strains assessed. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable among strains tested of the same species for both genera. This study advances our knowledge of polysaccharide utilization by human gut commensals, and provides information for the rational design of selective prebiotic food ingredients. PMID:25817019

  4. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  5. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  6. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  7. DEM Model of Wheat Grains in Storage Considering the Effect of Moisture Content in Direct Shear Test

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Johnny Sarnavi; A. Noor Mohammadi; A. Modares Motlagh; A. Rahmani Didar

    2013-01-01

    Discrete Element Method (DEM) modeling was conducted for predicting strength properties of stored wheat grains in different levels of moisture contents, to extend the knowledge of grain storage beyond current experimental studies in the future. The main features of agricultural and food materials that make them different from mineral materials are strong influence of Moisture Content (MC) on mechanical behavior. Published data on grain and bulk properties of wheat relevant to DEM modeling wer...

  8. COOPERATIVE MARKETING IN SPECIALTY GRAINS AND IDENTITY PRESERVED GRAIN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2002-01-01

    Marketing of specialty and identity preserved grains has become an important strategy in the grain marketing industry and is being driven, in part, by consumer and processor demand and an interest in non-GM products. This study provides background and practices of numerous organizations involved in marketing of specialty/identity preserved grains. Supporting marketing activities are reviewed. Key factors in the success (or failure) of their efforts are identified. Major challenges facing the ...

  9. Diatomaceous earths as alternatives to chemical insecticides in stored grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMIN NIKPAY

    2006-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust used to control insect pests in stored grain as an alternative to synthetic residual insecticides. Various DE formulations are now registered as a grain protectant or for structural treatment in many different countries throughout the world. The mode of action of DE is through the absorption of cuticular waxes in the insect cuticle,and insect death occurs from desiccation. The main advantages of using DE are its low mammalian toxicity and its stability. The main limitations to widespread commercial use of DE are reduction of the bulk density and flowability of grain,irritant hazards during application and reduction in efficacy at high moisture contents. This paper is an updated review of published results of researches related to the use of DEs and discusses their potential use in large-scale,commercial storage and in small scale applications.

  10. Mean-field model for the growth and coarsening of stoichiometric precipitates at grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a model for growth and coarsening of precipitates at grain boundaries is developed. The concept takes into account that the evolution of grain boundary precipitates involves fast short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries as well as slow bulk diffusion of atoms from the grain interior to the grain boundaries. The mathematical formalism is based on a mean-field approximation, utilizing the thermodynamic extremal principle. The model is applied to the precipitation of aluminum nitrides in microalloyed steel in austenite, where precipitation occurs predominately at the austenite grain boundaries. It is shown that the kinetics of precipitation predicted by the proposed model differs significantly from that calculated for randomly distributed precipitates with spherical diffusion fields. Good agreement of the numerical solution is found with experimental observations as well as theoretical treatment of precipitate coarsening

  11. Assessing the Impacts of Low Carbohydrate Related Health Information on the Market Demand for US Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.

    2005-01-01

    An Almost Ideal Demand System was estimated to examine the impacts of low carbohydrate information on the market demand for US vegetables. Analysis was extended to examine the performance of alternative carbohydrate information indexes. Study shows significant robust impacts of low carbohydrate information across all included vegetables. Results favor the general and weighted carbohydrate information index.

  12. Particle heterogeneity of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementson, C L; Ileleji, K E

    2012-03-01

    In this study the physical, morphological and chemical characteristics of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced by mixing three levels of condensed distillers soluble (CDS) (0%, 3.69% and 7.39% volumetric basis, v.b.) with wet distillers grains and drying were characterized. Decreasing the CDS level from 7.39% to 0% v.b. resulted in a reduction of 13.9% in geometric mean particle size and 8.8% in bulk density while the compressibility of the material increased by 3%. As the CDS level increased, pore volume, particle porosity and effective bulk porosity decreased. Crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber and ash content showed distinct patterns for all three samples studied and suggest that US sieve no. 16 (1190 μm) may be an inflection point for the chemical characteristics of DDGS granules within a bulk. The observed heterogeneity could cause sampling errors and particle segregation, and as a consequence nutrient and bulk density variability. PMID:22226592

  13. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  14. Influence of rounds sub-grains in high burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent paper, it has been shown that the so called 'rim structure' in high burnup UO2 fuel contains in fact two types of sub-grains: polyhedral and round ones. Polyhedral sub-grains have an average size of approximately 0.5 μm, and have been observed for more than ten years. The faceted porosity associated to these polyhedral sub-grains is characteristic of the rim effect. Round sub-grains have an average size of approximately 0.2 μm and are found to be formed on the free surface of initial grains or of polyhedral sub-grains. Round sub-grains can be observed in the rim area and also continuously from the periphery to the mid-pellet. This suggests that round sub-grains do not depend on rim effect, but are more likely to derive from a surface effect. In this contribution SEM photographs showing the evolution of the round sub-grains morphology will support a proposed mechanism for round sub-grains formation. This mechanism involves a surface modification due to stresses applied on a free surface using the Greenfeld formalism. These stresses could be due to segregation of fission products on some grain faces. This supposition is supported by EPMA experiments which show the segregation of some fission products on surfaces where round sub-grains are observed, while other surfaces with no round sub-grains have the same concentration in fission products as the bulk of the grains. Segregation of fission products on surface has also been observed in CANDU fuel by XPS. This specific behaviour of fission products gives a new insight in the chemistry of irradiated fuel and asks the question of the influence of round sub-grains formations on the release of fission products. (author)

  15. Charging of Individual Micron-Size Interstellar/Planetary Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper, we discuss experimental results on dust charging by electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly by low energy electron impact. Available theoretical models based on the Sternglass equation (Sternglass, 1954) are applicable for neutral, planar, and bulk surfaces only. However, charging properties of individual micron-size dust grains are expected to be different from the values measured on bulk materials. Our recent experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC) indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (e.g. Abbas et al, 2010). Here we discuss the complex nature of SEE charging properties of individual micron-size lunar dust grains and silica microspheres.

  16. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, R.; Grootboom, A. W.; Mehlo, L.; Mkhonza, N. L.; Kossmann, J.; Barnabas, A. D.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that poor digestibility in sorghum can be addressed by using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress kafirin synthesis. The approach resulted in a twofold improvement in overall protein digestibility levels. In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly, the most limiting amino acid, lysine, was significantly increased in the transgenic grains by up to 39%; whilst mineral elements in the bulk, such as sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) were reduced by up to 15.8% and 21% respectively. Elemental mapping of the grain tissue, using micro-PIXE, demonstrated a significant decrease in Zn (>75%), which was localised to the outer endosperm region, whilst TEM revealed important changes to the protein body morphology of the transgenic grains.

  17. Processing of bulk Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Polasek

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3 O10+x (Bi-2223 is one of the main high temperature superconductors for applications. One of these applications is the Superconductor Fault Current Limiter (SCFCL, which is a very promising high temperature superconducting device. SCFCL's can be improved by using bulk superconductors with high critical currents, which requires a sufficiently dense and textured material. In the present work, a process for improving the microstructure of Bi-2223 bulk samples is investigated. Pressed precursor blocks are processed by sintering with a further partial melting step, in order to enhance the Bi-2223 grain texture and to healing cracks induced by pressing. In order to improve the microstructure, the precursor is mixed with silver powder before pressing. Samples with and without silver powder have been studied, with the aim of investigating the influence of silver on the microstructure evolution. The phase contents and the microstructure obtained have been analyzed through XRD and SEM/EDS. The electromagnetic characterization has been performed by Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis. We present and discuss the process and the properties of the superconducting blocks. High fractions of textured Bi-2223 grains have been obtained.

  18. Grain Handling and Storage Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  19. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    OpenAIRE

    Ilgner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains a...

  20. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  1. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  2. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  3. Mesoscopic superconductivity in ultrasmall metallic grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nano-scale metallic grain (nanoparticle) with irregular boundaries in which the single-particle dynamics are chaotic is a zero-dimensional system described by the so-called universal Hamiltonian in the limit of a large number of electrons. The interaction part of this Hamiltonian includes a superconducting pairing term and a ferromagnetic exchange term. Spin-orbit scattering breaks spin symmetry and suppresses the exchange interaction term. Of particular interest is the fluctuation-dominated regime, typical of the smallest grains in the experiments, in which the bulk pairing gap is comparable to or smaller than the single-particle mean-level spacing, and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) mean-field theory of superconductivity is no longer valid. Here we study the crossover between the BCS and fluctuation-dominated regimes in two limits. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering, the pairing and exchange interaction terms compete with each other. We describe the signatures of this competition in thermodynamic observables, the heat capacity and spin susceptibility. In the presence of strong spin-orbit scattering, the exchange interaction term can be ignored. We discuss how the magnetic-field response of discrete energy levels in such a nanoparticle is affected by pairing correlations. We identify signatures of pairing correlations in this response, which are detectable even in the fluctuation-dominated regime

  4. Mesoscopic superconductivity in ultrasmall metallic grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhassid, Y. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nesterov, K. N. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-10-15

    A nano-scale metallic grain (nanoparticle) with irregular boundaries in which the single-particle dynamics are chaotic is a zero-dimensional system described by the so-called universal Hamiltonian in the limit of a large number of electrons. The interaction part of this Hamiltonian includes a superconducting pairing term and a ferromagnetic exchange term. Spin-orbit scattering breaks spin symmetry and suppresses the exchange interaction term. Of particular interest is the fluctuation-dominated regime, typical of the smallest grains in the experiments, in which the bulk pairing gap is comparable to or smaller than the single-particle mean-level spacing, and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) mean-field theory of superconductivity is no longer valid. Here we study the crossover between the BCS and fluctuation-dominated regimes in two limits. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering, the pairing and exchange interaction terms compete with each other. We describe the signatures of this competition in thermodynamic observables, the heat capacity and spin susceptibility. In the presence of strong spin-orbit scattering, the exchange interaction term can be ignored. We discuss how the magnetic-field response of discrete energy levels in such a nanoparticle is affected by pairing correlations. We identify signatures of pairing correlations in this response, which are detectable even in the fluctuation-dominated regime.

  5. Enhancement of minority carrier diffusion length in grains of cast Si by hydrogen heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.; Duenas-Santos, F.; del Valle, J. L.

    Minority carrier diffusion length (mcdl) enhancement in the bulk of grains of cast poly-silicon for solar cells has been produced by hydrogen heat treatments. Measurements made by LBIC method, showed an increase of mcdl in the bulk of grains from a mean value of 53 microns to a mean value of 69 microns, before and after the hydrogen heat treatments, respectively, under white light illumination. A mean increase ratio of 33% in the mcdl was obtained in a reproducible way and it was verified that hydrogen was effectively responsible. This result clearly establishes the hydrogen passivating role in this material

  6. Targeting Hormone-Related Pathways to Improve Grain Yield in Rice: A Chemical Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Tamaki

    Full Text Available Sink/source relationships, regulating the mobilization of stored carbohydrates from the vegetative tissues to the grains, are of key importance for grain filling and grain yield. We used different inhibitors of plant hormone action to assess their effects on grain yield and on the expression of hormone-associated genes. Among the tested chemicals, 2-indol-3-yl-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (PEO-IAA; antagonist of auxin receptor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor improved grain yield in a concentration dependent manner. These effects were also dependent on the plant developmental stage. NDGA and AIB treatments induced an increase in photosynthesis in flag leaves concomitant to the increments of starch content in flag leaves and grains. NDGA inhibited the expression of ABA-responsive gene, but did not significantly decrease ABA content. Instead, NDGA significantly decreased jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine. Our results support the notion that the specific inhibition of jasmonic acid and ethylene biosynthesis resulted in grain yield increase in rice.

  7. Bulk metallic glass tube casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. → Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. → Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. → Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

  8. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  9. Deformation-induced austenite grain rotation and transformation in TRIP-assisted steel

    OpenAIRE

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.; van Huis, M.A.; Kwakernaak, C.; Sietsma, J.; Sloof, W.G.; Zandbergen, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    Uniaxial straining experiments were performed on a rolled and annealed Si-alloyed TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) steel sheet in order to assess the role of its microstructure on the mechanical stability of austenite grains with respect to martensitic transformation. The transformation behavior of individual metastable austenite grains was studied both at the surface and inside the bulk of the material using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) by de...

  10. Importance of frequency-dependent grain boundary scattering in nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium thermoelectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Chengyun; Minnich, Austin J.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys are promising thermoelectric materials that have achieved substantially improved figure of merits compared to their bulk counterparts. This enhancement is typically attributed to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity by phonon scattering at grain boundaries. However, further improvements are difficult to achieve because grain boundary scattering is poorly understood, with recent experimental observations suggesting that the phonon tra...

  11. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  12. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  13. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  14. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the micr

  15. Radiative Torques on Interstellar Grains; 2, Grain Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T; Weingartner, Joseph C.

    1996-01-01

    Radiative torques on irregular dust grains, in addition to producing superthermal rotation, play a direct dynamical role in the alignment of interstellar dust with the local magnetic field. The equations governing the orientation of spinning, precessing grains are derived; H_2 formation torques and paramagnetic dissipation are included in the dynamics. Stationary solutions (constant alignment angle and spin rate) are found; these solutions may be stable ("attractors") or unstable ("repellors"). The equations of motion are numerically integrated for three exemplary irregular grain geometries, exposed to anisotropic radiation with the spectrum of interstellar starlight. The resulting "trajectory maps" are classified as "noncyclic", "semicyclic", or "cyclic", with examples of each given. We find that radiative torques result in rapid grain alignment, even in the absence of paramagnetic dissipation. It appears that radiative torques due to starlight can account for the observed alignment of interstellar grains wi...

  16. Effect of carbohydrate restriction and high carbohydrates diets on men with chemical diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J W

    1977-03-01

    The influence of low carbohydrate (CHO) diets, starvation, and high CHO diets on glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and plasma insulin response of men with chemical diabetes was studied. The GTT and insulin responses of these seven lean diabetic men were unchanged when the carbohydrate content of the diet was reduced from 44 to 20% of calories. After a 48-hr fast a significant deterioration of the GTT was observed in these diabetic men but the percentage change was identical to that reported previously for normal men. Thus these studies indicate that changes in glucose mtes are quite similar to those reported previously for normal men. The fasting plasma glucose values of seven lean and four obese men with chemical diabetes were significantly lower after one week on a 75% CHO diet than values on a 44% CHO diet. The 75% CHO diet also was accompanied by slight improvements in the oral and intravenous GTT and by slightly lower plasma insulin responses. The improvement in glucose metabolism on high CHO diets appears to results from increased insulin sensitivity. Serum triglyceride values were approximately 55% higher on the 75% CHO diet than values on the 44% CHO diet for the 11 men but these differences were not statistically significant. These studies support previous observations and suggest that high CHO diets may be beneficial in the management of certain diabetic patients. However, further studies are required to determine the long-term effects of high CHO diets containing natural foods on the glucose and lipid metabolism of diabetic patients. PMID:842491

  17. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher

  18. The Effects of Grain Size and Temperature Distributions on the Formation of Interstellar Ice Mantles

    CERN Document Server

    Pauly, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry on dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote ...

  19. A phase-field model of stress effect on grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a phase-field model to study the stress-driven grain boundary migration in elastically inhomogeneous polycrystalline materials with arbitrary elastic inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The dependence of elastic stiffness tensor on grain orientation is taken into account, and the elastic equilibrium equation is solved using the Fourier spectral iterative-perturbation method. We studied the migration of planar and curved grain boundaries under an applied stress. The relation between grain boundary migration velocity and driving force is found to be linear in the steady-state regime. Our study shows that the stress distribution depends on the relative misorientation between the grains and the nature of the applied load. As a consequence, the mechanism of grain boundary migration is different when the load is applied parallel or perpendicular to a grain boundary. The bulk mechanical driving force for grain boundary migration is provided by the difference in the level of stress in the adjoining grains which arise due to difference in elastic moduli. We further show that under certain conditions an applied stress may act as a precursor to abnormal grain growth

  20. Nano-analysis of grain boundary and triple junction transport in nanocrystalline Ni/Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda Chellali, Mohammed, E-mail: m_chel01@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Materials Physics, Westf. Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, Faculté des Sciences, Université d' Oran (Algeria); Balogh, Zoltan; Schmitz, Guido [Institute of Materials Physics, Westf. Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Nanocrystalline materials are distinguished by a high density of structural defects and grain boundaries. Due to the small grain size, a particular defect of the grain boundary topology, the so-called triple junction takes a dominant role for grain growth and atomic transport. We demonstrate by atom probe tomography that triple junctions in nanocrystalline Cu have 100–300 times higher diffusivity of Ni than standard high angle grain boundaries. Also, a previously unexpected systematic variation of the grain boundary width with temperature is detected. The impurity segregation layer at the grain boundaries grows from the 0.7 nm at 563 K to 2.5 nm at 643 K. This variation is clearly not controlled by simple bulk diffusion. Taking this effect into consideration, the activation energies for Ni diffusion in triple junctions and grain boundaries in Cu can be determined to be (83±10) and (120±15) kJ/mol, respectively. Thus, triple junctions are distinguished by considerably lower activation energy with respect to grain boundaries. - Highlights: ► TJs, GBs, and individual grains are clearly localized. ► Diffusion (and segregation) in TJ can be studied. ► TJs diffusivity more than 2 orders of magnitude faster than GBs. ► The chemical width of GBs grows from 0.7 nm at 563 K to 2.5 nm at 643 K.

  1. Bulk dynamics for interfacial growth models

    OpenAIRE

    López, Cristóbal; Santos, Fernando; Garrido, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of the bulk dynamics of a growing cluster of particles on the properties of its interface. First, we define a general bulk growth model by means of a continuum Master equation for the evolution of the bulk density field. This general model just considers an arbitrary addition of particles (though it can be easily generalized to consider subtraction) with no other physical restriction. The corresponding Langevin equation for this bulk density field is derived where the i...

  2. Phase transformation of goethite into magnetite by reducing with carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudchenko N.O.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase transformations of synthetic goethite and goethite ore from Kryvyi Rih region by reducing with different carbohydrates (starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose and ascorbic acid were investigated by thermomagnetic analysis. Thermomagnetic analysis was carried-out using laboratory device that allows automatic registration of sample magnetization with the temperature (the rate of sample heating/cooling was 65-80°/min. The reduction reaction of synthetic goethite for all carbohydrates starts at the temperature of ~250°C while reduction of goethite ore for all carbohydrates starts at the temperature of ~450°C. We could relate this increasing of reduction start temperature with shielding effect of admixtures in the ore. Reduction of synthetic goethite at this temperature range leads to formation of magnetic phase with saturation magnetisation ~70 A*m2/kg. At the same time, reduction of goethite ore leads to formation of magnetic phase with saturation magnetisation ~25 A*m2/kg. One could attribute this decreased value of saturation magnetisation to the presence of other minerals (quartz, etc. in the ore. It was shown by X-Ray Diffraction method that goethite completely transforms into magnetite under heating with different carbohydrates up to 650°C. All carbohydrates reduce goethite to magnetite.

  3. Grain growth in thin Al films during deposition from partially ionized vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, I. V.; Mokhniuk, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Grain growth in thin Al films during deposition from partially ionized vapor flux with simultaneous self-ion bombardment was studied in this work. The films were deposited at constant ion energy of 940 eV and total specific power of 0.4 W/cm2 while the deposition time t of 6 s to 246 s and the resulting substrate temperature (Ts/Tm of 0.35-0.96) were varied. Thin continuous Al films exhibited normal grain growth through the entire experimental range of deposition time without limitation of grain growth by the film thickness effect. Three kinetic stages of the grain growth were observed within 100 s of deposition time: the first one exhibits very slow grain growth, accelerated grain growth occurs in the second stage and then it rapidly changes to a retardation and stagnation mode in the third stage. Large average grain sizes Dg up to 11.3 μm at film thickness of 1.4 μm and integral grain growth rates up to 0.16 μm/s were observed in this study. The experimental results were evaluated against various mechanisms of inhibition of grain growth. An estimate of the effective activation energy of the grain growth yields a value of 0.27 eV which is lower than that of the bulk Al and much higher than the activation energy of surface self-diffusion on (1 1 1)Al monocrystal. The power law Dg = (k t)0.5 gives good match with experimental results in the initial deposition phase preceding the grain growth retardation, while another model that is based on the grain size dependent pinning force adequately explains the entire grain size dependence on time. It is deemed both ion enhanced film/surface interaction and impurities on one side and thermal grooves on another side contribute to the rapid retardation of the grain grooves commencing the second growth stage.

  4. The Antinutritional Components of Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Grains provide humans and farmed animals with a very large proportion of the energy and macro- and micronutrients they need. Unfortunately, grains also contain compounds that interfere with the utilization of the nutrients by animals. These so-called antinutritionals may result in poor resource...

  5. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-6: Data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-6 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on four thermal/mechanical units, TCw, PTn, TSw1 and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the borehole. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water saturated specimens; however, some specimens of PTn were tested in a room dry condition. The nominal strain rate for the fracture experiments was 10-5 s -1

  6. Improvement of the mechanical properties of bulk superconductors; Jushiganshin niyoru baruku chodendotai no kikaitekitokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, M; Murakami, M [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    Large single-grain bulk rare earth element (RE)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors can trip large fields exceeding several teslas and thus can function as very strong quasi-permanent magnets. However, the maximum trapped field is essentially limited by the mechanical strength of the bulk superconductors. The stress produced by refrigeration sometimes causes cracking. A large electromagnetic force also acts on superconductors when they trap large magnetic fields, and this occasionally leads to device failure. We have recently found that epoxy resin can penetrate into bulk superconductors under certain conditions. Microstructural observation revealed that microcracks as well as porosities can be impregnated with epoxy resin, which greatly improves the mechanical properties of bulk RE-Ba-Cu-O and thus results in the improvement of field trapping capability. (author)

  7. Urbanization and Grain Production Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyang; LI; Dongge; LIU

    2015-01-01

    Based on DEA-Malmquist method,this paper calculated the integrated technology efficiency of grain production and total factor productivity and analyzed factors influencing the grain production technology efficiency using working documents of panel structure. Research results indicate that grain production integrated technology efficiency of China is relatively low,technology utilization level is low,and it remains at the stage of decreasing returns to scale,and the pure technology efficiency still has space to increase. Total factor productivity is declining and the total factor productivity of many provinces is relatively low. Since the total factor productivity of eastern areas is higher than central and western areas,it is required to strengthen technological support for grain production. The implementation of urbanization is helpful for promoting increase of grain production technology efficiency in central and eastern areas,but it will exert negative influence on western areas.

  8. Carbohydrate-Related Inhibitors of Dengue Virus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Suzuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans. The virus entry process mediated through host receptor molecule(s is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue disease. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying virus entry is essential for an understanding of dengue pathology and for the development of effective new anti-dengue agents. DENV binds to its receptor molecules mediated through a viral envelope (E protein, followed by incorporation of the virus-receptor complex inside cells. The fusion between incorporated virus particles and host endosome membrane under acidic conditions is mediated through the function of DENV E protein. Carbohydrate molecules, such as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG and glycosphingolipids, and carbohydrate-recognition proteins, termed lectins, inhibit virus entry. This review focuses on carbohydrate-derived entry inhibitors, and also introduces functionally related compounds with similar inhibitory mechanisms against DENV entry.

  9. Carbohydrate mimetics and scaffolds: sweet spots in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; La Ferla, Barbara; Airoldi, Cristina; Zona, Cristiano; Orsato, Alexandre; Shaikh, Nasrin; Russo, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Several glycoprocessing enzymes and glycoreceptors have been recognized as important targets for therapeutic intervention. This concept has inspired the development of important classes of therapeutics, such as anti-influenza drugs inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, anti-inflammatory drugs targeting lectin-sialyl-Lewis X interaction and glycosidase inhibitors against HIV, Gaucher's disease, hepatitis and cancer. These therapeutics are mainly carbohydrate mimics in which proper modifications permit stronger interactions with the target protein, higher stability, better pharmacokinetic properties and easier synthesis. Furthermore, the conformational rigidity and polyfunctionality of carbohydrates stimulate their use as scaffolds for the generation of libraries by combinatorial decoration with different pharmacophores. This mini-review will present examples of how to exploit carbohydrates mimics and scaffolds in drug research. PMID:21426009

  10. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Various irrigation cycles effect on grain yield, proline and adaptive metabolits in some wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress globally affects the growth and production of plants. Wheat is an important crop whose research in this aspect is highly noticeable related to food quality. In recent study, the effects of two different irrigation cycles (weekly (control and 15-day irrigation on leaf proline, carbohydrate, N, P, K accumulation and grain yield of three wheat genotypes (Chamran, Dehdasht and Kohdasht were evaluated at the field of Agriculture Research Station of Borazjan, Bushehr state, Iran, during 2011-2012 growing season. Experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The results demonstrated that different irrigation cycles and wheat genotype effects were significant on leaf proline, carbohydrate, K leaf accumulation and grain yield. This finding suggested that Dehdasht genotype could be considered as more resistance genotype against drought condition than Kohdasht and Chamran genotypes. In arid condition which water is limited and dry land farming is necessary, Kohdasht could be selected as a tolerance genotype to water deficiency. Accumulation of proline and carbohydrates was also considered as osmotic adjustment in response to drought stress condition.

  12. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference to...

  13. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  14. Delivery of dust grains from comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) to Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Tricarico, Pasquale; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Sykes, Mark V.; Li, Jian-Yang; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnocchia, Davide; Stevenson, Rachel; Bauer, James. M.; Lock, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will have a close encounter with Mars on October 19, 2014. We model the dynamical evolution of dust grains from the time of their ejection from the comet nucleus to the Mars close encounter, and determine the flux at Mars. Constraints on the ejection velocity from Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that the bulk of the grains will likely miss Mars, although it is possible that a few-percent of grains with higher velocities will reach Mars, peaking app...

  15. Characterization of carbohydrate-protein matrices for nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2011-05-01

    Amorphous carbohydrates may show glass transition and crystallization as a result of thermal or water plasticization. Proteins often affect the state transitions of carbohydrates in carbohydrate-protein systems. Water sorption behavior and effects of water on glass transition and crystallization in freeze-dried lactose, trehalose, lactose-casein (3: 1), lactose-soy protein isolate (3:1), trehalose-casein (3:1), and trehalose-soy protein isolate (3:1) systems were studied. Water sorption was determined gravimetrically as a function of time, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) models were fitted to the experimental data. Glass transition temperature (T(g)) and instant crystallization temperature (T(ic)) in anhydrous and water plasticized systems were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to model water content dependence of the T(g) values. The critical water content and water activity (a(w)) at 24 °C were calculated and crystallization of lactose and trehalose in the systems was followed at and above 0.54 a(w). Carbohydrate-protein systems showed higher amounts of sorbed water and less rapid sugar crystallization than pure sugars. A greater sugar crystallization delay was found in carbohydrate-casein systems than in carbohydrate-soy protein isolate systems. The T(g) and T(ic) values decreased with increasing water content and a(w). However, higher T(ic) values for lactose-protein systems were found than for lactose at the same a(w). Trehalose showed lower T(ic) value than lactose at 0.44 a(w) but no instant crystallization was measured below 0.44 a(w). State diagrams for each system are useful in selecting processing parameters and storage conditions in nutrient delivery applications. PMID:22417357

  16. Vina-Carb: Improving Glycosidic Angles during Carbohydrate Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedha, Anita K; Thieker, David F; Makeneni, Spandana; Hu, Huimin; Woods, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Molecular docking programs are primarily designed to align rigid, drug-like fragments into the binding sites of macromolecules and frequently display poor performance when applied to flexible carbohydrate molecules. A critical source of flexibility within an oligosaccharide is the glycosidic linkages. Recently, Carbohydrate Intrinsic (CHI) energy functions were reported that attempt to quantify the glycosidic torsion angle preferences. In the present work, the CHI-energy functions have been incorporated into the AutoDock Vina (ADV) scoring function, subsequently termed Vina-Carb (VC). Two user-adjustable parameters have been introduced, namely, a CHI- energy weight term (chi_coeff) that affects the magnitude of the CHI-energy penalty and a CHI-cutoff term (chi_cutoff) that negates CHI-energy penalties below a specified value. A data set consisting of 101 protein-carbohydrate complexes and 29 apoprotein structures was used in the development and testing of VC, including antibodies, lectins, and carbohydrate binding modules. Accounting for the intramolecular energies of the glycosidic linkages in the oligosaccharides during docking led VC to produce acceptable structures within the top five ranked poses in 74% of the systems tested, compared to a success rate of 55% for ADV. An enzyme system was employed in order to illustrate the potential application of VC to proteins that may distort glycosidic linkages of carbohydrate ligands upon binding. VC represents a significant step toward accurately predicting the structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes. Furthermore, the described approach is conceptually applicable to any class of ligands that populate well-defined conformational states. PMID:26744922

  17. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  18. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ∼350 Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry

  19. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  20. Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Dust Grain Charging in Space Environments: Measurements on Apollo 11 and 17 Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), and heliospheric, interplanetary, planetary, and lunar environments. The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials and theoretical models. In this paper we present experimental results on charging of individual dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust samples by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10- 400 eV energy range. The charging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of approximately 0.2 to 13 microns diameters are discussed in terms of the secondary electron emission (SEE) process, which is found to be a complex charging process at electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between dust charging properties of individual small size dust grains and of bulk materials.

  1. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  2. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  3. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment. PMID:26978392

  4. Synthesis of carbohydrate-scaffolded thymine glycoconjugates to organize multivalency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuk, Anna K; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2015-01-01

    Multivalency effects are essential in carbohydrate recognition processes as occurring on the cell surface. Thus many synthetic multivalent glycoconjugates have been developed as important tools for glycobiological research. We are expanding this collection of molecules by the introduction of carbohydrate-scaffolded divalent glycothymine derivatives that can be intramolecularily dimerized by [2 + 2] photocycloaddition. Thus, thymine functions as a control element that allows to restrict the conformational flexibility of the scaffolded sugar ligands and thus to "organize" multivalency. With this work we add a parameter to multivalency studies additional to valency. PMID:26124869

  5. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  6. Guidelines for Measuring Bulk Density of Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk density is defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of undisturbed soil. • Bulk density can be used to give an indication of the porosity and structure of the soil influencing O2 and H2O movement in the soil. • Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 may restrict root development. • Bulk density is also a measurement of the degree of compaction of the soil. • Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with soil depth. • Sandy soils tend to have higher bulk density (1.4-1.5 g/cm3) than clay soils (1.2-1/3g/cm3). The measurement of soil bulk density is carried out by collecting undisturbed soil samples through inserting metal rings (with a known volume) into the soil, and determining the weight of the collected soil after drying

  7. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  8. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts. PMID:26760673

  9. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A;

    2002-01-01

    -fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels......, compared with when the carbohydrate diet is consumed throughout training....

  10. Quantitative characterisation of sedimentary grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunwal, Mohit; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of sedimentary texture helps in determining the formation, transportation and deposition processes of sedimentary rocks. Grain size analysis is traditionally quantitative, whereas grain shape analysis is largely qualitative. A semi-automated approach to quantitatively analyse shape and size of sand sized sedimentary grains is presented. Grain boundaries are manually traced from thin section microphotographs in the case of lithified samples and are automatically identified in the case of loose sediments. Shape and size paramters can then be estimated using a software package written on the Mathematica platform. While automated methodology already exists for loose sediment analysis, the available techniques for the case of lithified samples are limited to cases of high definition thin section microphotographs showing clear contrast between framework grains and matrix. Along with the size of grain, shape parameters such as roundness, angularity, circularity, irregularity and fractal dimension are measured. A new grain shape parameter developed using Fourier descriptors has also been developed. To test this new approach theoretical examples were analysed and produce high quality results supporting the accuracy of the algorithm. Furthermore sandstone samples from known aeolian and fluvial environments from the Dingle Basin, County Kerry, Ireland were collected and analysed. Modern loose sediments from glacial till from County Cork, Ireland and aeolian sediments from Rajasthan, India have also been collected and analysed. A graphical summary of the data is presented and allows for quantitative distinction between samples extracted from different sedimentary environments.

  11. Bulk and Grain Boundary Electrical Behaviours in Nb and Sn Doped Calcium Copper Titanium Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Arbintarso, Ellyawan Setyo

    2014-01-01

    Three types of Calcium Copper Titanium oxide (CCTO), i.e. pure CCTO, niobium doped CCTO, and tin doped CCTO were obtained by mixed oxide route. The niobium and tin as a dopant were selected with the variation of doping concentration to create the stoichiometric formula CaCu3Ti4-xMxO12 (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25; M = Nb, and Sn). Three different sintering times were applied for all the samples. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy,impedance spectroscopy at high and low te...

  12. Novel seeds applicable for mass processing of LRE-123 single-grain bulks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Ishihara, A.; Jirsa, Miloš; Fukumoto, .Y.; Tomita, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2010), 124003/1-124003/8. ISSN 0953-2048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : batch processing * Gd-123 * LRE-123 * Nd-123 thin film seed Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2010

  13. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql (EPA); (Bangladesh); (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  14. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drink Matters Variety Amount Nutrition Other Ingredients Choosing Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars ... may reduce the risk of heart disease. Consuming foods containing fiber, ... weight management. Eating grain products fortified with folate before and ...

  15. Changes of quality properties of spring wheat grain resulting from some agrotechnical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grundas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological value of grain of two cultivars of spring wheat (cv. Broma and cv. Torka, cultured in years 2002-2004 with two levels of N-fertilization applied, was tested. Yield, thousand kernel weight, bulk density, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index and falling number were estimated. Influence of weather conditions in each of vegetation period on quality of grain was analysed. Results showed higher yield of grain of Broma cultivar. Significant differences between years of experiment were observed. Higher level of N-fertilization caused increase of protein content in grain of both cultivars; higher protein content and gluten index for Torka was observed. Weather conditions in 2003 caused decrease of grain quality.

  16. Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.

    2008-12-01

    the δ13C value of their blood and saliva relative to baseline: blood clot was enriched by 0.27‰; blood serum by 0.50‰ and saliva by 1.12‰. We believe this overall enrichment resulted from a 13C-enriched bulk diet (δ13C = - 20.42‰) relative to the subjects free-living diet. Evidence for this derives from inspection of foods within the bulk diet provided, compared to published profiles of the typical American diet. We will discuss possible complicating factors, such as differential absorption and metabolism of the supplements according to solubility and caloric value. These results are encouraging for the development of a δ13C blood serum biomarker that, in the company of other tests, could be used to indicate a change in carbohydrate intake. Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J. and Popkin, B.M., 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79: 537-543. Havel, P.J., 2005. Dietary fructose: Implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrition Reviews, 63(5): 133-157. Tilman D., 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature, 396:211-212.

  17. Size-induced enhancement of bulk modulus and transition pressure of nanocrystalline Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, J.F.; He, Yongqi;

    2007-01-01

    modulus and transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size. Models are suggested to describe the grain-size dependences of bulk modulus and transition pressure. The trend of the predicted results is consistent with the experimental results while the absolute values are still different from......In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation source have been performed on nanocrystalline Ge with particle sizes 13, 49 and 100 nm by using diamond anvil cell. Whereas the percentage volume collapse at the transition is almost constant, the values of the bulk...

  18. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturation in Lilium: influence of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Clement

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for in vitro conform pollen maturation, as a model to study the involvement of carbohydrates on pollen maturation in Lilium. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturations were followed and compared by transmission electron microscopy, and several in vitro parameters were tested in terms of carbohydrate physiology. In vivo, pollen maturation was initiated at the vacuolated microspore stage, and consisted of two successive phases. The first phase was characterized by reactivation of microspore organelles, followed by microspore mitosis, starch synthesis and vacuole breakdown. During the second phase, starch was progressively degraded whereas lipid and phytine reserves accumulated. In vivo, pollen maturation occured within 14 days and pollen germination rate was 73.6 ± 2.2%. We then attempted to realise in vitro pollen maturation starting from the vacuolated microspore stage. The best results were obtained with flower buds cultivated at 26oC, in 100 µmol/m2/s light, with a 16h/8h photoperiod on a modified Heller's medium supplemented with NAA (10-2 mg/l and sucrose (M/6. In these conditions, pollen maturation occured within 7 days only. In vitro matured pollen is cytologically comparable to in vivo developed pollen grains and the germination rate was 72.4 ± 3.7%. When flower buds were cultivated in the dark, the germination rate decreased, but this could be compensated by providing high sucrose concentrations (1M in the medium. Further, photosynthesis inhibitors had the same effect on pollen maturation than the darkness, strongly suggesting that photosynthesis occurs in the flower bud and is important for pollen maturation in Lilium.

  19. Low-carbohydrate diets cause obesity, low-carbohydrate diets reverse obesity: a metabolic mechanism resolving the paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Mobbs, Charles V.; Mastaitis, Jason; Yen, Kelvin; Schwartz, Joseph; Mohan, Vinuta; Poplawski, Michal; Isoda, Fumiko

    2006-01-01

    High-fat diets produce obesity in part because, per calorie, glucose produces greater post-prandial thermogenesis than lipids, an effect probably mediated by glucose-sensing neurons. A very low carbohydrate/high-fat/high-protein Atkins-type diet produces obesity but is marginally ketogenic in mice. In contrast, high-sucrose/low-fat diets, and very low carbohydrate/high-fat/low-protein (anti-epileptic) ketogenic diets reverse diet-induced obesity independent of caloric intake. We propose that ...

  20. The factors affecting on estimation of carbohydrate content of meals in carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Takamura, Chihiro; Hirose, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Higashide, Takashi; Kashihara, Yoneo; Hashimura, Kayako; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors affecting on errors in carbohydrate (CHO) content estimation during CHO counting. Thirty-seven type 1 diabetes patients and 22 of their parents and 28 physicians/dieticians were enrolled in this study. CHO counting was counted in "Carb", with 1 Carb defined as 10 g of CHO. To evaluate the accuracy of CHO counting, 80 real-size photographs of cooked meals were presented to the subjects for Carb estimation. Carbs tended to be overestimated for foods containing relatively small amounts of Carbs. On the other hands, Carbs tended to be underestimated for foods with higher than 6 Carbs. Accurate estimation of the Carbs in food containing a large amount of rice was particularly difficult even in the subjects having the CHO counting experience. The Carb contents of high-calorie foods such as meats, fried foods, and desserts tended to be overestimated. This error was smaller in subjects having the CHO counting experience. In conclusion, misunderstanding of high-calorie dishes containing high amounts of CHO was observed in inexperienced subjects, indicating the efficacy of the current methodology of CHO counting. On the other hand it was difficult even for experienced subjects to assess the amount of seasoned rice, suggesting the need for a new methodology for accurate estimation. PMID:26568656

  1. MYCOTOXIN CONTROL DURING GRAIN PROCESSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling mycotoxin formation by fungi growing in and on cereal grains involves a multifactorial approach for defining multiple variables. The scope includes varietial (maturity, date, GMO) selection, tillage (time, depth), planting (density, spacing), fertilizion (type, amount, timing), irrigati...

  2. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007 of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora, Fusarium and Diaporthe/Phomopsis. The most frequent fungi on soybean grains were: Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Epicoccum. The health condition of the natural soybean grains over the four years period on all cultivars was good.

  3. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  4. Carbohydrates – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main role of carbohydrates in the human body is to provide energy. Carbohydrates should always be infused with PN (parenteral nutrition in combination with amino acids and lipid emulsions to improve nitrogen balance. Glucose should be provided as a standard carbohydrate for PN, whereas the use of xylite is not generally recommended. Fructose solutions should not be used for PN. Approximately 60% of non-protein energy should be supplied as glucose with an intake of 3.0–3.5 g/kg body weight/day (2.1–2.4 mg/kg body weight/min. In patients with a high risk of hyperglycaemia (critically ill, diabetes, sepsis, or steroid therapy an lower initial carbohydrate infusion rate of 1–2 g/kg body weight/day is recommended to achieve normoglycaemia. One should aim at reaching a blood glucose level of 80–110 mg/dL, and at least a glucose level <145 mg/dL should be achieved to reduce morbidity and mortality. Hyperglycaemia may require addition of an insulin infusion or a reduction (2.0–3.0 g/kg body weight/day or even a temporary interruption of glucose infusion. Close monitoring of blood glucose levels is highly important.

  5. Architectures of Multivalent Glycomimetics for Probing Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Martina

    Well-defined multivalent glycoconjugates are valued tools in glycoscience and they are particularly valuable for the investigation of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. In addition to the relatively globularly shaped glycodendrimers many other designs have been realized. This chapter gives an overview on the common different architectures and their chemical synthesis by focussing on the achievements made since 2001.

  6. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions

  7. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M;

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, includin...

  8. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. Key risk factors for NEC are enteral feeding and microbial colonization. Maldigestion of carbohydrate secondary to immature digestive function has been suspected to cause bacterial overgrowth and NEC. We investi...

  9. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  10. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48V and 62Zn. (author)

  11. Advancing Analytical Methods for Characterization of Anionic Carbohydrate Biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslay, Derek Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is on the development of improved analytical methods for the characterization of anionic carbohydrate biopolymers. Our goal is to extract important information from complex mixtures of heterogeneous polysaccharides by characterizing their substituent oligosaccharides in terms of monosaccharide composition and primary and secondary structure. This work focuses on the application of two major analytical platforms: spectroscopy and chromatography. The development ...

  12. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  13. Co-occurrence of carbohydrate malabsorption and primary epiploic appendagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Kalmar, Peter; Mangge, Harald; Krause, Robert; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2015-09-21

    Unspecific abdominal complaints including bloating and irregular bowel movements may be caused by carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes, e.g., lactose and fructose malabsorption. These symptoms were investigated with hydrogen (H2) breath tests and correlated to carbohydrate malabsorption. During performing these H2-breath tests the patient presented with an acute, localized, non-migratory pain in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Primary epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of abdominal acute or subacute complaints and diagnosis of primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) is made when computed tomography reveals a characteristic lesion. We report on a patient with co-occurrence of lactose and fructose malabsorption, which was treated successfully with a diet free of culprit carbohydrates, with PEA recovering without medication or surgical treatment within few days. Since the abdominal unspecific symptoms had been present for months, they appeared not to be correlated to the acute localized abdominal pain, therefore we speculate on a random co-occurrence of combined carbohydrate malabsorption and PEA. PMID:26401090

  14. DFT solvation studies of carbohydrates: implicit and explicit solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvents play a role in carbohydrate structure. Therefore, it is important to include solvation effects in calculations to allow a more realistic comparison with experimental data. A possible way to include solvation effects is to use implicit solvation models such as COSMO and PCM. Another avenu...

  15. Sulfurised carbohydrates: An important sedimentary sink for organic carbon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kok, M.D.; Koster, J.; Schouten, S.

    1998-01-01

    In contrast to the general belief that carbohydrate carbon (CCHO) is preferentially degraded and is not extensively preserved in the sedimentary record, it is shown here that CCHO forms a large fraction of the organic matter (OM) of the total organic carbon (TOC)-rich upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay

  16. The solvation of carbohydrates in dimethylsulfoxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvation of sucrose and other carbohydrates in DMSO and water is probed by intermolecular NOE measurements. The NOE effects are interpreted in terms of specific binding of the solvent to certain sites of the molecules. It is shown that DMSO attaches to specific sites of the sucrose molecule, whereas for water such a clear differentiation cannot be proven. (author)

  17. Plant Cell Wall Carbohydrates as Substrates for Azospirillum brasiliense†

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Mary L.; Hubbell, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Carbohydrate components (simple sugars and polysaccharides) of cell walls of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L., cv. Gahi) were studied as potential substrates for the root-associated diazotroph Azospirillum brasiliense Sp. 7. Simple sugars were utilized, but no evidence was obtained to support the suggestion that the polysaccharide components tested might serve as substrates for growth following hydrolysis by the associated azospirilla.

  18. GRAIN BOUNDARIES IN POLYPHASE CERAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, D

    1985-01-01

    The majority of polyphase ceramics contain a residual glass phase at their grain boundaries. The stability of these phases, particularly at the two-grain boundaries, is of significance since they affect the properties of the material as a whole. Drawing analogies with soap films, the stability of a continuous intergranular phase is considered in terms of the balance between the capillarity and disjoining pressures. The individual components to the disjoining pressures are discussed. It is arg...

  19. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Lejček; Lei Zheng; Siegfried Hofmann; Mojmír Šob

    2014-01-01

    Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary se...

  20. Quantum Fine-Grained Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, DONG-SHENG

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the strange properties of quantum entropy and entanglement, e.g., the negative quantum conditional entropy, we revisited the foundations of quantum entropy, namely, von Neumann entropy, and raised the new method of quantum fine-grained entropy. With the applications in entanglement theory, quantum information processing, and quantum thermodynamics, we demonstrated the capability of quantum fine-grained entropy to resolve some notable confusions and problems, including the measure of...

  1. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jasenka Ćosić; Karolina Vrandečić; Draženka Jurković; Ivan Ereš; Jelena Poštić

    2008-01-01

    Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007) of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora...

  2. Simple die pressing for making artificial holes in single-grain Gd1.5Ba2Cu3O7−y superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of artificial holes in single-grain REBa2Cu3O7−y (RE123, RE: rare-earth elements) bulk superconductors can facilitate oxygen diffusion into superconducting grains through the increased surface area. In addition to the enhancement of oxygen diffusion, the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of bulk superconductors can be improved by filling holes with a metallic conductive phase. This study presents a new and simple hole-making process for single-grain RE123 bulk superconductors. Artificial holes 3 or 5 mm in diameter were made for Gd1.5Ba2Cu3O7−y (Gd1.5) powder compacts prior to the sintering/melt growth process using specially designed pressing dies. The die pressing neither induced cracking in powder compacts nor influenced thermal procedures for the Gd123 growth. Single-grain Gd1.5 bulk superconductors with holes were successfully fabricated by a top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process using Gd1.5 powder compacts with holes. The die pressing was proven as a time-saving process in comparison with the conventional method which makes holes in sintered or melt-processed hard bodies by mechanical drilling. The detailed fabrication process of single-grain Gd1.5 bulk superconductor with holes, magnetic levitation forces, and magnetic flux density, estimated for the single-grain Gd123 bulk superconductors with holes, are reported. (paper)

  3. Superconductivity of small metal grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Renrong; CHEN; Zhiqian; ZHU; Shunquan

    2005-01-01

    The formulas of the energy gap and superconducting critical temperature appropriate for systems with both odd and even number of electrons are derived; the bases of the derivations are BCS theory and energy level statistics. Numerical results qualitatively agree with the experimental phenomena. i.e., the superconductivity of small metallic grains will first enhance then decrease to zero when the grain are getting smaller and smaller. The calculations indicate that the above phenomena happen in the metallic grains belonging to Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) and Gaussian Unitary ensemble (GUE) with zero spin; The superconductivity of small metallic grains in Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE) will monotonically decrease to zero with the decreasing of the grain size. The analyses suggest that the superconductivity enhancements come from pairing and the balance of the strengths between spin-orbital coupling and external magnetic field. In order to take the latter into account, it is necessary to include the level statistics given by Random Matrix Theory (RMT) in describing small metallic grains.

  4. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and carbohydrate signature compounds of biofilm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Garg, A.; Bhosle, N.B.

    :N and organic carbon:chlorophyll a ratios decreased over the period of immersion. Despite the abundance of microalgal biomass, carbohydrate concentration was lower than that observed for proteins. Carbohydrate composition varied during the period of immersion...

  5. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  6. Carbohydrate supplementation attenuates decrement in performance in overtrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio Victor; Barbosa, Carlos Vinícius; Massa, Nayara Moreira; Pereira, Reabias de Andrade; Félix, Gustavo da Silva; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion at the end of a single exercise is recognized as delaying fatigue and accelerating recovery, but whether chronic ingestion can prevent overtraining during periods of intense training has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate supplementation minimizes overtraining in Wistar rats. The animals underwent 11 weeks of training (running) on a treadmill, and the last 3 weeks were designed to induce overtraining. One group was supplemented with carbohydrates (EX-CHO) (n = 13), 1 group had no supplementation (EX) (n = 10), and a third group remained inactive (C) (n = 9). Performance tests were given before training (Pr1) and at the 8th (Pr2) and 11th (Pr3) training week. Food intake, body weight, testosterone, cortisol, malondialdehyde, creatine kinase, and activities of the PI3-K, Akt-1, mTOR, and GSK-3 enzymes were measured. In the EX group, there was a significant 32.6% performance decrease at Pr3 when compared with Pr2. In addition, at protocol completion, the EX-CHO group had a greater gastrocnemius weight than did the C group (p = 0.02), which the EX group did not. Training caused anorexia, decreased testosterone (p = 0.001), and increased malondialdehyde (p = 0.009) in both exercise groups compared with the C group, with no influence of carbohydrate supplementation on these variables (p > 0.05). Compared with in the C group, the activity of Akt-1 was higher in the EX-CHO group but not in the EX group (p = 0.013). Carbohydrate supplementation promoted an attenuation in the performance decrement and maintained gastrocnemius muscle mass in animals that had undergone overtraining protocols, which was accompanied by increased activity of the Akt-1 molecular indicator. PMID:26701118

  7. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  9. Graded sucrose/carbohydrate diets in overtly hypertriglyceridemic diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W S; Emanuele, M A; Abraira, C

    1984-12-01

    Overtly hypertriglyceridemic patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were given a control diet containing 120 g of sucrose and 50 percent carbohydrate, and later randomly assigned to receive isocaloric high- (220 g), intermediate- (120 g), or low- (less than 3 g) sucrose/carbohydrate diets for four weeks. The low-sucrose diet group demonstrated a modest but significant decrease in mean fasting serum glucose level in the first week only, although this change was no different from the other two dietary groups and was not sustained. All groups had little change in late postprandial serum glucose levels from control values, and no significant alterations in 24-hour glycosuria. The high-sucrose diet group demonstrated a significant increase in fasting serum triglyceride levels by the second week of the study, whereas the intermediate- and low-sucrose diet groups showed a decrease in mean fasting triglyceride levels. In contrast, the low-sucrose diet group's late postprandial serum triglyceride levels increased by the fourth week, whereas levels fell in the high-sucrose diet group. Mean fasting serum cholesterol concentrations decreased from control values in the high-sucrose diet group. Thus, although very high sucrose and carbohydrate consumption is clearly deleterious to fasting tryglyceride levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with preexisting hypertriglyceridemia, it appears that low dietary sucrose and carbohydrate proportions do not further improve preprandial glycemia and glycosuria and may adversely affect late postprandial serum triglyceride concentration. This study suggests that isocaloric sucrose and carbohydrate restriction below usual daily levels (120 g per day) offers no consistent benefit in glycemia or lipid control in overt type II diabetes. PMID:6391162

  10. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  11. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  12. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  13. STUDIES ON GENETIC PARAMETERS IN GRAIN AMARANTHUS (AMARANTHUS HYPOCHONDRIACUS L. AS INFLUENCED BY PLANT DENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Selvan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of genotypes with adequate combination of traits with high yield at the appropriate density level increased the productivity in amaranth. The study was therefore undertaken to estimate genetic attributes of different amaranth genotypes and to identify and select genotypes with adequate trait combination for improvement in yield. In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. ten genotypes were evaluated  for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high (D1, high (D2, normal (D3 and low plant density (D4 to study the different selection parameters for grain yield and its eleven contributing morphological and quality traits. The study was conducted at College Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, TNAU, Karaikal during rabi 2007. The results revealed that the GCV was maximum in high plant density when compared to very high, normal and low plant density levels for the characters viz., fresh weight of the inflorescence, length of the rachis per inflorescence, grain yield per plant and total carbohydrates. Leaf area at 50 per cent flowering, fresh weight of the inflorescence, number of secondary branches per inflorescence and total carbohydrates are recorded high magnitude of genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean in all the four plant density levels.

  14. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  15. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis for the analysis of cellulose and free carbohydrates in a peatbog

    OpenAIRE

    Estournel-Pelardy, Céline; Delarue, Frédéric; Grasset, Laurent; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Amblès, André

    2011-01-01

    We have compared TMAH thermochemolysis with the classical method using acid hydrolysis for carbohydrates analysis in a peat core. Even if TMAH thermochemolysis does not analyse hemicellulosic carbohydrates and discriminate each individual carbohydrate sensu stricto, it allows the analysis of a cellulose pool hidden to acid hydrolysis and the specific analysis of free and terminal carbohydrates. Simple direct comparisons of thermochemolysis data with data generated from acid hydrolysis cannot ...

  16. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  17. Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadbury, Ian

    2012-01-01

    A novel hypothesis of obesity is suggested by consideration of diet-related inflammation and evolutionary medicine. The obese homeostatically guard their elevated weight. In rodent models of high-fat diet-induced obesity, leptin resistance is seen initially at vagal afferents, blunting the actions of satiety mediators, then centrally, with gastrointestinal bacterial-triggered SOCS3 signaling implicated. In humans, dietary fat and fructose elevate systemic lipopolysaccharide, while dietary glucose also strongly activates SOCS3 signaling. Crucially however, in humans, low-carbohydrate diets spontaneously decrease weight in a way that low-fat diets do not. Furthermore, nutrition transition patterns and the health of those still eating diverse ancestral diets with abundant food suggest that neither glycemic index, altered fat, nor carbohydrate intake can be intrinsic causes of obesity, and that human energy homeostasis functions well without Westernized foods containing flours, sugar, and refined fats. Due to being made up of cells, virtually all "ancestral foods" have markedly lower carbohydrate densities than flour- and sugar-containing foods, a property quite independent of glycemic index. Thus the "forgotten organ" of the gastrointestinal microbiota is a prime candidate to be influenced by evolutionarily unprecedented postprandial luminal carbohydrate concentrations. The present hypothesis suggests that in parallel with the bacterial effects of sugars on dental and periodontal health, acellular flours, sugars, and processed foods produce an inflammatory microbiota via the upper gastrointestinal tract, with fat able to effect a "double hit" by increasing systemic absorption of lipopolysaccharide. This model is consistent with a broad spectrum of reported dietary phenomena. A diet of grain-free whole foods with carbohydrate from cellular tubers, leaves, and fruits may produce a gastrointestinal microbiota consistent with our evolutionary condition, potentially

  18. Point defects in bulk ZnSe grown by nonstoichiometric annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Point defects in bulk ZnSe crystals were investigated using positron annihilation in order to identify the defect structures closely related to anomalous grain growth. It was found that the self-interstitial-type defects were clearly observed in the crystals grown by annealing under a selenium ambient. This result suggests that the interstitial defects enhance the atomic migration in the crystal and assist the recrystallization by dislocation climb during annealing. (author)

  19. Percolation Thresholds in Angular Grain media: Drude Directed Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priour, Donald

    Pores in many realistic systems are not well delineated channels, but are void spaces among grains impermeable to charge or fluid flow which comprise the medium. Sparse grain concentrations lead to permeable systems, while concentrations in excess of a critical density block bulk fluid flow. We calculate percolation thresholds in porous materials made up of randomly placed (and oriented) disks, tetrahedrons, and cubes. To determine if randomly generated finite system samples are permeable, we deploy virtual tracer particles which are scattered (e.g. specularly) by collisions with impenetrable angular grains. We hasten the rate of exploration (which would otherwise scale as ncoll1 / 2 where ncoll is the number of collisions with grains if the tracers followed linear trajectories) by considering the tracer particles to be charged in conjunction with a randomly directed uniform electric field. As in the Drude treatment, where a succession of many scattering events leads to a constant drift velocity, tracer displacements on average grow linearly in ncoll. By averaging over many disorder realizations for a variety of systems sizes, we calculate the percolation threshold and critical exponent which characterize the phase transition.

  20. Determination of Physical Properties of Some Agricultural Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gürsoy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the purpose of determining physical and aerodynamic properties, some varieties of wheat, barley, chickpea and lentil were used. The length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, equivalent sphere diam eter, sphericity, seed mass, bulk density, true density, projected area, terminal velocity, drag coefficient of each grain variety were determined. The theoretical terminal velocities of those grains were calculated by using equations corrected with the shape factor. For all the grains, theoretical terminal velocities were lower than the experimental values. The average experimental terminal velocity was found to be in the range of 7.52 to 8.14 m/s for wheat varieties, 7.04 to 7.07 m /s for barley varieties, 7.72 to 7.78 m/s for lentil varieties and 11.15 to 12.01 m/s for chickpea varieties. The drag coefficients of seeds according to projected areas in different positions and equivalent spheres were calculated. The drag coefficient in the position of the lowest projected area for all the grain varieties was higher than that in the other position.

  1. Multiple direct extrusion: A new technique in grain refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharia, L.; Chelariu, R. [' Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, D. Mangeron 61A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Comaneci, R., E-mail: amvric@yahoo.com [' Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, D. Mangeron 61A, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new method for grain refinement was applied at room temperature on copper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible grain fragmentation mechanism was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Square bars with uniform microstructure and mechanical properties were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure and mechanical properties evolution during MDE was studied. - Abstract: A novel high-straining bulk deformation technique based on repeating conventional direct extrusion is presented. This technique, named multiple direct extrusion (MDE), uses a square container with a rectangular die aperture that can achieve a minimum 50% reduction/pass in the cross section of the billet. After extrusion, the new billet is cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The resulting halves are then joined to obtain a square shape again so that the direct extrusion process can be repeated. Two processing routes are possible before reintroducing the billet into the container: no rotation and 90 Degree-Sign rotation around the longitudinal axis. During each cycle, the billets change their geometrical shape and as a result, the cross section area gets smaller. A mechanism of grain fragmentation during MDE based on the analysis of velocity discontinuities along slip lines in the deformation zone is suggested. Four cycles of MDE were applied to commercial copper and the potential for grain refinement, and the improvement in mechanical properties were evaluated.

  2. Complex Chemistry on Interstellar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    Early interstellar chemical models considered complex molecule formation on grains [Allen & Robinson (1977)], but current models assume that simple molecules form on grains and subsequent gas phase ion-molecule reactions produce the more complex species [Ruffle & Herbst (2001), Charnley (2001)]. It has been shown, however, that gas phase ion-molecule reactions are insufficient for the production of such complex organic species as ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO) [Horn et al. (2004)]. Organics such as acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), ethanol, methyl formate, acetic acid (CH3COOH), and glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) have also been detected in high abundance in regions of grain mantle disruption or evaporation, indicating that these species are formed on grain surfaces [see Chengalur & Kanekar (2003), Bottinelli et al. (2004), Hollis et al. (2001)]. The mechanisms for complex molecule production on grains are clearly much more important, and much more complex, than has been recognized. Recent observational studies of these types of species have offered insight into the mechanisms for their possible grain surface synthesis. The relative hot core abundances of the 2C structural isomers methyl formate, acetic acid, and glycolaldehyde (52:2:1, respectively [Hollis et al. (2001)]) indicate that if they form on grains it is not from kinetically-controlled single-atom addition reactions. Likewise, the 3C aldose sugar, glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO), was not detected in Sgr B2(N-LMH) [Hollis et al. (2004)] while the 3C ketose sugar, dihydroxyacetone (CO(CH2OH)2) was detected in this source [Widicus Weaver & Blake (2005)]. Chemical pathways favoring the more stable carbonates over acids and aldehydes are required to explain these results. Interestingly, all of these species can be formed from reactions involving the abundant grain mantle constituents CO, HCOOH, and CH3OH and their radical precursors. A model has been developed to investigate this type of chemical network, and

  3. Structural analysis of the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the structural analysis by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrate chains obtained from glycoproteins. In the chapters 1 to 6 the structural analysis of N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains is described. The chapters 7 to 10 describe the structural analysis of O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains. 381 refs.; 44 figs.; 24 tabs.; 7 schemes

  4. DMPD: Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18249034 Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. van Vliet....csml) Show Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. PubmedID 18249034 Title Sweet p...references of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. Authors van Vliet SJ, S

  5. Dietary glycemic index and carbohydrate in relation to early age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the association between dietary carbohydrates and cataract in nondiabetic persons. The aim was to test whether recent dietary carbohydrate intakes or glycemic index (GI; a measure of carbohydrate intake quality) was associated with the presence of cortical or nuclear opacities....

  6. Mineral chemistry, bulk composition and source of the ferromanganese nodules nuclei from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Miura, H.

    , developed by Kikuchi (1991). The bulk nuclei and a few plagioclase grains were powdered separately and were analyzed using a Rigaku X-ray di⁄ractometer, using nickel ltered CuKa radiation at 40 kV and 16 mA. The scanning speed was 2¡ 2h min~1...

  7. The History of Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Below we summarize the results of our investigations into the history of presolar grains that were conducted in the last year. During this time we have expended much of our effort in the development of experimental techniques and sample preparation methods that are needed to laboratory in December, 2000. Specific information on this instrument is contained in the Full Proposal of PI Ernst Zinner and will not be repeated here. Our general strategy in the past year has been in large measure to explore novel sample handling methods for the very small (sub-micron), but more representative, presolar grains that can now be characterized isotopically in the NanoSIMS. We have developed experimental techniques that will permit NanoSIMS analyses of the very same ultramicrotome sections studied in the TEM, and we have developed grain dispersion, handling and mounting techniques that permit NanoSIMS isotopic analysis as well as field emission SEM, high energy TEM, and atomic force microscopy of pristine presolar grains. Although much of this has been slow and very difficult work that has no immediate payoff in terms of publishable results, we considered it absolutely necessary groundwork for future discoveries, especially in the realm of individual presolar grains that have been inaccessible to past studies due to size constraints. As discussed below, we have been largely successful in these endeavors, and expect to reap the benefits of this work in the next year. We also report on our continued morphologic studies of pristine presolar grains, on our investigations of presolar graphite grains from supernovae as well as on rarer types of presotar SIC, on the search for presolar silicates, and on our efforts to obtain direct size-distribution information on presolar SiC through X-ray mapping techniques.

  8. A label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics analysis of rice grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hee-Jong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a great deal of rice proteomic research has been conducted, there are relatively few studies specifically addressing the rice grain proteome. The existing rice grain proteomic researches have focused on the identification of differentially expressed proteins or monitoring protein expression patterns during grain filling stages. Results Proteins were extracted from rice grains 10, 20, and 30 days after flowering, as well as from fully mature grains. By merging all of the identified proteins in this study, we identified 4,172 non-redundant proteins with a wide range of molecular weights (from 5.2 kDa to 611 kDa and pI values (from pH 2.9 to pH 12.6. A Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis for the 4,172 proteins revealed that 52 categories were enriched, including the carbohydrate metabolic process, transport, localization, lipid metabolic process, and secondary metabolic process. The relative abundances of the 1,784 reproducibly identified proteins were compared to detect 484 differentially expressed proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis and Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis revealed that proteins involved in the metabolic process were enriched through all stages of development, suggesting that proteome changes occurred even in the desiccation phase. Interestingly, enrichments of proteins involved in protein folding were detected in the desiccation phase and in fully mature grain. Conclusion This is the first report conducting comprehensive identification of rice grain proteins. With a label free shotgun proteomic approach, we identified large number of rice grain proteins and compared the expression patterns of reproducibly identified proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis, Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis, and the analysis of composite expression profiles revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, we

  9. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  10. Mechanical stability of individual austenite grains in TRIP steel studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of individual metastable austenite grains in low-alloyed TRIP steels has been studied during tensile loading using high-energy X-ray diffraction. The carbon concentration, grain volume and grain orientation with respect to the loading direction was monitored for a large number of individual grains in the bulk microstructure. Most austenite grains transform into martensite in a single transformation step once a critical load is reached. The orientation-dependent stability of austenite grains was found to depend on their Schmid factor with respect to the loading direction. Under the applied tensile stress the average Schmid factor decreased from an initial value of 0.44 to 0.41 at 243 MPa. The present study reveals the complex interplay of microstructural parameters on the mechanical stability of individual austenite grains, where the largest grains with the lowest carbon content tend to transform first. Under the applied tensile stress the average carbon concentration of the austenite grains increased from an initial value of 0.90 to 1.00 wt% C at 243 MPa, while the average grain volume of the austenite grains decreased from an initial value of 19 to 15 µm3 at 243 MPa

  11. Properties of He clustering in α-Fe grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations are performed to study the impact of two distinct Fe grain boundaries (GBs) on the clustering properties of helium (He) and the possible He effect on GB decohesion. Several He concentrations are considered. Common properties of He clustering are found for the both GBs, which are visibly different from the bcc bulk. In particular, He clusters in the GBs are always elongated in the directions parallel to the interface and contracted in the direction normal to the GB plane, while they are isotropic in the bcc bulk. When the He number in the clusters is sufficiently large, the strong local pressure promotes the occurrence of loop punching, which is easier to trigger in the GBs than in the bulk, resulting in a lower He-to-vacancy ratio in the GB clusters. The emitted self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) can more easily dissociate from the clusters in the GBs than in the bulk, leading to relatively lower local pressures around the clusters in the GBs, and facilitating the clusters growth. He is found to decrease GB cohesion, and the embrittling effect of He increases with its concentration. But interestingly, this effect decreases with He clustering. The present findings are fully compatible with existing experimental evidence, for instance, for a stronger GB embrittlement due to He at rather low temperatures than at higher temperatures

  12. Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er2O3) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along Σ13 (4–3–1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673–1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er2O3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc

  13. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of PrMnO3 Bulk and Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite PrMnO3(PMO) had been prepared in bulk by solid state reaction and thin films on corning glass, fused silica and MgO (100) glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. SEM micrographs show that grains with size 2∼3 μm is observed in bulk PMO while thin films PMO show strongly connected grain structure with particle size that not larger than 100 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all samples are in single phase with orthorhombic crystal structure. Bulk PMO sample had lattice strain of 0.134% which is the lowest value among others. However, larger lattice strain was observed in thin film samples due to lattice mismatch between film-substrate and caused the MnO6 to deform. All samples shown paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior, enhancement in magnetization value occurred for all PMO grew as film. We believe that larger lattice strain favor the grain growth of PMO towards more order phase. In summary, formation of structure and microstructure of thin film PMO depends on type of substrate used and it affect the magnetic property.

  14. Numerical simulation of grain-size effects on creep crack growth by means of grain elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grain size on creep crack growth is investigated by means of a numerical technique in which the actual crack growth process is simulated in a discrete manner by grain elements and grain boundary elements. The grain elements account for the creep deformation of individual grains, while grain boundary cavitation and sliding are accounted for by grain boundary elements between the grains. This grain-element technique allows for an independent study of multiple grain size effects: a (direct) size effect related to the specimen size/grain size ratio or an (indirect) effect related to the effect of grain size on nucleation rate and creep resistance. Preliminary numerical results are presented concerning the direct effect of grain size, which predict that the crack growth rate and brittleness increase with grain size. (orig.)

  15. On the strengthening behavior of ultrafine-grained nickel processed from nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens having grain sizes in the range of 0.25-5 μm were processed by a spark plasma sintering method. The resulting microstructures were characterized by electron backscattering diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compression tests were carried out at room temperature and at a strain rate of 1.6 x 10-4 s-1. It was found that the fine-grained microstructure and the presence of NiO phase were the main strengthening factors in the as-processed bulk materials. The contribution of the oxide phase to strengthening was even more pronounced for lower grain sizes. This contribution was calculated as the difference between the measured strength and the value obtained from a Hall-Petch plot of oxide-free samples, and this yielded a flow stress increment of about 635 MPa for the lowest grain size studied here. In addition, a transition from work-hardening to -softening occurred for materials having a mean grain size smaller than about 300 nm and having boundaries that could have been weakened by the presence of a high amount of NiO phase.

  16. Boron abundances and isotopic ratios of olivine grains on Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Ott, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    We report the B abundances and isotopic ratios of two olivine grains from the S-type asteroid Itokawa sampled by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Olivine grains from the Dar al Gani (DaG) 989 LL6 chondrite were used as a reference. Since we analyzed polished thin sections in both cases, we expect the contribution from the solar wind B (rich in 10B) to be minimal because the solar wind was implanted only within very thin layers of the grain surface. The Itokawa and DaG 989 olivine grains have homogeneous B abundances (~400 ppb) and 11B/10B ratios compatible with the terrestrial standard and bulk chondrites. The observed homogeneous B abundances and isotopic ratios of the Itokawa olivine grains are likely the result of thermal metamorphism which occurred in the parent asteroid of Itokawa, which had a similar composition as LL chondrites. The chondritic B isotopic ratios of the Itokawa samples suggest that they contain little cosmogenic B (from cosmic-ray spallation reactions) rich in 10B. This observation is consistent with the short cosmic-ray exposure ages of Itokawa samples inferred from the small concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne. If other Itokawa samples have little cosmogenic B as well, the enrichment in 10B found previously on the surface of another Itokawa particle (as opposed to the bulk grain study here) may be attributed to implanted solar wind B.

  17. Comparison of docking methods for carbohydrate binding in calcium-dependent lectins and prediction of the carbohydrate binding mode to sea cucumber lectin CEL-III

    OpenAIRE

    Nurisso, Alessandra; Kozmon, Stanislav; Imberty, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Lectins display a variety of strategies for specific recognition of carbohydrates. In several lectin families from different origin, one or two calcium ions are involved in the carbohydrate binding site with direct coordination of the sugar hydroxyl groups. Our work implied a molecular docking study involving a set of bacterial and animal calcium-dependant lectins in order to compare the ability of three docking programs to reproduce key carbohydrate-metal interactions. Fl...

  18. Selective preservation of carbohydrates in volcanic ash soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, J.; Buurman, P.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Piccolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic soils (Andosols) are formed in volcanic ash and depending on environmental and climatic factors they develop to two main forms, either allophanic Andosols (dominated by amorphous minerals) or non-allophanic Andosols (dominated by Al/Fe organic matter complexes). Andosols contain the largest amounts of organic carbon of all mineral soil orders. In recent studies using analytical pyrolysis techniques on the soil organic matter (SOM) of allophanic soils from the Azores Islands (Portugal) there was no indication of preservation of plant-derived organic matter by allophane or Al3+, but the presence of large amounts of (microbial) polysaccharides and chitin suggested that secondary organic matter products were stabilized. In the present study we used 13C NMR to further explore the organic matter of the Andosols of the Azores, and applied a molecular mixing model (MMM; ascribing characteristic resonances to the main biocomponent classes carbohydrate, protein, lipid, lignin and char) to the quantified NMR spectra to allow for a quantitative comparison with pyrolysis-GC/MS. The dominance of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C in the NMR spectra and carbohydrate contribution to the predictions made by the MMM (50 ± 8%) confirms that the majority of the SOM can still be recognised as carbohydrate. The accumulation of secondary/microbial carbohydrates (and, to a lesser extent, secondary proteinaceous matter and chitins) is thus a key characteristic of these Andosols. NMR-MMM and pyrolysis-GC/MS were in rough agreement. However, NMR does not recognise chitin (N-containing carbohydrate-like material) and chitin-associated protein, nor can it be used to estimate the degree of degradation of the carbohydrates. Therefore, NMR (as applied here) has a very limited capacity for characterisation of the SOM particularly in the Andosols studied. On the other hand, large peaks from carboxylic and amidic functional groups detected by NMR were not observed by pyrolysis-GC/MS. It is therefore

  19. Grain growth in interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of grain growth in interstellar clouds, evidenced by increases in the wavelength of maximum polarization and ratio of total to selective extinction, is investigated by two distinct methods. A comparison of the empirical correlation between lambdasub(max) and the colour excess ratio Esub(V-K)/Esub(B-V) with theoretical models indicates that growth occurs by the accretion of dielectric mantles on to dielectric grain cores of the same refractive index. A search for the 3.1 μm absorption band of water ice towards four dust-embedded stars in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud was carried out using the 3.9-m AAT and IR photometer-spectrometer. Results indicate that the grain mantles in this cloud do not contain appreciable water ice. The lack of a spectral feature at 3.3 to 3.4 μm in the spectra similarly places chemical constraints on organic grain mantles. It is concluded that a grain model involving refractory compounds of oxygen (silicates and metal oxides) is capable of explaining the available data. The 3.1 μm absorption band is detected for the first time in the R Corona Australis dark cloud, towards an intense infrared source associated with the Herbig-Haro object H-H 100. (author)

  20. Grain Sink Strength Related to Carbon Staying in the Leaves of Hybrid Wheat XN901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yue-hua; JI Xiao-hui; GAO Jun-feng

    2009-01-01

    XN901 is a K-type three-line hybrid wheat with a high yield potential,and its leaves and stem remaining green during grain maturation,suggesting much assimilate stay in leaves and stem.The grain water content,grain volume,carbohydrate content,and enzyme activity of sucose metabolism in the grain,as well as source-sink relationship were studied in order to investigate the physiological reason of the assimilate remaining in leaves and stem at the late stage.The results showed that the hybrid grains had more water and soluble sugar,higher activities of acid invertase and sucrose synthase at the early stage that led to a faster expansion growth,greater grain volume and faster starch synthesis at the early to mid stage of grain development.Also it had a longer period for actively filling.As a result,the grain weight and yield of the hybrid were increased by 14 and 15% respectively compared to that of Shaan 229.Additionally,the biomass of XN901 was 41.7% more than that of control,but its harvest index was 9% lower than Shaan 229.However,its lower activity of sucrose synthase indicated a lower sink activity at the late stage,resulting in a slow rate of filling and starch synthesis.Also,the hybrid wheat XN901 had a large source-sink ratio.It is the main reason for much assimilate remaining in the straw at the late stage and lower harvest index.Strengthening the sink activity and raising the harvest index should be the key means of improving the yield of hybrid wheat.

  1. Effect of Annealing Conditions on Properties of BSCCO-2212 Bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated BSCCO-2212(2212) bulk superconductors by using a casting process and evaluated the superconducting properties. The effects of annealing conditions on microstructure and critical properties were studied. It was found that the homogeneous and uniform microstructure improved the critical properties and the microstructures of ingot and annealed rods were different with the size of 2212 rod and tube. The critical current(Ic) of rods increased with increasing annealing time, probably due to increased grain size of 2212. Annealing time of the highest Icfor the smaller rod(diameter of 10 mm) was shorter(150 hr) than that of the larger rod(diameter of 16 mm, 400 hr). This size effect seems to be related to different grain sizes of the intermediate phases such as 2201 and secondary phases in the ingot. In addition, we fabricated 2212 tubes from the rod by removing the center region which contained inhomogeneous microstructures. The Icof 2212 tube with the outer diameter of 16 mm and the thickness of 2 mm was measured to 844 A, which corresponds to the critical current density of 1017 A/cm2 at 77 K.

  2. Linked gene networks involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism and levels of water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in wheat stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, C Lynne; Casu, Rosanne E; Rattey, Allan; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Kam, Jason W; van Herwaarden, Anthony F; Shorter, Ray; Xue, Gang Ping

    2011-12-01

    High levels of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) provide an important source of stored assimilate for grain filling in wheat. To better understand the interaction between carbohydrate metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with the WSC trait, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed using eight field-grown lines from the high and low phenotypic tails of a wheat population segregating for WSC and the Affymetrix wheat genome array. The 259 differentially expressed probe sets could be assigned to 26 functional category bins, as defined using MapMan software. There were major differences in the categories to which the differentially expressed probe sets were assigned; for example, probe sets upregulated in high relative to low WSC lines were assigned to category bins such as amino acid metabolism, protein degradation and transport and to be involved in starch synthesis-related processes (carbohydrate metabolism bin), whereas downregulated probe sets were assigned to cell wall-related bins, amino acid synthesis and stress and were involved in sucrose breakdown. Using the set of differentially expressed genes as input, chemical-protein network analyses demonstrated a linkage between starch and N metabolism via pyridoxal phosphate. Twelve C and N metabolism-related genes were selected for analysis of their expression response to varying N and water treatments in the field in the four high and four low WSC progeny lines; the two nitrogen/amino acid metabolism genes demonstrated a consistent negative association between their level of expression and level of WSC. Our results suggest that the assimilation of nitrogen into amino acids is an important factor that influences the levels of WSC in the stems of field-grown wheat. PMID:21789636

  3. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Jallinoja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-carbohydrate (LC diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective: The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601, covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results: Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions: Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population.

  4. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population. PMID:25490960

  5. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  6. Bulk heterojunction perovskite-PCBM solar cells with high fill factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-03-01

    An inverted bulk heterojunction perovskite-PCBM solar cell with a high fill factor of 0.82 and a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.0% was fabricated by a low-temperature two-step solution process. The cells exhibit no significant photocurrent hysteresis and their high short-circuit current density, fill factor and efficiency are attributed to the advantageous properties of the active layer, such as its high conductivity and the improved mobility and diffusion length of charge carriers. In particular, PCBM plays a critical role in improving the quality of the light-absorbing layer by filling pinholes and vacancies between perovskite grains, resulting in a film with large grains and fewer grain boundaries.

  7. Estimating frame bulk and shear moduli of two double porosity layers by ultrasound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruonan; Tinel, Alain; Alem, Abdellah; Franklin, Hervé; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-08-01

    The acoustic plane wave transmission by water saturated double porosity media is investigated. Two samples of double porosity media assumed to obey Berryman and Wang (BW) extension (Berryman and Wang, 1995, 2000) of Biot's theory in the low frequency regime are under consideration: ROBU® (pure binder-free borosilicate glass 3.3 manufactured to form the individual grains) and Tobermorite 11Å (the individual porous cement grains show irregular shapes). The de facto gap existing between theoretical and experimental data can be minimized by modifying adequately two of the parameters estimated from triaxial tests: the frame bulk and shear moduli. The frequency dependent imaginary parts that follow necessary from the minimization are in relation with the energy losses due to contact relaxation and friction between grains. PMID:27209582

  8. Effect of rare earth substitution in cobalt ferrite bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was focused on the influence of small amounts of rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) addition on the microstructure, phase content and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite bulk materials. The X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the spinel structure but also the presence of secondary phases of RE oxides or orthoferrite in small percentages (up to 3%). Density measurements obtained by Archimedes method revealed a ~1 g cm−3 decrease for the RE doped cobalt ferrite samples compared with stoichiometric one. Both the Mössbauer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrocopy analysis results confirmed the formation of the spinel phase. The saturation magnetization and coercive field values of the doped samples obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry were close to those of the pure cobalt ferrite. For magnetostrictive property studies the samples were analyzed using the strain gauge method. Higher maximum magnetostriction coefficients were found for the Ho, Ce, Sm and Yb doped cobalt ferrite bulk materials as related to the stoichiometric CoFe2O4 sample. Moreover, improved strain derivative was observed for these samples but at higher magnetic fields due to the low increase of the coercive field values for doped samples. - Highlights: • Substitution by a large number of rare earth elements was investigated. • First reported results on magnetostriction measurements of RE doped cobalt ferrite. • The doped samples presented an increased porosity and a decreased grain size. • Increased magnetostrctive response was observed for several doped samples

  9. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  10. Solid propellant grain design and internal ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The ballistic aspects of grain design were studied to outline the steps necessary to achieve a successful grain design. The relationships of the grain design to steady-state mass balance and erosive burning are considered. Grain design criteria is reviewed, and recommended design criteria are included.

  11. DELIVERY OF DUST GRAINS FROM COMET C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING) TO MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will have a close encounter with Mars on 2014 October 19. We model the dynamical evolution of dust grains from the time of their ejection from the comet nucleus to the close encounter with Mars, and determine the flux at Mars. Constraints on the ejection velocity from Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that the bulk of the grains will likely miss Mars, although it is possible that a few percent of the grains with higher velocities will reach Mars, peaking approximately 90-100 minutes after the close approach of the nucleus, and consisting mostly of millimeter-radius grains ejected from the comet nucleus at a heliocentric distance of approximately 9 AU or larger. At higher velocities, younger grains from submillimeter to several millimeters can also reach Mars, although an even smaller fraction of grains is expected have these velocities, with negligible effect on the peak timing. Using NEOWISE observations of the comet, we can estimate that the maximum fluence will be of the order of 10–7 grains m–2. We include a detailed analysis of how the expected fluence depends on the grain density, ejection velocity, and size-frequency distribution, to account for current model uncertainties and in preparation of possible refined model values in the near future

  12. DELIVERY OF DUST GRAINS FROM COMET C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING) TO MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricarico, Pasquale; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Sykes, Mark V.; Li, Jian-Yang [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell #106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S. P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Farnocchia, Davide; Stevenson, Rachel; Bauer, James M.; Lock, Robert E., E-mail: tricaric@psi.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will have a close encounter with Mars on 2014 October 19. We model the dynamical evolution of dust grains from the time of their ejection from the comet nucleus to the close encounter with Mars, and determine the flux at Mars. Constraints on the ejection velocity from Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that the bulk of the grains will likely miss Mars, although it is possible that a few percent of the grains with higher velocities will reach Mars, peaking approximately 90-100 minutes after the close approach of the nucleus, and consisting mostly of millimeter-radius grains ejected from the comet nucleus at a heliocentric distance of approximately 9 AU or larger. At higher velocities, younger grains from submillimeter to several millimeters can also reach Mars, although an even smaller fraction of grains is expected have these velocities, with negligible effect on the peak timing. Using NEOWISE observations of the comet, we can estimate that the maximum fluence will be of the order of 10{sup –7} grains m{sup –2}. We include a detailed analysis of how the expected fluence depends on the grain density, ejection velocity, and size-frequency distribution, to account for current model uncertainties and in preparation of possible refined model values in the near future.

  13. Chemical composition of lipids in brewer's spent grain: A promising source of valuable phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Prinsen, Pepijn; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is an important by-product from the brewing process produced in high amounts worldwide. BSG is rich in carbohydrates, lignin, proteins and lipids. In this work, the chemical composition of the lipids in BSG was studied in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The predominant lipids were triglycerides (67% of total extract), followed by a series of free fatty acids (18%). Lower amounts of monoglycerides (1.6%) and diglycerides (7.7%) were also identifie...

  14. Kinetics of first-order phase transitions initiated by diffusion of particles from the surface into the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, V. P.; Krozer, A.; Kasemo, B.

    1993-05-01

    The kinetic equations are formulated and solved to describe a first-order phase transition initiated by diffusion of particles from the surface into the bulk. The scenario of phase transformation is assumed to involve the following three stages. At first, the particles diffuse in the bulk almost freely because the grain concentration is low. Then, with increasing grain concentration, the particles are trapped predominantly near the interface and the space distribution of particles shifts to the interface. Finally, the dense phase formed near the interface blocks diffusion of particles from the interface into the bulk and prevents further uptake. General results are used to interpret the experimental data on the hydrogen uptake by Pd-coated Mg at low temperatures. In this system, the asymptotic hydrogen uptake as a function of time decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure. This unusual feature of the hydrogen uptake is shown to be qualitatively explained by hydride nucleation and growth near the Pd/Mg interface.

  15. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  16. Grain growth in Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain growth in gas pressure sintered silicon nitride has been examined using an etching technique which allows the true grain size and shape to be determined. Examination of etched surfaces showed that multiple grain size and shape distributions develop during sintering. Interrupted sintering cycles show that growth of exaggerated grains does not result directly from the α- to β-Si3N4 phase transformation, at least for the dopant system examined. Analysis shows that the grain growth rate is controlled by an interfacial transport step and that impingement of growing grains on other grains of similar size strongly constrains further growth. (orig.)

  17. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, R. D. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ye, M. F.; Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  18. An experimental comparison of laboratory techniques in determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of tuffaceous rock were studied as part of the site characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. These efforts were scoping in nature, and their results, along with those of other investigations, are being used to develop suitable procedures for determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rock in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations. Comparisons were made between various sample preparation, handling, and measurement techniques for both zeolitized and nonzeolitized tuff in order to assess their effects on bulk property determinations. Laboratory tests included extensive drying regimes to evaluate dehydration behavior, the acquisition of data derived from both gas and water pycnometers to compare their suitability in determining grain densities, a comparison of particle size effects, and a set of experiments to evaluate whole core saturation methods. The results affirm the added complexity of these types of measurements where there is a zeolite component in the sample mineralogy. Absolute values for the bulk properties of zeolitized tuff are immeasurable due to the complex nature of their dehydration behavior. However, the results of the techniques that were investigated provide a basis for the development of preferred, consistent methods for determining the grain density, dry and saturated bulk densities, and porosity of tuffaceous rock, including zeolitic tuff in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations

  19. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  20. Computer simulation of dust grain evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffman, K.

    1989-01-01

    The latest results are reported from a Monte Carlo code that is being developed at NASA Ames. The goal of this program, is to derive from the observed and presumed properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) the following information: (1) the size spectrum of interstellar dust; (2) the chemical structure of interstellar dust; (3) interstellar abundances; and (4) the lifetime of a dust grain in the ISM. Presently this study is restricted to refractory interstellar material, i.e., the formation and destruction of ices are not included in the program. The program is embedded in an analytic solution for the bulk chemical evolution of a two-phase interstellar medium in which stars are born in molecular clouds, but new nucleosynthesis products and stellar return are entered into a complementary intercloud medium. The well-mixed matter of each interstellar phase is repeatedly cycled stochastically through the complementary phase and back. Refractory dust is created by thermal condensation as stellar matter flows away from sites of nucleosynthesis such as novae and supernovae and/or from the matter returned from evolved intermediate stars. The history of each particle is traced by standard Monte Carlo techniques as it is sputtered and fragmented by supernova shock waves in the intercloud medium. It also accretes an amorphous mantle of gaseous refractory atoms when its local medium joins with the molecular cloud medium. Finally it encounters the possibility of astration (destruction by star formation) within the molecular clouds.

  1. Computer simulation of dust grain evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest results are reported from a Monte Carlo code that is being developed at NASA Ames. The goal of this program, is to derive from the observed and presumed properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) the following information: (1) the size spectrum of interstellar dust; (2) the chemical structure of interstellar dust; (3) interstellar abundances; and (4) the lifetime of a dust grain in the ISM. Presently this study is restricted to refractory interstellar material, i.e., the formation and destruction of ices are not included in the program. The program is embedded in an analytic solution for the bulk chemical evolution of a two-phase interstellar medium in which stars are born in molecular clouds, but new nucleosynthesis products and stellar return are entered into a complementary intercloud medium. The well-mixed matter of each interstellar phase is repeatedly cycled stochastically through the complementary phase and back. Refractory dust is created by thermal condensation as stellar matter flows away from sites of nucleosynthesis such as novae and supernovae and/or from the matter returned from evolved intermediate stars. The history of each particle is traced by standard Monte Carlo techniques as it is sputtered and fragmented by supernova shock waves in the intercloud medium. It also accretes an amorphous mantle of gaseous refractory atoms when its local medium joins with the molecular cloud medium. Finally it encounters the possibility of astration (destruction by star formation) within the molecular clouds

  2. Effective diffusivity and activation energy in flours of residuals annatto grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The residual annatto grains are the subproduct from the extraction process of bixin, dye used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The most of this waste has been discarded in the environment, what constitutes wasteful since, like other grains, is source of carbohydrates, protein and food fibers. One way to facilitate the use of these grains is suing them for making flour and incorporating them in commercial flour of other grains. This work aimed to determine the effective diffusivity and obtain the activation energy in the drying process of flours of residuals annatto grains, with and without the oil layer from the process of industrial extraction of bixin. The dryings was performed at 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C, and air velocity of about 1 m s-1. The calculated value of the effective diffusivity ranged from 0.23 × 10-11 to 2.24 × 10-11 m2 s-1 for the sample with oil, and 0.66 × 10- 11 to 4.89 × 10-11 m2 s-1 for the sample without oil. The activation energies were of 70.56 and 58.95 KJ mol-1 for the sample with oil and without oil, respectively, in which the samples without oil presented higher rates of drying.

  3. Establishment of growth medium and quantification of pollen grains of olive cultivars in Brazil's subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Oliveira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pollen grain germination in vitro indicates viability and consequently provides information related to fruit set. It also assists in the development of hybrids. Along with a suitable species, a standard culture medium is essential for evaluating pollen viability. It should contain a gelling agent consisting of carbohydrates and enhancer elements as well as have the correct pH, temperature, and incubation time. The objective of this study was to optimise the culture medium, determine the pollen germination capacity, and quantify the number of pollen grains per flower of certain olive tree cultivars. A basic sequential culture medium for pollen grain germination was determined, always utilizing the best result from the previous experiment to continue the sequence.The factorial treatment arrangement was: 1 agar versus boric acid; 2 pH versus sucrose; 3 calcium nitrate versus magnesium sulfate. After determining the culture medium components, two experiments were conducted evaluating temperature and incubation time. Another experiment evaluated both the germination percentage and the number of flower pollen grains of 28 cultivars. The culture medium should be composed of 4 g∙L-1 of agar, 90 g∙L-1 of sucrose, and 400 mg∙L-1 of boric acid with a pH adjusted to 5.79 and an incubation time of 60 h at 28 °C. The Manzanilla 215 cultivar had the highest germination rate while Ascolano 315 presented the highest number of pollen grains per flower.

  4. Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors: Pattern Recognition and Involvement of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Porgador

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, expressed by natural killer (NK cells, trigger NK lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells on interaction with cell-surface ligands of these target cells. We have determined that viral hemagglutinins expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells are involved in the recognition by the NCRs, NKp44 and NKp46. Recognition of tumor cells by the NCRs NKp30 and NKp46 involves heparan sulfate epitopes expressed on the tumor cell membrane. Our studies provide new evidence for the identity of the ligands for NCRs and indicate that a broader definition should be applied to pathological patterns recognized by innate immune receptors. Since nonmicrobial endogenous carbohydrate structures contribute significantly to this recognition, there is an imperative need to develop appropriate tools for the facile sequencing of carbohydrate moieties.

  5. Vaccines based on the cell surface carbohydrates of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycoconjugate vaccines, in which a cell surface carbohydrate from a micro-organism is covalently attached to an appropriate carrier protein are proving to be the most effective means to generate protective immune responses to prevent a wide range of diseases. The technology appears to be generic and applicable to a wide range of pathogens, as long as antibodies against surface carbohydrates help protect against infection. Three such vaccines, against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis Group C and seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, have already been licensed and many others are in development. This article discusses the rationale for the development and use of glycoconjugate vaccines, the mechanisms by which they elicit T cell-dependent immune responses and the implications of this for vaccine development, the role of physicochemical methods in the characterisation and quality control of these vaccines, and the novel products which are under development.

  6. Identification and estimation ot carbohydrates using radioisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope-dilution methods have been developed to identify and estimate the small amount of products formed when carbohydrates are irradiated in aqueous solution with Co60 gamma-radiation. Conventional analytical methods proved inadequate. After irradiation of C14-sugar solutions, the autoradiographs prepared after paper chromatography indicated extensive degradation. Using a reverse isotope-dilution procedure involving the addition of known carriers, and conversion of the fragments into crystalline derivatives, various constituents were quantitatively determined. It is possible to distinguish between d- and Z-isomers, and estimate each isomer independently. The method is applicable to other analytical problems in carbohydrate chemistry. A new method for scanning and recording the radioactivity along paper-chromatogram strips, which involves an inexpensive modification to conventional counting equipment, is described. (author)

  7. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne; Stoll, Barbara;

    2009-01-01

    aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be...... 1, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00261.2009. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a...... concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin-or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal...

  8. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H;

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N-acetyllac......Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...... maximally expressed at the early stages of development, but may later be modified either by sialylation or fucosylation into blood group H or Lex, or by Ley substances, respectively. The orderly and well-defined changes observed during skin differentiation are in agreement with other studies, which have...

  9. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  10. Effects of grain size and specimen size on small punch test of type 316L austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature specimen test technique has been extensively studied for quantifying the properties of bulk materials. In this paper small punch test (SPT) is used to clarify the effects of specimen thickness (t), grain size (d) and ratio of thickness to grain size (t/d) on mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS). Five sheet of 316L SS with the same texture but different thicknesses and grain sizes were prepared using rolling and heating treatment technique. Effective SPT yield strength was measured, and then used to correlate with conventional tensile test by empirical equation. The results show that the SPT is sensitive not only to differences in the thickness, but also to changes in the grain size and value of t/d. The present work provides information that enhance the understanding of reliability of SPT in analysis of the mechanical properties of small specimens and bulk materials. (author)

  11. Coarse-graining complex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat-tailed distribu......Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat...

  12. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  13. Carbohydrate availability of arroz caldo with lambda-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumelod, B D; Ramirez, R P; Tiangson, C L; Barrios, E B; Panlasigui, L N

    1999-07-01

    Total available carbohydrate (sugars and starches) and total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) make up the total carbohydrate content of a food. Soluble fiber decreases the availability of glucose by delaying its absorption in the proximal small intestine, thus reducing the postprandial glucose levels (Jenkins et al., 1978; Schneeman, 1987a). Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is a good source of soluble fiber (Montaño et al., 1985). This study aimed to determine the effect of carrageenan incorporation into arroz caldo on carbohydrate availability by monitoring the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal subjects. Control and experimental arroz caldo samples were prepared and subjected to proximate analysis and feeding studies. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the experimental (2.03%) was about thrice that of the control (0.68%). Using randomized crossover design, preweighed 55 g available carbohydrate serving portions of control and experimental arroz caldo samples, with 3.45 and 14.84 g TDF, respectively, were fed to ten fasting normal subjects then their postprandial blood glucose levels were determined at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min intervals. Results of the short-term in vivo study showed that the mean postprandial glycaemic responses of subjects after consuming the experimental sample were significantly lower than the levels after consuming the control at 15, 45, and 90 min (P arroz caldo than control (147.29 +/- 53.34). The hypoglycaemic effect of carrageenan may prove useful in the prevention and management of metabolic conditions such as diabetes. PMID:10719574

  14. GLYCAM06: A Generalizable Biomolecular Force Field. Carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschner, Karl N.; Yongye, Austin B.; Tschampel, Sarah M.; GONZÁLEZ-OUTEIRIÑO, JORGE; DANIELS, CHARLISA R.; Foley, B. Lachele; Woods, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    A new derivation of the GLYCAM06 force field, which removes its previous specificity for carbohydrates, and its dependency on the AMBER force field and parameters, is presented. All pertinent force field terms have been explicitly specified and so no default or generic parameters are employed. The new GLYCAM is no longer limited to any particular class of biomolecules, but is extendible to all molecular classes in the spirit of a small-molecule force field. The torsion terms in the present wo...

  15. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    OpenAIRE

    RM Hall; Parry Strong A; Krebs JD

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atheroscle...

  16. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions requires a careful protecting group strategy and typically involves multistep protocols.This thesis describes the prepartion, installation, their use in the synthesis of stereoselective glycosidic...

  17. Structure, dynamics and reactivity of carbohydrates : NMR spectroscopic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnols, Jerk

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on the ring conformations of carbohydrate molecules; how the conformational equilibria and the rates of the associated interconversions are affected by the molecular constitution and their surroundings. The conformational equilibria of a group of amine linked pseudodisaccharides, designed as potential glycosidase inhibitors, comprising α-D-altrosides are described in Chapter 3. The OS2 conformation was largely populated, and the ring conformation was found to ...

  18. Structural Characterization of Carbohydrates by Fourier Transform Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides high mass accuracy, high sensitivity, and analytical versatility and has therefore emerged as an indispensable tool for structural elucidation of biomolecules. Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications, occurring in ~50% of proteins. However, due to the structural diversity of carbohydrates, arising from non-template driven biosynthesis, achievement of detailed structural insight is highly challenging. T...

  19. Carbohydrate recognition by the antiviral lectin cyanovirin-N

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Yukiji K.; Green, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanovirin-N is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent antiviral activity, and has been the focus of extensive pre-clinical investigation as a potential prophylactic for the prevention of the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we present a detailed analysis of carbohydrate recognition by this important protein, using a combination of computational methods, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular-Mechanics/ Poisson–Boltzmann/Surface-Area (...

  20. Carbohydrate malabsorption in patients with non-specific abdominal complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Born, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Non-specific abdominal complaints are a considerable problem worldwide. Many patients are affected and many differential diagnoses have to be considered. Among these, carbohydrate malabsorption seems to play an important role. However, so far, only incomplete absorption of lactose is broadly accepted, while the malabsorption of fructose and sorbitol is still underestimated, although in many parts of the world it is much more frequent. Despite the success of dietary interventions in many patie...