WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulgeless galaxy hosting

  1. Red bulgeless galaxies in SDSS DR7. Are there any AGN hosts?

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Bruno; Lobo, Catarina; Ribeiro, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    With the main goal of finding bulgeless galaxies harbouring super massive black holes and showing, at most, just residual star formation activity, we have selected a sample of massive bulgeless red sequence galaxies from the SDSS-DR7, based on the NYU-VAGC catalogue. Multivavelength data were retrieved using EURO-VO tools, and the objects are characterised in terms of degree of star formation and the presence of an AGN. We have found seven objects that are quenched massive galaxies, that have no prominent bulge and that show signs of extra activity in their nuclei, five of them being central in their halo. These objects are rather robust candidates for rare systems that, though devoid of a significant bulge, harbor a supermassive black hole with an activity level likely capable of having halted the star formation through feedback.

  2. The Cold Gas Content of Bulgeless Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, K; Calura, F; Brooks, A M; Mayer, L; Brook, C B; Stinson, G S; Thacker, R J; Few, C G; Cunnama, D; Wadsley, J

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen (HI) properties of a fully cosmological hydrodynamical dwarf galaxy, run with varying simulation parameters. As reported by Governato et al. (2010), the high resolution, high star formation density threshold version of this galaxy is the first simulation to result in the successful reproduction of a (dwarf) spiral galaxy without any associated stellar bulge. We have set out to compare in detail the HI distribution and kinematics of this simulated bulgeless disk with what is observed in a sample of nearby dwarfs. To do so, we extracted the radial gas density profiles, velocity dispersion (e.g., velocity ellipsoid, turbulence), and the power spectrum of structure within the cold interstellar medium from the simulations. The highest resolution dwarf, when using a high density star formation threshold comparable to densities of giant molecular clouds, possesses bulk characteristics consistent with those observed in nature, though the cold gas is not as radially exten...

  3. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH ANALYSIS OF NGC 4178: A BULGELESS GALAXY WITH AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, N. J.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Moran, S. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Bergmann, M. P. [NOAO Gemini Science Center, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Seth, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present Gemini longslit optical spectroscopy and Very Large Array radio observations of the nuclear region of NGC 4178, a late-type bulgeless disk galaxy recently confirmed to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) through infrared and X-ray observations. Our observations reveal that the dynamical center of the galaxy is coincident with the location of the Chandra X-ray point source discovered in a previous work, providing further support for the presence of an AGN. While the X-ray and IR observations provide robust evidence for an AGN, the optical spectrum shows no evidence for the AGN, underscoring the need for the penetrative power of mid-IR and X-ray observations in finding buried or weak AGNs in this class of galaxy. Finally, the upper limit to the radio flux, together with our previous X-ray and IR results, is consistent with the scenario in which NGC 4178 harbors a deeply buried AGN accreting at a high rate.

  4. Bulgeless Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift: Sample Selection, Colour Properties, and the Existence of Powerful AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Griffith, Roger L; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João; Anton, Sonia; Bell, Eric F; Brinchmann, Jarle; Henriques, Bruno; Lobo, Catarina; Messias, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength datasets available -- COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS and GOODS -- at intermediate redshift ($0.4 \\leq z \\leq 1.0$). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalogue (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyse the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disc systems with redshift. Very massive [$\\log (M_\\star/M_{\\odot}) > 10.5$] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ~30% of the total galaxy population number density at $z \\geq 0.7$, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure discs appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogues were used t...

  5. Discovery of a population of bulgeless galaxies with extremely red MID-IR colors: Obscured AGN activity in the low-mass regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; McAlpine, W.; Rosenberg, J. L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ellison, S. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fischer, J., E-mail: satyapal@physics.gmu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low-mass or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE ) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z < 0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors which are highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 and over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing the properties of SMBHs in the low bulge mass regime and in understanding their relation with their host galaxies. Mid-infrared selection identifies AGNs that dominate their host galaxy's emission and therefore reveal a different AGN population than that uncovered by optical studies. We find that the fraction of all galaxies identified as candidate AGNs by WISE is highest at lower stellar masses and drops dramatically in higher mass galaxies, in striking contrast to the findings from optical studies.

  6. At the heart of the matter: the origin of bulgeless dwarf galaxies and Dark Matter cores

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, Fabio; Mayer, Lucio; Brooks, Alyson; Rhee, George; Wadsley, James; Jonsson, Patrik; Willman, Beth; Stinson, Greg; Quinn, Thomas; Madau, Piero

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades the properties of "dwarf" galaxies have challenged the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm of galaxy formation. Most observed dwarf galaxies consists of a rotating stellar disc embedded in a massive DM halo with a near constant-density core. Yet, models based on the CDM scenario invariably form galaxies with dense spheroidal stellar "bulges" and steep central DM profiles, as low angular momentum baryons and DM sink to the center of galaxies through accretion and repeated mergers. Processes that decrease the central density of CDM halos have been identified, but have not yet reconciled theory with observations of present day dwarfs. This failure is potentially catastrophic for the CDM model, possibly requiring a different DM particle candidate. This Letter presents new hydrodynamical simulations in a Lambda$CDM framework where analogues of dwarf galaxies, bulgeless and with a shallow central DM profile, are formed. This is achieved by resolving the inhomogeneous interstellar medium, resultin...

  7. Properties of Bulgeless Disk Galaxies II. Star Formation as a Function of Circular Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Linda C; Lisenfeld, Ute; Wong, Man-Hong; Boeker, Torsten; Schinnerer, Eva

    2012-01-01

    We study the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in twenty moderately-inclined, bulgeless disk galaxies (Sd-Sdm Hubble types) using CO(1-0) data from the IRAM 30m telescope, HI emission line data from the VLA/EVLA, H-alpha data from the MDM Observatory, and PAH emission data derived from Spitzer IRAC observations. We specifically investigate the efficiency of star formation as a function of circular velocity (v_circ). Previous work found that the vertical dust structure and disk stability of edge-on, bulgeless disk galaxies transition from diffuse dust lanes with large scale heights and gravitationally-stable disks at v_circ 120 km/s. We find no transition in star formation efficiency (Sigma_SFR/Sigma_HI+H2) at v_circ = 120 km/s, or at any other circular velocity probed by our sample (v_circ = 46 - 190 km/s). Contrary to previous work, we find no transition in disk stability at any circular velocity in our sample. Assuming our sample has the same dust structure transition as t...

  8. Obscured AGNs in Bulgeless Hosts discovered by WISE: The Case Study of SDSS J1224+5555

    CERN Document Server

    Satyapal, S; Rothberg, B; O'Connor, J; Ellison, S L; Hickox, R C; Constantin, A; Gliozzi, M; Rosenberg, J L

    2016-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that supermassive black holes form and grow in bulgeless galaxies. However, a robust determination of the fraction of AGNs in bulgeless galaxies, an important constraint to models of supermassive black hole seed formation and merger-free models of AGN fueling, is unknown, since optical studies have been shown to be incomplete for low mass AGNs. In a recent study using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we discovered hundreds of bulgeless galaxies that display mid-infrared signatures of extremely hot dust suggestive of powerful accreting massive black holes, despite having no signatures of black hole activity at optical wavelengths. Here we report X-ray follow-up observations of J122434.66+555522.3, a nearby (z=0.052) isolated bulgeless galaxy that contains an unresolved X-ray source detected at the 3 sigma level by XMM-Newton with an observed luminosity uncorrected for intrinsic absorption of L{2-10~keV}=1.1+/-0.4 10^40 ergs/s. Ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy with the ...

  9. Bulgeless dwarf galaxies and dark matter cores from supernova-driven outflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governato, F; Brook, C; Mayer, L; Brooks, A; Rhee, G; Wadsley, J; Jonsson, P; Willman, B; Stinson, G; Quinn, T; Madau, P

    2010-01-14

    For almost two decades the properties of 'dwarf' galaxies have challenged the cold dark matter (CDM) model of galaxy formation. Most observed dwarf galaxies consist of a rotating stellar disk embedded in a massive dark-matter halo with a near-constant-density core. Models based on the dominance of CDM, however, invariably form galaxies with dense spheroidal stellar bulges and steep central dark-matter profiles, because low-angular-momentum baryons and dark matter sink to the centres of galaxies through accretion and repeated mergers. Processes that decrease the central density of CDM halos have been identified, but have not yet reconciled theory with observations of present-day dwarfs. This failure is potentially catastrophic for the CDM model, possibly requiring a different dark-matter particle candidate. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations (in a framework assuming the presence of CDM and a cosmological constant) in which the inhomogeneous interstellar medium is resolved. Strong outflows from supernovae remove low-angular-momentum gas, which inhibits the formation of bulges and decreases the dark-matter density to less than half of what it would otherwise be within the central kiloparsec. The analogues of dwarf galaxies-bulgeless and with shallow central dark-matter profiles-arise naturally in these simulations.

  10. Hierarchical formation of bulgeless galaxies II: Redistribution of angular momentum via galactic fountains

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, C B; Gibson, B K; Roškar, R; Wadsley, J; Quinn, T

    2011-01-01

    Within a fully cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, we form a galaxy which rotates at 140 km/s, and is characterised by two loose spiral arms and a bar, indicative of a Hubble Type SBc/d galaxy. We show that our simulated galaxy has no classical bulge, with a pure disc profile at z=1, well after the major merging activity has ended. A long-lived bar subsequently forms, resulting in the formation of a secularly-formed "pseudo" bulge, with the final bulge-to-total light ratio B/T=0.21. We show that the majority of gas which loses angular momentum and falls to the central region of the galaxy during the merging epoch is blown back into the hot halo, with much of it returning later to form stars in the disc. We propose that this mechanism of redistribution of angular momentum via a galactic fountain, when coupled with the results from our previous study which showed why gas outflows are biased to have low angular momentum, can solve the angular momentum/bulgeless disc problem of the cold dark matter paradigm.

  11. THE BULGELESS SEYFERT/LINER GALAXY NGC 3367: DISK, BAR, LOPSIDEDNESS, AND ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Toledo, H. M.; Cano-Diaz, M.; Valenzuela, O.; Garcia-Barreto, J. A; Moreno-Diaz, E. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, Mexico D. F., 04510 (Mexico); Puerari, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro 1, 72840, Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Bravo-Alfaro, H., E-mail: hector@astroscu.unam.mx [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, Guanajuato 36000 (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    the nuclear activity and peculiar (young stars and gas) morphology regardless of the highly isolated environment. Black hole growth in bulgeless galaxies may be triggered by smooth mass accretion.

  12. Discovery of a Large Population of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in the Bulge-less Galaxies NGC 337 and ESO 501-23

    CERN Document Server

    Somers, Garrett; Martini, Paul; Watson, Linda; Grier, Catherine J; Ferrarese, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulge-less disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8$^{+4.4}_{-3.5}$ \\msun\\ yr$^{-1}$, consistent at 1.5$\\sigma$ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with $\\Gamma = 1.18^{+0.19}_{-0.11}$ and N$\\rm{_H}$ = 1.13$^{+7.07}_{-1.13} \\times 10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of $1.08^{+0.05}_{-0.07} \\times 10^{-12}$ \\esc. Its X-ray luminosity (L$_X$) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host gala...

  13. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  14. Discovery of a Large Population of Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in the Bulgeless Galaxies NGC 337 and ESO 501-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Garrett; Mathur, Smita; Martini, Paul; Watson, Linda; Grier, Catherine J.; Ferrarese, Laura

    2013-11-01

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulgeless disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8^{+4.4}_{-3.5} M ⊙ yr-1, consistent at 1.5σ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with \\Gamma = 1.18^{+0.19}_{-0.11} and N H = 1.13^{+7.07}_{-1.13} \\times 10^{20} cm-2, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of 1.08^{+0.05}_{-0.07} \\times 10^{-12} erg s-1 cm-2. Its X-ray luminosity (LX ) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host galaxy's distance, but we argue that its spectrum implies LX > 1040 erg s-1. An optical counterpart to this object may be present in an Hubble Space Telescope image. We also identify ULX candidates in IC 1291, PGC 3853, NGC 5964, and NGC 2805. We find no evidence of nuclear activity in the galaxies in our sample, placing a flux upper limit of 4 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 on putative AGN. Additionally, the Type II-P supernova SN 2011DQ in NGC 337, which exploded two months before our X-ray observation, is undetected.

  15. A Luminous X-ray Flare From The Nucleus of The Dormant Bulgeless Spiral Galaxy NGC 247

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Hua; Kaaret, Philip; Tao, Lian; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Zhang, Shuo; Grisé, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    NGC 247 is a nearby late-type bulgeless spiral galaxy that contains an inactive nucleus. We report a serendipitous discovery of an X-ray flare from the galaxy center with a luminosity up to 2*10^39 erg/s in the 0.3-10 keV band with XMM-Newton. A Chandra observation confirms that the new X-ray source is spatially coincident with the galaxy nucleus. The XMM-Newton data revealed a hard power-law spectrum with a spectral break near 3-4 keV, no pulsations on timescales longer than 150 ms, and a flat power spectrum consistent with Poisson noise from 1 mHz to nearly 10 Hz. Follow-up observations with Swift detected a second flux peak followed by a luminosity drop by factor of almost 20. The spectral and temporal behaviors of the nuclear source are well consistent with the scenario that the flare was due to an outburst of a low-mass X-ray binary that contains a stellar-mass black hole emitting near its Eddington limit at the peak. However, it cannot be ruled out that the sudden brightening in the nucleus was due to a...

  16. Measuring the mass of the central black hole in the bulgeless galaxy NGC 4395 from gas dynamical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Brok, Mark den; Barth, Aaron J; Carson, Daniel J; Neumayer, Nadine; Cappellari, Michele; Debattista, Victor P; Ho, Luis C; Hood, Carol E; McDermid, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4395 is a bulgeless spiral galaxy, harboring one of the nearest known type 1 Seyfert nuclei. Although there is no consensus on the mass of its central engine, several estimates suggest it to be one of the lightest massive black holes (MBHs) known. We present the first direct dynamical measurement of the mass of this MBH from a combination of two-dimensional gas kinematic data, obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near infrared integral field spectrograph Gemini/NIFS, and high-resolution multiband photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). We use the photometric data to model the shape and stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of the nuclear star cluster. From the Gemini/NIFS observations, we derive the kinematics of warm molecular hydrogen gas as traced by emission through the H$_2$ 1--0 S(1) transition. These kinematics show a clear rotational signal, with a position angle orthogonal to NGC 4395's radio jet. Our best fitting tilted ring models of the kinematics of th...

  17. The Bulgeless Seyfert/LINER Galaxy NGC 3367: Disk, Bar, Lopsidedness and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Toledo, H M; Valenzuela, O; Puerari, I; García-Barreto, J A; Moreno-Díaz, E; Bravo-Alfaro, H

    2011-01-01

    NGC3367 is a nearby isolated active galaxy that shows a radio jet, a strong bar and evidence of lopsidedness. We present a quantitative analysis of the stellar and gaseous structure of the galaxy disk and a search for evidence of recent interaction based on new UBVRI Halpha and JHK images and on archival Halpha Fabry-Perot and HI VLA data. From a coupled 1D/2D GALFIT bulge/bar/disk decomposition an (B/D ~ 0.07-0.1) exponential pseudobulge is inferred in all the observed bands. A NIR estimate of the bar strength = 0.44 places NGC 3367 bar among the strongest ones. The asymmetry properties were studied using (1) optical and NIR CAS indexes (2) the stellar (NIR) and gaseous (Halpha, HI) A_1 Fourier mode amplitudes and (3) the HI integrated profile and HI mean intensity distribution. While the average stellar component shows asymmetry values close to the average found in the Local Universe for isolated galaxies, the young stellar component and gas values are largely decoupled showing significantly larger A_1 mod...

  18. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground). New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams. The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.

  19. Coevolution (Or Not) of Supermassive Black Holes and Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Ho, Luis C.

    2013-08-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) have been found in 85 galaxies by dynamical modeling of spatially resolved kinematics. The Hubble Space Telescope revolutionized BH research by advancing the subject from its proof-of-concept phase into quantitative studies of BH demographics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH mass [Formula: see text] and the velocity dispersion σ of the bulge component of the host galaxy. Together with similar correlations with bulge luminosity and mass, this led to the widespread belief that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. Conclusions based on one set of correlations from [Formula: see text] in brightest cluster ellipticals to [Formula: see text] in the smallest galaxies dominated BH work for more than a decade. New results are now replacing this simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different galaxy components. A reasonable aim is to use this progress to refine our understanding of BH-galaxy coevolution. BHs with masses of 105-106M⊙ are found in many bulgeless galaxies. Therefore, classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges are not necessary for BH formation. On the other hand, although they live in galaxy disks, BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks. Also, any [Formula: see text] correlations with the properties of disk-grown pseudobulges and dark matter halos are weak enough to imply no close coevolution. The above and other correlations of host-galaxy parameters with each other and with [Formula: see text] suggest that there are four regimes of BH feedback. (1) Local, secular, episodic, and stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies involves too little energy to result in coevolution. (2) Global feeding in major, wet galaxy mergers rapidly grows giant BHs in short-duration, quasar-like events whose energy feedback does affect galaxy evolution. The resulting hosts are classical bulges and coreless

  20. Coevolution (Or Not) of Supermassive Black Holes and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2013-01-01

    We review the observed demographics and inferred evolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) found by dynamical modeling of spatially resolved kinematics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH mass and the velocity dispersion of the host-galaxy bulge. It and other correlations led to the belief that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. New results are now replacing this simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different galaxy components. BHs are found in pure-disk galaxies, so classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges are not necessary to grow BHs. But BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks. And any correlations with disk-grown pseudobulges or halo dark matter are so weak as to imply no close coevolution. We suggest that there are four regimes of BH feedback. 1- Local, stochastic feeding of small BHs in mainly bulgeless galaxies involves too little energy to result in coevolution. 2- Global feeding in ma...

  1. The Smallest AGN Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J E; Ho, L C

    2005-01-01

    We describe our efforts to study dwarf galaxies with active nuclei, whose black holes, with masses < 10^6 M_sun, provide the best current observational constraints on the mass distribution of primordial seed black holes. Although these low-mass galaxies do not necessarily contain classical bulges, Barth, Greene, & Ho (2005) show that their stellar velocity dispersions and black hole masses obey the same relation as more massive systems. In order to characterize the properties of the dwarf hosts without the glare of the active nucleus, we have compiled a complementary sample of narrow-line active galaxies with low-mass hosts. The host galaxy properties, both their structures and stellar populations, are consistent with the general properties of low-mass, blue galaxies from Sloan. The black holes in these galaxies are probably radiating close to their Eddington limits, suggesting we may have found Type 2 analogues of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  2. Supermassive black holes: Coevolution (or not) of black holes and host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-07-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) have been found in 75 galaxies by observing spatially resolved dynamics. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revolutionized BH work by advancing the subject from its `proof of concept' phase into quantitative studies of BH demographics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH masses M • and the velocity dispersions σ of stars in the host galaxy bulge components at radii where the stars mostly feel each other and not the BH. Together with correlations between M • and bulge luminosity, with the `missing light' that defines galaxy cores, and with numbers of globular clusters, this has led to the conclusion that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. This simple picture with one set of correlations for all galaxies dominated BH work in the past decade. New results are now replacing the above, simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different kinds of galaxy components. BHs with masses of 105-106 M ⊙ live in some bulgeless galaxies. So classical (merger-built) bulges are not necessary equipment for BH formation. On the other hand, while they live in galaxy disks, BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks or with disk-grown pseudobulges. They also have no special correlation with dark matter halos beyond the fact that halo gravity controls galaxy formation. This leads to the suggestion that there are two modes of BH feeding, (1) local, secular and episodic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies that involves too little energy feedback to drive BH-host-galaxy coevolution and (2) global feeding in major galaxy mergers that rapidly grows giant BHs in short-duration events whose energy feedback does affect galaxy formation. After these quasar-like phases, maintenance-mode BH feedback into hot, X-ray-emitting gas continues to have a primarily negative effect in preventing late-time star formation when cold gas or gas-rich galaxies

  3. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  4. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Cunha, Carlos E.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  5. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; et al.

    2016-04-20

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  6. AGN Host Galaxy Properties And Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Supermassive black hole growth, nuclear activity, and galaxy evolution have been found to be closely related. In the context of AGN-galaxy coevolution, I will discuss about the relation found between the host galaxy properties and the central BH and I will present the latest determination of the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF), and the specific accretion rate distribution function (SARDF), derived from the XMM-COSMOS sample up to z˜2.5, with particular focus on AGN feedback as possible responsible mechanism for galaxy quenching.

  7. AGN Host Galaxy Properties and Mass Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bongiorno, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole growth, nuclear activity, and galaxy evolution have been found to be closely related. In the context of AGN-galaxy coevolution, I will discuss about the relation found between the host galaxy properties and the central BH and I will present the latest determination of the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF), and the specific accretion rate distribution function (SARDF), derived from the XMM-COSMOS sample up to z∼2.5, with particular focus on AGN feedback as possib...

  8. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ravi R; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J; Nichol, Robert C; Finley, David A; Fischer, John A; Foley, Ryan J; Kim, Alex G; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M C; Abdalla, Filipe B; Benoit-Levy, Aurelien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E; da Costa, Luiz N; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F; Evrard, August E; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A G; Marshall, Jennifer L; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andres A; Romer, A Kathy; Sanchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E C; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R; Wester, William

    2016-01-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated alg...

  9. Study of GRBs Hosts Galaxies Vicinity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, S.; Vasquez, N.; Hoyle, F.

    2017-07-01

    The study of GRBs host galaxies and its vicinity could provide constrains on the progenitor and an opportunity to use these violent explosions to characterize the nature of the highredshift universe. Studies of GRB host galaxies reveal a population of starforming galaxies with great diversity, spanning a wide range of masses, star formation rate, and redshifts. In order to study the galactic ambient of GRBs we used the S. Savaglio catalog from 2015 where 245 GRBs are listed with RA-Dec position and z. We choose 22 GRBs Hosts galaxies from Savaglio catalog and SDSS DR12, with z range 0work we provide characteristics on the regions for future works related with highredsift universe that using the GRBs.

  10. The host galaxy of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the z = 0.43 host galaxy of GRB 990712, involving ground-based photometry, spectroscopy, and HST imaging. The broad-band UBVRIJHKs photometry is used to determine the global spectral energy distribution (SED) of the host galaxy. Comparison with that of known...... galaxy types shows that the host is similar to a moderately kreddened starburst galaxy with a young stellar population. The estimated internal extinction in the host is A(V) = 0.15 +/- 0.1 and the star-formation rate (SFR) from the UV continuum is 1.3 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot yr(-1) (not corrected...... for the effects of extinction). Other galaxy template spectra than starbursts failed to reproduce the observed SED. We also present VLT spectra leading to the detection of Halpha from the GRB host galaxy. A SFR of 2.8 +/- 0.7 M-circle dot yr(-1) is inferred from the Halpha line flux, and the presence of a young...

  11. Tidal Disruption Events Prefer Unusual Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    French, K Decker; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are transient events observed when a star passes close enough to a supermassive black hole to be tidally destroyed. Many TDE candidates have been discovered in host galaxies whose spectra have weak or no line emission yet strong Balmer line absorption, indicating a period of intense star formation that has recently ended. As such, TDE host galaxies fall into the rare class of quiescent Balmer-strong galaxies. Here, we quantify the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with spectral properties like those of TDE hosts, determining the extent to which TDEs are over-represented in such galaxies. Galaxies whose spectra have Balmer absorption H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$ $-$ $\\sigma$(H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$) $>$ 4 \\AA\\ (where $\\sigma$(H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$) is the error in the Lick H$\\delta_{\\rm A}$ index) and H$\\alpha$ emission EW $$ 1.31 \\AA\\ and H$\\alpha$ EW $80\\times$ enhancement in such hosts and providing an observational link between the $\\gamma$/X-ray-bright and optical/UV-br...

  12. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, G.; Kruehler, T.; Schulze, S

    2015-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both...... uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen...

  13. In Search of Quasar Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C.; Shemmer, O.; Netzer, H.; Sturm, E.; Ciardullo, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the morphology and intensity of star formation in the host galaxies of eight Palomar-Green quasars using observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. Accretion-powered and star formation activity have been shown to coincide, motivating us to search for the star-forming regions in the host galaxies of quasars and to determine the star-formation rates. In this work we use calibrated narrow band emission line (H-beta and Pa-alpha) WFPC2 and NICMOS images as maps for total star formation rate. The main challenge in imaging quasar host galaxies is the separation of the quasar light from the galaxy light, especially in the case of z approximately 0.1 quasars in WFPC2 images where the PSF radius closely matches the expected host scale radius. To this this end we present a novel technique for image decomposition and subtraction of quasar light, which we have validated through extensive simulations using artificial quasar+galaxy images. The other significant challenge in mapping and measuring star forming regions is correcting for extinction, which we address using extinction maps created from the Pa-alpha/H-beta ratio. To determine the source of excitation, we utilize H-beta along with [OIII]5007 and [OII]3727 images in diagnostic line ratio (BPT) diagrams. We detect extended line emission in our targets on scales of order 1-2 kpc. A preliminary analysis suggests star formation rates of order 10 solar masses per year.

  14. AGN Absorption Linked to Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Juneau, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Multiwavelength identification of AGN is crucial not only to obtain a more complete census, but also to learn about the physical state of the nuclear activity (obscuration, efficiency, etc.). A panchromatic strategy plays an especially important role when the host galaxies are star-forming. Selecting far-Infrared galaxies at 0.3host galaxies, indicating a physical link between X-ray absorption and either the gas fraction or the gas geometry in the hosts. These findings have implications for our current understanding of both the AGN unification model and the nature of the black hole-galaxy connection. These proceedi...

  15. Clustering of supernova Ia host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, R G; Le Borgne, D; Conley, A; Howell, D A; Perrett, K; Astier, Pierre; Balam, D; Balland, C; Basa, S; Hardin, D; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hook, I; Pain, R; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Perlmutter, S

    2008-01-01

    For the first time the cross-correlation between type Ia supernova host galaxies and surrounding field galaxies is measured using the Supernova Legacy Survey sample. Over the z=0.2 to 0.9 redshift range we find that supernova hosts are correlated an average of 60% more strongly than similarly selected field galaxies over the 3-100 arcsec range and about a factor of 3 more strongly below 10 arcsec. The correlation errors are empirically established with a jackknife analysis of the four SNLS fields. The hosts are more correlated than the field at a significance of 99% in the fitted amplitude and slope, with the point-by-point difference of the two correlation functions having a reduced $\\chi^2$ for 8 degrees of freedom of 4.3, which has a probability of random occurrence of less than 3x10^{-5}. The correlation angle is 1.5+/-0.5 arcsec, which deprojects to a fixed co-moving correlation length of approximately 6.5+/- 2/h mpc. Weighting the field galaxies with the mass and star formation rate supernova frequencie...

  16. A Fast Radio Burst Host Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, E F; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, millisecond duration radio signals originating from distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called Fast Radio Bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. While every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, none before now have had a redshift measurement, due to the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we present the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting $\\sim 6$ days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be $z=0.492\\pm0.008$. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionised baryons in the intergalactic medium of $\\Omega_{\\mathrm{IGM}}=4.9 \\pm 1.3\\%$, in agreement with the expectation from WMAP, and i...

  17. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  18. Galaxy Zoo: evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Kruk, S. J.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K. W.; Wong, O. I.

    2016-12-01

    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualize the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolution, are also key in their evolution. This is in agreement with recent results showing that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. The availability of gas in the reservoirs of a galaxy, and its ability to be replenished, appear to be the key drivers behind this co-evolution.

  19. An HST study of three very faint GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaunsen, A.O.; Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.;

    2003-01-01

    . (2002). We obtain a revised and much higher probability that the galaxies identified as hosts indeed are related to the GRBs (P(n(chance))=0.69, following Bloom et al. 2002), thereby strengthening the conclusion that GRBs are preferentially located in star-forming regions in their hosts. Apart from......As part of the HST/STIS GRB host survey program we present the detection of three faint gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies based on an accurate localisation using ground-based data of the optical afterglows (OAs). A common property of these three hosts is their extreme faintness. The location...... at which GRBs occur with respect to their host galaxies and surrounding environments are robust indicators of the nature of GRB progenitors. The bursts studied here are among the four most extreme outliers, in terms of relative distance from the host center, in the recent comprehensive study of Bloom et al...

  20. Statistical Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jie-Min Chen; Jin Zhang; Lan-Wei Jia; En-Wei Liang

    2014-09-01

    A statistical analysis of gamma-ray burst host galaxies is presented and a clear metallicity-stellar mass relation is found in our sample. A trend that a more massive host galaxy tends to have a higher star-formation rate is also found. No correlation is found between V and H. GRB host galaxies at a higher redshift also tend to have a higher star formation rate, however, even in the same redshift, the star formation rate may vary for three orders of magnitude.

  1. Stripped-envelope supernova rates and host-galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Maoz, Dan; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe Ibc) remain to be conclsuively identified, but correlations between SN rates and host-galaxy properties can constrain progenitor models. Here, we present one result from a re-analysis of the rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Galaxies with stellar masses less than $\\sim 10^{10}~{\\rm M_\\odot}$ are less efficient at producing SNe Ibc than more massive galaxies. Any progenitor scenario must seek to explain this new observation.

  2. The host galaxies of AGN with powerful relativistic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Añorve, C.; Valdés, J.; Carrasco, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep Near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift (0.310^27 WHz^-1), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities L1.4GHz = 10^23.7 - 10^28.3WHz^-1, allowing us to divide our sample into high-excitation (quasar-mode; HERGs) and low-excitation (radio-mode; LERGs) radio galaxies. The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the Kormendy relation. Nuclear emission (dominated by non-thermal mechanisms) and host-galaxy magnitudes show a slightly negative weak trend for LERGs. On the other hand, the m_bulge -m_nuc relation is statistically significant for HERGs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the relativistic jets and their host galaxy. Our findings are consistent with the excitation state (LERG/HERG) scenario. In this view, LERGs emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and HERGs are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

  3. Galaxy Zoo: Evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smethurst, R J; Simmons, B D; Schawinski, K; Bamford, S P; Cardamone, C N; Kruk, S J; Masters, K L; Urry, C M; Willett, K W; Wong, O I

    2016-01-01

    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 AGN host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualise the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolutio...

  4. Black Hole Mass, Host galaxy classification and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, Barry; Reynolds, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the role of host galaxy classification and black hole mass in a heterogeneous sample of 276 mostly nearby (z99% confidence. Using ring morphology of the host galaxy as a proxy for lack of tidal interaction, we find that AGN luminosity in host galaxies within 70Mpc is independent of host galaxy interaction for $\\sim$ Gyrs, suggesting that the timescale of AGN activity due to secular evolution is much shorter than that due to tidal interactions. We find that LINER hosts have lower 12um luminosity than the median 12um luminosity of normal disk- and bulge-dominated galaxies which may represent observational evidence for past epochs of feedback that supressed star formation in LINER host galaxies. We propose that nuclear ULXs may account for the X-ray emission from LI NER 2s without flat-spectrum, compact radio cores. We confirmed the robustness of our results in X-rays by comparing them with the 14-195keV 22-month BAT survey of AGN, which is all-sky and unbiased by photoelectric absorption.

  5. Gas Kinematics in GRB Host Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam

    The star formation history of the Universe is one of the most complex and interesting chapters in our quest to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are beacons of actively star forming galaxies from redshifts near zero back to the cosmic dawn. In addition, they provide...

  6. Gas Kinematics in GRB Host Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam

    The star formation history of the Universe is one of the most complex and interesting chapters in our quest to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are beacons of actively star forming galaxies from redshifts near zero back to the cosmic dawn. In addition, they provide...

  7. HOST GALAXIES OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmann, A.; Cheung, C.

    2007-01-01

    Most radiation from galaxies containing active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is emitted not by the stars composing the galaxy, but from an active source at the galactic center, most likely a supermassive black hole. Of particular interest are radio galaxies, active galaxies that emit much of their radiation at radio wavelengths. Within each radio galaxy, an AGN powers a pair of collimated jets of relativistic particles, forming a pair of giant lobes at the end of the jets and thus giving a characteristic double-lobed appearance. A particular class of radio galaxies has an “X”-or winged-shaped morphology: in these, two pairs of lobes appear to originate from the galactic center, producing a distinctive X-shape. Two main mechanisms have been proposed to explain the X-shape morphology: one being a realignment of the black hole within the AGN and the second positing that the radio jets are expanding into an asymmetric medium, causing backflow and producing secondary wings. By analyzing radio host galaxy shapes, the distribution of the stellar mass is compared to the differing model expectations regarding the distribution of the surrounding gas and stellar material about the AGN. Results show elliptical host galaxies with an orthogonal offset between the semi-major axis of the host galaxy and the secondary radio wings, which lends support to the hydrodynamical model. However, results also show circular host galaxies with radio wings, making the realignment scenario a more likely model to describe the formation of these X-shaped radio sources.

  8. Radio Afterglows and Host Galaxies of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Long-Biao; Huang, Yong-Feng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Kong, Si-Wei; Li, Di; Chang, Heon-Young; Choi, Chul-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Considering the contribution of the emission from the host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the radio afterglows, we investigate the effect of host galaxies on observations statistically. For the three types of events, e.g. low-luminosity, standard and high-luminosity GRBs, it is found that a tight correlation exists between the ratio of the radio flux (RRF) of host galaxy to the total radio peak emission and the observational frequency. Especially, toward lower frequencies, the contribution from the host increases significantly. The correlation can be used to get a useful estimate for the radio brightness of those host galaxies which only have very limited radio afterglow data. Using this prediction, we re-considered the theoretical radio afterglow light curves for four kinds of events, i.e. high-luminosity, low-luminosity, standard and failed GRBs, taking into account the contribution from the host galaxies and aiming at exploring the detectability of these events by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Sp...

  9. Host Galaxy Morphology and the AGN Unified Model

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    We use a sample of active galaxies from the Cosmic Evolution Survey to show that host galaxy morphology is tied to the accretion rate and X-ray obscuration of its active galactic nucleus (AGN). Unobscured and rapidly accreting broad-line AGNs are more likely to be in spheroid-dominated hosts than weak or obscured AGNs, and obscured AGNs are more likely to have disturbed host galaxies. Much of the disagreement in previous work on the AGN-merger connection is likely due to each study probing AGNs with different obscuration and accretion properties. Only obscured AGNs seem to merger-driven, while weak AGNs are fed by stochastic processes in disks, and rapidly-accreting broad-line AGNs require massive bulges. Our observed "unified model" for AGN hosts fits with theoretical models for merger-driven AGN evolution, but is also consistent with steady-state AGN activity.

  10. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Banfield, J K; Willett, K W; Norris, R P; Rudnick, L; Shabala, S S; Simmons, B D; Snyder, C; Garon, A; Seymour, N; Middelberg, E; Andernach, H; Lintott, C J; Jacob, K; Kapinska, A D; Mao, M Y; Masters, K L; Jarvis, M J; Schawinski, K; Paget, E; Simpson, R; Klockner, H R; Bamford, S; Burchell, T; Chow, K E; Cotter, G; Fortson, L; Heywood, I; Jones, T W; Kaviraj, S; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Maksym, W P; Polsterer, K; Borden, K; Hollow, R P; Whyte, L

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the first twelve months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170,000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses $1.4\\,$GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at $3.4\\,\\mu$m from the {\\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) and at $3.6\\,\\mu$m from the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is $>\\,75\\%$ consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and l...

  11. How SN Ia host-galaxy properties affect cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, H; Gilmore, G

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the relationship between Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) properties, and the characteristics of their host galaxies, using a sample of 581 SNe Ia from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. We also investigate the effects of this on the cosmological constraints derived from SNe~Ia. Compared to previous studies, our sample is larger by a factor of $>4$, and covers a substantially larger redshift range (up to z~0.5), which is directly applicable to the volume of cosmological interest. We measure a significant correlation (>5\\sigma) between the host-galaxy stellar-mass and the SN~Ia Hubble Residuals (HR). We find a weak correlation (1.4\\sigma) between the host-galaxy metallicity as measured from emission lines in the spectra, and the SN~Ia HR. We also find evidence that the slope of the correlation between host-galaxy mass and HR is -0.11 $\\mathrm{mag}/\\mathrm{log}(\\mathrm{M}_{\\mathrm{host}}/\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot})$ steeper in lower metallicity galaxies. We test the effe...

  12. The nuclear to host galaxy relation of high redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kotilainen, J K; Labita, M; Treves, A; Uslenghi, M

    2007-01-01

    We present near-infrared imaging with ESO VLT+ISAAC of the host galaxies of low luminosity quasars in the redshift range 1 < z < 2, aimed at investigating the relationship between the nuclear and host galaxy luminosities at high redshift. This work complements our previous study to trace the cosmological evolution of the host galaxies of high luminosity quasars (Falomo et al. 2004). The new sample includes 15 low luminosity quasars, nine radio-loud (RLQ) and six radio-quiet (RQQ). They have similar distribution of redshift and optical luminosity, and together with the high luminosity quasars they cover a large range (~4 mag) of the quasar luminosity function. The host galaxies of both types of quasars are in the range of massive inactive ellipticals between L* and 10 L*. RLQ hosts are systematically more luminous than RQQ hosts by a factor of ~2. This difference is similar to that found for the high luminosity quasars. This luminosity gap appears to be independent of the rest-frame U-band luminosity but...

  13. The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K Y

    2016-01-01

    We present HST images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies' central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing "classical" bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions: (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude ($10^6$ -- $10^8 M_\\odot$) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all $\\sim 10^{11} M_\\odot$ within a factor of three; (2) the BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected, when compared to an ex...

  14. The Dependence of Galaxy Type on Host Halo Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Weinmann, S M; Yang, X; Mo, H J; Weinmann, Simone M.; Bosch, Frank C. van den; Yang, Xiaohu

    2006-01-01

    We examine the relation between galaxy properties and environment in the SDSS DR2, quantifying environment in terms of the mass of the host halo, which is obtained with a new iterative group finder. We find that galaxy type fractions scale strongly and smoothly with halo mass, but, at fixed mass, not with luminosity. We compare these findings with the semi-analytical galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). The discrepancies we find can be explained with an oversimplified implementation of strangulation, the neglect of tidal stripping, and shortcomings in the treatments of dust extinction and/or AGN feedback.

  15. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, R; Cornell, M E

    2011-01-20

    The masses of supermassive black holes are known to correlate with the properties of the bulge components of their host galaxies. In contrast, they seem not to correlate with galaxy disks. Disk-grown 'pseudobulges' are intermediate in properties between bulges and disks; it has been unclear whether they do or do not correlate with black holes in the same way that bulges do. At stake in this issue are conclusions about which parts of galaxies coevolve with black holes, possibly by being regulated by energy feedback from black holes. Here we report pseudobulge classifications for galaxies with dynamically detected black holes and combine them with recent measurements of velocity dispersions in the biggest bulgeless galaxies. These data confirm that black holes do not correlate with disks and show that they correlate little or not at all with pseudobulges. We suggest that there are two different modes of black-hole feeding. Black holes in bulges grow rapidly to high masses when mergers drive gas infall that feeds quasar-like events. In contrast, small black holes in bulgeless galaxies and in galaxies with pseudobulges grow as low-level Seyfert galaxies. Growth of the former is driven by global processes, so the biggest black holes coevolve with bulges, but growth of the latter is driven locally and stochastically, and they do not coevolve with disks and pseudobulges.

  16. Gemini imaging of QSO host galaxies at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Croom, S; Boyle, B; Shanks, T; Miller, L; Smith, R; Croom, Scott; Schade, David; Boyle, Brian; Shanks, Tom; Miller, Lance; Smith, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We present results of a Gemini adaptive optics (AO) imaging program to investigate the host galaxies of typical QSOs at z~2. Our aim is to study the host galaxies of typical, L*_qso QSOs at the epoch of peak QSO and star formation activity. The large database of faint QSOs provided by the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey allows us to select a sample of QSOs at z=1.75-2.5 which have nearby (<12 arcsecond separation) bright stars suitable for use as AO guide stars. We have observed a sample of 9 QSOs. The images of these sources have AO corrected full-width at half-maximum of between 0.11 and 0.25 arcseconds. We use multiple observations of point spread function (PSF) calibration star pairs in order to quantify any uncertainty in the PSF. We then factored these uncertainties into our modelling of the QSO plus host galaxy. In only one case did we convincingly detect a host (2QZ J133311.4+001949, at z=1.93). This host galaxy has K=18.5+-0.2 mag with a half-light radius, r_e=0.55+-0.1'', equivalent to ~3L*_gal assuming ...

  17. The extremely red host galaxy of GRB 080207

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Leslie; Rossi, Andrea; Savaglio, Sandra; Cresci, Giovanni; Klose, Sylvio; Michalowski, Michal; Pian, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the host galaxy of the dark gamma-ray burst GRB 080207. The host is faint, with extremely red optical-infrared colors ($R-K\\,=\\,6.3$, 24\\micron/$R-$band flux $\\sim1000$) making it an extremely red object (ERO) and a dust-obscured galaxy (DOG). The spectral energy distribution (SED) shows the clear signature of the 1.6 micron photometric "bump", typical of evolved stellar populations. We use this bump to establish the photometric redshift $z_{\\rm phot}$ as 2.2$^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$, using a vast library of SED templates, including M 82. The star-formation rate (SFR) inferred from the SED fitting is $\\sim$119\\msun\\,yr$^{-1}$, the stellar mass $3\\times10^{11}$\\,\\msun, and \\av\\ extinction from 1-2\\,mag. The ERO and DOG nature of the host galaxy of the dark GRB 080207 may be emblematic of a distinct class of dark GRB hosts, with high SFRs, evolved and metal-rich stellar populations, and significant dust extinction within the host galaxy.

  18. The Fate of Young Radio Galaxies: Decelerations Inside Host Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kino, Motoki

    2008-01-01

    We examine the evolution of variously-sized radio galaxies [i.e., compact symmetric objects (CSOs), medium-size symmetric objects (MSOs), Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies (FRIIs)], by comparing the relation between the hot spot size and the projected linear size with a coevolution model of hot spots and a cocoon. We take account of the deceleration effect by the cocoon head growth. We find that the advance speed of hot spots and lobes inevitably show the deceleration phase (CSO-MSO phase) and the acceleration phase (MSO-FRII phase). This is ascribed to the change of the power-law index of ambient density profile in the MSO phase ($\\sim $1 kpc). It is also found that the cocoon shape becomes nearly spherical or disrupted for MSOs, while an elongated morphology is predicted for CSOs and FRIIs. This seems to be consistent with the higher fraction of distorted morphology of MSOs than that of CSOs and FRI. Finally, we predict that only CSOs whose initial advance speed is higher than about 0.1c can evolve into...

  19. Simple stellar population modelling of low S/N galaxy spectra and quasar host galaxy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, G.; Tremonti, C. A.; Hooper, E. J.; Wolf, M. J.; Sheinis, A. I.; Richards, J. W.

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) on their host galaxies it is important to study the hosts when the SMBH is near its peak activity. A method to investigate the host galaxies of high luminosity quasars is to obtain optical spectra at positions offset from the nucleus where the relative contribution of the quasar and host is comparable. However, at these extended radii the galaxy surface brightness is often low (20-22 mag arcsec-2) and the resulting spectrum might have such low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) that it hinders analysis with standard stellar population modelling techniques. To address this problem, we have developed a method that can recover galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) from rest-frame optical spectra with S/N ˜ 5 Å-1. This method uses the statistical technique diffusion k-means to tailor the stellar population modelling basis set. Our diffusion k-means minimal basis set, composed of four broad age bins, is successful in recovering a range of galaxy SFHs. Additionally, using an analytic prescription for seeing conditions, we are able to simultaneously model scattered quasar light and the SFH of quasar host galaxies (QHGs). We use synthetic data to compare results of our novel method with previous techniques. We also present the modelling results on a previously published QHG and show that galaxy properties recovered from a diffusion k-means basis set are less sensitive to noise added to this QHG spectrum. Our new method has a clear advantage in recovering information from QHGs and could also be applied to the analysis of other low S/N galaxy spectra such as those typically obtained for high redshift objects or integral field spectroscopic surveys.

  20. The optical afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 000926

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.U.; Gorosabel, J.; Dall, T.H.;

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate with the case of GRB 000926 how Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) can be used as cosmological lighthouses to identify and study star forming galaxies at high redshifts. The optical afterglow of the burst was located with optical imaging at the Nordic Optical Telescope 20.7 hours...... after the burst. Rapid follow-up spectroscopy allowed the determination of the redshift of the burst and a measurement of the host galaxy HI-column density in front of the burst. With late-time narrow band Lyalpha as well as broad band imaging, we have studied the emission from the host galaxy and found...... that it is a strong Lyalpha emitter in a state of active star formation....

  1. The blue host galaxy of the red GRB 000418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Klose, S.; Christensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    (A(V) = 0.4-0.9 mag), suggesting a homogeneous distribution of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxy. These findings are supplemented by morphological information from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging: the surface brightness profile is smooth, symmetric and compact with no underlying...

  2. The host of GRB 060206: kinematics of a distant galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Thoene, Christina C; Ledoux, Cedric; Starling, Rhaana L C; Fynbo, Johan P U; Curran, Peter A; Gorosabel, Javier; van der Horst, Alexander J; Kewley, Lisa J; Levan, Andrew J; LLorente, Alvaro; Rol, Evert; Tanvir, Nial R; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Vreeswijk, Paul M; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2007-01-01

    Context. The spectra of afterglows can provide us with detailed information on the line-of-sight towards high redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This allows us to use GRB afterglows as sensitive probes of interstellar matter in their host galaxies, and the circumstellar material around the progenitor star. Aims. In this paper we present early WHT/ISIS optical spectroscopy of the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060206 at z = 4.048, detecting a range of metal absorption lines and their fine-structure transitions. Additional information is provided by properties derived from the afterglow lightcurve and from deep imaging of the host galaxy. Methods. The resolution and wavelength range of the spectra and the bright afterglow facilitate a detailed study of the circumburst and host galaxy environment through fitting of the absorption line systems. Their column densities allow us to derive properties for the different detected velocity components. We also use the deep imaging to detect the host galaxy and probe ...

  3. EXTREME HOST GALAXY GROWTH IN POWERFUL EARLY-EPOCH RADIO GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Peter [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Haas, Martin [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Wilkes, Belinda, E-mail: pdb@astro.rug.nl [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    During the first half of the universe's life, a heyday of star formation must have occurred because many massive galaxies are in place after that epoch in cosmic history. Our observations with the revolutionary Herschel Space Observatory reveal vigorous optically obscured star formation in the ultra-massive hosts of many powerful high-redshift 3C quasars and radio galaxies. This symbiotic occurrence of star formation and black hole driven activity is in marked contrast to recent results dealing with Herschel observations of X-ray-selected active galaxies. Three archetypal radio galaxies at redshifts 1.132, 1.575, and 2.474 are presented here, with inferred star formation rates of hundreds of solar masses per year. A series of spectacular coeval active galactic nucleus/starburst events may have formed these ultra-massive galaxies and their massive central black holes during their relatively short lifetimes.

  4. A Morphological Study of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wainwright, C; Penprase, B E

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the morphological properties of 42 gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical band. The purpose of this study is to understand the relation of GRBs to their macro-environments, and to compare the GRB-selected galaxies to other high redshift samples. We perform both qualitative and quantitative analyses by categorizing the galaxies according to their visual properties, and by examining their surface brightness profiles. We find that all of the galaxies have approximately exponential profiles, indicative of galactic disks, and have a median scale length of about 1.7 kpc. Inspection of the visual morphologies reveals a high fraction of merging and interacting systems, with \\~30% showing clear signs of interaction, and an additional ~30% exhibiting irregular and asymmetric structure which may be the result of recent mergers; these fractions are independent of redshift and galaxy luminosity. On the other hand, the three GRB host gal...

  5. Massive relic galaxies challenge the co-evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Bosch, Remco C E van den

    2015-01-01

    We study a sample of eight massive galaxies that are extreme outliers (3-5$\\sigma$) in the M$_{\\bullet}$-M$_\\mathrm{bulge}$ local scaling relation. Two of these galaxies are confirmed to host extremely large super massive black holes (SMBHs), whereas the virial mass estimates for the other six are also consistent with having abnormally large SMBHs. From the analysis of their star formation histories and their structural properties we find that all these extreme outliers can be considered as relic galaxies from the early (z$\\sim$2) Universe: i.e. they are compact (R$_{\\mathrm{e}}$$<$2 kpc) and have purely old stellar populations (t$\\gtrsim$10 Gyr). In order to explain the nature of such deviations from the local relations, we propose a scenario in which the hosts of these \\"uber-massive SMBHs are galaxies that have followed a different evolutionary path than the two-phase growth channel assumed for massive galaxies. Once the SMBH and the core of the galaxy are formed at z$\\sim$2, the galaxy skips the second...

  6. Identifying the Host Galaxy of Gravitational Wave Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Nuttall, Laura K

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of the current LIGO-GEO-Virgo science run is to identify transient gravitational wave (GW) signals in near real time to allow follow-up electromagnetic (EM) observations. An EM counterpart could increase the confidence of the GW detection and provide insight into the nature of the source. Current GW-EM campaigns target potential host galaxies based on overlap with the GW sky error box. We propose a new statistic to identify the most likely host galaxy, ranking galaxies based on their position, distance, and luminosity. We test our statistic with Monte Carlo simulations of GWs produced by coalescing binaries of neutron stars (NS) and black holes (BH), one of the most promising sources for ground-based GW detectors. Considering signals accessible to current detectors, we find that when imaging a single galaxy, our statistic correctly identifies the true host ~20% to ~50% of the time, depending on the masses of the binary components. With five narrow-field images the probability of imaging the t...

  7. Distributions of Quasar Hosts on the Galaxy Main Sequence Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhoujian; Shi, Yong; Rieke, George H.; Xia, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yikang; Sun, Bingqing; Wan, Linfeng

    2016-03-01

    The relation between star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, i.e., the galaxy main sequence, is a useful diagnostic of galaxy evolution. We present the distributions relative to the main sequence of 55 optically selected PG and 12 near-IR-selected Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z ≤ 0.5. We estimate the quasar host stellar masses from Hubble Space Telescope or ground-based AO photometry, and the SFRs through the mid-infrared aromatic features and far-IR photometry. We find that PG quasar hosts more or less follow the main sequence defined by normal star-forming galaxies while 2MASS quasar hosts lie systematically above the main sequence. PG and 2MASS quasars with higher nuclear luminosities seem to have higher specific SFRs (sSFRs), although there is a large scatter. No trends are seen between sSFRs and SMBH masses, Eddington ratios, or even morphology types (ellipticals, spirals, and mergers). Our results could be placed in an evolutionary scenario with quasars emerging during the transition from ULIRGs/mergers to ellipticals. However, combined with results at higher redshift, they suggest that quasars can be widely triggered in normal galaxies as long as they contain abundant gas and have ongoing star formation.

  8. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies for large surveys from visual inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Kyle W

    2016-01-01

    We present early results from Radio Galaxy Zoo, a web-based citizen science project for visual inspection and classification of images from all-sky radio surveys. The goals of the project are to classify individual radio sources (particularly galaxies with multiple lobes and/or complex morphologies) as well as matching the continuum radio emission to the host galaxy. Radio images come from the FIRST and ATLAS surveys, while matches to potential hosts are performed with infrared imaging from WISE and SWIRE. The first twelve months of classification yielded more than 1 million classifications of more than 60,000 sources. For images with at least 75% consensus by the volunteer classifiers, the accuracy is comparable to visual inspection by the expert science team. Based on mid-infrared colors, the hosts associated with radio emission are primarily a mixture of elliptical galaxies, QSOs, and LIRGs, which are in good agreement with previous studies. The full catalog of radio lobes and their host galaxies will meas...

  9. Simple Stellar Population Modeling of Low S/N Galaxy Spectra and Quasar Host Galaxy Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mosby, Gregory; Hooper, Eric; Wolf, Marsha; Sheinis, Andrew; Richards, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) on their host galaxies it is important to study the hosts when the SMBH is near its peak activity. A method to investigate the host galaxies of high luminosity quasars is to obtain optical spectra at positions offset from the nucleus where the relative contribution of the quasar and host are comparable. However, at these extended radii the galaxy surface brightness is often low (20-22 mag per arcsec$^{2}$) and the resulting spectrum might have such low S/N that it hinders analysis with standard stellar population modeling techniques. To address this problem we have developed a method that can recover galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) from rest frame optical spectra with S/N $\\sim$ 5~\\AA$^{-1}$. This method uses the statistical technique diffusion k-means to tailor the stellar population modeling basis set. Our diffusion k-means minimal basis set, composed of 4 broad age bins, is successful in recovering a range of galaxy SFHs. Additionally, using an...

  10. H{\\alpha} Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Theios, R L; Ross, N R

    2016-01-01

    We used narrowband interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 meter telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 {\\mu}m Active Galaxy Sample. We obtained pure emission line images of each galaxy in order to separate H{\\alpha} emission from the nucleus from that of the host galaxy. The extended H{\\alpha} emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and correlates well with other indicators of current star formation in these galaxies: 7.7 {\\mu}m PAH, far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The nuclear H{\\alpha} luminosity is dominated by the AGN, and is correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s due to a strong contribution from the Broad Line Region. We found a correlation between star formation rate and AGN luminosity. In sp...

  11. The Role of Host Galaxy for the Environmental Dependence of Active Nuclei in Local Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Richard I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Erwin, P.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Janssen, A.; Koss, M.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly as a function of galaxy group size (halo mass) - which contrasts with the increasing fraction of galaxies of S0 type in denser environments. However, there is no evidence for an environmental dependence of AGN in spiral galaxies. Because most AGN are found in spiral galaxies, this dilutes the signature of environmental dependence for the population as a whole. We argue that the differing results for AGN in disk-dominated and bulge-dominated galaxies is related to the source of the gas fuelling the AGN, and so may also impact the luminosity function, duty cycle, and obscuration. We find that there is a significant difference in the luminosity function for AGN in spiral and S0 galaxies, and tentative evidence for some difference in the fraction of obscured AGN.

  12. The Role of Host Galaxy for the Environmental Dependence of Active Nuclei in Local Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, R I; Erwin, P; Burtscher, L; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Janssen, A; Koss, M; Lin, M -Y; Lutz, D; Maciejewski, W; Mueller-Sanchez, F; de Xivry, G Orban; Ricci, C; Riffel, R; Riffel, R A; Rosario, D; Schartmann, M; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Shimizu, T; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Tacconi, L; Veilleux, S

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly as a function of galaxy group size (halo mass) - which contrasts with the increasing fraction of galaxies of S0 type in denser environments. However, there is no evidence for an environmental dependence of AGN in spiral galaxies. Because most AGN are found in spiral galaxies, this dilutes the signature of environmental dependence for the population as a whole. We argue that the differing results for AGN in disk-dominated and bulge-dominated galaxies is related to the source of the gas fuelling the AGN, and so may also impact the luminosity function, duty cycle, and obscuration. We find that there is a significant difference in the luminosity function for AGN in spiral and S0 galaxies, and tentative evidence for some difference in the fraction of obscured AGN.

  13. The star formation rates of active galactic nuclei host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Rosario, David J; Mendel, J Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Using artificial neural network (ANN) predictions of total infra-red luminosities (LIR), we compare the host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs) of ~21,000 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGN), 466 low excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) and 721 mid-IR selected AGN. SFR offsets (Delta SFR) relative to a sample of star-forming `main sequence' galaxies (matched in M*, z and local environment) are computed for the AGN hosts. Optically selected AGN exhibit a wide range of Delta SFR, with a distribution skewed to low SFRs and a median Delta SFR = -0.06 dex. The LERGs have SFRs that are shifted to even lower values with a median Delta SFR = -0.5 dex. In contrast, mid-IR selected AGN have, on average, SFRs enhanced by a factor ~1.5. We interpret the different distributions of Delta SFR amongst the different AGN classes in the context of the relative contribution of triggering by galaxy mergers. Whereas the LERGs are predominantly fuelled through low accretion rate secular processes which are not accompanied ...

  14. Are Some Milky Way Globular Clusters Hosted by Undiscovered Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Sand, David J

    2016-01-01

    The confirmation of a globular cluster (GC) in the recently discovered ultrafaint galaxy Eridanus II (Eri II) motivated us to examine the question posed in the title. After estimating the halo mass of Eri II using a published stellar mass - halo mass relation, the one GC in this galaxy supports extending the relationship between the number of GCs hosted by a galaxy and the galaxy's total mass about two orders of magnitude in stellar mass below the previous limit. For this empirically determined specific frequency of between 0.06 and 0.39 globular clusters per 10$^9$ $M_\\odot$ of total mass, the surviving Milky Way (MW) subhalos with masses smaller than $10^{10} M_\\odot$ could host as many as 5 to 31 GCs, broadly consistent with the actual population of outer halo MW GCs, although matching the radial distribution in detail remains a challenge. Using a subhalo mass function from published high resolution numerical simulations and a Poissonian model for populating those halos with the aforementioned empirically ...

  15. What are the galaxies that host MIR-selected AGN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, David

    2016-08-01

    Infra-red selection techniques, sensitive to dust strongly heated by an AGN, offer a way to identify some of the most obscured accretion events in the Universe. I will describe the results of a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of AGN to z>2 selected using Spitzer/IRAC based methods in the COSMOS field. Armed with AGN-optimised redshifts and stellar masses, we explore the dust emission from the active nucleus and the host galaxy. We demonstrate that IR-selected AGN tend to be found in low mass host galaxies, when compared to other AGN identification methods. The star-formation rates of obscured and unobscured IR-selected AGN are very similar, implying that large-scale obscuration with co-eval star-bursts are not found in a major proportion of heavily obscured AGN.

  16. Infrared Characters of Host Galaxies with H2O Megamaser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志尧

    2001-01-01

    Infrared characters of all the host galaxies with the H2O megamaser have been studied. The most striking featureis the anticorrelation of S(60)/S(100) versus S(12)/S(25), and S(25)/S(60) versus S(12)/S(25). The anticorrelationin the tlux density ratio can been explained by coexistence of large and very small dust particles. The latter, whichare heated by absorption of single photon, are believed to be responsible for the bulk of 12μm radiation. If thephoton energy of the host galaxy is small, this implies large S(12)/S(25) and small S(60)/S(100). However, whenphoton energy density becomes larger, the infrared spectrum will peak at wavelengths ≤ 100 μm and enhanceemission at 25 μm. As a consequence small S(12)/S(25) and large S(60)/S(100) are observed.

  17. Locating star-forming regions in quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Eracleous, M.; Shemmer, O.; Netzer, H.; Gronwall, C.; Lutz, Dieter; Ciardullo, R.; Sturm, Eckhard

    2014-02-01

    We present a study of the morphology and intensity of star formation in the host galaxies of eight Palomar-Green quasars using observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations are motivated by recent evidence for a close relationship between black hole growth and the stellar mass evolution in its host galaxy. We use narrow-band [O II]λ3727, Hβ, [O III]λ5007 and Paα images, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and NICMOS instruments, to map the morphology of line-emitting regions, and, after extinction corrections, diagnose the excitation mechanism and infer star-formation rates. Significant challenges in this type of work are the separation of the quasar light from the stellar continuum and the quasar-excited gas from the star-forming regions. To this end, we present a novel technique for image decomposition and subtraction of quasar light. Our primary result is the detection of extended line-emitting regions with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 kpc and distributed symmetrically around the nucleus, powered primarily by star formation. We determine star-formation rates of the order of a few tens of M⊙ yr-1. The host galaxies of our target quasars have stellar masses of the order of 1011 M⊙ and specific star-formation rates on a par with those of M82 and luminous infrared galaxies. As such they fall at the upper envelope or just above the star-formation mass sequence in the specific star formation versus stellar mass diagram. We see a clear trend of increasing star-formation rate with quasar luminosity, reinforcing the link between the growth of the stellar mass of the host and the black hole mass found by other authors.

  18. Coevolution (Or Not) of Supermassive Black Holes and Host Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kormendy, John; Ho, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    We review the observed demographics and inferred evolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) found by dynamical modeling of spatially resolved kinematics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH mass and the velocity dispersion of the host-galaxy bulge. It and other correlations led to the belief that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. New results are now replacing this simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs corr...

  19. Supermassive black holes and their host spheroids I. Galaxy vivisection

    CERN Document Server

    Savorgnan, Giulia A D

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have performed galaxy decompositions to investigate correlations between the black hole mass and various properties of the host spheroid, but they have not converged on the same conclusions. This is because their models for the same galaxy were often significantly different and not consistent with each other in terms of fitted components. Using $3.6 \\rm ~\\mu m$ $Spitzer$ imagery, which is a superb tracer of the stellar mass (superior to the $K$-band), we have performed state-of-the-art multicomponent decompositions for 66 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. Our sample is the largest to date and, unlike previous studies, contains a large number (17) of spiral galaxies with low black hole masses. We paid careful attention to the image mosaicking, sky subtraction and masking of contaminating sources. After a scrupulous inspection of the galaxy photometry (through isophotal analysis and unsharp masking) and - for the first time - 2D kinematics, we were able to account for sph...

  20. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR HOST SPHEROIDS. I. DISASSEMBLING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savorgnan, G. A. D.; Graham, A. W., E-mail: gsavorgn@astro.swin.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Several recent studies have performed galaxy decompositions to investigate correlations between the black hole mass and various properties of the host spheroid, but they have not converged on the same conclusions. This is because their models for the same galaxy were often significantly different and not consistent with each other in terms of fitted components. Using 3.6 μm Spitzer imagery, which is a superb tracer of the stellar mass (superior to the K band), we have performed state-of-the-art multicomponent decompositions for 66 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. Our sample is the largest to date and, unlike previous studies, contains a large number (17) of spiral galaxies with low black hole masses. We paid careful attention to the image mosaicking, sky subtraction, and masking of contaminating sources. After a scrupulous inspection of the galaxy photometry (through isophotal analysis and unsharp masking) and—for the first time—2D kinematics, we were able to account for spheroids; large-scale, intermediate-scale, and nuclear disks; bars; rings; spiral arms; halos; extended or unresolved nuclear sources; and partially depleted cores. For each individual galaxy, we compared our best-fit model with previous studies, explained the discrepancies, and identified the optimal decomposition. Moreover, we have independently performed one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) decompositions and concluded that, at least when modeling large, nearby galaxies, 1D techniques have more advantages than 2D techniques. Finally, we developed a prescription to estimate the uncertainties on the 1D best-fit parameters for the 66 spheroids that takes into account systematic errors, unlike popular 2D codes that only consider statistical errors.

  1. Host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts in the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chisari, Nora E; Pellizza, Leonardo J

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the host galaxies of long Gamma-Ray bursts (LGRBs) using a galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation. We developed an LGRB synthetic model based on the hypothesis that LGRBs originate at the end of the life of massive stars following the collapsar model, optionally including a constraint on the metallicity of the progenitor. An observability pipeline was designed to reproduce observations from BATSE experiment and to include a probability estimation for a galaxy to be observationally identified as a host. This new tool allows us to build an observable host galaxy catalogue, required to reproduce the current stellar mass distribution of observed hosts. Systems in our observable catalogue are able to reproduce the observed properties of host galaxies, namely stellar masses, colours, luminosity, star formation activity and metallicities as a function of redshift. At z>2, our model predicts that the observable host galaxies would be very similar to the global galaxy ...

  2. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The effects of Population III stars on their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Muratov, Alexander L; Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Zemp, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the ART code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H2 formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a new recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III stars. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies which host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10^8 yr after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they will typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies more massive than ...

  3. Keck Observations of 160 Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, Daniel A; Prochaska, Jason X

    2013-01-01

    We present a preliminary data release from our multi-year campaign at Keck Observatory to study the host galaxies of a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts via multi-color ground-based optical imaging and spectroscopy. With over 160 targets observed to date (and almost 100 host detections, most of which have not previously been reported in the literature) our effort represents the broadest GRB host survey to date. While targeting was heterogeneous, our observations span the known diversity of GRBs including short bursts, long bursts, spectrally soft GRBs (XRFs), ultra-energetic GRBs, X-ray faint GRBs, dark GRBs, SN-GRBs, and other sub-classes. We also present a preview of our database (currently available online via a convenient web interface) including a catalog of multi-color photometry, redshifts and line ID's. Final photometry and reduced imaging and spectra will be available in the near future.

  4. Fast outflows and star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carniani, S; Maiolino, R; Balmaverde, B; Brusa, M; Cano-Díaz, M; Cicone, C; Comastri, A; Cresci, G; Fiore, F; Feruglio, C; La Franca, F; Mainieri, V; Mannucci, F; Nagao, T; Netzer, H; Piconcelli, E; Risaliti, G; Schneider, R; Shemmer, O

    2016-01-01

    Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is considered a key mechanism in shaping galaxy evolution. Fast, extended outflows are frequently detected in the AGN host galaxies at all redshifts and luminosities, both in ionised and molecular gas. However, these outflows are only "potentially" able to quench star formation and we are still missing a decisive evidence of negative feedback in action. Here we present Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) H- and K-band integral-field spectroscopic observations of two quasars at $z\\sim$2.4 characterised by fast, extended outflows detected through the [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 line (Carniani et al. 2015). The high signal-to-noise ratio of our observations allows us to identify faint narrow (FWHM $< 500$ km/s), and spatially extended components in [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 and H$\\alpha$ emission associated with star formation in the host galaxy. Such star-formation powered emission is spatially anti-correlated with the fast outflow...

  5. The MOSDEF Survey: AGN Multi-wavelength Identification, Selection Biases, and Host Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mojegan; Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Reddy, Naveen; Shapley, Alice; Freeman, William R.; Kriek, Mariska; Leung, Gene C. K.; Mobasher, Bahram; Price, Sedona H.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Shivaei, Irene; Siana, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We present results from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey on the identification, selection biases, and host galaxy properties of 55 X-ray, IR, and optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1.4optical spectra of galaxies and AGNs and use the BPT diagram to identify optical AGNs. We examine the uniqueness and overlap of the AGNs identified at different wavelengths. There is a strong bias against identifying AGNs at any wavelength in low-mass galaxies, and an additional bias against identifying IR AGNs in the most massive galaxies. AGN hosts span a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs), similar to inactive galaxies once stellar mass selection effects are accounted for. However, we find (at ∼2–3σ significance) that IR AGNs are in less dusty galaxies with relatively higher SFR and optical AGNs in dusty galaxies with relatively lower SFR. X-ray AGN selection does not display a bias with host galaxy SFR. These results are consistent with those from larger studies at lower redshifts. Within star-forming galaxies, once selection biases are accounted for, we find AGNs in galaxies with similar physical properties as inactive galaxies, with no evidence for AGN activity in particular types of galaxies. This is consistent with AGNs being fueled stochastically in any star-forming host galaxy. We do not detect a significant correlation between SFR and AGN luminosity for individual AGN hosts, which may indicate the timescale difference between the growth of galaxies and their supermassive black holes.

  6. The host galaxy and environment of a neutron star merger

    CERN Document Server

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Rowlinson, A; Garcia-Benito, R; Levan, A J; Gorosabel, J; Goldoni, P; Schulze, S; Zafar, T; Wiersema, K; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Melandri, A; D'Avanzo, P; Oates, S; D'Elia, V; De Pasquale, M; Kruehler, T; van der Horst, A J; Xu, D; Watson, D; Piranomonte, S; Vergani, S; Milvang-Jensen, B; Kaper, L; Malesani, D; Fynbo, J P U; Cano, Z; Covino, S; Flores, H; Greiss, S; Hammer, F; Hartoog, O E; Hellmich, S; Heuser, C; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Mottola, S; Sparre, M; Sollerman, J; Tagliaferri, G; Tanvir, N R; Vestergaard, M; Wijers, R A M J

    2013-01-01

    The mergers of neutron stars have been predicted to cause an r-process supernova - a luminous near-infrared transient powered by the radioactive decay of freshly formed heavy metals. An r-process supernova, or kilonova, has recently been discovered coincident with the short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B, simultaneously confirming the widely-held theory of the origin of most short-durations GRBs in neutron star mergers. We report here the absorption spectrum of the afterglow of this GRB. From it we determine the redshift of the burst and the properties of the host galaxy and the environment in which the merger occurred. The merger is not associated with the most star-forming region of the galaxy; however, it did occur in a dense region, implying a rapid merger or a low natal kick velocity for the neutron star binary.

  7. Herschel Observed Stripe 82 Quasars and Their Host Galaxies: Connections between AGN Activity and host Galaxy Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high-luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of 1046.4 erg s-1. The redshift range of this sample is within z luminosity, far-IR (FIR) luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 M ⊙ yr-1 and the mean gas mass is ˜1011.3 M ⊙. All of these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Compared with star formation main sequence (MS) galaxies, at least 80 out of 207 quasars are hosted by starburst galaxies. This supports the statement that luminous AGNs are more likely to be associated with major mergers. The SFR increases with the redshift up to z = 2. It is correlated with the AGN bolometric luminosity, where {L}{{FIR}}\\propto {L}{{Bol}}0.46+/- 0.03. The AGN bolometric luminosity is also correlated with the host galaxy mass and gas mass. Yet the correlation between L FIR and L Bol has higher significant level, implies that the link between AGN accretion and the SFR is more primal. The M BH/M * ratio of our sample is 0.02, higher than the value 0.005 in the local universe. It might indicate an evolutionary trend of the M BH-M * scaling relation.

  8. The host galaxy of a fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, E F; Johnston, S; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-02-25

    In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ~6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of ΩIGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called 'missing baryons'. The ~6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts.

  9. The host galaxies of micro-Jansky radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Luchsinger, K M; Jones, K M; Mauduit, J C; Pforr, J; Surace, J A; Vaccari, M; Farrah, D; Gonzales-Solares, E; Jarvis, M J; Maraston, C; Marchetti, L; Oliver, S; Afonso, J; Cappozi, D; Sajina, A

    2015-01-01

    We combine a deep 0.5~deg$^2$, 1.4~GHz deep radio survey in the Lockman Hole with infrared and optical data in the same field, including the SERVS and UKIDSS near-infrared surveys, to make the largest study to date of the host galaxies of radio sources with typical radio flux densities $\\sim 50 \\;\\mu$Jy. 87% (1274/1467) of radio sources have identifications in SERVS to $AB\\approx 23.1$ at 3.6 or 4.5$\\mu$m, and 9% are blended with bright objects (mostly stars), leaving only 4% (59 objects) which are too faint to confidently identify in the near-infrared. We are able to estimate photometric redshifts for 68% of the radio sources. We use mid-infrared diagnostics to show that the source population consists of a mixture of star forming galaxies, rapidly accreting (cold mode) AGN and low accretion rate, hot mode AGN, with neither AGN nor starforming galaxies clearly dominating. We see the breakdown in the $K-z$ relation in faint radio source samples, and show that it is due to radio source populations becoming domi...

  10. Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Guy, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.

    2013-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M */M ⊙) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  11. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and H{alpha}-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  12. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to

  13. Locating Star-Forming Regions in Quasar Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J E; Shemmer, O; Netzer, H; Gronwall, C; Lutz, Dieter; Ciardullo, R; Sturm, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the morphology and intensity of star formation in the host galaxies of eight Palomar-Green quasars using observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations are motivated by recent evidence for a close relationship between black hole growth and the stellar mass evolution in its host galaxy. We use narrow-band [O II] $\\lambda$3727, H$\\beta$, [O III] $\\lambda$5007 and Pa$\\alpha$ images, taken with the WFPC2 and NICMOS instruments, to map the morphology of line-emitting regions, and, after extinction corrections, diagnose the excitation mechanism and infer star-formation rates. Significant challenges in this type of work are the separation of the quasar light from the stellar continuum and the quasar-excited gas from the star-forming regions. To this end, we present a novel technique for image decomposition and subtraction of quasar light. Our primary result is the detection of extended line-emitting regions with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 kpc and distributed symmetrically aroun...

  14. Correlations between Supermassive Black Holes and their Hosts in Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Gerold

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades several correlations between the mass of the central supermassive black hole (BH) and properties of the host galaxy - such as bulge luminosity and mass, central stellar velocity dispersion, S\\'ersic index, spiral pitch angle etc. - have been found and point at a coevolution scenario of BH and host galaxy. In this article, I review some of these relations for inactive galaxies and discuss the findings for galaxies that host an active galactic nucleus/quasar. I present the results of our group that finds that active galaxies at $z\\lesssim 0.1$ do not follow the BH mass - bulge luminosity relation. Furthermore, I show near-infrared integral-field spectroscopic data that suggest that young stellar populations cause the bulge overluminosity and indicate that the host galaxy growth started first. Finally, I discuss implications for the BH-host coevolution.

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Urry, C. Megan; Padovani, Paolo; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Dowd, Matthew

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band by Urry and coworkers and Scarpa and coworkers. Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average absolute magnitude =-26.2+/-0.45 mag and effective radius =10+/-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average =2.3+/-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, nonactive elliptical galaxies and indicating that the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Δ(R-H)/Δlogr=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal nonactive elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is μe=3.8logre+14.8, fully in agreement with the relation for normal ellipticals. The close similarity between BL Lac host galaxies and normal ellipticals suggests that the active nucleus has surprisingly little effect on the host galaxy. This supports a picture in which all elliptical galaxies harbor black holes that can be actively accreting for some fraction of their lifetime.

  16. X-Ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters - II. The fraction of galaxies hosting active nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlert, S.; von der Linden, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of clustercentric distance scaled in units of r500. Our analysis employs high-quality Chandra X-ray and Subaru optical imaging for 42 massive X-ray-selected galaxy cluster...

  17. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, A G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Feindt, U; Fleury, M; Gangler, E; Greskovic, P; Guy, J; Kowalski, M; Lombardo, S; Nordin, J; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A

    2014-01-01

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is $0.013\\pm 0.031$ mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at $\\ll 1\\sigma$, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is $0.045\\pm 0.026$ mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch para...

  18. A multi-colour study of the dark GRB 000210 host galaxy and its environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, Lise; Hjorth, J.;

    2003-01-01

    We present UBVRIZJsHKs broad band photometry of the host galaxy of the dark gamma-ray burst (GRB) of February 10, 2000. These observations represent the most exhaustive photometry given to date of any GRB host galaxy. A grid of spectral templates have been fitted to the Spectral Energy Distributi...

  19. Host Galaxy Spectra and Consequences for SN Typing from the SDSS SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter J.; Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brewington, Howard; Campbell, Heather; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Gupta, Ravi R.; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kunz, Martin; Lampeitl, Hubert; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Pan, Kaike; Schneider, Donald P.; Simmons, Audrey E.; Smith, Mathew; Snedden, Stephanie A.

    2014-03-06

    We present the spectroscopy from 5254 galaxies that hosted supernovae (SNe) or other transient events in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). Obtained during SDSS-I, SDSS-II, and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), this sample represents the largest systematic, unbiased, magnitude limited spectroscopic survey of supernova (SN) host galaxies. Using the host galaxy redshifts, we test the impact of photometric SN classification based on SDSS imaging data with and without using spectroscopic redshifts of the host galaxies. Following our suggested scheme, there are a total of 1166 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1126 SNe Ia when the host spectroscopic redshift is assumed. For 1024 (87.8%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, we find that the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Using photometry from SDSS imaging data and the host galaxy spectra, we also report host galaxy properties for use in future nalysis of SN astrophysics. Finally, we investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2 light curve fitter, we find a 21% increase in the number of fits that converge when using the spectroscopic redshift. Without host galaxy redshifts, we find that SALT2 light curve fits are systematically biased towards lower photometric redshift estimates and redder colors in the limit of low signal-to-noise data. The general improvements in performance of the light curve fitter and the increased diversity of the host galaxy sample highlights the importance of host galaxy spectroscopy for current photometric SN surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of SN host galaxies (Kelly+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P. L.; Filippenko, A. V.; Modjaz, M.; Kocevski, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the host galaxies of both nearby (zsearches (e.g., the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF); Rau et al., 2009PASP..121.1334R; Law et al., 2009PASP..121.1395L), which do not target specific potential hosts or z<1.2 LGRBs detected by gamma-ray satellites. We use the SDSS spectroscopic sample to build a control sample of low-redshift star-forming galaxies and SDSS photometry and spectroscopy to measure properties of both the sample of low-redshift star-forming galaxies and the host galaxies of the nearby SNe. For the host galaxies of z<1.2 LGRBs, we estimate host properties using published photometry and HST imaging. (2 data files).

  1. The afterglow and the host galaxy of GRB 011211

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsson, P; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Pedersen, K; Burud, I; Levan, A J; Kouveliotou, C; Tanvir, N R; Fruchter, A S; Rhoads, J; Grav, T; Hansen, M W; Michelsen, R; Andersen, M I; Jensen, B L; Pedersen, H; Thomsen, B; Weidinger, M; Bhargavi, S G; Cowsik, R; Pandey, S B

    2003-01-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and X-ray observations of the optical afterglow (OA) of the X-ray rich, long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 011211. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained 14, 26, 32, and 59 days after the burst, show the host galaxy to have a morphology that is fairly typical of blue galaxies at high redshift. We measure its magnitude to be R = 24.95 +/- 0.11. We detect a break in the OA R-band light curve which is naturally accounted for by a collimated outflow geometry. By fitting a broken power-law to the data we find a best fit with a break 1.56 +/- 0.02 days after the burst, a pre-break slope of alpha_1 = -0.95 +/- 0.02, and a post-break slope of alpha_2 = -2.11 +/- 0.07. The UV-optical spectral energy distribution (SED) around 14 hours after the burst is best fit with a power-law with index beta = -0.56 +/- 0.19 reddened by an SMC-like extinction law with a modest A_V = 0.08 +/- 0.08 mag. By comparison, from the XMM-Newton X-ray data at around the same time, we find a decay index of...

  2. Host Galaxies of Young Dust-Reddened Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, T.; Lacy, M.; Becker, R.; Glikman, E.

    2009-10-01

    We present results on a multiwavelength campaign to identify the nature of dust-reddened Type 1 quasars. These quasars were selected by matching FIRST, 2MASS and very red optical counterparts with r'-K > 5. We find a very high fraction of Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasars (LoBALs) among AGN selected with this method, perhaps a sign of quasar feedback. From X-ray observations and Balmer decrement measurements, the obscuring dust is most likely located in a cold absorber such as the host galaxy, rather than from a torus near the AGN. Hubble ACS imaging of a sub-sample of these sources showed a very high fraction of interacting and merging systems. The quasars appear to be very young in which dust from the merging galaxies is still settling in. Spitzer IRS and MIPS data show star formation signatures and deep Silicate absorption features in these objects, but overall the quasar is the dominant source in the Mid-infrared.

  3. High-redshift quasar host galaxies with adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlbrodt, B; Wisotzki, L; Jahnke, K

    2005-01-01

    We present K band adaptive optics observations of three high-redshift (z ~ 2.2) high-luminosity quasars, all of which were studied for the first time. We also bserved several point spread function (PSF) calibrators, non-simultaneously because of the small field of view. The significant temporal PSF variations on timescales of minutes inhibited a straightforward scaled PSF removal from the quasar images. Characterising the degree of PSF concentration by the radii encircling 20% and 80% of the total flux, respectively, we found that even under very different observing conditions the r20 vs. r80 relation varied coherently between individual short exposure images, delineating a well-defined relation for point sources. Placing the quasar images on this relation, we see indications that all three objects were resolved. We designed a procedure to estimate the significance of this result, and to estimate host galaxy parameters, by reproducing the statistical distribution of the individual short exposure images. We fi...

  4. The Host Galaxies of Nearby, Optically Luminous, AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the majority of spheroidal galaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the spheroid and the bulge luminosity. Cold ISM is the basic fuel for star-formation and BH growth so its study is essential to understanding how galaxies evolve.I will present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess and compare the aggregate dust properties of QSO1s and QSO2s. I will also present NIR spectroscopy obtained with Gemini's Near-Infrared Spectrograph of a sub-sample of QSO2s and QSO1s which I use to compare the ratio of cold to warm H2 gas that emits in the NIR in the hosts of QSO1s and QSO2s.Finally I will present a comparison of star-formation in QSO1s and QSO2s. For both QSO1s and QSO2s 3stimates of star-formation rates that are based on the total IR continuum emission correlate with those based on the 11.3 micron PAH feature. However, for the QSO1s, star-formation rates estimated from the FIR continuum are higher than those estimated from the 11.3 micron PAH emission. This result can be attributed to a variety of factors including the possible destruction of the PAHs and that, in some sources, a fraction of the FIR originates from dust heated by the active galactic nucleus and by old stars. For QSO2s the SFR derived from the 11.3 micron PAH feature match those derived from the 160micron emission.

  5. EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. I. EVIDENCE FOR DOWNSIZING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yijung; Kim, Young-Lo; Lim, Dongwook; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywlee2@yonsei.ac.kr [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research and Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology provides the most direct evidence for the presence of dark energy. This result is based on the assumption that the lookback time evolution of SN Ia luminosity, after light curve corrections, would be negligible. Recent studies show, however, that the Hubble residual (HR) of SN Ia is correlated with the mass and morphology of host galaxies, implying the possible dependence of SN Ia luminosity on host galaxy properties. In order to investigate this more directly, we have initiated a spectroscopic survey for early-type host galaxies, for which population age and metallicity can be more reliably determined from the absorption lines. In this first paper of the series, we present here the results from high signal-to-noise ratio (≳100 per pixel) spectra for 27 nearby host galaxies in the southern hemisphere. For the first time in host galaxy studies, we find a significant (∼3.9σ) correlation between host galaxy mass (velocity dispersion) and population age, which is consistent with the “downsizing” trend among non-host early-type galaxies. This result is rather insensitive to the choice of population synthesis models. Since we find no correlation with metallicity, our result suggests that stellar population age is mainly responsible for the relation between host mass and HR. If confirmed, this would imply that the luminosity evolution plays a major role in the systematic uncertainties of SN Ia cosmology.

  6. On the Host Galaxy of GRB 150101B and the Associated Active Galactic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of $\\sim 5.7\\ Gyr$, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy (XBONG), and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF). Our work explores interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help understand the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.

  7. Bars in Disk-Dominated and Bulge-Dominated Galaxies at z~0: New Insights from ~3600 SDSS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barazza, Fabio D; Marinova, Irina

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of large-scale bars in the local Universe, based on a large sample of ~3692 galaxies, with -18.5 60^{\\circ}$) systems, we find the following results. (1) The optical r-band fraction (f_opt-r) of barred galaxies, when averaged over the whole sample, is ~48%-52%. (2)~When galaxies are separated according to half light radius (r_e), or normalized r_e/R_24, which is a measure of the bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio, a remarkable result is seen: f_opt-r rises sharply, from ~40% in galaxies that have small r_e/R_24 and visually appear to host prominent bulges, to ~70% for galaxies that have large r_e/R_24 and appear disk-dominated. (3)~f_opt-r rises for galaxies with bluer colors, lower masses, or fainter luminosities. (4) While hierarchical $\\Lambda$CDM models of galaxy evolution models fail to produce galaxies without classical bulges, our study finds that ~20% of disk galaxies appear to be ``quasi-bulgeless''. (5) After applying the same cutoffs in magnitude (M_V= 1.5 kpc), and bar ellipticity (e_bar...

  8. Host Galaxies of Gamma-Ray Bursts and their Cosmological Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Courty, S; Gudmundsson, E H

    2004-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of large scale structure formation to explore the cosmological properties of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) host galaxies. Among the different sub-populations found in the simulations, we identify the host galaxies as the most efficient star-forming objects, i.e. galaxies with high specific star formation rates. We find that the host candidates are low-mass, young galaxies with low to moderate star formation rate. These properties are consistent with those observed in GRB hosts, most of which are sub-luminous, blue galaxies. Assuming that host candidates are galaxies with high star formation rates would have given conclusions inconsistent with the observations. The specific star formation rate, given a galaxy mass, is shown to increase as the redshift increases. The low mass of the putative hosts makes them difficult to detect with present day telescopes and the probability density function of the specific star formation rate is predicted to change depending on whether or not these galaxie...

  9. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Childress, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  10. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-01-17

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spec- trophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.045 ? 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch param- eters: Steps at> 2? significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light- curve width and color around peak (similar to the∆m15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20 to 30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  11. The host galaxy and optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, S.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Hjorth, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present deep HST/STIS and ground-based photometry of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703 taken 17, 551, 710, and 716 days after the burst. We find that the host is a blue, slightly over-luminous galaxy with V-gal = 23.00 +/-0.10, (V - R)(gal) = 0.43 +/-0.13, and a centre that is ......We present deep HST/STIS and ground-based photometry of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703 taken 17, 551, 710, and 716 days after the burst. We find that the host is a blue, slightly over-luminous galaxy with V-gal = 23.00 +/-0.10, (V - R)(gal) = 0.43 +/-0.13, and a centre...... 980703 with any special features in the host. The host galaxy appears to be a typical example of a compact star forming galaxy similar to those found in the Hubble Deep Field North. The R-band light curve of the optical afterglow associated with this gamma-ray burst is consistent with a single power......-law decay having a slope of alpha = 1.37 +/-0.14. Due to the bright underlying host galaxy the late time properties of the light-curve are very poorly constrained. The decay of the optical light curve is consistent with a contribution from an underlying type Ic supernova like SN1998bw, or a dust echo...

  12. The host galaxy and optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, S.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Hjorth, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present deep HST/STIS and ground-based photometry of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703 taken 17, 551, 710, and 716 days after the burst. We find that the host is a blue, slightly over-luminous galaxy with V-gal = 23.00 +/-0.10, (V - R)(gal) = 0.43 +/-0.13, and a centre that is ......We present deep HST/STIS and ground-based photometry of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703 taken 17, 551, 710, and 716 days after the burst. We find that the host is a blue, slightly over-luminous galaxy with V-gal = 23.00 +/-0.10, (V - R)(gal) = 0.43 +/-0.13, and a centre...... 980703 with any special features in the host. The host galaxy appears to be a typical example of a compact star forming galaxy similar to those found in the Hubble Deep Field North. The R-band light curve of the optical afterglow associated with this gamma-ray burst is consistent with a single power......-law decay having a slope of alpha = 1.37 +/-0.14. Due to the bright underlying host galaxy the late time properties of the light-curve are very poorly constrained. The decay of the optical light curve is consistent with a contribution from an underlying type Ic supernova like SN1998bw, or a dust echo...

  13. Physical conditions and element abundances in SN and GRB host galaxies at different redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, M

    2016-01-01

    We compare the physical parameters and the relative abundances calculated throughout supernova (SN) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies by the detailed modelling of the spectra. The results show that : 1) shock velocities are lower in long period GRB (LGRB) than in SN host galaxies. 2) O/H relative abundance in SN hosts are scattered within a range 8.0 10^5 K. Ts in LGRB hosts are 3-8 10^4 K. 4) Ha increases with the ionization parameter U. We suggest that SN-host symbiosis is stronger in terms of host galaxy activity than GRB-host in the range of energies related to the near UV - optical - near IR spectra.

  14. Modeling The GRB Host Galaxy Mass Distribution: Are GRBs Unbiased Tracers of Star Formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /MIT, MKI; Modjaz, Maryam; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.

    2009-08-03

    We model the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies given recent results suggesting that GRBs occur in low metallicity environments. By utilizing measurements of the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies, along with a sharp host metallicity cut-off suggested by Modjaz and collaborators, we estimate an upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy that can efficiently produce a GRB as a function of redshift. By employing consistent abundance indicators, we find that sub-solar metallicity cut-offs effectively limit GRBs to low stellar mass spirals and dwarf galaxies at low redshift. At higher redshifts, as the average metallicity of galaxies in the Universe falls, the mass range of galaxies capable of hosting a GRB broadens, with an upper bound approaching the mass of even the largest spiral galaxies. We compare these predicted limits to the growing number of published GRB host masses and find that extremely low metallicity cut-offs of 0.1 to 0.5 Z{sub {circle_dot}} are effectively ruled out by a large number of intermediate mass galaxies at low redshift. A mass function that includes a smooth decrease in the efficiency of producing GRBs in galaxies of metallicity above 12+log(O/H){sub KK04} = 8.7 can, however, accommodate a majority of the measured host galaxy masses. We find that at z {approx} 1, the peak in the observed GRB host mass distribution is inconsistent with the expected peak in the mass of galaxies harboring most of the star formation. This suggests that GRBs are metallicity biased tracers of star formation at low and intermediate redshifts, although our model predicts that this bias should disappear at higher redshifts due to the evolving metallicity content of the universe.

  15. The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Foley, Ryan J; Frieman, Joshua A; Garnavich, Peter M; Goobar, Ariel; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh W; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Nordin, Jakob; Östman, Linda; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Sollerman, Jesper; Stritzinger, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We rediscover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy typeand the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2 to 3 sigma) that SNe Ia are ~0.1 magnitudes brighter in passive host galaxies, than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light curve shape and color variations: This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R_V ~1, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R_V ...

  16. Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M J; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). Combining GALEX UV data with optical and near infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star-formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Halpha-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from SDSS for stellar masses log(M_*/M_Sun)>8.5 where the relation is well-defined. The star-formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, thou...

  17. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K. Decker; Arcavi, Iair; Zabludoff, Ann

    2017-02-01

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.

  18. A Bayesian approach to multi-messenger astronomy: identification of gravitational-wave host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, XiLong [School of Physics and Electronics Information, Hubei University of Education, 430205 Wuhan (China); Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    We present a general framework for incorporating astrophysical information into Bayesian parameter estimation techniques used by gravitational wave data analysis to facilitate multi-messenger astronomy. Since the progenitors of transient gravitational wave events, such as compact binary coalescences, are likely to be associated with a host galaxy, improvements to the source sky location estimates through the use of host galaxy information are explored. To demonstrate how host galaxy properties can be included, we simulate a population of compact binary coalescences and show that for ∼8.5% of simulations within 200 Mpc, the top 10 most likely galaxies account for a ∼50% of the total probability of hosting a gravitational wave source. The true gravitational wave source host galaxy is in the top 10 galaxy candidates ∼10% of the time. Furthermore, we show that by including host galaxy information, a better estimate of the inclination angle of a compact binary gravitational wave source can be obtained. We also demonstrate the flexibility of our method by incorporating the use of either the B or K band into our analysis.

  19. The impact of AGN on their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, C M

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings I briefly: (1) review the impact (or "feedback") that active galactic nuclei (AGN) are predicted to have on their host galaxies and larger scale environment, (2) review the observational evidence for or against these predictions and (3) present new results on ionised outflows in AGN. The observational support for the "maintenance mode" of feedback is strong (caveat the details); AGN at the centre of massive halos appear to be regulating the cooling of hot gas, which could in turn control the levels of future star formation (SF) and black hole growth. In contrast, direct observational support for more rapid forms of feedback, which dramatically impact on SF (i.e., the "quasar mode"), remains elusive. From a systematic study of the spectra of approx. 24000 z10^23 W/Hz). Follow-up IFU observations have shown that these extreme gas kinematics are extended over kilo-parsec scales. However, the co-existence of high-levels of SF, luminous AGN activity and radio jets raises interesting questions ...

  20. Dust in High Redshift Gamma Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shunlin; Li, A.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of high-redshift GRBs opens a new window into the nature of dust in the early universe. We explore the dust properties of the host galaxies of a large sample (32 objects) of long-GRBs at 2.0≤ z ≤ 6.7, with a mean redshift of z=3.34 (corresponding to a look-back time of 1.94 Gyr), by fitting their optical-near-IR afterglow spectra. The average dust extinction in the visual band is AV=0.3. The EB-V/NHI and AV/NHI ratios decrease linearly with the dust-to-gas ratio, suggesting that the dust properties remain unchanged at the epoch of 2.0≤ z ≤ 6.7. The inferred extinction curves are closely reproduced in terms of a mixture of amorphous silicate and graphite. The quanities of amorphous silicate and graphite (relative to H) both appear to decrease with, while their cut-off grain sizes show no significant evolution in the interval 2.0≤ z ≤ 6.7.

  1. Superstellar clusters and their impact on their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2005-01-01

    We review the properties of young superstellar clusters and the impact that their evolution has in their host galaxies. In particular we look at the two different star-forming feedback modes: positive and negative feedback. The development of strong isotropic winds emanating from massive clusters, capable of disrupting the remains of the parental cloud as well as causing the large-scale restructuring of the surrounding ISM, has usually been taken as a negative feedback agent. Here we show the impact that radiative cooling has on the resultant outflows and then, as an extreme example, we infer from the observations of M82 the detailed inner structure of supergalactic winds and define through numerical simulations the ingredients required to match such structures.We also show how when radiative cooling becomes significant within the star cluster volume itself (~ 30% of the deposited energy), the force of gravity takes over and drives in situ all the matter deposited by winds and supernovae into several generati...

  2. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (zAGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  3. On the Origin of the Mass-Metallicity Relation for GRB Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /Boston U., Dept. Astron.

    2011-06-02

    We investigate the nature of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation for long gamma-ray burst (LGRB) host galaxies. Recent studies suggest that the M-Z relation for local LGRB host galaxies may be systematically offset towards lower metallicities relative to the M-Z relation defined by the general star forming galaxy (SDSS) population. The nature of this offset is consistent with suggestions that low metallicity environments may be required to produce high mass progenitors, although the detection of several GRBs in high-mass, high-metallicity galaxies challenges the notion of a strict metallicity cut-off for host galaxies that are capable of producing GRBs. We show that the nature of this reported offset may be explained by a recently proposed anti-correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the metallicity of star forming galaxies. If low metallicity galaxies produce more stars than their equally massive, high-metallicity counterparts, then transient events that closely trace the SFR in a galaxy would be more likely to be found in these low metallicity, low mass galaxies. Therefore, the offset between the GRB and SDSS defined M-Z relations may be the result of the different methods used to select their respective galaxy populations, with GRBs being biased towards low metallicity, high SFR, galaxies. We predict that such an offset should not be expected of transient events that do not closely follow the star formation history of their host galaxies, such as short duration GRBs and SN Ia, but should be evident in core collapse SNe found through upcoming untargeted surveys.

  4. X-Ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters - II. The fraction of galaxies hosting active nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlert, S.; von der Linden, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of clustercentric distance scaled in units of r500. Our analysis employs high-quality Chandra X-ray and Subaru optical imaging for 42 massive X-ray-selected galaxy cluster......, both of which are also suppressed near cluster centres to a comparable extent. These results strongly support the idea that X-ray AGN activity and strong star formation are linked through their common dependence on available reservoirs of cold gas....... fields spanning the redshift range 0.2 cluster galaxy AGN fraction in the central...

  5. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES AND HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-active galactic nucleus) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low- and high-mass hosts is 0.077 {+-} 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 {<=} log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {<=} 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored interpretation for the origin of the Hubble residual trend with host mass, we illustrate how dust in star-forming galaxies and mean SN Ia progenitor age both evolve along the galaxy mass sequence, thereby presenting equally viable explanations for some or all of the observed SN Ia host bias.

  6. Gamma-ray Bursts: Radio Afterglow and Host Galaxy Study with The FAST Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. B.; Huang, Y. F.; Kong, S. W.; Zhang, Z. B.; Li, D.; Luo, J. J.

    2016-02-01

    For four types of GRBs, namely high-luminosity, low-luminosity, standard and failed GRBs, we calculated their radio afterglow light curves. Meanwhile, considering contributions from host galaxies in radio bands, we statistically investigated the effect of hosts on radio afterglows. It is found that a tight anti-correlation exists between the ratio of radio flux (RRF) of host galaxy to the total radio afterglow peak flux and the observed frequency. Using this method, the host flux densities of those bursts without host measurements can be estimated at low or medium frequencies. We predicted that almost all types of radio afterglows, except that of low-luminosity GRBs, can be observed by FAST up to z = 15 or even more. FAST is expected to significantly expand the samples of GRB radio afterglows and host galaxies.

  7. Host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts in the Millennium Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, N. E.; Tissera, P. B.; Pellizza, L. J.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the nature of the host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) using a galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation. We developed an LGRB synthetic model based on the hypothesis that these events originate at the end of the life of massive stars following the collapsar model, with the possibility of including a constraint on the metallicity of the progenitor star. A complete observability pipeline was designed to calculate a probability estimation for a galaxy to be observationally identified as a host for LGRBs detected by present observational facilities. This new tool allows us to build an observable host galaxy catalogue which is required to reproduce the current stellar mass distribution of observed hosts. This observability pipeline predicts that the minimum mass for the progenitor stars should be ~ 75 Msolar in order to be able to reproduce BATSE observations. Systems in our observable catalogue are able to reproduce the observed properties of host galaxies, namely stellar masses, colours, luminosity, star formation activity and metallicities as a function of redshift. At z > 2, our model predicts that the observable host galaxies would be very similar to the global galaxy population. We found that ~ 88 per cent of the observable host galaxies with mean gas metallicity lower than 0.6 Zsolar have stellar masses in the range 108.5-1010.3 Msolar, in excellent agreement with observations. Interestingly in our model, observable host galaxies remain mainly within this mass range regardless of redshift, since lower stellar mass systems would have a low probability of being observed while more massive ones would be too metal-rich. Observable host galaxies are predicted to preferentially inhabit dark matter haloes in the range 1011-1011.5 Msolar, with a weak dependence on redshift. They are also found to preferentially map different density environments at different stages of evolution of the Universe. At high redshifts

  8. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  9. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hunt, L. K.; Palazzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    ), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence...

  10. The MOSDEF survey: AGN multi-wavelength identification, selection biases and host galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Azadi, Mojegan; Aird, James; Reddy, Naveen; Shapley, Alice; Freeman, William R; Kriek, Mariska; Leung, Gene C K; Mobasher, Bahram; Price, Sedona H; Sanders, Ryan L; Shivaei, Irene; Siana, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey on the identification, selection biases and host galaxy properties of 55 X-ray, IR and optically-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) at $1.4 < z < 3.8$. We obtain rest-frame optical spectra of galaxies and AGN and use the BPT diagram to identify optical AGN. We examine the uniqueness and overlap of the AGN identified at different wavelengths. There is a strong bias against identifying AGN at any wavelength in low mass galaxies, and an additional bias against identifying IR AGN in the most massive galaxies. AGN host galaxies span a wide range of star formation rate (SFR), similar to inactive galaxies once stellar mass selection effects are accounted for. However, we generally identify IR AGN in less dusty galaxies with relatively higher SFR and optical AGN in dusty galaxies with relatively lower SFR. X-ray AGN selection does not display a bias with host galaxy SFR. These results are consistent with those from larger studies at low...

  11. Host galaxies of luminous quasars: population synthesis of optical off-axis spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, I; Wolf, M J; Hooper, E J

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a connection between AGN activity and galaxy evolution. To obtain further insight into this potentially important evolutionary phase, we analyse the properties of quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we present a population synthesis modeling technique for off-axis spectra, the results of which constrain host colour and the stellar ages of luminous quasars (M_V(nuc) 10^40 erg s^-1) quasars to be located in redder host galaxies in comparison to th eir less luminous radio counterparts. While the host colour and age of our radio luminous sample is in close proximity to the green valley, our radio faint sample is consistent with quiescent star-forming galaxies. However, further observations are needed to confirm these results. Finally, we discuss future applications for our technique on a larger sample of objects being obtained via SALT and WIYN telescope observing campaigns.

  12. The afterglow and the host galaxy of GRB 011211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, P.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Pedersen, K.; Burud, I.; Levan, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Tanvir, N.; Fruchter, A.; Rhoads, J.; Grav, T.; Hansen, M. W.; Michelsen, R.; Andersen, M. I.; Jensen, B. L.; Pedersen, H.; Thomsen, B.; Weidinger, M.; Bhargavi, S. G.; Cowsik, R.; Pandey, S. B.

    2003-09-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and X-ray observations of the optical afterglow (OA) of the X-ray rich, long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 011211. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained 14, 26, 32, and 59 days after the burst, show the host galaxy to have a morphology that is fairly typical of blue galaxies at high redshift. We measure its magnitude to be R = 24.95 +/- 0.11. We detect a break in the OA R-band light curve which is naturally accounted for by a collimated outflow geometry. By fitting a broken power-law to the data we find a best fit with a break 1.56 +/- 0.02 days after the burst, a pre-break slope of alpha1 = -0.95 +/- 0.02, and a post-break slope of alpha2 = -2.11 +/- 0.07. The UV-optical spectral energy distribution (SED) around 14 hours after the burst is best fit with a power-law with index beta = -0.56 +/- 0.19 reddened by an SMC-like extinction law with a modest AV = 0.08 +/- 0.08 mag. By comparison, from the XMM-Newton X-ray data at around the same time, we find a decay index of alphaX = -1.62 +/- 0.36 and a spectral index of betaX = -1.21+0.10-0.15. Interpolating between the UV-optical and X-ray implies that the cooling frequency is located close to ~ 1016 Hz in the observer frame at the time of the observations. We argue, using the various temporal and spectral indices above, that the most likely afterglow model is that of a jet expanding into an external environment that has a constant mean density rather than a wind-fed density structure. We estimate the electron energy index for this burst to be p ~ 2.3. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory by GRACE under programme ID 69.D-0701. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the

  13. H0LiCOW. VI. Testing the fidelity of lensed quasar host galaxy reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuheng; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Chen, Geoff C.-F.; Auger, Matthew W.; Marshall, Philip J.; Agnello, Adriano; Courbin, Frederic; Nierenberg, Anna M.; Rusu, Cristian E.; Sluse, Dominique; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Wong, Kenneth C.

    2017-03-01

    The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co-evolution scenario and learn about the feedback processes linking galaxies and nuclear activity is to measure these correlations as a function of redshift. Unfortunately, currently M_BH can only be estimated in active galaxies at cosmological distances. At these distances, bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can outshine the host galaxy, making it extremely difficult to measure the host's luminosity. Strongly lensed AGNs provide in principle a great opportunity to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the host galaxy luminosity measurements as the host galaxy is magnified and more easily separated from the point source, provided the lens model is sufficiently accurate. In order to measure the M_BH-L correlation with strong lensing, it is necessary to ensure that the lens modelling is accurate, and that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered to at least a precision and accuracy better than that of the typical M_BH measurement. We carry out extensive and realistic simulations of deep Hubble Space Telescope observations of lensed AGNs obtained by our collaboration. We show that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered with better accuracy and precision than the typical uncertainty in M_BH(∼0.5 dex) for hosts as faint as 2-4 mag dimmer than the AGN itself. Our simulations will be used to estimate bias and uncertainties in the actual measurements to be presented in a future paper.

  14. Supernovae and their host galaxies - IV. The distribution of supernovae relative to spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Aramyan, L S; Petrosian, A R; de Lapparent, V; Bertin, E; Mamon, G A; Kunth, D; Nazaryan, T A; Adibekyan, V; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 215 supernovae (SNe), we analyze their positions relative to the spiral arms of their host galaxies, distinguishing grand-design (GD) spirals from non-GD (NGD) galaxies. We find that: (1) in GD galaxies, an offset exists between the positions of Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNe relative to the peaks of arms, while in NGD galaxies the positions show no such shifts; (2) in GD galaxies, the positions of CC SNe relative to the peaks of arms are correlated with the radial distance from the galaxy nucleus. Inside (outside) the corotation radius, CC SNe are found closer to the inner (outer) edge. No such correlation is observed for SNe in NGD galaxies nor for SNe Ia in either galaxy class; (3) in GD galaxies, SNe Ibc occur closer to the leading edges of the arms than do SNe II, while in NGD galaxies they are more concentrated towards the peaks of arms. In both samples of hosts, the distributions of SNe Ia relative to the arms have broader wings. These observations suggest that shocks in spiral arms of...

  15. H0LiCOW VI. Testing the fidelity of lensed quasar host galaxy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xuheng; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H; Chen, Geoff C -F; Auger, Matthew W; Marshall, Philip J; Agnello, Adriano; Courbin, Frederic; Nierenberg, Anna M; Rusu, Cristian E; Sluse, Dominique; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Wong, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    The empirical correlation between the mass of a super-massive black hole (MBH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co-evolution scenario and learn about the feedback processes linking galaxies and nuclear activity is to measure these correlations as a function of redshift. Unfortunately, currently MBH can only be estimated in active galaxies at cosmological distances. At these distances, bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) can outshine the host galaxy, making it extremely difficult to measure the host's luminosity. Strongly lensed AGNs provide in principle a great opportunity to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the host galaxy luminosity measurements as the host galaxy is magnified and more easily separated from the point source, provided the lens model is sufficiently accurate. In order to measure the MBH-L correlation with strong lensing, it is necessary to ensure that the lens modelling is accurate, and that the host ga...

  16. Early-type Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae. I. Evidence for Downsizing

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yijung; Lim, Dongwook; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology provides the most direct evidence for the presence of dark energy. This result is based on the assumption that the look-back time evolution of SN Ia luminosity, after light-curve corrections, would be negligible. Recent studies show, however, that the Hubble residual (HR) of SN Ia is correlated with the mass and morphology of host galaxies, implying the possible dependence of SN Ia luminosity on host galaxy properties. In order to investigate this more directly, we have initiated spectroscopic survey for the early-type host galaxies, for which population age and metallicity can be more reliably determined from the absorption lines. As the first paper of the series, here we present the results from high signal-to-noise ratio (>100 per pixel) spectra for 27 nearby host galaxies in the southern hemisphere. For the first time in host galaxy studies, we find a significant (~3.9sigma) correlation between host galaxy mass (velocity dispersion) and population age, which is consiste...

  17. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, P. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Telles, E. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Jose Cristino, 77, Rio de Janeiro 20921-400 (Brazil); Nigoche-Netro, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carrasco, E. R., E-mail: plagos@astro.up.pt, E-mail: etelles@on.br, E-mail: nigoche@iaa.es, E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory/AURA, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  18. Rapidly growing black holes and host galaxies in the distant Universe from the Herschel Radio Galaxy Evolution Project

    CERN Document Server

    Drouart, G; Vernet, J; Seymour, N; Lehnert, M; Barthel, P; Bauer, F E; Ibar, E; Galametz, A; Haas, M; Hatch, N; Mullaney, J R; Nesvadba, N; Rocca-Volmerange, B; Rottgering, H J A; Stern, D; Wylezalek, D

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a survey of 70 radio galaxies (RGs) at redshifts 12.5 are higher than the sSFR of typical star-forming galaxies over the same redshift range but are similar or perhaps lower than the galaxy population for RGs at z<2.5. By comparing the sSFR and the specific black hole mass accretion rate, we conclude that BHs in radio loud AGN are already, or soon will be, overly massive compared to their host galaxies in terms of expectations from the local MBH-MGal relation. In order to ``catch up'' with the BH, the galaxies require about an order-of magnitude more time to grow in mass, at the observed SFRs, compared to the time the BH is actively accreting. However, during the current cycle of activity, we argue that this catching-up is likely to be difficult due to the short gas depletion times. Finally, we speculate on how the host galaxies might grow sufficiently in stellar mass to ultimately fall onto the local MBH-MGal relation.

  19. The HST Survey of BL~Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Scarpa, R; Padovani, P; O'Dowd, M; Scarpa, Riccardo; Padovani, Paolo; O'Dowd, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela

    2000-01-01

    The HST NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band (Urry et al. 2000; Scarpa et al. 2000). Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average H-band absolute magnitude M=-26.2+-0.45 mag and effective radius 10+-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average R-H=2.3+-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, non-active elliptical galaxies, and indicating the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Delta(R-H)/Delta(log r)=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal non-active elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is m(e) = 3.8*log(R)+14.8 (where m(e) is the surface brightness at the effective radius R), fully in agreement with ...

  20. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs) and their host galaxies, a correlation which said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies -- including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions -- shows that while SMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio M_nsc/M_star,tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types Sc and later) is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio M_bh/M_star, bulge of SMBHs. The absence of a universal "central massive object" correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both SMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation: galaxies with Hubble types earlier than Sbc appear to host systematically...

  1. Improving Type Ia Supernova Standard Candle Cosmology Measurements Using Observations of Early-Type Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Joshua Evan

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the current standard-bearers for dark energy but face several hurdles for their continued success in future large surveys. For example, spectroscopic classification of the myriad SNe soon to be discovered will not be possible, and systematics from uncertainties in dust corrections and the evolution of SN demographics and/or empirical calibrations used to standardize SNe Ia must be studied. Through the identification of low-dust host galaxies and through increased understanding of both the SN - progenitor connections and empirical calibrations, host galaxy information may offer opportunities to improve the cosmological utility of SNe Ia. The first half of this thesis analyzes the sample of SNe Ia discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. Correlations between properties of SNe and their host galaxies are examined at high redshift. Using galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters, a model is developed to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, 6 early-type cluster member hosts and 11 SN Ia early-type field hosts are identified. For the first time at z > 0.9, the correlation between host galaxy type and the rise and fall time of SN Ia light curves is confirmed. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions of early-type galaxies also enables stellar mass measurements for these hosts. In combination with literature host mass measurements, these measurements are used to show, at z > 0.9, a hint of the correlation between host mass and Hubble residuals reported at lower redshift. By simultaneously fitting cluster galaxy formation histories and dust content to the scatter of the cluster red sequences, it is shown that dust reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely less

  2. An Efficient Approach to Obtaining Large Numbers of Distant Supernova Host Galaxy Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Lidman, C; Sullivan, M; Myzska, J; Dobbie, P; Glazebrook, K; Mould, J; Astier, P; Balland, C; Betoule, M; Carlberg, R; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C; Regnault, N; Rich, J

    2012-01-01

    We use the wide-field capabilities of the 2dF fibre positioner and the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) to obtain redshifts of galaxies that hosted supernovae during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). With exposure times ranging from 10 to 60 ksec per galaxy, we were able to obtain redshifts for 400 host galaxies in two SNLS fields, thereby substantially increasing the total number of SNLS supernovae with host galaxy redshifts. The median redshift of the galaxies in our sample that hosted photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is 0.77, which is 25% higher than the median redshift of spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia in the three-year sample of the SNLS. Our results demonstrate that one can use wide-field fibre-fed multi-object spectrographs on 4m telescopes to efficiently obtain redshifts for large numbers of supernova host galaxies over the large areas of sky that will be covered by future high-redshift supernova surveys, such as the Dark...

  3. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS. Is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, A.; Schulze, A.; Merloni, A.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; La Franca, F.; Peng, Y.; Piconcelli, E.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate, that is, λSAR, the distribution function (SARDF), up to z ~ 2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best-fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass-dependent but redshift-independent break, whose low λSAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that for a given stellar mass, higher λSAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch than the lower λSAR objects, following and mimicking the well-known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schechter function with an almost constant M∗⋆ and a low-mass slope α that flattens with redshift. Compared to the stellar mass function, we find that the HGMF has a similar shape and that up to log (M⋆/M⊙) ~ 11.5, the ratio of AGN host galaxies to star-forming galaxies is basically constant (~10%). Finally, the comparison of the AGN HGMF for different luminosity and specific accretion rate subclasses with a previously published phenomenological model prediction for the "transient" population, which are galaxies in the process of being mass-quenched, reveals that low-luminosity AGN do not appear to be able to contribute significantly to the quenching and that at least at high masses, that is, M⋆ > 1010.7 M⊙, feedback from luminous AGN (log Lbol ≳ 46 [erg/s]) may be responsible for the quenching of star formation in the host galaxy.

  4. Megaparsec relativistic jets launched from an accreting supermassive black hole in an extreme spiral galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Joydeep; Vivek, M.; Srianand, Raghunathan; Gopal-Krishna [The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Pune 411007 (India); Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, PA 19104 (United States); Hota, Ananda [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Vidyanagari, Mumbai 400098 (India); Biju, K. G. [Department of Physics, W.M.O. Arts and Science College, Post Office Muttil, North Kalpetta, Wayanad (India); Sirothia, S. K. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Jacob, Joe, E-mail: joydeep@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Newman College, Thodupuzha 685 585 (India)

    2014-06-20

    The radio galaxy phenomenon is directly connected to mass-accreting, spinning supermassive black holes found in the active galactic nuclei. It is still unclear how the collimated jets of relativistic plasma on hundreds to thousands of kiloparsec scales form and why they are nearly always launched from the nuclei of bulge-dominated elliptical galaxies and not flat spirals. Here we present the discovery of the giant radio source J2345–0449 (z = 0.0755), a clear and extremely rare counterexample where relativistic jets are ejected from a luminous and massive spiral galaxy on a scale of ∼1.6 Mpc, the largest known so far. Extreme physical properties observed for this bulgeless spiral host, such as its high optical and infrared luminosity, large dynamical mass, rapid disk rotation, and episodic jet activity, are possibly the results of its unusual formation history, which has also assembled, via gas accretion from a disk, its central black hole of mass >2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The very high mid-IR luminosity of the galaxy suggests that it is actively forming stars and still building a massive disk. We argue that the launch of these powerful jets is facilitated by an advection-dominated, magnetized accretion flow at a low Eddington rate onto this unusually massive (for a bulgeless disk galaxy) and possibly fast spinning central black hole. Therefore, J2345–0449 is an extremely rare, unusual galactic system whose properties challenge the standard paradigms for black hole growth and the formation of relativistic jets in disk galaxies. Thus, it provides fundamental insight into accretion disk-relativistic jet coupling processes.

  5. Decreased specific star formation rates in AGN host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Meléndez, Marcio; Koss, Michael; Rosario, David J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the location of an ultra-hard X-ray selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalogue with respect to the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies using Herschel-based measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) and M*'s from Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry where the AGN contribution has been carefully removed. We construct the MS with galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and Herschel Stripe 82 Survey using the exact same methods to measure the SFR and M* as the Swift/BAT AGN. We find that a large fraction of the Swift/BAT AGN lie below the MS indicating decreased specific SFR (sSFR) compared to non-AGN galaxies. The Swift/BAT AGN are then compared to a high-mass galaxy sample (CO Legacy Database for GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey, COLD GASS), where we find a similarity between the AGN in COLD GASS and the Swift/BAT AGN. Both samples of AGN lie firmly between star-forming galaxies on the MS and quiescent galaxies far below the MS. However, we find no relationship between the X-ray luminosity and distance from the MS. While the morphological distribution of the BAT AGN is more similar to star-forming galaxies, the sSFR of each morphology is more similar to the COLD GASS AGN. The merger fraction in the BAT AGN is much higher than the COLD GASS AGN and star-forming galaxies and is related to distance from the MS. These results support a model in which bright AGN tend to be in high-mass star-forming galaxies in the process of quenching which eventually starves the supermassive black hole itself.

  6. Hubble Residuals of Nearby SN Ia Are Correlated with Host Galaxy Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hicken, Malcolm; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Burke, David L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-05-03

    From Sloan Digital Sky Survey u{prime} g{prime} r{prime} i{prime} z{prime} imaging, we estimate the stellar masses of the host galaxies of 70 low redshift SN Ia (0.015 < z < 0.08) from the hosts absolute luminosities and mass-to-light ratios. These nearby SN were discovered largely by searches targeting luminous galaxies, and we find that their host galaxies are substantially more massive than the hosts of SN discovered by the flux-limited Supernova Legacy Survey. Testing four separate light curve fitters, we detect {approx}2.5{sigma} correlations of Hubble residuals with both host galaxy size and stellar mass, such that SN Ia occurring in physically larger, more massive hosts are {approx}10% brighter after light curve correction. The Hubble residual is the deviation of the inferred distance modulus to the SN, calculated from its apparent luminosity and light curve properties, away from the expected value at the SN redshift. Marginalizing over linear trends in Hubble residuals with light curve parameters shows that the correlations cannot be attributed to a light curve-dependent calibration error. Combining 180 higher-redshift ESSENCE, SNLS, and HigherZ SN with 30 nearby SN whose host masses are less than 10{sup 10.8} M{circle_dot} n a cosmology fit yields 1 + w = 0.22{sub -0.108}{sup +0.152}, while a combination where the 30 nearby SN instead have host masses greater than 10{sup 10.8} M{circle_dot} yields 1 + w = ?0.03{sub -0.143}{sup +0.217}. Progenitor metallicity, stellar population age, and dust extinction correlate with galaxy mass and may be responsible for these systematic effects. Host galaxy measurements will yield improved distances to SN Ia.

  7. AGN host galaxies at redshift z~0.7: peculiar or not?

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, Asmus; Bell, Eric F; Jahnke, Knud; Wolf, Christian; Bacon, David; Barden, Marco; Gray, Meghan E; Hoeppe, Goetz; Jogee, Sharda; McIntosh, Dan H; Peng, Chien Y; Robaina, Adai R; Balogh, Michael; Barazza, Fabio D; Caldwell, John A R; Heymans, Catherine; Haeussler, Boris; van Kampen, Eelco; Lane, Kyle; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Sanchez, Sebastian F; Taylor, Andy N; Zheng, Xianzhong

    2012-01-01

    We perform a quantitative morphological comparison between the hosts of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z~0.7). The imaging data are taken from the large HST/ACS mosaics of the GEMS and STAGES surveys. Our main aim is to test whether nuclear activity at this cosmic epoch is triggered by major mergers. Using images of quiescent galaxies and stars, we create synthetic AGN images to investigate the impact of an optical nucleus on the morphological analysis of AGN hosts. Galaxy morphologies are parameterized using the asymmetry index A, concentration index C, Gini coefficient G and M20 index. A sample of ~200 synthetic AGN is matched to 21 real AGN in terms of redshift, host brightness and host-to-nucleus ratio to ensure a reliable comparison between active and quiescent galaxies. The optical nuclei strongly affect the morphological parameters of the underlying host galaxy. Taking these effects into account, we find that the morphologies of the AGN hosts are clearly ...

  8. The physical properties of AGN host galaxies as a probe of SMBH feeding mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Gatti, M; Menci, N; Bongiorno, A; Fiore, F

    2014-01-01

    Using a state-of-the-art semi analytic model (SAM) for galaxy formation, we have investigated the statistical effects of assuming two different mechanisms for triggering AGN activity on the properties of AGN host galaxies. We have considered a first accretion mode where AGN activity is triggered by disk instabilities (DI) in isolated galaxies, and a second feeding mode where such an activity is triggered by galaxy mergers and fly-by events (interactions, IT). We obtained the following results:i) for hosts with $M_* \\lesssim 10^{11} M_{\\bigodot}$, both DI and IT modes are able to account for the observed AGN hosts stellar mass function; for more massive hosts, the DI scenario predicts a lower space density than the IT model, lying below the observational estimates for z>0.8.ii) The analysis of the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of AGN hosts for redshift z < 1.5 can provide a good observational test to effectively discriminate between the DI and IT mode, since DIs are expected to yield AGN host galaxy colors ...

  9. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Post-Starburst Signatures in Quasar Host Galaxies at z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Shen, Yue; Brandt, William N; Greene, Jenny E; Ho, Luis C; Schneider, Donald P; Sun, Mouyuan; Trump, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Quasar host galaxies are key for understanding the relation between galaxies and the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at their cores. We present a study of 191 unobscured quasars and their host galaxies at z < 1, using high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project. Clear detection of stellar absorption lines allows a reliable decomposition of the observed spectra into nuclear and host components, using spectral models of quasar and stellar radiations as well as emission lines from the interstellar medium. We estimate age, mass (M*), and velocity dispersion (sigma*) of the host stars, the star formation rate (SFR), quasar luminosity, and SMBH mass (Mbh), for each object. The quasars are preferentially hosted by massive galaxies with M* ~ 10^{11} Msun characterized by stellar ages around a billion years, which coincides with the transition phase of normal galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence. The host galaxies have relatively low S...

  10. Decreased Specific Star Formation Rates in AGN Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, T Taro; Melendez, Marcio; Koss, Michael; Rosario, David

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the location of an ultra-hard X-ray selected sample of AGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog with respect to the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies using Herschel-based measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (\\mstar) from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry where the AGN contribution has been carefully removed. We construct the MS with galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and Herschel Stripe 82 Survey using the exact same methods to measure the SFR and \\mstar{} as the Swift/BAT AGN. We find a large fraction of the Swift/BAT AGN lie below the MS indicating decreased specific SFR (sSFR) compared to non-AGN galaxies. The Swift/BAT AGN are then compared to a high-mass galaxy sample (COLD GASS), where we find a similarity between the AGN in COLD GASS and the Swift/BAT AGN. Both samples of AGN lie firmly between star-forming galaxies on the MS and quiescent galaxies far below the MS. However, we find no relationship between the X-ray lum...

  11. The Relation between Luminous AGNs and Star Formation in Their Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Rieke, G. H.; Egami, E.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Smith, G. P.

    2015-08-01

    We study the relation of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to star formation in their host galaxies. Our sample includes 205 Type-1 and 85 Type-2 AGNs, 162 detected with Herschel, from fields surrounding 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. The sample is identified by optical line widths and ratios after selection to be brighter than 1 mJy at 24 μm. We show that Type-2 AGN [O iii]λ5007 line fluxes at high z can be contaminated by their host galaxies with typical spectrograph entrance apertures (but our sample is not compromised in this way). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) templates to decompose the galaxy SEDs and estimate star formation rates (SFRs), AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses (described in an accompanying paper). The AGNs arise from massive black holes (˜ 3× {10}8{M}⊙ ) accreting at ˜10% of the Eddington rate and residing in galaxies with stellar mass \\gt 3× {10}10{M}⊙ ; those detected with Herschel have IR luminosity from star formation in the range of {L}{SF,{IR}}˜ {10}10-{10}12{L}⊙ . We find that (1) the specific SFRs in the host galaxies are generally consistent with those of normal star-forming (main sequence) galaxies; (2) there is a strong correlation between the luminosities from star formation and the AGN; and (3) the correlation may not result from a causal connection, but could arise because the black hole mass (and hence AGN Eddington luminosity) and star formation are both correlated with the galaxy mass.

  12. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that while SMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio MNSC/M⋆, tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types Sc and later is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio MBH/M⋆, bul of SMBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both SMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier than Sbc appear to host systematically more massive NSCs than do types Sc and later.

  13. A statistical study of H i gas in nearby narrow-line AGN-hosting galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong, E-mail: zyn@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (M{sub H} {sub i}), stellar mass (M{sub *}), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increase or decrease either M{sub H} {sub i} or M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}. The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.

  14. The host galaxy of GRB 011121: Morphology and Spectral Energy Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Yoldas, A K; Greiner, J; Pierini, D; Pian, E; Rau, A; Yoldas, Aybuke Kupcu; Salvato, Mara; Greiner, Jochen; Pierini, Daniele; Pian, Elena; Rau, Arne

    2006-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a detailed study of the host galaxy of GRB 011121 (at z = 0.36) based on high-resolution imaging in 5 broad-band, optical and near-infrared filters with HST and VLT/ISAAC. The surface brightness profile of this galaxy is best fitted by a Sersic law with index ~ 2 - 2.5 and a rather large effective radius (~ 7.5 kpc). Both the morphological analysis and the F450W - F702W colour image suggest that the host galaxy of GRB 011121 is either a disk-system with a rather small bulge, or one hosting a central, dust-enshrouded starburst. Hence, we modeled the integrated spectral energy distribution of this galaxy by combining stellar population and radiative transfer models, assuming properties representative of nearby starburst or normal star-forming, Sbc-like galaxies. A range of plausible fitting solutions indicates that the host galaxy of GRB 011121 has a stellar mass of 3.1 - 6.9 x10^9 Msun, stellar populations with a maximum age ranging from 0.4 to 2 Gyr, and a metallicity ranging from 1 to 2...

  15. Low redshift quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82. Host galaxy colors and close environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni, D; Kotilainen, J K; Karhunen, K; Uslenghi, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a photometrical and morphological multicolor study of the properties of low redshift (z<0.3) quasar hosts based on a large and homogeneous dataset of quasars derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR7). We used quasars that were imaged in the SDSS Stripe82 that is up to 2 mag deeper than standard Sloan images. This sample is part of a larger dataset of ~400 quasars at z<0.5 for which both the host galaxies and their galaxy environments were studied (Falomo et al. 2014,Karhunen et al. 2014). For 52 quasars we undertake a study of the color of the host galaxies and of their close environments in u,g,r,i and z bands. We are able to resolve almost all the quasars in the sample in the filters g,r,i and z and also in $u$ for about 50% of the targets. We found that the mean colors of the QSO host galaxy (g-i=0.82+-0.26; r-i=0.26+-0.16 and u-g=1.32+-0.25) are very similar to the values of a sample of inactive galaxies matched in terms of redshift and galaxy luminosity with the quasar sample. Ther...

  16. Black hole accretion and host galaxies of obscured quasars in XMM-COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mainieri, V; Merloni, A; Aller, M; Carollo, M; Iwasawa, K; Koekemoer, A M; Mignoli, M; Silverman, J D; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Halliday, C; Ilbert, O; Lusso, E; Salvato, M; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Fevre, O Le; Lilly, S; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Balestra, I; Bardelli, S; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Nair, P; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Pozzetti, L; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Floc'h, E Le; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Trump, J

    2011-01-01

    We explore the connection between black hole growth at the center of obscured quasars selected from the XMM-COSMOS survey and the physical properties of their host galaxies. We study a bolometric regime ( 8 x 10^45 erg/s) where several theoretical models invoke major galaxy mergers as the main fueling channel for black hole accretion. We confirm that obscured quasars mainly reside in massive galaxies (Mstar>10^10 Msun) and that the fraction of galaxies hosting such powerful quasars monotonically increases with the stellar mass. We stress the limitation of the use of rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams as a diagnostic tool for studying galaxy evolution and inferring the influence that AGN activity can have on such a process. We instead use the correlation between star-formation rate and stellar mass found for star-forming galaxies to discuss the physical properties of the hosts. We find that at z ~1, ~62% of Type-2 QSOs hosts are actively forming stars and that their rates are comparable to those measured for ...

  17. A Statistical Study of H I Gas in Nearby Narrow-Line AGN-Hosting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yi-Nan

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, AGN feedback could suppress on-going star formation in their host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from ALFALFA HI survey, the dependence of their HI mass M[HI], stellar mass M[*] & HI-to-stellar mass ratio M[HI]/M[*] on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN-hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is no any evidence to be shown to indicate that the AGN activity could increase/decrease either M[HI] or M[HI]/M[*]. The cold neutral gas can not be fixed positions accurately just based on available HI data due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN-hostings are more easily detected by HI survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN-hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with few cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted have to be solved by future hypothes...

  18. Demographics of the Galaxies Hosting Short-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Wen-fai; Chornock, Ryan; Margutti, Raffaella; Levan, Andrew J; Tanvir, Nial R; Tunnicliffe, Rachel L; Czekala, Ian; Fox, Derek B; Perley, Daniel A; Cenko, S Bradley; Zauderer, B Ashley; Laskar, Tanmoy; Persson, S Eric; Monson, Andrew J; Kelson, Daniel D; Birk, Christoph; Murphy, David; Servillat, Mathieu; Anglada, Guillem

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z=0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of 4.6e9 M_Sun and a stellar population age of 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z=0.718 with a stellar mass of 1.4e9 M_Sun, a star formation rate of 16 M_Sun yr^-1, and a stellar population age of 50 Myr. We also report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i>26 mag and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. The bursts have inferred circumburst densities of ~1e-4-1 cm^-3, and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of 1e50-1e51 erg. These events highlight the diversity of galaxies that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment (~1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to May ...

  19. The MUSE QSO Blind Survey: A Census of Absorber Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Lorrie A.; MUSE GTO Consortium

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the distribution of gas in galaxies and its interaction with the IGM is crucial to complete the picture of galaxy evolution. At all redshifts, absorption features seen in QSO spectra serve as a unique probe of the gaseous content of foreground galaxies and the IGM, extending out to 200 kpc. Studies show that star formation history is intimately related to the co-evolution of galaxies and the IGM. In order to study the environments traced by absorption systems and the role of inflows and outflows, it is critical to measure the emission properties of host galaxies and their halos. We overcome the challenge of detecting absorption host galaxies with the MUSE integral field spectrograph on VLT. MUSE's large field of view and sensitivity to emission lines has allowed a never-before seen match between the number density of absorbers along QSO sightlines and the number density of emission line galaxies within 200 kpc of the QSO. These galaxies represent a sample for which previously elusive connections can be made between mass, metallicity, SFR, and absorption.

  20. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  1. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies. A preference of hydrogen-poor events for extreme emission line galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leloudas, G; Kruehler, T; Gorosabel, J; Christensen, L; Mehner, A; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Amorin, R; Thoene, C C; Anderson, J P; Bauer, F E; Gallazzi, A; Helminiak, K G; Hjorth, J; Ibar, E; Malesani, D; Morell, N; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) were only discovered recently due to their preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES (SUSHIES), focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen-poor) often (~50% in our sample) occur in a class of galaxies that is known as Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs). The probability of this happening by chance is negligible and we therefore conclude that the extreme environmental conditions and the SLSN phenomenon are related. In contrast, SLSNe-II (hydrogen-rich) occur in more massive, more metal-rich galaxies with softer radiation fields. Therefore, if SLSNe-II constitute a uniform class, th...

  2. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Palazzi, E; Savaglio, S; Gentile, G; Rasmussen, J; Baes, M; Basa, S; Bianchi, S; Berta, S; Burlon, D; Ceron, J M Castro; Covino, S; Cuby, J -G; D'Elia, V; Ferrero, P; Gotz, D; Hjorth, J; Koprowski, M P; Borgne, D Le; Floc'h, E Le; Malesani, D; Murphy, T; Pian, E; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sollerman, J; Tanvir, N R; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Watson, D; van der Werf, P; Vergani, S D; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as a tool to study star formation in the Universe, so it is crucial to investigate whether their host galaxies and immediate environments are in any way special compared with other star-forming galaxies. Here we present spatially resolved maps of dust emission of the host galaxy of the closest known GRB 980425 at z=0.0085 using our new high-resolution observations from Herschel, APEX, ALMA and ATCA. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of the host and of the star-forming region displaying the Wolf-Rayet signatures in the spectrum (WR region), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence between the GRB rate and star-formation. The WR region contributes substantially to the host emission at the far-infrared,...

  3. The abundance of satellites depends strongly on the morphology of the host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Pablo; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Using the spectroscopic catalogue of the Sloan Digital Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we have explored the abundance of satellites around a sample of 307 massive (M_star > 10^11 M_sun) local (z 10^9 M_sun and R < 300 kpc depends drastically on the morphology of the central galaxy. The average number of satellites per galaxy host (N_Sat/N_Host) down to a mass ratio of 1:100 is: 5.5 +/- 1.0 for E hosts, 2.7 +/- 0.4 for S0, 1.4 +/- 0.3 for Sa and 1.2 +/- 0.3 for Sb/c. The amount of stellar mass enclosed by the satellites around massive E-type galaxies is a factor of 2, 4, and 6 larger than the mass in the satellites of S0, Sa and Sb/c-types, respectively. If these satellites would eventually infall into the host galaxies, for all the morphological types, the merger channel will be largely dominated by satellites with a mass ratio satellite-host $\\mu$ < 0.1. The fact that massive elliptical galaxies have a significant larger number of satellites than massive spirals could point out that elliptical gal...

  4. Supermassive black holes and central star clusters: Connection with the host galaxy kinematics and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasov, A. V.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the masses of the central, supermassive black holes ( M bh) and of the nuclear star clusters ( M nc) of disk galaxies with various parameters galaxies are considered: the rotational velocity at R = 2 kpc V (2), the maximum rotational velocity V max, the indicative dynamical mass M 25, the integrated mass of the stellar population M *, and the integrated color index B-V. The rotational velocities andmasses of the central objects were taken from the literature. Themass M nc correlatesmore closely with the kinematic parameters and the disk mass than M bh, including with the velocity V max, which is closely related to the virial mass of the dark halo. On average, lenticular galaxies are characterized by higher masses M bh compared to other types of galaxies with similar characteristics. The dependence of the blackhole mass on the color index is bimodal: galaxies of the red group (red-sequence) with B-V >0.6-0.7 which are mostly early-type galaxies with weak star formation, differ appreciably from blue galaxies, which have higher values of M nc and M bh. At the dependences we consider between the masses of the central objects and the parameters of the host galaxies (except for the dependence of M bh on the central velocity dispersion), the red-group galaxies have systematically higher M bh values, even when the host-galaxy parameters are similar. In contrast, in the case of nuclear star clusters, the blue and red galaxies form unified sequences. The results agree with scenarios in which most red-group galaxies form as a result of the partial or complete loss of interstellar gas in a stage of high nuclear activity in galaxies whose central black-hole masses exceed 106-107 M ⊙ (depending on the mass of the galaxy itself). The bulk of disk galaxies with M bh > 107 M ⊙ are lenticular galaxies (types S0, E/S0) whose disks are practically devoid of gas.

  5. Tracing the evolution of Active Galactic Nuclei host galaxies over the last 9 Gyrs of Cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Goulding, Andy D; Hickox, Ryan C; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S; Paggi, Alessandro; Ashby, Matthew L N; Coil, Alison L; Cooper, Michael C; Huang, Jiasheng; Kraft, Ralph; Newman, Jeffrey A; Weiner, Benjamin J; Willner, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a combined galaxy population analysis for the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified at 0 < z < 1.4 within the SDSS, Bootes and DEEP2 surveys. We identified AGN in a uniform and unbiased manner at X-ray, infrared and radio wavelengths. Supermassive black holes undergoing radiatively-efficient accretion (detected as X-ray and/or infrared AGN) appear to be hosted in a separate and distinct galaxy population than AGN undergoing powerful mechanically dominated accretion (radio AGN). Consistent with some previous studies, radiatively efficient AGN appear to be preferentially hosted in modest star-forming galaxies, with little dependence on AGN or galaxy luminosity. AGN exhibiting radio-emitting jets due to mechanically-dominated accretion are almost exclusively observed in massive, passive galaxies. Crucially, we now provide strong evidence that the observed host-galaxy trends are independent of redshift. In particular, these different accretion-mode AGN have remai...

  6. A nearby GRB host prototype for z~7 Lyman-break galaxies: Spitzer-IRS and X-shooter spectroscopy of the host galaxy of GRB031203

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, D; Christensen, L; O'Halloran, B; Michałowski, M; Hjorth, J; Malesani, D; Fynbo, J P U; Gordon, K D; Cerón, J M Castro

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies have been studied extensively in optical photometry and spectroscopy. Here we present the first mid-infrared spectrum of a GRB host, HG031203. It is one of the nearest GRB hosts at z=0.1055, allowing both low and high-resolution spectroscopy with Spitzer-IRS. Medium resolution UV-to-K-band spectroscopy with the X-shooter spectrograph on the VLT is also presented, along with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry, as well as radio and sub-mm observations. These data allow us to construct a UV-to-radio spectral energy distribution with almost complete spectroscopic coverage from 0.3-35 micron of a GRB host galaxy for the first time, potentially valuable as a template for future model comparisons. The IRS spectra show strong, high-ionisation fine structure line emission indicative of a hard radiation field in the galaxy, suggestive of strong ongoing star-formation and a very young stellar population. The selection of HG031203 via the presence of a GRB suggests that it might be a use...

  7. CEPHEID VARIABLES IN THE MASER-HOST GALAXY NGC 4258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Macri, Lucas M., E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present results of a ground-based survey for Cepheid variables in NGC 4258. This galaxy plays a key role in the Extragalactic Distance Scale due to its very precise and accurate distance determination via very long baseline interferometry observations of water masers. We imaged two fields within this galaxy using the Gemini North telescope and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, obtaining 16 epochs of data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri bands over 4 yr. We carried out point-spread function photometry and detected 94 Cepheids with periods between 7 and 127 days, as well as an additional 215 variables which may be Cepheids or Population II pulsators. We used the Cepheid sample to test the absolute calibration of theoretical gri Period–Luminosity relations and found good agreement with the maser distance to this galaxy. The expected data products from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should enable Cepheid searches out to at least 10 Mpc.

  8. Cepheid Variables in the Maser-Host Galaxy NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Samantha L

    2015-01-01

    We present results of a ground-based survey for Cepheid variables in NGC 4258. This galaxy plays a key role in the Extragalactic Distance Scale due to its very precise and accurate distance determination via VLBI observations of water masers. We imaged two fields within this galaxy using the Gemini North telescope and GMOS, obtaining 16 epochs of data in the SDSS gri bands over 4 years. We carried out PSF photometry and detected 94 Cepheids with periods between 7 and 127 days, as well as an additional 215 variables which may be Cepheids or Population II pulsators. We used the Cepheid sample to test the absolute calibration of theoretical gri Period-Luminosity relations and found good agreement with the maser distance to this galaxy. The expected data products from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should enable Cepheid searches out to at least 10 Mpc.

  9. Host-galaxy Properties of 32 Low-redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Quimby, R. M.; Yan, L.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Lunnan, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Laher, R.; Nugent, P. E.

    2016-10-01

    We present ultraviolet through near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxies of all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory prior to 2013 and derive measurements of their luminosities, star formation rates, stellar masses, and gas-phase metallicities. We find that Type I (hydrogen-poor) SLSNe (SLSNe I) are found almost exclusively in low-mass ({M}* \\lt 2× {10}9 {M}ȯ ) and metal-poor (12 + log10[O/H] \\lt 8.4) galaxies. We compare the mass and metallicity distributions of our sample to nearby galaxy catalogs in detail and conclude that the rate of SLSNe I as a fraction of all SNe is heavily suppressed in galaxies with metallicities ≳ 0.5 {Z}ȯ . Extremely low metallicities are not required and indeed provide no further increase in the relative SLSN rate. Several SLSN I hosts are undergoing vigorous starbursts, but this may simply be a side effect of metallicity dependence: dwarf galaxies tend to have bursty star formation histories. Type II (hydrogen-rich) SLSNe (SLSNe II) are found over the entire range of galaxy masses and metallicities, and their integrated properties do not suggest a strong preference for (or against) low-mass/low-metallicity galaxies. Two hosts exhibit unusual properties: PTF 10uhf is an SLSN I in a massive, luminous infrared galaxy at redshift z = 0.29, while PTF 10tpz is an SLSN II located in the nucleus of an early-type host at z = 0.04.

  10. The Black Hole-Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läsker, Ronald; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies’ central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing “classical” bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions. (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude (106-{10}8 {M}⊙ ) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all ˜ {10}11 {M}⊙ within a factor of three. (2) The BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected when compared to an extrapolation of the BH-bulge relation based on early-type galaxies. (3) The observed large intrinsic scatter of BH masses in the megamaser host galaxies raises the question of whether scaling relations exist in spiral galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 12185.

  11. The host galaxies of BL Lac objects in the near-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Kotilainen, J K; Scarpa, R

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared H band (1.65 microns) imaging of 11 BL Lac objects with redshifts ranging from z = 0.05 to 0.9. We are able to clearly detect the host galaxy in seven low redshift (z<=0.24) BL Lacs, while the four unresolved BL Lacs have either high or unknown redshift. The galaxies hosting the low redshift BL Lacs are large (average bulge scale length R(e) = 8.8+-9.9 kpc) and luminous (average M(H) = -25.8+-0.5), i.e. slightly brighter than the typical galaxy luminosity L* (M*(H) = -25.0+-0.2), and of similar luminosity to or slightly fainter than brightest cluster galaxies (M(H) = -26.3+-0.3). The average optical/near-infrared colour and colour gradient of the BL Lac hosts (R-H = 2.2+-0.5; d(R-H)/d(log r) = -0.09$+-0.04) are consistent with the hosts being normal ellipticals, indicating that the nuclear activity has only a marginal effect on the star formation history and other properties of the hosts. The BL Lac hosts appear slightly less luminous than those of higher redshift fl...

  12. The Post-Starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    French, K Decker; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) favor quiescent host galaxies with strong Balmer absorption lines. Here we study eight hosts of optical/UV-detected TDEs to determine the duration of the recent star formation episode, the time elapsed since it ended, and the fraction of stellar mass produced. Most hosts (6/8) have had short recent starbursts of <200 Myr as opposed to a slower decline in star formation. TDE host galaxies span a wide range of post-starburst ages (60-600 Myr for 6/8 galaxies), indicating that TDEs are not limited to a specific time in their hosts' post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star was a main sequence star that formed in the burst or before, the post-burst ages provide an independent constraint on its likely mass, excluding O, B and the most massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time elapsed since the starburst began constrains the coalescence timescale and thus limits the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 in most (7/8) TDE hosts. This uncommon r...

  13. The chosen few: the low mass halos that host faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sawala, Till; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2014-01-01

    Since reionization prevents star formation in most halos below 3 x 10^9 solar masses, dwarf galaxies only populate a fraction of existing dark matter halos. We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations of the Local Group to study the discriminating factors for galaxy formation in the early Universe and connect them to the present-day properties of galaxies and halos. A combination of selection effects related to reionization, and the subsequent evolution of halos in different environments, introduces strong biases between the population of halos that host dwarf galaxies, and the total halo population. Halos that host galaxies formed earlier and are more concentrated. In addition, halos more affected by tidal stripping are more likely to host a galaxy for a given mass or maximum circular velocity, vmax, today. Consequently, satellite halos are populated more frequently than field halos, and satellite halos of 10^8 - 10^9 solar masses or vmax of 12 - 20 km/s, similar to the Local Group dwarf spheroidals, have e...

  14. The Relation between Luminous AGNs and Star Formation in Their Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lei; Egami, E; Haines, C P; Pereira, M J; Smith, G P

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to star formation in their host galaxies. Our sample includes 205 Type-1 and 85 Type-2 AGNs, 162 detected with Herschel, from fields surrounding 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). The sample is identified by optical line widths and ratios after selection to be brighter than 1 mJy at 24 microns. We show that Type-2 AGN [OIII]5007 line fluxes at high z can be contaminated by their host galaxies with typical spectrograph entrance apertures (but our sample is not compromised in this way). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) templates to decompose the galaxy SEDs and estimate star formation rates, AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses (described in an accompanying paper). The AGNs arise from massive black holes (~ 3 X 10^8 Msun) accreting at ~ 10% of the Eddington rate and residing in galaxies with stellar mass > 3 X 10^{10} Msun; those detected with Herschel have IR luminosity from star formation in the rang...

  15. Supernovae and their host galaxies - II. The relative frequencies of supernovae types in spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Petrosian, A R; Aramyan, L S; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; de Lapparent, V; Bertin, E; Gomes, J M; Turatto, M

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) In this second paper of a series, we present an analysis of the relative frequencies of different supernova (SN) types in spirals with various morphologies and in barred or unbarred galaxies. We use a well-defined and homogeneous sample of host galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in different stages of galaxy-galaxy interaction. We propose that the underlying mechanisms shaping the number ratios of SNe types can be interpreted within the framework of interaction-induced star formation, in addition to the known relations between morphologies and stellar populations. We find a strong trend in behaviour of the NIa/NCC ratio depending on host morphology, such that early spirals include more type Ia SNe, reflecting the change of the specific star formation rate (SFR). The NIbc/NII ratio is higher in a broad bin of early-type hosts. The NIa/NCC ratio is nearly constant when changing from normal, perturbed to interacting galaxies, then declines in merging galaxies, whereas it jumps to the hi...

  16. The dark nature of GRB 051022 and its host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Tirado, A J; McBreen, S; Gorosabel, J; Guziy, S; Delgado, R M Gonzalez; Bihain, G; Fakthullin, T; Pandey, S B; Jelinek, M; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Sokolov, V; Misra, K; Sagar, R; Bama, P; Kamble, A P; Anupama, G C; Licandro, J; Aceituno, F J; Neri, R

    2007-01-01

    We present multiwavelength (X-ray/optical/near-infrared/millimetre) observations of GRB 051022 between 2.5 hours and ~1.15 yr after the event. It is the most intense gamma-ray burst (~ 10^-4 erg cm^-2) detected by HETE-2, with the exception of the nearby GRB 030329. Optical and near infrared observations did not detect the afterglow despite a strong afterglow at X-ray wavelengths. Millimetre observations at Plateau de Bure (PdB) detected a source and a flare, confirming the association of this event with a moderately bright (R = 21.5) galaxy. Spectroscopic observations of this galaxy show strong [O II], Hbeta and [O III] emission lines at a redshift of 0.809. The spectral energy distribution of the galaxy implies Av (rest frame) = 1.0 and a starburst occuring ~ 25 Myr ago, during which the star-forming-rate reached >= 25 Msun/yr. In conjunction with the spatial extent (~ 1'') it suggests a very luminous (Mv = - 21.8) blue compact galaxy, for which we also find with Z Zsun. The X-ray spectrum shows evidence of...

  17. The Hubble Diagram of Type Ia Supernovae as a Function of Host Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Astier, Pierre; Blanc, G; Burns, M S; Conley, A; Deustua, S E; Doi, M; Fabbro, S; Folatelli, G; Fruchter, A S; Garavini, G; Gibbons, R; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, A; Groom, D E; Hardin, D; Hook, I; Howell, D A; Irwin, M; Kim, A G; Knop, R A; Lidman, C E; McMahon, R; Méndez, J; Nobili, S; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Panagia, N; Pennypacker, C R; Perlmutter, S; Quimby, R; Raux, J; Regnault, N; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Schaefer, B; Schahmaneche, K; Spadafora, A L; Walton, N A; Wang, L; Wood-Vasey, W M; Yasuda, N

    2003-01-01

    (Abridged) We present new results on the Hubble diagram of distant type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) segregated according to the type of host galaxy. This makes it possible to check earlier evidence for a cosmological constant by explicitly comparing SNe residing in galaxies likely to contain negligible dust with the larger sample. The cosmological parameters derived from these SNe Ia hosted by presumed dust-free early-type galaxies supports earlier claims for a cosmological constant, which we demonstrate at 5 sigma significance, and the internal extinction implied is small even for late-type systems (A_B<0.2). Thus, our data demonstrate that host galaxy extinction is unlikely to systematically dim distant SNe Ia in a manner that would produce a spurious cosmological constant. We classify the host galaxies of 39 distant SNe discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) using the combination of HST STIS imaging, Keck ESI spectroscopy and ground-based broad-band photometry. We compare with a low-redshift sam...

  18. The galaxy hosts and large-scale environments of short-hard (gamma)-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochaska, J X; Bloom, J S; Chen, H; Foley, R J; Perley, D A; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Granot, J; Lee, W H; Pooley, D; Alatalo, K; Hurley, K; Cooper, M C; Dupree, A K; Gerke, B F; Hansen, B S; Kalirai, J S; Newman, J A; Rich, R M; Richer, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; van Breugel, W

    2006-04-07

    The nature of the progenitors of short duration, hard spectrum, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has remained a mystery. Even with the recent localizations of four short-hard GRBs, no transient emission has been found at long wavelengths that directly constrains the progenitor nature. Instead, as was the case in studying the different morphological subclasses of supernovae and the progenitors of long-duration GRBs, we suggest that the progenitors of short bursts can be meaningfully constrained by the environment in which the bursts occur. Here we present the discovery spectra of the galaxies that hosted three short-hard GRBs and the spectrum of a fourth host. The results indicate that these environments, both at the galaxy scale and galaxy-cluster scale, differ substantially from those of long-soft GRBs. The spatial offset of three bursts from old and massive galaxy hosts strongly favors an origin from the merger of compact stellar remnants, such as double neutron stars or a neutron-star black hole binary. The star-forming host of another GRB provides confirmation that, like supernovae of Type Ia, the progenitors of short-hard bursts are created in all galaxy types. This indicates a class of progenitors with a wide distribution of delay times between formation and explosion.

  19. The nuclear properties and extended morphologies of powerful radio galaxies: the roles of host galaxy and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Best, P. N.

    2017-01-01

    Powerful radio galaxies exist as either compact or extended sources, with the extended sources traditionally classified by their radio morphologies as Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I and II sources. FRI/II and compact radio galaxies have also been classified by their optical spectra into two different types: high excitation (HERG; quasar-mode) and low excitation (LERG; jet-mode). We present a catalogue of visual morphologies for a complete sample of >1000 1.4-GHz-selected extended radio sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We study the environment and host galaxy properties of FRI/II and compact sources, classified into HERG/LERG types, in order to separate and distinguish the factors that drive the radio morphological variations from those responsible for the spectral properties. Comparing FRI LERGs with FRII LERGs at fixed stellar mass and radio luminosity, we show that FRIs typically reside in richer environments and are hosted by smaller galaxies with higher mass surface density; this is consistent with extrinsic effects of jet disruption driving the FR dichotomy. Using matched samples of HERGs and LERGs, we show that HERG host galaxies are more frequently star-forming, with more evidence for disk-like structure than LERGs, in accordance with currently-favoured models of fundamentally different fuelling mechanisms. Comparing FRI/II LERGs with compact LERGs, we find the primary difference is that compact objects typically harbour less massive black holes. This suggests that lower-mass black holes may be less efficient at launching stable radio jets, or do so for shorter times. Finally, we investigate rarer sub-classes: wide-angle tail, head-tail, FR-hybrid and double-double sources.

  20. Preliminary Results on VLT K-band Imaging Observations of GRB Host Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. Le Floc’h; I. F. Mirabel; P.-A. Duc

    2002-03-01

    We have obtained -band imaging observations of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) host galaxies with the near-infrared spectro-imager ISAAC installed on the Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). The derived magnitudes, combined with other photometric data taken from the literature, are used to investigate the – colors of GRB hosts. We do not find any extremely reddened starbursts in our sample, despite the capability of GRBs to trace star formation even in dusty regions. The observed – colors are on the contrary typical of irregular and spiral blue galaxies at high redshift.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SN Ia host-galaxy/cosmological parameters (Campbell+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H.; Fraser, M.; Gilmore, G.

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated correlations between SNe Ia light curves and their host galaxies and look at the effect on the cosmological constraints. For this we have used the sample of 581 photometrically classified SNe Ia from Campbell et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJ/763/88). This sample was assembled from three years of photometry from the SDSS-II SN Survey, together with BOSS spectroscopy of the host galaxies of transients. We use the stellar population parameters derived from the BOSS DR10 results (Ahn et al., 2012ApJS..203...21A, Cat V/139) (1 data file).

  2. Near-infrared imaging of the host galaxies of intermediate redshift steep spectrum radio quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kotilainen, J K

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared H-band (1.65 microns) imaging of 19 steep spectrum radio quasars (SSRQ) in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.0. This sample of SSRQs is matched with our previously studied complete sample of 20 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) with respect to redshift and optical and radio luminosity. We are able to clearly detect the host galaxy in 10 (53 %) SSRQs and marginally in 6 (32 %) others, while the host remains unresolved in 3 (16 %) SSRQs. The galaxies hosting the SSRQs are large (average bulge scale-length R(e) = 9.0+-1.7 kpc) and luminous (average M(H) = -27.2+-1.1). They are, therefore, about 2 mag more luminous than the typical galaxy luminosity L* (M*(H) = -25.0+-0.2), and about 1 mag more luminous than the brightest cluster galaxies (M(H) = -26.3+-0.3). The SSRQ hosts appear to have similar luminosity to those of the FSRQ hosts (M(H) = -27), and they fall between the luminosities of lower redshift (M(H) = -26) and higher redshift (M(H) = -29) radio-loud quasars. T...

  3. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna; Watson, Darach

    2016-08-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample - providing the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years to come and setting the stage for intensive JWST follow-up of the most interesting sources from our sample.

  4. Spectroscopic Properties of Star-Forming Host Galaxies and Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals in a Nearly Unbiased Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Andrea, Chris B. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); et al.

    2011-12-20

    We examine the correlation between supernova host galaxy properties and their residuals on the Hubble diagram. We use supernovae discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II - Supernova Survey, and focus on objects at a redshift of z < 0.15, where the selection effects of the survey are known to yield a complete Type Ia supernova sample. To minimize the bias in our analysis with respect to measured host-galaxy properties, spectra were obtained for nearly all hosts, spanning a range in magnitude of -23 < M_r < -17. In contrast to previous works that use photometric estimates of host mass as a proxy for global metallicity, we analyze host-galaxy spectra to obtain gas-phase metallicities and star-formation rates from host galaxies with active star formation. From a final sample of ~ 40 emission-line galaxies, we find that light-curve corrected Type Ia supernovae are ~ 0.1 magnitudes brighter in high-metallicity hosts than in low-metallicity hosts. We also find a significant (> 3{\\sigma}) correlation between the Hubble residuals of Type Ia supernovae and the specific star-formation rate of the host galaxy. We comment on the importance of supernova/host-galaxy correlations as a source of systematic bias in future deep supernova surveys.

  5. The Mean Star-Forming Properties of QSO Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J; Lutz, D; Netzer, H; Trump, J R; Silverman, J D; Schramm, M; Lusso, E; Berta, S; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Genzel, R; Lilly, S; Magnelli, B; Mainieri, V; Maiolino, R; Merloni, A; Mignoli, M; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Salvato, M; Santini, P; Tacconi, L J; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) occur in galaxies in which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are growing substantially through rapid accretion of gas. Many popular models of the co-evolutionary growth of galaxies and SMBHs predict that QSOs are also sites of substantial recent star formation, mediated by important processes, such as major mergers, which rapidly transform the nature of galaxies. A detailed study of the star-forming properties of QSOs is a critical test of such models. We present a far-infrared Herschel/PACS study of the mean star formation rate (SFR) of a sample of spectroscopically observed QSOs to z~2 from the COSMOS extragalactic survey. This is the largest sample to date of moderately luminous AGNs studied using uniform, deep far-infrared photometry. We study trends of the mean SFR with redshift, black hole mass, nuclear bolometric luminosity and specific accretion rate (Eddington ratio). To minimize systematics, we have undertaken a uniform determination of SMBH properties, as well as an anal...

  6. Host Galaxy Properties and Hubble Residuals of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M J; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star-formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-AGN) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low and high mass hosts is 0.077 +- 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 <= log(M_*/M_Sun) <= 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored i...

  7. Detection of three Gamma-Ray Burst host galaxies at $z\\sim6$

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire, J T W; Levan, A J; Trenti, M; Stanway, E R; Shull, J M; Wiersema, K; Perley, D A; Starling, R L C; Bremer, M; Stocke, J T; Hjorth, J; Rhoads, J E; Levesque, E M; Robertson, B; Fynbo, J P U; Ellis, R S; Fruchter, A S; Perna, R

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts allow us to pinpoint and study star-forming galaxies in the early universe, thanks to their immense luminosities and association with deaths of massive stars. We present {\\em Hubble Space Telescope} Wide Field Camera 3 detections of three {\\em Swift} GRBs lying at redshifts $z = 5.913$ (GRB 130606A), $z = 6.295$ (GRB 050904), and $z = 6.327$ (GRB 140515A) in the F140W (wide-$JH$ band, $\\lambda_{\\rm{obs}}\\sim1.4\\,\\mu m$) filter. The hosts have magnitudes (corrected for Galactic extinction) of $m_{\\rm{\\lambda_{obs},AB}}= 26.26^{+0.12}_{-0.14}, 27.63^{+0.16}_{-0.18},$ and $28.23^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ respectively. In all three cases the probability of chance coincidence of lower redshift galaxies is $\\lesssim1.5\\%$, indicating that the detected galaxies are most likely the GRB hosts. These are the first detections of high redshift ($z > 5$) GRB host galaxies in emission. The galaxies have luminosities in the range $0.1-0.7\\,L^{*}_{z=6}$ (with $M_{1600}^{*}=-20.95\\pm0.12$), along with half-light radii...

  8. Host-Galaxy Properties of 32 Low-Redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, Daniel A; Yan, Lin; Vreeswijk, Paul; De Cia, Annalisa; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Filippenko, Alexei V; Graham, Melissa L; Nugent, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    We present ultraviolet through near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxies of all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory prior to 2013, and derive measurements of their luminosities, star-formation rates, stellar masses, and gas-phase metallicities. We find that Type I (hydrogen-poor) SLSNe are found almost exclusively in low-mass (M 0.5 Z_sun. Extremely low metallicities are not required, and indeed provide no further increase in the relative SLSN rate. Several SLSN-I hosts are undergoing vigorous starbursts, but this may simply be a side effect of metallicity dependence: dwarf galaxies tend to have bursty star-formation histories. Type-II (hydrogen-rich) SLSNe are found over the entire range of galaxy masses and metallicities, and their integrated properties do not suggest a strong preference for (or against) low-mass/low-metallicity galaxies. Two hosts exhibit unusual properties: PTF 10uhf is a Type I SLSN in a massive, luminous infrared galaxy at re...

  9. The Luminosity Function of the Host Galaxies of QSOs and BL Lac Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Carangelo, N; Treves, A

    2001-01-01

    A clear insight of the galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei is of fundamental importance for understanding the processes of galaxies and nuclei formation and their cosmic evolution. A good characterization of the host galaxies properties requires images of excellent quality in order to disentangle the light of the galaxy from that of the bright nucleus. To this aim HST has provided a major improvement of data on QSOs (Disney et al. 1995; Bahcall et al. 1996, 1997; Boyce et al. 1998; McLure et al. 1999; Hamilton et al. 2000; Kukula et al. 2001) and BL Lacs (Scarpa et al. 2000, Urry et al. 2000). We present a comparative study of low redshift QSO and BL Lac host galaxy luminosity function (HGLF). To this aim we have considered samples of BL Lacs (Urry et al. 2000) and QSOs (Bahcall et al. 1997; Boyce et al. 1998; McLure et al. 1999) that have been well resolved by images obtained with WFPC2 on board of HST.

  10. On the mass-metallicity relation, velocity dispersion and gravitational well depth of GRB host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Fynbo, Johan P U; Christensen, Lise; Freudling, Wolfram; Savaglio, Sandra; Zafar, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 16 absorption systems intrinsic to long duration GRB host galaxies at $z \\gtrsim 2$ for which the metallicities are known. We compare the relation between the metallicity and cold gas velocity width for this sample to that of the QSO-DLAs, and find complete agreement. We then compare the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation of our sample to that of QSO-DLAs and find that also GRB hosts favour a late onset of this evolution, around a redshift of $\\approx 2.6$. We compute predicted stellar masses for the GRB host galaxies using the prescription determined from QSO-DLA samples and compare the measured stellar masses for the four hosts where stellar masses have been determined from SED fits. We find excellent agreement and conclude that, on basis of all available data and tests, long duration GRB-DLA hosts and intervening QSO-DLAs are consistent with being drawn from the same underlying population. GRB host galaxies and QSO-DLAs are found to have different impact parameter di...

  11. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Environment and Galaxy Host Properties of PTA and eLISA sources

    CERN Document Server

    Palafox, Eva Martínez; Colín, Pedro; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black hole (BH) binaries would comprise the strongest sources of gravitational waves (GW) once they reach <<1 pc separations, for both pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) and space based (SB) detectors. While BH binaries coalescences constitute a natural outcome of the cosmological standard model and galaxy mergers, their dynamical evolution is still poorly understood and therefore their abundances at different stages. We use a dynamical model for the decay of BH binaries coupled with a cosmological simulation and semi-empirical approaches to the occupation of haloes by galaxies and BHs, in order to follow the evolution of the properties distribution of galaxies hosting BH binaries candidates to decay due to GWs emission. Our models allow us to relax simplifying hypothesis about the binaries occupation in galaxies and their mass, as well as redshift evolution. Following previously proposed electromagnetic (EM) signatures of binaries in the subpc regime, that include spectral features and variabilit...

  12. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations of the host galaxies of powerful radio sources : Does size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, WH; O'Dea, CP; Barthel, PD; Fanti, C; Fanti, R; Lehnert, MD

    2000-01-01

    We present near-infrared J- and K-band imaging of a sample of powerful radio source host galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS2 camera. These sources have been selected on their double-lobed radio structure and include a wide range of projected radio source sizes. The largest projected

  13. Detailed afterglow modelling and host galaxy properties of the dark GRB 111215A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, A. J. van der; Levan, A. J.; Pooley, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    bursts for which similar modeling work has been performed. We also present deep imaging of the host galaxy with the Keck I telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which resulted in a well-constrained photometric redshift, giving credence to the tentative spectroscopic...

  14. Neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts: propagation of cosmic rays in their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are proposed as candidate sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We study the possibility that the PeV neutrinos recently observed by IceCube are produced by GRB cosmic rays interacting with the interstellar gas in the host galaxies. By studying the relation between the X-ray absorption column density N_H and the surface star-formation rate of GRB host galaxies, we find that N_H is a good indicator of the surface gas density of the host galaxies. Then we are able to calculate the neutrino production efficiency of CRs for GRBs with known N_H. We collect a sample of GRBs that have both measurements of N_H and accurate gamma-ray fluence, and attempt to calculate the accumulated neutrino flux based on the current knowledge about GRBs and their host galaxies. When the CR intensity produced by GRBs is normalized with the observed UHECR flux above $10^{19}{\\rm eV}$, the accumulated neutrino flux at PeV energies is estimated to be about $(0.3\\pm0.2)\\times10^{-8} \\rm{GeV\\ cm^{-2}\\ s...

  15. Star formation in the hosts of GHz peaked spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; O'Dea, C. P.; Barthel, P. D.; Vries, W. H. de; Baum, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: AIMS: Search for star formation regions in the hosts of potentially young radio galaxies (Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum sources). METHODS: Near-UV imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys.} RESULTS: We find near-UV light which could be the

  16. The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets

    CERN Document Server

    Olguín-Iglesias, A; Kotilainen, J K; Chavushyan, V; Tornikoski, M; Valtaoja, E; Añorve, C; Valdes, J; Carrasco, L

    2016-01-01

    We present deep Near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift ($0.310^{27}$ WHz$^{-1}$), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities $L_{1.4GHz} \\sim 10^{23.7} - 10^{28.3}$~WHz$^{-1}$, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the $\\mu_{e}$-$R_{eff}$ relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the \\mnuc - \\mbulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, that could be interpre...

  17. Star-formation in the host galaxies of radio-AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Malkan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    There exist strong evidence supporting the co-evolution of central supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. It is however still unclear what the exact role of nuclear activity, in the form of accretion onto these supermassive black holes, in this co-evolution is. We use a rich multi-wavelength dataset available for the North Ecliptic Pole field, most notably surveyed by the AKARI satellite infrared telescope to study the host galaxy properties of AGN. In particular we are interested in investigating star-formation in the host galaxies of radio-AGN and the putative radio feedback mechanism, potentially responsible for the eventual quenching of star-formation. Using both broadband SED modeling and optical spectroscopy, we simultaneously study the nu- clear and host galaxy components of our sources, as a function of their radio luminosity, bolo- metric luminosity, and radio-loudness. Here we present preliminary results concerning the AGN content of the radio sources in this field, while offering tentati...

  18. The metallicity and dust content of a redshift 5 gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, M.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hartoog, O. E.; Kaper, L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); D' Elia, V. [INAF/Rome Astronomical Observatory, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Zafar, T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Afonso, P. M. J. [Physics and Astronomy Department, American River College, 4700 College Oak Drive, Sacramento, CA 95841 (United States); Covino, S. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Flores, H. [Laboratoire GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS-UMR8111, Universite Paris Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Goldoni, P. [APC, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, Rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Klose, S. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Levan, A. J., E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-20

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A, from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and extinction of the GRB host galaxy at z = 5.0. The host absorption system is a damped Lyα absorber with a very large neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H I)/cm{sup −2}=22.30±0.06 and a metallicity of [S/H] = –1.70 ± 0.10. It is the highest-redshift GRB with such a precise metallicity measurement. The presence of fine-structure lines confirms the z = 5.0 system as the GRB host galaxy and makes this the highest redshift where Fe II fine-structure lines have been detected. The afterglow is mildly reddened with A{sub V} = 0.11 ± 0.04 mag, and the host galaxy has a DTM that is consistent with being equal to or lower than typical values in the Local Group.

  19. The Dependence of Type Ia Supernova Luminosities on their Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Howell, D A; Neill, J D; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K M; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Baumont, S; Hsiao, E; Kronborg, T; Lidman, C; Perlmutter, S; Walker, E S

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) Precision cosmology with Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) makes use of the fact that SN Ia luminosities depend on their light-curve shapes and colours. Using Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) and other data, we show that there is an additional dependence on the global characteristics of their host galaxies: events of the same light-curve shape and colour are, on average, 0.08mag (~4.0sigma) brighter in massive host galaxies (presumably metal-rich) and galaxies with low specific star-formation rates (sSFR). SNe Ia in galaxies with a low sSFR also have a smaller slope ("beta") between their luminosities and colours with ~2.7sigma significance, and a smaller scatter on SN Ia Hubble diagrams (at 95% confidence), though the significance of these effects is dependent on the reddest SNe. SN Ia colours are similar between low-mass and high-mass hosts, leading us to interpret their luminosity differences as an intrinsic property of the SNe and not of some external factor such as dust. If the host stellar mass is in...

  20. Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts, Their Afterglows, and Their Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, K; Djorgovski, S G

    2002-01-01

    This is a review article for the book "Compact Stellar X-Ray Sources", Editors W. Lewin and M. van der Klis, to be published by Cambridge University Press in 2003. It covers the phenomenology of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, the theory of their afterglows, and the observations and interpretation of their host galaxies.

  1. A COMPACT GROUP OF GALAXIES AT Z = 2.48 HOSTING AN AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi [Gemini Observatory, 670 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: jshih@gemini.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⊙} and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass–metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow.

  2. Revisiting the Scaling Relations of Black Hole Masses and Host Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    New kinematic data and modeling efforts in the past few years have substantially expanded and revised dynamical measurements of black hole masses (Mbh) at the centers of nearby galaxies. Here we compile an updated sample of 72 black holes and their host galaxies, and present revised scaling relations between Mbh and stellar velocity dispersion (sigma), V-band luminosity (L), and bulge stellar mass (Mbulge), for different galaxy subsamples. Our best-fitting power law relations for the full galaxy sample are log(Mbh) = 8.33 + 5.57*log(sigma/200 kms), log(Mbh) = 9.23 + 1.11*log(L/10^{11} Lsun), and log(Mbh) = 8.46 + 1.05*log(Mbulge/10^{11} Msun). When the early- and late-type galaxies are fit separately, we obtain nearly identical slopes of ~5 for the Mbh-sigma relation but significantly different intercepts. Within early-type galaxies, we find a significantly higher intercept for galaxies with central core profiles than for those with central power-law profiles. At fixed sigma, our fits predict Mbh to be about ...

  3. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Bassa, C. G.; Cordes, J. M.; Bower, G. C.; Law, C. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Adams, E. A. K.; Bogdanov, S.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Maddox, N.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Spitler, L. G.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Wharton, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10‑4) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6–0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O iii] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, mr‧ = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance of 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M* ∼ (4–7) × 107 M⊙, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M⊙ L⊙‑1. Based on the Hα flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M⊙ yr‑1 and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm‑3. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ∼200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.

  4. Investigating the AGN-Galaxy Interaction Relationship by Examining the Color and Morphology Measurements of Real and Simulated AGN Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    UV-optical colors provide a clear distinction between quiescent galaxies and those undergoing star formation. Galaxy morphology measurements, such as the Gini coefficient, M20, concentration, asymmetry, and the Sersic index, allow identification of interacting galaxies and separation of non-interacting galaxies into bulge or disk-dominated systems. Thus, one can use the colors and morphologies of AGN host galaxies to probe the predicted relationship between galaxy interactions and significant black hole growth (an AGN stage). However, due to the UV excess observed in many AGNs (particularly quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies) and the potentially significant optical contribution from AGNs that are not heavily obscured, one must exercise caution when interpreting the results from color and morphology measurements of AGN host galaxies. With this in mind, we created a set of simulated AGNs to test the reliability of color and morphology measurements of AGN host galaxies. The results were compared to observations of AGN host galaxies at z 1 from the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). Our observed results reveal a population of X-ray luminous AGN hosts that appear to have green UV-optical colors, indicative of recent star-formation, and a largely disk-dominated profile, suggesting a bulge that is not yet fully developed. Comparison with results from our simulated AGNs suggest that at least some of the observational results are not likely to be due to color or morphological contamination from the presence of an AGN. Therefore, the observed AGN hosts seem to represent a real population that may be going through a transition phase, during which significant star-formation has recently ceased, but for which the black hole remains quite luminous.

  5. Optical imaging of the host galaxies of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    CERN Document Server

    Falomo, R

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the host galaxies of X-ray selected (high frequency peaked) BL Lac objects using a large and homogeneous data set of high spatial resolution R-band observations of 52 BL Lacs in the EMSS and Slew samples. The redshift distribution of the BL Lacs ranges from z = 0.04 to z>0.7, with average and median redshifts z = 0.26 and z = 0.24, respectively. Eight objects are at unknown redshift. We are able to resolve 45 objects out of the 52 BL Lacs. For all the well-resolved sources, we find the host to be a luminous elliptical galaxy. In a few cases a disk is not ruled out but an elliptical model is still preferred. The average absolute magnitude of the host galaxies is = -23.9+-0.6, while the average scale length of the host is = 9+-5 kpc. There is no difference in the host properties between the EMSS and Slew samples. We find a good agreement between the results derived by the surveys of Wurtz et al. (ground-based data) and Urry et al. (HST data), and by our new deeper imaging. The...

  6. The Dependence of Cluster Galaxy Properties on the Central Entropy of their Host Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Ko, Jongwan; Hwang, Ho Seong; Edge, Alastair C.; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the connection between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host galaxy clusters. Using galaxy clusters at 0.1Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT), we confirm that BCGs in low central entropy clusters are well aligned with the X-ray center. Additionally, the magnitude difference between BCG and the second brightest galaxy also correlates with the central entropy of the intracluster medium. From the red-sequence (RS) galaxies, we cannot find significant dependence of RS color scatter and stellar population on the central entropy of the intracluster medium of their host cluster. However, BCGs in low-entropy clusters are systematically less massive than those in high-entropy clusters, although this is dependent on the method used to derive the stellar mass of BCGs. In contrast, the stellar velocity dispersion of BCGs shows no dependence on BCG activity and cluster central entropy. This implies that the potential of the BCG is established earlier and the activity leading to optical emission lines is dictated by the properties of the intracluster medium in the cluster core.

  7. ALFALFA HI Data Stacking II. HI content of the host galaxies of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Fabello, S; Catinella, B; Giovanelli, R; Haynes, M P; Heckman, T M; Schiminovich, D

    2011-01-01

    We use a stacking technique to measure the average HI content of a volume-limited sample of 1871 AGN host galaxies from a parent sample of galaxies selected from the SDSS and GALEX imaging surveys with stellar masses greater than 10^10 M_sun and redshifts in the range 0.025galaxies correlates most strongly with the combination of optical/UV colour and stellar surface mass density. We therefore build a control sample of non-AGN matched to the AGN hosts in these two properties. We study trends in HI gas mass fraction (M(HI)/M_*), where M_* is the stellar mass) as a function of black hole accretion rate indicator L[OIII]/M(BH). We find no significant difference in HI content between AGN and control samples at all values of black hole accretion rate probed by the galaxies in our sample. This indicates that AGN do not influence the large-scale gaseous properties of galaxie...

  8. Constraining the properties of AGN host galaxies with Spectral Energy Distribution modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, L; Georgakakis, A; Bernhard, E; Mitchell, P D; Buat, V; Elbaz, D; Floc'h, E Le; Lacey, C G; Magdis, G E; Xilouris, M

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] We use the latest release of CIGALE, a galaxy SED fitting model relying on energy balance, to study the influence of an AGN in estimating both the SFR and stellar mass in galaxies, as well as the contribution of the AGN to the power output of the host. Using the galaxy formation SAM GALFORM, we create mock galaxy SEDs using realistic star formation histories (SFH) and add an AGN of Type 1, Type 2, or intermediate type whose contribution to the bolometric luminosity can be variable. We perform an SED fitting of these catalogues with CIGALE assuming three different SFHs: a single- and double-exponentially-decreasing, and a delayed SFH. Constraining thecontribution of an AGN to the LIR (fracAGN) is very challenging for fracAGN<20%, with uncertainties of ~5-30% for higher fractions depending on the AGN type, while FIR and sub-mm are essential. The AGN power has an impact on the estimation of $M_*$ in Type 1 and intermediate type AGNs but has no effect for galaxies hosting Type 2 AGNs. We find that i...

  9. Extreme Host Galaxy Growth in Powerful Early-epoch Radio Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda

    2012-01-01

    During the first half of the universe's life, a heyday of star formation must have occurred because many massive galaxies are in place after that epoch in cosmic history. Our observations with the revolutionary Herschel Space Observatory reveal vigorous optically obscured star formation in the ultra

  10. The Host Galaxies of Fast-Ejecta Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Modjaz, Maryam; Kocevski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities ((is) approximately 0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z (is) less than 0.2) core-collapse SN, including 17 SN Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z (is) less than 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with SDSS galaxies having similar stellar masses, the hosts of low-redshift SN Ic- BL and z (is) is less than 1.2 LGRBs have high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities. Core-collapse SN having typical ejecta velocities, in contrast, show no preference for such galaxies. Moreover, we find that the hosts of SN Ic-BL, unlike those of SN Ib/Ic and SN II, exhibit high gas velocity dispersions for their stellar masses. The patterns likely reflect variations among star-forming environments, and suggest that LGRBs can be used as probes of conditions in high-redshift galaxies. They may be caused by efficient formation of massive binary progenitors systems in densely star-forming regions, or, less probably, a higher fraction of stars created with the initial masses required for a SN Ic-BL or LGRB. Finally, we show that the preference of SN Ic-BL and LGRBs for galaxies with high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities cannot be attributed to a preference for low metal abundances but must reflect the influence of a separate environmental factor.

  11. Accreting SMBHs in the COSMOS field and the connection to their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Magnelli, B; Salvato, M; Mignoli, M; Zamorani, G; Fiore, F; Rosario, D; Mainieri, V; Comastri, A; Vignali, C; Balestra, I; Bardelli, S; Berta, S; Civano, F; Kampczyk, P; Floc'h, E Le; Lusso, E; Lutz, D; Pozzetti, L; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Shankar, F; Silverman, J

    2012-01-01

    Using the wide multi-band photometry available in the COSMOS field we explore the host galaxy properties of a large sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) obtained by combining X-ray and optical spectroscopic selections. Based on a careful study of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), which has been parametrized using a 2-component (AGN+galaxy) model fit, we derived dust-corrected rest-frame magnitudes, colors, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs). We find that AGN hosts span a large range of stellar masses and SFRs. No color-bimodality is seen at any redshift in the AGN hosts, which are found to be mainly massive, red galaxies. Once accounting for the color-mass degeneracy in well defined mass-matched samples, we find a residual marginal enhancement of AGN incidence in redder galaxies with lower specific star formation rates, and we argue that this result might emerge because of our ability to properly account for AGN light contamination and dust extinction. Interestingly, we find that the pro...

  12. The dark nature of GRB 130528A and its host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, S; Bremer, M; Winters, J M; Gorosabel, J; Guziy, S; Pandey, S B; Jelínek, M; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Sokolov, Ilya V; Orekhova, N V; Moskvitin, A S; Tello, J C; Cunniffe, R; Lara-Gil, O; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Bai, J; Fan, Y; Wang, C; Park, I H

    2014-01-01

    We study the dark nature of GRB 130528A via the multi-wavelength observations and conclude that the main reason for this is the local extinction inside the host galaxy. Automatic observations were performed at BOOTES-4/MET robotic telescope. We also triggered Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation at the OSN, IRAM PdBI and the GTC+OSIRIS. The host galaxy photometric observations in optical to near-infrared (nIR) wavelengths were achieved through ground large aperture telescopes, such as the 10.4m GTC, the 4.2m WHT, and the 6m BTA telescope. Based on these observations, a spectral energy distributions (SED) model for the host galaxy and afterglow was constructed. We confirmed a clearly fading mm source within the XRT error circle thanks to our millimetre observations at PdBI while no credible optical source was found in early observation at the BOOTES-4/MET and 1.5m OSN telescopes. Spectroscopic observation of this galaxy at the GTC showed faint [OII] 3727\\{AA} emission line at a redshift of 1.250+/-0.001 imp...

  13. Long Gamma-Ray Bursts and Their Host Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Lapi, A; Bosnjak, Z; Celotti, A; Bressan, A; Granato, G L; Danese, L

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the recent observational and theoretical evidence that long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are likely associated with low metallicity, rapidly rotating massive stars, we examine the cosmological star formation rate (SFR) below a critical metallicity Z_crit~Z_sun/10 - Z_sun/5, to estimate the event rate of high-redshift long GRB progenitors. To this purpose, we exploit a galaxy formation scenario already successfully tested on a wealth of observational data on (proto)spheroids, Lyman break galaxies, Lyman alpha emitters, submm galaxies, quasars, and local early-type galaxies. We find that the predicted rate of long GRBs amounts to about 300 events/yr/sr, of which about 30 per cent occur at z>~6. Correspondingly, the GRB number counts well agree with the bright SWIFT data, without the need for an intrinsic luminosity evolution. Moreover, the above framework enables us to predict properties of the GRB host galaxies. Most GRBs are associated with low mass galaxy halos M_H~10^12 M_sun have larger extinction ...

  14. On the mass-metallicity relation, velocity dispersion and gravitational well depth of GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P. U.;

    2016-01-01

    away from the metallicity in the centre of the galaxy, second the path of the sightline through different parts of the potential well of the dark matter halo will cause different velocity fields to be sampled. We report evidence suggesting that this second effect may have been detected....... the same underlying population. GRB host galaxies and QSO-DLAs are found to have different impact parameter distributions and we briefly discuss how this may affect statistical samples. The impact parameter distribution has two effects. First any metallicity gradient will shift the measured metallicity...

  15. The Discovery of Host Galaxy HI Absorption in CTA 21

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, C J; Minchin, R; Ghosh, T; Chandola, Y

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of HI 21-cm absorption towards the well-studied GHz Peaked-Spectrum source CTA 21 (4C 16.09) using the Arecibo Telescope on 2009 September 20 and 21. Recently, the frequency band between 700 and 800 MHz was temporarily opened up to radio astronomy when US TV stations were mandated to switch from analog to digital transmissions, with new frequency allocations. The redshifted HI frequency for CTA 21 falls within this band. CTA 21 has a complex radio structure on a range of scales. The innermost prominent components are separated by ~12 mas while weak diffuse emission extends for up to ~300 mas. The HI absorption profile that we find has two main components, one narrow, the other wider and blue-shifted. The total HI column density is 7.9 x 10^20 cm^-2, assuming a covering factor of unity and a spin temperature of 100 K. This HI absorption confirms the recently determined optical redshift of this faint galaxy of z ~ 0.907. We discuss this new detection in the light of HI absorption studies...

  16. Scaling Relations Between Warm Galactic Outflows and Their Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, John; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida; Lundgren, Britt

    2014-01-01

    We report on a sample of 51 nearby, star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We calculate Si II kinematics and densities arising from warm gas entrained in galactic outflows. We use multi-wavelength ancillary data to estimate stellar masses (M$_\\ast$), star-formation rates (SFR), and morphologies. We derive significant correlations between outflow velocity and SFR$^{\\sim 0.1}$, M$_\\ast^{\\sim 0.1}$ and v$_\\text{circ}^{\\sim 1/2}$. Some mergers drive outflows faster than these relations prescribe, launching the outflow faster than the escape velocity. Calculations of the mass outflow rate reveal strong scaling with SFR$^{\\sim 1/2}$ and M$_\\ast^{\\sim 1/2}$. Additionally, mass-loading efficiency factors (mass outflow rate divided by SFR) scale approximately as M$_\\ast^{-1/2}$. Both the outflow velocity and mass-loading scaling suggest that these outflows are powered by supernovae, with only 0.7% of the total supernovae energy converted into the kinetic energ...

  17. LONG GRBs ARE METALLICITY-BIASED TRACERS OF STAR FORMATION: EVIDENCE FROM HOST GALAXIES AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G., E-mail: fayinwang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and the redshift distribution of long GRBs by considering that long GRBs occur in low-metallicity environments. We calculate the upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy which can produce long GRBs by utilizing the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation of galaxies. After comparing with the observed GRB host galaxies masses, we find that the observed GRB host galaxy masses can fit the predicted masses well if GRBs occur in low-metallicity 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. GRB host galaxies have low metallicity, low mass, and high star formation rate compared with galaxies of seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also study the cumulative redshift distribution of the latest Swift long GRBs by adding dark GRBs and 10 new GRBs redshifts from the TOUGH survey. The observed discrepancy between the GRB rate and the star formation history can be reconciled by considering that GRBs tend to occur in low-metallicity galaxies with 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. We conclude that the metallicity cutoff that can produce long GRBs is about 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7 from the host mass distribution and redshift distribution.

  18. Morphologies of z~0.7 AGN Host Galaxies in CANDELS: No trend of merger incidence with AGN luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Villforth, C; Rosario, D J; Santini, P; McGrath, E J; van der Wel, A; Chang, Y -Y; Guo, Yicheng; Dahlen, T; Bell, E F; Conselice, C J; Croton, D; Dekel, A; Faber, S M; Grogin, N; Hamilton, T; Hopkins, P F; Juneau, S; Kartaltepe, J; Kocevski, D; Koekemoer, A; Koo, D C; Lotz, J; McIntosh, D; Mozena, M; Somerville, R; Wild, V

    2014-01-01

    The processes that trigger Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) remain poorly understood. While lower luminosity AGN may be triggered by minor disturbances to the host galaxy, stronger disturbances are likely required to trigger luminous AGN. Major wet mergers of galaxies are ideal environments for AGN triggering since they provide large gas supplies and galaxy scale torques. There is however little observational evidence for a strong connection between AGN and major mergers. We analyse the morphological properties of AGN host galaxies as a function of AGN and host galaxy luminosity and compare them to a carefully matched sample of control galaxies. AGN are X-ray selected in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.8 and have luminosities 41 < log(L_X [erg/s]) < 44.5. 'Fake AGN' are simulated in the control galaxies by adding point sources with the magnitude of the matched AGN. We find that AGN host and control galaxies have comparable assymetries, Sersic indices and ellipticities at restframe ~950nm. AGN host gala...

  19. Supernovae and their host galaxies - III. The impact of bars and bulges on the radial distribution of supernovae in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, A A; Barkhudaryan, L V; Mamon, G A; Kunth, D; Petrosian, A R; Adibekyan, V; Aramyan, L S; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of bars and bulges on the radial distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) in the stellar discs of host galaxies with various morphologies. We use a well-defined sample of 500 nearby (< 100 Mpc) SNe and their low-inclined (i < 60 deg) and morphologically non-disturbed S0-Sm host galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that in Sa-Sm galaxies, all core-collapse (CC) and vast majority of SNe Ia belong to the disc, rather than the bulge component. The radial distribution of SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies is inconsistent with their distribution in Sa-Sm hosts, which is probably due to the contribution of the outer bulge SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies. In Sa-Sbc galaxies, the radial distribution of CC SNe in barred hosts is inconsistent with that in unbarred ones, while the distributions of SNe Ia are not significantly different. At the same time, the radial distributions of both types of SNe in Sc-Sm galaxies are not affected by bars. We propose that th...

  20. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS: is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Merloni, A; Zamorani, G; Ilbert, O; La Franca, F; Peng, Y; Piconcelli, E; Mainieri, V; Silverman, J D; Brusa, M; Fiore, F; Salvato, M; Scoville, N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate i.e., lambda_SAR, distribution function (SARDF) up to z~2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass dependent but redshift independent break whose low lambda_SAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that, for a given stellar mass, higher lambda_SAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch compared to the lower lambda_SAR ones, following and mimicking the well known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schech...

  1. The host galaxy of the gamma-ray narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León Tavares, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Puerari, I.; Patiño-Alvarez, V.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Guichard, J.; Olguín-Iglesias, A.; Valdes, J. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Kotilainen, J. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Añorve, C. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio (FACITE) de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa (Mexico); Cruz-González, I. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF (Mexico); Antón, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Karhunen, K.; Sanghvi, J., E-mail: leon.tavares@inaoep.mx [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20100 Turku (Finland)

    2014-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of the radio-loud, narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342, which shows intense and variable gamma-ray activity discovered by the Fermi satellite with the Large Area Telescope. Near-infrared and optical images are used to investigate the structural properties of the host galaxy of 1H 0323+342; this together with optical spectroscopy allows us to examine its black hole mass. Based on two-dimensional (2D) multiwavelength surface-brightness modeling, we find that statistically, the best model fit is a combination of a nuclear component and a Sérsic profile (n ∼ 2.8). However, the presence of a disk component (with a small bulge n ∼ 1.2) also remains a possibility and cannot be ruled out with the present data. Although at first glance a spiral-arm-like structure is revealed in our images, a 2D Fourier analysis of the imagery suggests that this structure corresponds to an asymmetric ring, likely associated with a recent violent dynamical interaction. We discuss our results in the context of relativistic jet production and galaxy evolution.

  2. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. II. The correlation with near-infrared luminosity revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ferrarese, Laura [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E2E7 (Canada); Shankar, Francesco, E-mail: laesker@mpia.de [GEPI Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2014-01-01

    We present an investigation of the scaling relations between supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses, M {sub •}, and their host galaxies' K-band bulge (L {sub bul}) and total (L {sub tot}) luminosities. The wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope was used to obtain the deepest and highest resolution near-infrared images available for a sample of 35 galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, selected irrespective of Hubble type. For each galaxy, we derive bulge and total magnitudes using a two-dimensional image decomposition code that allows us to account, if necessary, for large- and small-scale disks, cores, bars, nuclei, rings, envelopes, and spiral arms. We find that the present-day M {sub •}-L {sub bul} and M {sub •}-L {sub tot} relations have consistent intrinsic scatter, suggesting that M {sub •} correlates equally well with bulge and total luminosity of the host. Our analysis provides only mild evidence of a decreased scatter if the fit is restricted to elliptical galaxies. The log-slopes of the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} and M {sub •}-L {sub tot} relations are 0.75 ± 0.10 and 0.92 ± 0.14, respectively. However, while the slope of the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation depends on the detail of the image decomposition, the characterization of M {sub •}-L {sub tot} does not. Given the difficulties and ambiguities of decomposing galaxy images into separate components, our results indicate that L {sub tot} is more suitable as a tracer of SMBH mass than L {sub bul}, and that the M {sub •}-L {sub tot} relation should be used when studying the co-evolution of SMBHs and galaxies.

  3. Magellan LDSS3 emission confirmation of galaxies hosting metal-rich Lyman-alpha absorption systems

    CERN Document Server

    Straka, Lorrie A; York, Donald G; Bowen, David V; Florian, Michael; Kulkarni, Varsha P; Lundgren, Britt; Peroux, Celine

    2015-01-01

    Using the Low Dispersion Survey Spectrograph 3 at the Magellan II Clay Telescope in Chile, we target candidate absorption host galaxies detected in deep optical imaging (reaching limiting apparent magnitudes of 23.0-26.5 in g; r; i; and z filters) in the fields of three QSOs, each of which shows the presence of high metallicity, strong NHI absorption systems in their spectra (Q0826-2230: zabs=0.9110, Q1323-0021: zabs = 0.7160, Q1436-0051: zabs = 0.7377; 0.9281). We confirm host galaxies at redshifts 0.7387, 0.7401, and 0.9286 for two out of four of the Ly-alpha absorption systems. For these systems, we are able to determine the SFRs; impact parameters (known from previous imaging detections); the velocity shift between the absorption and emission redshifts; and, for one system, also the emission metallicity. Based on previous photometry, we find these galaxies have L>L*. The SFRs for these galaxies, based on [O II] emission, are in the range 11-25 M_sol/yr (uncorrected for dust), while the impact parameters l...

  4. A tale of two feedbacks: star-formation in the host galaxies of radio-AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Trichas, Markos; Ruiz, Angel; Goto, Tomo; Malkan, Matt; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Seongjin; Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Murata, Kazumi; Wada, Takehiko; Wada, Kensuke; Shim, Hyunjin; Hanami, Hitoshi; Serheant, Stephen; White, Glenn J; Pearson, Crhis; Ohyama, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star-formation activity in these galaxies. The exact nature of this link is still under debate. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows AGN to interact with their host galaxy and regulate star-formation. In this context, we are using a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of the putative link between AGN activity and star-formation. This is done by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We use the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope together with the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. Through SED fitting we constrain both the AGN and host galaxy components. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio-sources ($<$mJy), that increases in power...

  5. Co-evolution of nuclear star clusters, massive black holes and their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio; Silk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Studying how nuclear star clusters (NSCs) form and how they are related to the growth of the central massive black holes (MBHs) and their host galaxies is fundamental for our understanding of the evolution of galaxies and the processes that have shaped their central structures. We present the results of a semi-analytical galaxy formation model that follows the evolution of dark matter halos along merger trees, as well as that of the baryonic components. This model allows us to study the evolution of NSCs in a cosmological context, by taking into account the growth of NSCs due to both dynamical friction-driven migration of stellar clusters and star formation triggered by infalling gas, while also accounting for dynamical heating from (binary) MBHs. We find that in-situ star formation contributes a significant fraction (up to ~40%) of the total mass of NSCs in our model. Both NSC growth through in-situ star formation and through star cluster migration are found to generate NSC -- host galaxy scaling correlation...

  6. Herschel observed Stripe 82 quasars and their host galaxies: connections between the AGN activity and the host galaxy star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of $10^{46.4}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The redshift range of this sample is within $z<4$, with a mean value of $1.5\\pm0.78$. Because we only selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, FIR luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 $M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and the mean gas mass is $\\sim 10^{11.3}$ $M_{\\odot}$. All these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Comparing with star format...

  7. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest-frame equ......We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest...

  8. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest-frame equ......We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest...

  9. The metallicity and dust content of a redshift 5 gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, M.; Hartoog, O. E.; Krühler, T.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio and extinction of the GRB host...... galaxy at z=5.0. The host absorption system is a damped Lyman-alpha absorber (DLA) with a very large neutral hydrogen column density of log N(HI)/cm^(-2) = 22.30 +/- 0.06, and a metallicity of [S/H]= -1.70 +/- 0.10. It is the highest redshift GRB with such a precise metallicity measurement. The presence...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Host galaxies of Superluminous Supernovae (Angus+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, C. R.; Levan, A. J.; Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Lyman, J. D.; Stanway, E. R.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    Here we use nIR and rest-frame UV observations of a sample of 21 SLSN host galaxies, within a redshift range of 0.019 SCP 06F6). This HST sample (programme GO-13025; PI: Levan) comprised 21 targets, based on the sample of Neill et al. (2011ApJ...727...15N), supplemented with luminous SNe from the literature (up to 2012 Jan). (6 data files).

  11. Systematic Effects in Type-1a Supernovae Surveys from Host Galaxy Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A. [Princeton University

    2013-08-23

    The physical relation between the properties of Type Ia supernovae and their host galaxies is investigated. Such supernovae are used to constrain the properties of dark energy, making it crucial to understand their physical properties and to check for systematic effects relating to the stellar populations of the progenitor stars from which these supernovae arose. This grant found strong evidence for two distinct populations of supernovae, and correlations between the progenitor stellar populations and the nature of the supernova light curves.

  12. Rapid Coeval Black Hole and Host Galaxy Growth in MRC 1138-262: The Hungry Spider

    CERN Document Server

    Seymour, N; De Breuck, C; Barthel, P; Coia, D; Conversi, L; Dannerbauer, H; Dey, A; Dickinson, M; Drouart, G; Galametz, A; Greve, T R; Haas, M; Hatch, N; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Jarvis, M; Kovacs, A; Kurk, J; Lehnert, M; Miley, G; Nesvadba, N; Rawlings, J I; Rettura, A; Rottgering, H; Rocca-Volmerange, B; Sanchez-Portal, M; Santos, J S; Stern, D; Stevens, J; Valtchanov, I; Vernet, J; Wylezalek, D

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the infrared spectral energy distribution of the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 1138-26 at z = 2.156, also known as the Spiderweb Galaxy. By combining photometry from Spitzer, Herschel and LABOCA we fit the rest-frame 5-300 um emission using a two component, starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN), model. The total infrared (8 - 1000 um) luminosity of this galaxy is (1.97+/-0.28)x10^13 Lsun with (1.17+/-0.27) and (0.79+/-0.09)x10^13 Lsun due to the AGN and starburst components respectively. The high derived AGN accretion rate of \\sim20% Eddington, and the measured star formation rate (SFR) of 1390pm150 Msun/yr, suggest that this massive system is in a special phase of rapid central black hole and host galaxy growth, likely caused by a gas rich merger in a dense environment. The accretion rate is sufficient to power both the jets and the previously observed large outflow. The high SFR and strong outflow suggest this galaxy could potentially exhaust its fuel for stellar growth...

  13. Dynamical friction and scratches of orbiting satellite galaxies on host systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiya, Go

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamical response of extended systems, hosts, to smaller systems, satellites, orbiting around the hosts using extremely high-resolution N-body simulations with up to one billion particles. This situation corresponds to minor mergers which are ubiquitous in the scenario of hierarchical structure formation in the universe. According to Chandrasekhar (1943), satellites create density wakes along the orbit and the wakes cause a deceleration force on satellites, i.e. dynamical friction. This study proposes an analytical model to predict the dynamical response of hosts in the density distribution and finds not only traditional wakes but also mirror images of over- and underdensities centered on the host. Controlled N-body simulations with high resolutions verify the predictions of the analytical model directly. We apply our analytical model to the expected dynamical response of nearby interacting galaxy pairs, the Milky Way - Large Magellanic Cloud system and the M31 - M33 system.

  14. Dynamical friction and scratches of orbiting satellite galaxies on host systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiya, Go; Burkert, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamical response of extended systems, hosts, to smaller systems, satellites, orbiting around the hosts using extremely high-resolution N-body simulations with up to one billion particles. This situation corresponds to minor mergers which are ubiquitous in the scenario of hierarchical structure formation in the universe. According to Chandrasekhar, satellites create density wakes along the orbit and the wakes cause a deceleration force on satellites, i.e. dynamical friction. This study proposes an analytical model to predict the dynamical response of hosts as reflected in their density distribution and finds not only traditional wakes but also mirror images of over- and underdensities centred on the host. Our controlled N-body simulations with high resolutions verify the predictions of the analytical model. We apply our analytical model to the expected dynamical response of nearby interacting galaxy pairs, the Milky Way-Large Magellanic Cloud system and the M31-M33 system.

  15. DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE GALAXIES HOSTING SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Margutti, R.; Czekala, I.; Zauderer, B. A.; Laskar, T.; Servillat, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Levan, A. J.; Tunnicliffe, R. L. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fox, D. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Perley, D. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Room 232, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Persson, S. E.; Monson, A. J.; Kelson, D. D.; Birk, C.; Murphy, D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anglada, G. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, Universitaet Goettingen, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-05-20

    We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, a star formation rate of Almost-Equal-To 16 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 50 Myr. We also report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i {approx}> 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4}-1 cm{sup -3} and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment ({approx}1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type ( Almost-Equal-To 50%), early-type ( Almost-Equal-To 15%), inconclusive ( Almost-Equal-To 20%), and ''host-less'' (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of {approx}> 26 mag; Almost-Equal-To 15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of

  16. DISSECTING THE QUASAR MAIN SEQUENCE: INSIGHT FROM HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiayi [Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The diverse properties of broad-line quasars appear to follow a well-defined main sequence along which the optical Fe ii strength increases. It has been suggested that this sequence is mainly driven by the Eddington ratio (L/L{sub Edd}) of the black hole (BH) accretion. Shen and Ho demonstrated with quasar clustering analysis that the average BH mass decreases with increasing Fe ii strength when quasar luminosity is fixed, consistent with this suggestion. Here we perform an independent test by measuring the stellar velocity dispersion σ{sub *} (hence, the BH mass via the M–σ{sub *} relation) from decomposed host spectra in low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We found that at fixed quasar luminosity, σ{sub *} systematically decreases with increasing Fe ii strength, confirming that the Eddington ratio increases with Fe ii strength. We also found that at fixed luminosity and Fe ii strength, there is little dependence of σ{sub *} on the broad Hβ FWHM. These new results reinforce the framework that the Eddington ratio and orientation govern most of the diversity seen in broad-line quasar properties.

  17. Dissecting the Quasar Main Sequence: Insight from Host Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayi; Shen, Yue

    2015-05-01

    The diverse properties of broad-line quasars appear to follow a well-defined main sequence along which the optical Fe ii strength increases. It has been suggested that this sequence is mainly driven by the Eddington ratio (L/LEdd) of the black hole (BH) accretion. Shen & Ho demonstrated with quasar clustering analysis that the average BH mass decreases with increasing Fe ii strength when quasar luminosity is fixed, consistent with this suggestion. Here we perform an independent test by measuring the stellar velocity dispersion σ* (hence, the BH mass via the M-σ* relation) from decomposed host spectra in low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We found that at fixed quasar luminosity, σ* systematically decreases with increasing Fe ii strength, confirming that the Eddington ratio increases with Fe ii strength. We also found that at fixed luminosity and Fe ii strength, there is little dependence of σ* on the broad Hβ FWHM. These new results reinforce the framework that the Eddington ratio and orientation govern most of the diversity seen in broad-line quasar properties.

  18. Dissecting the quasar main sequence: insight from host galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    The diverse properties of broad-line quasars appear to follow a well-defined main sequence along which the optical FeII strength increases. It has been suggested that this sequence is mainly driven by the Eddington ratio (L/L_Edd) of the black hole (BH) accretion. Shen & Ho demonstrated with quasar clustering analysis that the average BH mass decreases with increasing FeII strength when quasar luminosity is fixed, consistent with this suggestion. Here we perform an independent test by measuring the stellar velocity dispersion sigma* (hence the BH mass via the M-sigma* relation) from decomposed host spectra in low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We found that at fixed quasar luminosity, sigma* systematically decreases with increasing FeII strength, confirming that Eddington ratio increases with FeII strength. We also found that at fixed luminosity and FeII strength, there is little dependence of sigma* on the broad Hbeta FWHM. These new results reinforce the framework put forward by Shen & H...

  19. Ongoing and co-evolving star formation in zCOSMOS galaxies hosting Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Maier, C; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Hasinger, G; Zamorani, G; Scodeggio, M; Bolzonella, M; Contini, T; Carollo, C M; Jahnke, K; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Merloni, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Brunner, H; Caputi, K; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Elvis, M; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gilli, R; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Vignali, C; Zucca, E; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Griffiths, R; Kartaltepe, J; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Salvato, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the host galaxies of AGN selected from the zCOSMOS survey to establish if accretion onto supermassive black holes and star formation are explicitly linked up to z~1. We identify 152 galaxies that harbor AGN, based on XMM observations of 7543 galaxies (i<22.5). Star formation rates (SFRs), including those weighted by stellar mass, are determined using the [OII]3727 emission-line, corrected for an AGN contribution. We find that the majority of AGN hosts have significant levels of star formation with a distribution spanning ~1-100 Msun yr^-1. The close association between AGN activity and star formation is further substantiated by an increase in the AGN fraction with the youthfulness of their stars as indicated by the rest-frame color (U-V) and spectral index Dn(4000); we demonstrate that mass-selection alleviates an artifical peak falling in the transition region when using luminosity-limited samples. We also find that the SFRs of AGN hosts evolve with cosmic time in a manner that close...

  20. Origins of short gamma-ray bursts deduced from offsets in their host galaxies revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Cui; Shigehiro Nagataki; Junichi Aoi; Ren-Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of short Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in their host galaxies provides us with an opportunity to investigate their origins.Based on the currently observed distribution of short GRBs relative to their host galaxies,we obtain the fraction of the component that traces the mergers of binary compact objects and the one that traces star formation rate (such as massive stars) in early- and late-type host galaxies.From the analysis of projected offset distribution and only based on population synthesis and massive star models,we find that the fraction of massive stars is 0.37+0.42-0.37 with an error at the lσ level for a sample with 22 short GRBs in the literature.From these results,it is hard to accept that the origin of short GRBs with observed statistics is well described by current models using only the offset distribution.The uncertainties in observational localizations of short GRBs also strongly affect the resulting fraction.

  1. Kinematics and Host-Galaxy Properties Suggest a Nuclear Origin for Calcium-Rich Supernova Progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-rich supernovae (Ca-rich SNe) are peculiar low-luminosity SNe Ib with relatively strong Ca spectral lines at ~2 months after peak brightness. This class also has an extended projected offset distribution, with several members of the class offset from their host galaxies by 30 - 150 kpc. There is no indication of any stellar population at the SN positions. Using a sample of 13 Ca-rich SNe, we present kinematic evidence that the progenitors of Ca-rich SNe originate near the centers of their host galaxies and are kicked to the locations of the SN explosions. Specifically, SNe with small projected offsets have large line-of-sight velocity shifts as determined by nebular lines, while those with large projected offsets have no significant velocity shifts. Therefore, the velocity shifts must not be primarily the result of the SN explosion. There is an excess of SNe with blueshifted velocity shifts within two isophotal radii (5/6 SNe), indicating that the SNe are moving away from their host galaxies and redsh...

  2. Taking stock of SLSN and LGRB host galaxy comparison using a complete sample of LGRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Japelj, J; Salvaterra, R; Hunt, L K; Mannucci, F

    2016-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are both explosive transients with very massive progenitor stars. Clues about the nature of the progenitors can be found by investigating environments in which such transients occur. While studies of LGRB host galaxies have a long history, dedicated observational campaigns have only recently resulted in a high enough number of photometrically and spectroscopically observed SLSN hosts to allow statistically significant analysis of their properties. In this paper we make a comparison of the host galaxies of hydrogen-poor (H-poor) SLSNe and the Swift/BAT6 sample of LGRBs. In contrast to previous studies we use a complete sample of LGRBs and we address a special attention to the comparison methodology and the selection of SLSN sample whose data have been compiled from the available literature. At intermediate redshifts (0.3 < z < 0.7) the two classes of transients select galaxies whose properties (stellar mass, luminosity, star-formation rat...

  3. Distributions of quasar hosts on the galaxy main-sequence plane

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhoujian; Rieke, George H; Xia, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yikang; Sun, Bingqing; Wan, Linfeng

    2016-01-01

    The relation between star formation rates and stellar masses, i.e. the galaxy main sequence, is a useful diagnostic of galaxy evolution. We present the distributions relative to the main sequence of 55 optically-selected PG and 12 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars at z <= 0.5. We estimate the quasar host stellar masses from Hubble Space Telescope or ground-based AO photometry, and the star formation rates through the mid-infrared aromatic features and far-IR photometry. We find that PG quasar hosts more or less follow the main sequence defined by normal star-forming galaxies while 2MASS quasar hosts lie systematically above the main sequence. PG and 2MASS quasars with higher nuclear luminosities seem to have higher specific SFRs (sSFRs), although there is a large scatter. No trends are seen between sSFRs and SMBH masses, Eddington ratios or even morphology types (ellipticals, spirals and mergers). Our results could be placed in an evolutionary scenario with quasars emerging during the transition from ULIRGs/m...

  4. The Dwarf Starburst Host Galaxy of a Type Ia SN at z = 1.55 from CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Teddy F; Maund, Justyn R; Rodney, Steven A; Riess, Adam G; Dahlen, Tomas; Mobasher, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    We present VLT/X-shooter observations of a high redshift, type Ia supernova host galaxy, discovered with HST/WFC3 as part of the CANDELS Supernova project. The galaxy exhibits strong emission lines of Ly{\\alpha}, [O II], H{\\beta}, [O III], and H{\\alpha} at z = 1.54992(+0.00008-0.00004). From the emission-line fluxes and SED fitting of broad-band photometry we rule out AGN activity and characterize the host galaxy as a young, low mass, metal poor, starburst galaxy with low intrinsic extinction and high Ly{\\alpha} escape fraction. The host galaxy stands out in terms of the star formation, stellar mass, and metallicity compared to its lower redshift counterparts, mainly because of its high specific star-formation rate. If valid for a larger sample of high-redshift SN Ia host galaxies, such changes in the host galaxy properties with redshift are of interest because of the potential impact on the use of SN Ia as standard candles in cosmology.

  5. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Post-Starburst Signatures in Quasar Host Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Strauss, Michael A.; Shen, Yue; Brandt, William N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Schneider, Donald P.; Sun, Mouyuan; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2015-10-01

    Quasar host galaxies are key for understanding the relation between galaxies and the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at their centers. We present a study of 191 broad-line quasars and their host galaxies at z\\lt 1, using high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project. Clear detection of stellar absorption lines allows a reliable decomposition of the observed spectra into nuclear and host components, using spectral models of quasar and stellar radiations as well as emission lines from the interstellar medium. We estimate age, mass {M}*, and velocity dispersion {σ }* of the host stars, the star formation rate (SFR), quasar luminosity, and SMBH mass {M}\\bullet , for each object. The quasars are preferentially hosted by massive galaxies with {M}*˜ {10}11 {M}⊙ characterized by stellar ages around 1 billion yr, which coincides with the transition phase of normal galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence. The host galaxies have relatively low SFRs and fall below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. These facts suggest that the hosts have experienced an episode of major star formation sometime in the past 1 billion yr, which was subsequently quenched or suppressed. The derived {M}\\bullet -{σ }* and {M}\\bullet -{M}* relations agree with our past measurements and are consistent with no evolution from the local universe. The present analysis demonstrates that reliable measurements of stellar properties of quasar host galaxies are possible with high-S/N fiber spectra, which will be acquired in large numbers with future powerful instruments such as the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph.

  6. Tidally Induced Bars in Dwarf Galaxies on Different Orbits around a Milky Way-like Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Grzegorz; Łokas, Ewa L.; Athanassoula, E.

    2017-06-01

    Bars in galaxies may develop through a global instability or as a result of an interaction with another system. We study bar formation in disky dwarf galaxies orbiting a Milky Way-like galaxy. We employ N-body simulations to study the impact of the initial orbital parameters: the size of the dwarf galaxy orbit, and the inclination of its disk with respect to the orbital plane. In all cases, a bar develops in the center of the dwarf during the first pericenter on its orbit around the host. Between subsequent pericenter passages, the bars are stable, but at the pericenters, they are usually weakened and shortened. The initial properties and details of the further evolution of the bars depend heavily on the orbital configuration. We find that for the exactly prograde orientation, the strongest bar is formed for the intermediate-sized orbit. On the tighter orbit, the disk is too disturbed and stripped to form a strong bar. On the wider orbit, the tidal interaction is too weak. The dependence on the disk inclination is such that weaker bars form in more inclined disks. The bars experience either a very weak buckling or none at all. We do not observe any secular evolution, possibly because the dwarfs are perturbed at each pericenter passage. The rotation speed of the bars can be classified as slow (R CR/l bar ˜ 2-3). We attribute this to the loss of a significant fraction of the disk rotation during the encounter with the host galaxy.

  7. The Connection between the Host Halo and the Satellite Galaxies of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H. G.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-10-01

    Many properties of the Milky Way’s (MW) dark matter halo, including its mass-assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the MW and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the MW halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of MW-mass halos with a fixed final {M}{vir}˜ {10}12.1 {M}⊙ , we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that MW-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the MW with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different mass-assembly histories and concentrations can lead to different best-fit models for galaxy-formation physics, especially for the strength of feedback. These biases arise because the presence of the Magellanic Clouds boosts the overall population of high-mass subhalos, thus requiring a different stellar-mass-to-halo-mass ratio to match the data. These biases also lead to significant differences in the mass-metallicity relation, the kinematics of low-mass satellites, the number counts of small satellites associated with the Magellanic Clouds, and the stellar mass of MW itself. Observations of these galaxy properties can thus provide useful constraints on the properties of the MW halo.

  8. Towards a comprehensive picture of powerful quasars, their host galaxies and quasar winds at z ~ 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Liu, Guilin; Obied, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Luminous type-2 quasars in which the glow from the central black hole is obscured by dust are ideal targets for studying their host galaxies and the quasars' effect on galaxy evolution. Such feedback appears ubiquitous in luminous obscured quasars where high velocity ionized nebulae have been found. We present rest-frame yellow-band (~5000 Angstroms) observations using the Hubble Space Telescope for a sample of 20 luminous quasar host galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For the first time, we combine host galaxy observations with geometric measurements of quasar illumination using blue-band HST observations and [OIII] integral field unit observations probing the quasar winds. The HST images reveal bright merger signatures in about half the galaxies; a significantly higher fraction than in comparison inactive ellipticals. We show that the host galaxies are primarily bulge-dominated, with masses close to M*, but belong to < 30% of elliptical galaxies that are highly st...

  9. SALT spectroscopic observations of galaxy clusters detected by ACT and a Type II quasar hosted by a brightest cluster galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Brian; Cress, Catherine; Crawford, Steven M; Hughes, John P; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J Richard; Burke, Claire; Gralla, Megan B; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Sievers, Jonathan L; Sifón, Cristóbal; Wilson, Susan; Wollack, Edward J; Zunckel, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    We present Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) follow-up observations of seven massive clusters detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) on the celestial equator using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. We conducted multi-object spectroscopic observations with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph in order to measure galaxy redshifts in each cluster field, determine the cluster line-of-sight velocity dispersions, and infer the cluster dynamical masses. We find that the clusters, which span the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.55, range in mass from (5 -- 20) x 10$^{14}$ solar masses (M200c). Their masses, given their SZ signals, are similar to those of southern hemisphere ACT clusters previously observed using Gemini and the VLT. We note that the brightest cluster galaxy in one of the systems studied, ACT-CL J0320.4+0032 at z = 0.38, hosts a Type II quasar. To our knowledge, this is only the third such system discovered, and therefore may be a rare example of a very massive halo in which quasar-mode fe...

  10. The Molecular Gas Content of z<0.1 Radio Galaxies: Linking the AGN Accretion Mode to Host Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V

    2011-01-01

    One of the main achievements in modern cosmology is the so-called `unified model', which successfully describes most classes of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within a single physical scheme. However, there is a particular class of radio-luminous AGN that presently cannot be explained within this framework -- the `low-excitation' radio AGN (LERAGN). Recently, a scenario has been put forward which predicts that LERAGN, and their regular `high-excitation' radio AGN (HERAGN) counterparts represent different (red sequence vs. green valley) phases of galaxy evolution. These different evolutionary states are also expected to be reflected in their host galaxy properties, in particular their cold gas content. To test this, here we present CO(1-0) observations toward a sample of 11 of these systems conducted with CARMA. Combining our observations with literature data, we derive molecular gas masses (or upper limits) for a complete, representative, sample of 21 z<0.1 radio AGN. Our results yield that HERAGN on average...

  11. Exploring Damped Lyα System Host Galaxies Using Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Veilleux, Sylvain; Fumagalli, Michele; Rafelski, Marc; Rahmati, Alireza; Cenko, S. Bradley; Capone, John I.; Pasham, Dheeraj R.

    2016-12-01

    We present a sample of 45 Damped Lyα system (DLA; {N}{{H}{{I}}} ≥slant 2× {10}20 {{cm}}-2) counterparts (33 detections, 12 upper limits) which host gamma-ray bursts (GRB-DLAs) in order to investigate star formation and metallicity within galaxies hosting DLAs. Our sample spans z˜ 2{--}6 and is nearly three times larger than any previously detected DLA counterparts survey based on quasar line-of-sight searches (QSO-DLAs). We report star formation rates (SFRs) from rest-frame UV photometry and spectral energy distribution modeling. We find that DLA counterpart SFRs are not correlated with either redshift or H i column density. Thanks to the combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations, we also investigate DLA host star formation efficiency. Our GRB-DLA counterpart sample spans both higher efficiency and low efficiency star formation regions compared to the local Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, local star formation laws, and z˜ 3 cosmological simulations. We also compare the depletion times of our DLA hosts sample to other objects in the local universe; our sample appears to deviate from the star formation efficiencies measured in local spiral and dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we find similar efficiencies as local inner disks, SMC, and Lyman-break galaxy outskirts. Finally, our enrichment time measurements show a spread of systems with under- and over-abundance of metals, which may suggest that these systems had episodic star formation and a metal enrichment/depletion as a result of strong stellar feedback and/or metal inflow/outflow.

  12. The Spiral Host Galaxy of the Double Radio Source 0313-192

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, W C; Owen, F N; Ledlow, M J; Keel, William C.; III, Raymond E. White; Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We present new Hubble, Gemini-S, and Chandra observations of the radio galaxy 0313-192, which hosts a 350-kpc double source and jets, even though previous data have suggested that it is a spiral galaxy. We measure the bulge scale and luminosity, radial and vertical profiles of disk starlight, and consider the distributions of H II regions and absorbing dust. In each case, the HST data confirm its classification as an edge-on spiral galaxy, the only such system known to produce such an extended radio source of this kind. The Gemini near-IR images and Chandra spectral fit reveal a strongly obscured central AGN, seen through the entire ISM path length of the disk and showing X-ray evidence of additional absorption from warm or dense material close to the central object. We consider several possible mechanisms for producing such a rare combination of AGN and host properties, some combination of which may be at work. These include an unusually luminous bulge (suggesting a black hole of mass 0.5-0.9 billion solar m...

  13. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF TYPE Ia SNe LUMINOSITIES ON THE METALLICITY OF THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Raya, Manuel E.; Mollá, Mercedes [Dpto.de Investigación Básica, C.I.E.M.A.T., Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); López-Sánchez, Ángel R. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Galbany, Lluís [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics MAS, Nuncio Monseñor Sótero Sanz 100, Providencia, 7500011 Santiago (Chile); Vílchez, José Manuel [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Rosell, Aurelio Carnero [Observatório Nacional, and LIneA Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77 Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Domínguez, Inmaculada, E-mail: manuelemilio.moreno@ciemat.es [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-02-10

    The metallicity of the progenitor system producing a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) could play a role in its maximum luminosity, as suggested by theoretical predictions. We present an observational study to investigate if such a relationship exists. Using the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy data of a sample of 28 local galaxies hosting SNe Ia, for which distances have been derived using methods independent of those based on SN Ia parameters. From the emission lines observed in their optical spectra, we derived the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the region where each SN Ia exploded. Our data show a trend, with an 80% of chance not being due to random fluctuation, between SNe Ia absolute magnitudes and the oxygen abundances of the host galaxies, in the sense that luminosities tend to be higher for galaxies with lower metallicities. This result seems likely to be in agreement with both the theoretically expected behavior and with other observational results. This dependence M{sub B}–Z might induce systematic errors when it is not considered when deriving SNe Ia luminosities and then using them to derive cosmological distances.

  14. The connection between the host halo and the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yu; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H G; Wetzel, Andrew R; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    Many properties of the Milky Way's dark matter halo, including its mass assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the Milky Way and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the Milky Way halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of Milky Way-mass halos, we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that Milky Way-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different ma...

  15. Properties of a Gamma Ray Burst Host Galaxy at z ~ 5

    CERN Document Server

    Price, P A; Cowie, L L; Burnell, J Bell; Berger, E; Cucchiara, A; Fox, D B; Hook, I; Kulkarni, S R; Penprase, B; Roth, K C; Schmidt, B

    2007-01-01

    We describe the properties of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst GRB060510B based on a spectrum of the burst afterglow obtained with the Gemini North 8m telescope. The galaxy lies at a redshift of z = 4.941 making it the fourth highest spectroscopically identified burst host. However, it is the second highest redshift galaxy for which the quality of the spectrum permits a detailed metallicity analysis. The neutral hydrogen column density has a logarithmic value of 21.0--21.2 cm^-2 and the weak metal lines of Ni, S and Fe show that the metallicity is in excess of a tenth of solar which is far above the metallicities in damped Lyman alpha absorbers at high redshift. The tightest constraint is from the Fe lines which place [Fe/H] in excess of -0.8. We argue that the results suggest that metallicity bias could be a serious problem with inferring star formation from the GRB population and consider how future higher quality measurements could be used to resolve this question.

  16. On the dependence of the type Ia SNe luminosities on the metallicity of their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Raya, Manuel E; López-Sánchez, Ángel R; Galbany, Lluís; Vílchez, José; Carnero, Aurelio; Domínguez, Inma

    2015-01-01

    The metallicity of the progenitor system producing a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) could play a role in its maximum luminosity, as suggested by theoretical predictions. We present an observational study to investigate if such a relationship there exists. Using the 4.2m WHT we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy data of a sample of 28 local galaxies hosting SNe Ia, for which distances have been derived using methods independent to those based on the own SN Ia parameters. From the emission lines observed in their optical spectrum, we derived the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the region where each SN Ia exploded. Our data show a trend, with a 80% of chance not to be due to random fluctuation, between SNe Ia absolute magnitudes and the oxygen abundances of the host galaxies, in the sense that luminosities tend to be higher for galaxies with lower metallicities. This result seems like to be in agreement with both the theoretically expected behavior, and with other observational results. This dependence ...

  17. The Role of Radiation Pressure in the Narrow Line Regions of Seyfert Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rebecca L; Kewley, Lisa J; Groves, Brent; Sutherland, Ralph; Hampton, Elise J; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relative significance of radiation pressure and gas pressure in the extended narrow line regions (ENLRs) of four Seyfert galaxies from the integral field Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). We demonstrate that there exist two distinct types of starburst-AGN mixing curves on standard emission line diagnostic diagrams which reflect the balance between gas pressure and radiation pressure in the ENLR. In two of the galaxies the ENLR is radiation pressure dominated throughout and the ionization parameter remains constant (log U ~ 0). In the other two galaxies radiation pressure is initially important, but gas pressure becomes dominant as the ionization parameter in the ENLR decreases from log U ~ 0 to -3.4 <= log U <= -3.2. Where radiation pressure is dominant, the AGN regulates the density of the interstellar medium on kpc scales and may therefore have a direct impact on star formation activity and/or the incidence of outflows in the host galaxy to scales fa...

  18. The Role of Radiation Pressure in the Narrow Line Regions of Seyfert Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa; Groves, Brent; Sutherland, Ralph; Hampton, Elise J.; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the relative significance of radiation pressure and gas pressure in the extended narrow line regions (ENLRs) of four Seyfert galaxies from the integral field Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). We demonstrate that there exist two distinct types of starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) mixing curves on standard emission line diagnostic diagrams, which reflect the balance between gas pressure and radiation pressure in the ENLR. In two of the galaxies the ENLR is radiation pressure dominated throughout and the ionization parameter remains constant (log U ˜ 0). In the other two galaxies radiation pressure is initially important, but gas pressure becomes dominant as the ionization parameter in the ENLR decreases from log U ˜ 0 to -3.2 ≲ log U ≲ -3.4. Where radiation pressure is dominant, the AGN regulates the density of the interstellar medium on kiloparsec scales and may therefore have a direct impact on star formation activity and/or the incidence of outflows in the host galaxy to scales far beyond the zone of influence of the black hole. We find that both radiation pressure dominated and gas pressure dominated ENLRs are dynamically active with evidence for outflows, indicating that radiation pressure may be an important source of AGN feedback even when it is not dominant over the entire ENLR.

  19. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies - I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine and supplement the relation between central Supermassive Black Hole masses (Mbh), and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, (Lbul), we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured Mbh, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT). A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sersic-bulge + exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observe in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings and envelope...

  20. Origin of the Correlations Between Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Sydney; Zhu, Qirong; Trump, Jonathan R; Li, Yuexing

    2014-01-01

    Observations have shown that supermassive black holes in nearby elliptical galaxies correlate tightly with the stellar velocity dispersion (the $\\MBH - \\sigma$ relation) and the stellar mass (the $\\MBH - \\Mhost$ relation) of their host spheroids. However, the origin of these correlations remains ambiguous. In a previous paper by Zhu et al., we proposed a model which links the M-$\\sigma$ relation to the the dynamical state of the system and the $\\MBH - \\Mhost$ relation to the self-regulation of galaxy growth. To test this model, we compile a sample of observed galaxies with different properties and examine the dependence of the above correlations on these parameters. We find that galaxies that satisfy the the $\\MBH - \\sigma$ correlation appear to have reached virial equilibrium, as indicated by the ratio between kinetic energy and gravitational potential, 2K/U $\\sim$ 1. Furthermore, the ratio of black hole accretion rate to star formation rate remains nearly constant, BHAR /SFR $\\sim$ $10^{-3}$, in active gala...

  1. Uncovering hidden black holes: Obscured AGN and their relationship to the host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.

    that accurately trace AGN flux, we have shown that these processes are significantly correlated. This link suggests that supermassive black holes and their host galaxies grow simultaneously in the local universe.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB 970508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, A. S.; Pian, E.; Gibbons, R.; Thorsett, S. E.; Ferguson, H.; Petro, L.; Sahu, K. C.; Livio, M.; Caraveo, P.; Frontera, F.; Kouveliotou, C.; Macchetto, D.; Palazzi, E.; Pedersen, H.; Tavani, M.; van Paradijs, J.

    2000-12-01

    We report on observations of the field of GRB 970508 made in 1998 early August, 454 days after outburst, with the STIS CCD camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The images, taken in open filter (50CCD) mode, clearly reveal the presence of a galaxy that was overwhelmed in earlier (1997 June) HST images by emission from the optical transient (OT). The galaxy is regular in shape: after correcting for the HST/STIS PSF, it is well fitted by an exponential disk with a scale length of 0.046"+/-0.006" and an ellipticity of 0.70+/-0.07. All observations are marginally consistent with a continuous decline in OT emission as t-1.3 beginning 2 days after outburst; however, we find no direct evidence in the late-time HST image for emission from the OT, and the surface brightness profile of the galaxy is most regular if we assume that the OT emission is negligible, suggesting that the OT may have faded more rapidly at late times than is predicted by the power-law decay. Due to the wide bandwidth of the STIS clear mode, the estimated magnitude of the galaxy is dependent on the galaxy spectrum that is assumed. Using colors obtained from late-time ground-based observations to constrain the spectrum, we find V=25.4+/-0.15, a few tenths of a magnitude brighter than earlier ground-based estimates that were obtained by observing the total light of the galaxy and the OT and then subtracting the estimated OT brightness, assuming that it fades as a single power law. This again suggests that the OT may have faded faster at late time than the power law predicts. The position of the OT agrees with that of the isophotal center of the galaxy to 0.01", which, at the galaxy redshift z=0.83, corresponds to an offset from the center of the host of <~70 pc. This remarkable agreement raises the possibility that the gamma-ray burst may have been associated with either an active galactic nucleus or a nuclear starburst.

  3. The luminosity and stellar mass functions of GRB host galaxies: Insight into the metallicity bias

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, Michele; Jimenez, Raul

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are powerful probes of the star formation history of the Universe, but the correlation between the two depends on the highly debated presence and strength of a metallicity bias. To investigate this correlation, we use a phenomenological model that successfully describes star formation rates, luminosities and stellar masses of star forming galaxies, and apply it to GRB production. We predict the comoving GRB rate and luminosities/stellar masses of host galaxies depending on the presence (or absence) of a metallicity bias, highlighting that apparent conflicts among previous studies might disappear following a comprehensive data-model comparison. We conclude that: (1) Our best fitting model includes a moderate metallicity bias, broadly consistent with the large majority of the long-duration GRBs in metal-poor environments originating from a collapsar (~83%), but with a secondary contribution from a metal-independent production channel, such as binary evolution; (2...

  4. A tale of two feedbacks: Star formation in the host galaxies of radio AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Ji Hoon [CEOU-Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Trichas, Markos [Airbus Defence and Space, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom); Goto, Tomo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Malkan, Matt [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3-714 UCLA, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ruiz, Angel [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, 411 007 Pune (India); Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Seong Jin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Murata, K.; Wada, Takehiko; Wada, Kensuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Yoshino-dai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hanami, Hitoshi [Physics Section, Faculty of Humanities, Iwate University, Ueda 3 chome, 18-34 Morioka, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550 (Japan); Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J., E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-01

    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star formation activity in these galaxies. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to interact with their host galaxies and affect star formation. We use a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of this putative link, by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We employ the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope and the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio sources (host galaxy, independent of the radio luminosity. In contrast, for narrow redshift and AGN luminosity ranges, we find that increasing radio luminosity leads to a decrease in the specific star formation rate. The most radio-loud AGNs are found to lie on the main sequence of star formation for their respective redshifts. For the first time, we potentially see such a two-sided feedback process in the same sample. We discuss the possible suppression of star formation, but not total quenching, in systems with strong radio jets, that supports the maintenance nature of feedback from radio AGN jets.

  5. Molecular content of a type-Ia SN host galaxy at z=0.6

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, A -L

    2007-01-01

    We study the properties and the molecular content of the host of a type-Ia supernova (SN1997ey). This z=0.575 host is the brightest submillimetre source of the sample of type-Ia supernova hosts observed at 450um and 850um by Farrah et al.. Observations were performed at IRAM-30m to search for CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) lines in good weather conditions but no signal was detected. The star formation rate cannot exceed 50 M_sol/yr. These negative results are confronted with an optical analysis of a Keck spectrum and other data archives. We reach the conclusion that this galaxy is a late-type system (0.7 L^B_*), with a small residual star-formation activity (0.2 M_sol/yr) detected in the optical. No source of heating (AGN or starburst) is found to explain the submillimetre-continuum flux and the non-CO detection excludes the presence of a large amount of cold gas. We thus suggest that either the star formation activity is hidden in the nucleus (with A_V ~ 4) or this galaxy is passive or anemic and this flux might be ass...

  6. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael G. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo, E-mail: papastergis@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: apuebla@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-10

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range M{sub H{sub I}} ≈ 10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ☉}. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies.

  7. The Fanaroff-Riley Transition and the Optical Luminosity of the Host Elliptical Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal-Krishna; Wiita, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    We show that a model for radio source dynamics we had earlier proposed can readily reproduce the relationship between the radio power division separating the two Fanaroff-Riley classes of extragalactic radio sources and the optical luminosity of the host galaxy, as found by Owen and Ledlow (1994). In our scenario, when less powerful jets eventually slow down to the point that the advance of the working surface (i.e., hotspot) becomes subsonic with respect to the external gas, the jet's collim...

  8. Exploring Gamma-Ray Bursts, Their Immediate Environment and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Friis, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Lasting anywhere from a few milliseconds to several minutes, GRBs shine hundreds of times brighter than a typical supernova, making them briefly the brightest source of cosmic gamma-ray photons in the observable Universe. This thesis focuses on 3 different aspects of GRBs: (1) The radiative mechanism of GRBs and their afterglows, i.e. the occurrence of thermal emission and the physical parameters we can determine through this emission. (2) Their host galaxies, using results from observations of GRB 121024A as a case study. (3) How they can be used to answer some of the larger astrophysical questions, more specifically in this case, to study interstellar dust and grey extinction.

  9. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  10. N/O abundance ratios in gamma-ray burst and supernova host galaxies at z regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, M.

    2017-08-01

    The distribution of the N/O element abundance ratios calculated by the detailed modelling of different galaxy spectra at z emission-line region (LINER)]. N/O ratios in LGRB hosts decrease rapidly between z > 1 and z ˜ 0.1 following the N/H trend and reach the characteristic N/O ratios calculated for the H ii regions in local and nearby galaxies. The few short-period gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) hosts included in the galaxy sample show N/H ≤ 0.04 solar and O/H solar. They seem to continue the low bound N/H trend of SN hosts at z models. The results show that several LGRB hosts can be explained by star multibursting models when 12+log(O/H) models. N/O in SN hosts at log(O/H)+12 models calculated for starburst galaxies. At 12+log(O/H) > 8.5 many different objects are nested close to O/H solar with N/O ranging between the maximum corresponding to starburst galaxies and AGN and the minimum corresponding to H ii regions and SGRB.

  11. A Relationship between Supermassive Black Hole Mass and the Total Gravitational Mass of the Host Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bandara, Kaushala; Simard, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between the mass of a central supermassive black hole and the total gravitational mass of the host galaxy (M_tot). The results are based on 43 galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey whose black hole masses were estimated through two scaling relations: the relation between black hole mass and Sersic index (M_bh - n) and the relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion (M_bh - sigma). We use the enclosed mass within R_200, the radius within which the density profile of the early type galaxy exceeds the critical density of the Universe by a factor of 200, determined by gravitational lens models fitted to HST imaging data, as a tracer of the total gravitational mass. The best fit correlation, where M_bh is determined from M_bh - sigma relation, is log(M_bh) = (8.18 +/- 0.11) + (1.55 +/- 0.31) (log(M_tot) - 13.0) over 2 orders of magnitude in M_bh. From a variety of tests, we find that we cannot reliably infer a connection ...

  12. The host galaxies of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael J.

    One of the great mysteries surrounding active galactic nuclei (AGN) is their triggering mechanism. Since the discovery that almost all massive galaxies host nuclear supermassive black holes, it has become clear that a trigger mechanism is required to 'turn on' and continue to fuel the central black hole. While it is established that accretion processes are responsible for the energy emitted, the source of the accreting material is still controversial. Furthermore, the energy input from phases of black hole growth is thought to be a key regulator in the formation of galaxies and the establishment of various scaling relations. Theorists often invoke galaxy mergers as the violent mechanism to drive gas into the central regions and ignite luminous quasars, but among more common moderate luminosity AGN, there has been great controversy whether secular processes or mergers dominate AGN fueling. A survey in the ultra hard X-ray band (14--195 keV) is an important new way to answer the fundamental question of AGN fueling. This method is independent of selection effects such as dust extinction and obscuration that plague surveys at other wavelengths because of the ability of the primary continuum to easily pass through large columns of obscuring gas and dust (2 keV) imaging.

  13. Witnessing the transformation of a quasar host galaxy at z=1.6

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, A; Gomes, J M; Papaderos, P; Villar-Martín, M; Filho, M E; Emonts, B H C; Aretxaga, I; Binette, L; Flaquer, B Ocaña; Lagos, P; Torrealba, J

    2015-01-01

    A significant minority of high redshift radio galaxy (HzRG) candidates show extremely red broad band colours and remain undetected in emission lines after optical `discovery' spectroscopy. In this paper we present deep GTC optical imaging and spectroscopy of one such radio galaxy, 5C 7.245, with the aim of better understanding the nature of these enigmatic objects. Our g-band image shows no significant emission coincident with the stellar emission of the host galaxy, but does reveal faint emission offset by ~3" (26 kpc) therefrom along a similar position angle to that of the radio jets, reminiscent of the `alignment effect' often seen in the optically luminous HzRGs. This offset g-band source is also detected in several UV emission lines, giving it a redshift of 1.609, with emission line flux ratios inconsistent with photoionization by young stars or an AGN, but consistent with ionization by fast shocks. Based on its unusual gas geometry, we argue that in 5C 7.245 we are witnessing a rare (or rarely observed)...

  14. Mega parsec relativistic jets launched from an accreting supermassive blackhole in an extreme spiral galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Joydeep; Vikram, Vinu; Hota, Ananda; G., Biju K; Sirothia, S K; Srianand, Raghunathan; Gopal-Krishna,; Jacob, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Radio galaxy phenomenon is directly connected to mass accreting, spinning supermassive black holes found in the active galactic nuclei (AGN). It is still unclear how the collimated jets of relativistic plasma on hundreds to thousands of kpc scale form, and why nearly always they are launched from the nuclei of bulge dominated elliptical galaxies and not flat spirals. Here we present the discovery of giant radio source J2345-0449 (z=0.0755), a clear and extremely rare counter example where relativistic jets are ejected from a luminous and massive spiral galaxy on scale of ~1.6 Mpc, the largest known so far. Extreme physical properties observed for this bulgeless spiral host, such as its high optical and infra-red luminosity, large dynamical mass, rapid disk rotation, and episodic jet activity are possibly the results of its unusual formation history, which has also assembled, via gas accretion from a disk, its central black hole of mass >2 x 10^8 M_sun. The very high mid-IR luminosity of the galaxy suggests th...

  15. Host Galaxy Properties and Black Hole Mass of Swift J164449.3+573451 from Multi-Wavelength Long-Term Monitoring and HST Data

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Yongmin; Jeon, Yiseul; Lee, Seong-Kook; Choi, Philip; Gehrels, Neil; Pak, Soojong; Sakamoto, Takanori; Urata, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    We study the host galaxy properties of the tidal disruption object, Swift J164449.3+573451 using long-term optical to near-infrared (NIR) data. First, we decompose the galaxy surface brightness distribution and analyze the morphology of the host galaxy using high resolution \\emph{HST} WFC3 images. We conclude that the host galaxy is a bulge-dominant galaxy that is well described by a single S\\'{e}rsic model with S\\'{e}rsic index $n=3.43\\pm0.05$. Adding a disk component, the bulge to total host galaxy flux ratio (B/T) is $0.83\\pm0.03$, which still indicates a bulge-dominant galaxy. Second, we estimate multi-band fluxes of the host galaxy through long-term light curves. Our long-term NIR light curves reveal the pure host galaxy fluxes $\\sim500$ days after the burst. We fit spectral energy distribution (SED) models to the multi-band fluxes from the optical to NIR of the host galaxy and determine its properties. The stellar mass, the star formation rate, and the age of stellar population are $\\log(M_{\\star}/M_{\\o...

  16. Multi-Wavelength Studies on H2O Maser Host Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. S. Zhang; J. Wang

    2011-03-01

    H2O maser emissions have been found in external galaxies for more than 30 years. Main sciences associated with extragalactic H2O masers can be summarized roughly into three parts: maser emission itself, AGN sciences and cosmology exploration. Our work in this field focusses on two projects: X-ray data analysis of individual maser source using X-ray penetrability to explore maser host obscured AGN; multi-wavelength statistical properties of the whole published H2O maser sample. Here their nuclear radio properties were investigated in detail, based on their 6-cm and 20-cm radio observation data. Comparing the radio properties between maser-detected sources and non-detected sources at similar distance scale, we find that: (1) maser host galaxies tend to have higher nuclear radio luminosity; (2) the spectral index of both samples is comparable (∼ 0.6), within the error ranges. In addition, for AGN-maser sources, the isotropic maser luminosity tends to increase with rising radio luminosity. Thus we propose the nuclear radio luminosity as one good indicator for searching AGN-masers in the future.

  17. Extracting Host Galaxy Dispersion Measure and Constraining Cosmological Parameters using Fast Radio Burst Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    The excessive dispersion measures (DMs) and high Galactic latitudes of fast radio bursts (FRBs) hint toward a cosmological origin of these mysterious transients. Methods of using measured DM and redshift z to study cosmology have been proposed, but one needs to assume a certain amount of DM contribution from the host galaxy ({{DM}}{HG}) in order to apply those methods. We introduce a slope parameter β (z)\\equiv d{ln} /d{ln}z (where {{DM}}{{E}} is the observed DM subtracting the Galactic contribution), which can be directly measured when a sample of FRBs have z measured. We show that can be roughly inferred from β and the mean values, \\overline{ } and \\bar{z}, of the sample. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the mean value of local host galaxy DM, , along with other cosmological parameters (mass density {{{Ω }}}m in the ΛCDM model, and the IGM portion of the baryon energy density {{{Ω }}}b{f}{IGM}), can be independently measured through Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting to the data.

  18. Massive stars formed in atomic hydrogen reservoirs: HI observations of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Hjorth, J; Krumholz, M R; Tanvir, N R; Kamphuis, P; Burlon, D; Baes, M; Basa, S; Berta, S; Ceron, J M Castro; Crosby, D; D'Elia, V; Elliott, J; Greiner, J; Hunt, L K; Klose, S; Koprowski, M P; Floc'h, E Le; Malesani, D; Murphy, T; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Palazzi, E; Rasmussen, J; Rossi, A; Savaglio, S; Schady, P; Sollerman, J; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Watson, D; van der Werf, P; Vergani, S D; Xu, D

    2015-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), among the most energetic events in the Universe, are explosions of massive and short-lived stars, so they pinpoint locations of recent star formation. However, several GRB host galaxies have recently been found to be deficient in molecular gas (H2), believed to be the fuel of star formation. Moreover, optical spectroscopy of GRB afterglows implies that the molecular phase constitutes only a small fraction of the gas along the GRB line-of-sight. Here we report the first ever 21 cm line observations of GRB host galaxies, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought, with star formation being potentially directly fuelled by atomic gas (or with very efficient HI-to-H2 conversion and rapid exhaustion of molecular gas), as has been theoretically shown to be possible. This can happen in low metallicity gas near the onset of star forma...

  19. Extracting host galaxy dispersion measure and constraining cosmological parameters using fast radio burst data

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuan-Pei

    2016-01-01

    The excessive dispersion measures (DMs) and high Galactic latitudes of fast radio bursts (FRBs) hint toward a cosmological origin of these mysterious transients. Methods of using measured DM and redshift $z$ to study cosmology have been proposed, but one needs to assume a certain amount of DM contribution from the host galaxy (DM$_{\\rm HG}$) in order to apply those methods. We introduce a slope parameter $\\beta(z) \\equiv d \\ln \\left / d \\ln z$ (where DM$_{\\rm E}$ is the observed DM subtracting the Galactic contribution), which can be directly measured when a sample of FRBs have $z$ measured. We show that $\\left$ can be roughly inferred from $\\beta$ and the mean values, $\\overline{\\rm \\left}$ and $\\bar z$, of the sample. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the mean value of local host galaxy DM, $\\left$, along with other cosmological parameters (mass density $\\Omega_m$ in the $\\Lambda$CDM model, and the IGM portion of the baryon energy density $\\Omega_b f_{\\rm IGM}$) can be independently measured thr...

  20. Study of correlation between ultraluminous X-ray sources and their host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priajana, I. G. P. M.; Wulandari, H. R. T.

    2016-11-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are defined as non-nuclear point-source objects with apparent X-ray luminosities, Lx > 2×1039 erg s-1, in the 0.3-8 keV band. ULXs are often explained using two different scenarios, (1) ULXs as intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) with sub-Eddington accretion and (2) ULXs as stellar mass black hole with super-Eddington accretion. There are two methods that commonly used to study the characteristics of ULXs. One method is to study the X-ray spectra of ULXs, to determine the characteristics of their accretion flows from fitting their spectra using available spectral models. The other method is to investigate how population of ULXs correlate with their environment, in this case their host galaxies. Our goal is to find correlation between ULXs and the properties of its host galaxies, for example with Star Formation Rate (SFR), mass and morphology. From this study we found a positive correlation between ULXs number and SFR. From X-ray luminosity function, we found upper limit of black holes mass that power ULXs is about 100 M⊙.

  1. Late time observations of GRB080319B: jet break, host galaxy and accompanying supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Tanvir, Nial R; Levan, Andrew; Fruchter, Andrew; Granot, Jonathan; Svensson, Karl M; O'Brien, Paul T; Wiersema, Klaas; Starling, Rhaana L C; Jakobsson, Pall; Fynbo, Johan; Hjorth, Jens; Curran, Peter; van der Horst, Alexander J; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Racusin, Judith L; Burrows, David N; Genet, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Swift-discovered GRB080319B was by far the most distant source ever observed at naked eye brightness, reaching a peak magnitude of 5.3 at a redshift of z=0.937. We present our late time optical and X-ray observations, which confirm that an achromatic break occurred in the power-law afterglow light curve at ~10^6 s post-burst. This most likely indicates that the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow was collimated, which for a uniform jet would imply a total energy in the jet E_{jet} \\gsim 10^{52.5} erg. Our observations also show a late-time excess of red light, which is well explained if the GRB was accompanied by a supernova, similar to those seen in some other long-duration GRBs. The latest observations are dominated by light from the host and show that the GRB took place in a faint dwarf galaxy (r(AB) = 27.2, rest-frame M_B = -17.3). This galaxy is small even by the standards of other GRB hosts, which is suggestive of a low metallicity environment.

  2. Far-infrared observations of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohn, Saul A; Bourne, Nathan; Baes, Maarten; Fritz, Jacopo; Cooray, Asantha; De Looze, Ilse; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Eales, Stephen; Furlanetto, Cristina; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob J; Maddox, Steve J; Scott, Douglas; Smith, Daniel J B; Smith, Matthew W L; Symeonidis, Myrto; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic phenomena in the Universe; believed to result from the collapse and subsequent explosion of massive stars. Even though it has profound consequences for our understanding of their nature and selection biases, little is known about the dust properties of the galaxies hosting GRBs. We present analysis of the far-infrared properties of an unbiased sample of 21 GRB host galaxies (at an average redshift of $z\\,=\\,3.1$) located in the {\\it Herschel} Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS), the {\\it Herschel} Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS), the {\\it Herschel} Fornax Cluster Survey (HeFoCS), the {\\it Herschel} Stripe 82 Survey (HerS) and the {\\it Herschel} Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), totalling $880$ deg$^2$, or $\\sim 3$\\% of the sky in total. Our sample selection is serendipitous, based only on whether the X-ray position of a GRB lies within a large-scale {\\it Herschel} survey -- therefore our sample can be considered completely unbiased. Using ...

  3. The influence of host galaxy morphology on the properties of Type Ia supernovae from the JLA compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, V.; Pruzhinskaya, M. V.; Rosnet, P.; Léget, P.-F.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Ciulli, A.; Gris, P.; Says, L.-P.; Gangler, E.

    2017-02-01

    The observational cosmology with distant Type Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles claims that the Universe is in accelerated expansion, caused by a large fraction of dark energy. In this paper we investigate the SN Ia environment, studying the impact of the nature of their host galaxies on the Hubble diagram fitting. The supernovae (192 SNe) used in the analysis were extracted from Joint-Light-curves-Analysis (JLA) compilation of high-redshift and nearby supernovae which is the best one to date. The analysis is based on the empirical fact that SN Ia luminosities depend on their light curve shapes and colors. We confirm that the stretch parameter of Type Ia supernovae is correlated with the host galaxy type. The supernovae with lower stretch are hosted mainly in elliptical and lenticular galaxies. No significant correlation between SN Ia colour and host morphology was found.   We also examine how the luminosities of SNe Ia change depending on host galaxy morphology after stretch and colour corrections. Our results show that in old stellar populations and low dust environments, the supernovae are slightly fainter. SNe Ia in elliptical and lenticular galaxies have a higher α (slope in luminosity-stretch) and β (slope in luminosity-colour) parameter than in spirals. However, the observed shift is at the 1-σ uncertainty level and, therefore, can not be considered as significant.   We confirm that the supernova properties depend on their environment and that the incorporation of a host galaxy term into the Hubble diagram fit is expected to be crucial for future cosmological analyses.

  4. Attenuation of TeV γ-rays by the starlight photon field of the host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Michael; Chen, Xuhui; Wagner, Stefan J.

    2017-03-01

    The absorption of TeV γ-ray photons produced in relativistic jets by surrounding soft photon fields is a long-standing problem of jet physics. In some cases, the most likely emission site close to the central black hole is ruled out because of the high opacity caused by strong optical and infrared photon sources, such as the broad-line region. Mostly neglected for jet modelling is the absorption of γ-rays in the starlight photon field of the host galaxy. Analysing the absorption for arbitrary locations and observation angles of the γ-ray emission site within the host galaxy, we find that the distance to the galaxy centre, the observation angle, and the distribution of starlight in the galaxy are crucial for the amount of absorption. We derive the absorption value for a sample of 20 TeV-detected blazars with a redshift zr host properties, such as starlight emissivity, galactic size, half-light radius, and redshift. While the uncertainty of the spectral properties of the extragalactic background light exceeds the effect of absorption by stellar light from the host galaxy in distant objects, the latter is a dominant effect in nearby sources. It may also be revealed in a differential comparison of sources with similar redshifts.

  5. Spectroscopic confirmation of a redshift 1.55 supernova host galaxy from the Subaru Deep Field Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Teddy F; Hjorth, Jens; Maoz, Dan; Poznanski, Dovi

    2012-01-01

    The Subaru Deep Field (SDF) Supernova Survey discovered 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range $1.5host galaxies. However, photometric redshifts might be biased, and the SN sample could be contaminated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Unfortunately, measuring spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies in the "redshift desert" 1.5 < z < 2.0 is hard because any prominent emission lines get shifted out of the optical and into the near infrared. Here we report the first robust redshift measurement and classification of hSDF0705.25, an SDF SN Ia host galaxy. Using the X-shooter spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we measure a spectroscopic redshift of 1.5456 +/- 0.0003, consistent with its photometric redshift of 1.552 +/- 0.018. From the strong emission-line spectrum we are able to rule out AGN activity and show that the SN host galaxy is a low-metallicity, star-burst dwarf galaxy, similar to typical SN Ia hosts at lower red...

  6. Taking stock of superluminous supernovae and long gamma-ray burst host galaxy comparison using a complete sample of LGRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Salvaterra, R.; Hunt, L. K.; Mannucci, F.

    2016-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are both explosive transients with very massive progenitor stars. Clues about the nature of the progenitors can be found by investigating environments in which such transients occur. While studies of LGRB host galaxies have a long history, dedicated observational campaigns have only recently resulted in a high enough number of photometrically and spectroscopically observed SLSN hosts to allow statistically significant analysis of their properties. In this paper we make a comparison of the host galaxies of hydrogen-poor (H-poor) SLSNe and the Swift/BAT6 sample of LGRBs. In contrast to previous studies, we use a complete sample of LGRBs and we pay special attention to the comparison methodology and the selection of SLSN sample whose data have been compiled from the available literature. At intermediate redshifts (0.3 < z < 0.7) the two classes of transients select galaxies whose properties (stellar mass, luminosity, star formation rate, specific star formation rate and metallicity) do not differ significantly. Moreover, the host galaxies of both classes of objects follow the fundamental metallicity relation and the fundamental plane of metallicity. In contrast to previous studies we show that at intermediate redshifts the emission line equivalent widths of the two populations are essentially the same and that the previous claims regarding the higher fraction of SLSN hosts among the extreme emission line galaxies with respect to LGRBs are mostly due to a larger fraction of strong-line emitters among SLSN hosts at z < 0.3, where samples of LGRB hosts are small and poorly defined.

  7. Hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts have similar host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Laskar, T.; Fong, W.; Sanders, N. E.; Challis, P. M.; Drout, M. R.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Leibler, C.; Marion, G. H.; Milisavljevic, D.; Narayan, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Huber, M. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Scolnic, D., E-mail: rlunnan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and optical/near-IR photometry of 31 host galaxies of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), including 15 events from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. Our sample spans the redshift range 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 1.6, and is the first comprehensive host galaxy study of this specific subclass of cosmic explosions. Combining the multi-band photometry and emission-line measurements, we determine the luminosities, stellar masses, star formation rates, and metallicities. We find that, as a whole, the hosts of SLSNe are a low-luminosity ((M{sub B} ) ≈ –17.3 mag), low stellar mass ((M {sub *}) ≈ 2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}) population, with a high median specific star formation rate ((sSFR) ≈ 2 Gyr{sup –1}). The median metallicity of our spectroscopic sample is low, 12 + log (O/H) ≈ 8.35 ≈ 0.45 Z {sub ☉}, although at least one host galaxy has solar metallicity. The host galaxies of H-poor SLSNe are statistically distinct from the hosts of GOODS core-collapse SNe (which cover a similar redshift range), but resemble the host galaxies of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) in terms of stellar mass, SFR, sSFR, and metallicity. This result indicates that the environmental causes leading to massive stars forming either SLSNe or LGRBs are similar, and in particular that SLSNe are more effectively formed in low metallicity environments. We speculate that the key ingredient is large core angular momentum, leading to a rapidly spinning magnetar in SLSNe and an accreting black hole in LGRBs.

  8. The influence of host galaxy morphology on the properties of Type Ia supernovae from the JLA compilation

    CERN Document Server

    Henne, Vincent; Rosnet, Philippe; Leget, Pierre-Francois; Ishida, Emille; Ciulli, Alexandre; Gris, Philippe; Says, Louis-Pierre; Gangler, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The observational cosmology with distant Type Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles claims that the Universe is in accelerated expansion, caused by a large fraction of dark energy. In this paper we investigate the SN Ia environment, studying the impact of the nature of their host galaxies on the Hubble diagram fitting. The supernovae (192 SNe) used in the analysis were extracted from Joint-Light-curves-Analysis (JLA) compilation of high-redshift and nearby supernovae which is the best one to date. The analysis is based on the empirical fact that SN Ia luminosities depend on their light curve shapes and colors. We confirm that the stretch parameter of Type Ia supernovae is correlated with the host galaxy type. The supernovae with lower stretch are hosted mainly in elliptical and lenticular galaxies. No significant correlation between SN Ia colour and host morphology was found. We also examine how the luminosities of SNe Ia change depending on host galaxy morphology after stretch and colour corrections. Our r...

  9. Star formation in z>1 3CR host galaxies as seen by Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Podigachoski, P; Haas, M; Leipski, C; Wilkes, B; Kuraszkiewicz, J; Westhues, C; Willner, S P; Ashby, M L N; Chini, R; Clements, D L; Fazio, G G; Labiano, A; Lawrence, C; Meisenheimer, K; Peletier, R F; Siebenmorgen, R; Kleijn, G Verdoes

    2015-01-01

    We present Herschel (PACS and SPIRE) far-infrared (FIR) photometry of a complete sample of z>1 3CR sources, from the Herschel GT project The Herschel Legacy of distant radio-loud AGN (PI: Barthel). Combining these with existing Spitzer photometric data, we perform an infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of these landmark objects in extragalactic research to study the star formation in the hosts of some of the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) known at any epoch. Accounting for the contribution from an AGN-powered warm dust component to the IR SED, about 40% of our objects undergo episodes of prodigious, ULIRG-strength star formation, with rates of hundreds of solar masses per year, coeval with the growth of the central supermassive black hole. Median SEDs imply that the quasar and radio galaxy hosts have similar FIR properties, in agreement with the orientation-based unification for radio-loud AGN. The star-forming properties of the AGN hosts are similar to those of the general popul...

  10. Host galaxies of double-peaked [OIII] emitting AGN: binary AGN or mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Villforth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Mergers are suspected to be reliable triggers of both starformation and AGN activity. However, the exact timing of this process remains poorly understood. Here, we present deep imaging and long slit spectroscopy data of a sample of four double-peaked [OIII] emitting AGN. These sources are often believed to host binary AGN, or at least be currently undergoing major mergers. The sample presented here either have previous IFU and high resolution imaging data that show double-nuclei in the IR as well as kinematicly and spatially distinct line emitting regions. Two sources have detections of double point sources in either the X-ray or radio. The sources studied are therefore likely binary AGN. The AGN in this sample are luminous, radio-quiet and at low redshift. The $u/r/z$ imaging data show host galaxies in a wide range of merger stages, with the majority (3/4) showing tidal tails or complex kinematics and morphologies clearly indicating a recent merger. One source however -hosting a double X-ray source- shows qu...

  11. The low-extinction afterglow in the solar-metallicity host galaxy of GRB 110918A

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, J; Greiner, J; Savaglio, S; E., F Olivares; Rau, A; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Wiersema, K; Schady, P; Kann, D A; Filgas, R; Nardini, M; Berger, E; Fox, D; Gorosabel, J; Klose, S; Levan, A; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Rossi, A; Schmidl, S; Sudilovsky, V; Tanvir, N R; Thöne, C C

    2013-01-01

    Galaxies selected through long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) could be of fundamental importance when mapping the star formation history out to the highest redshifts. Before using them as efficient tools in the early Universe, however, the environmental factors that govern the formation of GRBs need to be understood. Metallicity is theoretically thought to be a fundamental driver in GRB explosions and energetics, but is still, even after more than a decade of extensive studies, not fully understood. This is largely related to two phenomena: a dust-extinction bias, that prevented high-mass and thus likely high-metallicity GRB hosts to be detected in the first place, and a lack of efficient instrumentation, that limited spectroscopic studies including metallicity measurements to the low-redshift end of the GRB host population. The subject of this work is the very energetic GRB 110918A, for which we measure one of the largest host-integrated metallicities, ever, and the highest stellar mass for z<1.9. This presents ...

  12. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution...

  13. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to gro...

  14. First measurement of HI 21cm emission from a GRB host galaxy indicates a post-merger system

    CERN Document Server

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Zwaan, Martin; Kanekar, Nissim; Michałowski, Michał J

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection and mapping of atomic hydrogen in HI 21cm emission from ESO 184-G82, the host galaxy of the gamma ray burst 980425. This is the first instance where HI in emission has been detected from a galaxy hosting a gamma ray burst. ESO 184-G82 is an isolated galaxy and contains a Wolf-Rayet region close to the location of the gamma ray burst and the associated supernova, SN 1998bw. This is one of the most luminous HII regions identified in the local Universe, with a very high inferred density of star formation. The HI 21cm observations reveal a high HI mass for the galaxy, twice as large as the stellar mass. The spatial and velocity distribution of the HI 21cm emission reveals a disturbed rotating gas disk, which suggests that the galaxy has undergone a recent minor merger that disrupted its rotation. We find that the Wolf-Rayet region and the gamma ray burst are both located in the highest HI column density region of the galaxy. We speculate that the merger event has resulted in shock compress...

  15. THE ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XVII. THE SPATIAL ALIGNMENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS WITH EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mei, Simona [University of Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); West, Michael J., E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  16. Near-infrared imaging of the host galaxies of three radio-loud quasars at z = 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Falomo, R; Treves, A; Falomo, Renato; Kotilainen, Jari; Treves, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution near-infrared H-band (1.65 microns) images, taken with ISAAC on UT1 of ESO VLT, of three radio-loud quasars at z = 1.5, as a pilot study for imaging of a larger sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars in the redshift range 1 < z < 2. We are able to clearly detect the host galaxy in two quasars (PKS 0000-177 and PKS 0348-120) and marginally in the third (PKS 0402-362). The host galaxies appear compact (average bulge scale-length R(e) = 4 kpc) and luminous (average M(H) = -27.6+-0.1). They are 2.5 mag more luminous than the typical galaxy luminosity (M*(H) = -25.0+-0.2), and are comparable to the hosts of low redshift radio-loud quasars (M(H) = -26), taking into account passive stellar evolution. Their luminosities are also similar to those of high redshift radio galaxies. All three quasars have at least one close companion galaxy at a projected distance < 50 kpc from the quasar, assuming they are at the same redshift.

  17. An evolutionary missing link? A modest-mass early-type galaxy hosting an over-sized nuclear black hole

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th

    2015-01-01

    SAGE1C\\,J053634.78$-$722658.5 is a galaxy at redshift $z=0.14$, discovered behind the Large Magellanic Cloud in the {\\it Spitzer} Space Telescope "Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution" Spectroscopy survey (SAGE-Spec). It has very strong silicate emission at 10 $\\mu$m but negligible far-IR and UV emission. This makes it a candidate for a bare AGN source in the IR, perhaps seen pole-on, without significant IR emission from the host galaxy. In this paper we present optical spectra taken with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) to investigate the nature of the underlying host galaxy and its AGN. We find broad H$\\alpha$ emission characteristic of an AGN, plus absorption lines associated with a mature stellar population ($>9$ Gyr), and refine its redshift determination to $z=0.1428\\pm0.0001$. There is no evidence for any emission lines associated with star formation. This remarkable object exemplifies the need for separating the emission from any AGN from that of the host galaxy when employing infrared ...

  18. A nearby GRB host galaxy: VLT/X-shooter observations of HG 031203

    CERN Document Server

    Guseva, N G; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C; 10.1051/0004-6361/201116765

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) occur in galaxies of generally low metallicity. We aim at a spectroscopic analysis of HG 031203, the host galaxy of a LRGB burst, to obtain its properties. Based on VLT/X-shooter spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range 3200-24000A, we use standard direct methods to evaluate physical conditions and element abundances. The resolving power of the instrument also allowed us to trace the kinematics of the ionised gas. We derive an interstellar oxygen abundance of 12+logO/H=8.20+/-0.03. The observed fluxes of hydrogen lines correspond to the theoretical recombination values after correction for extinction with a single value C(Hbeta)=1.67. We produce the CLOUDY photoionisation HII region model that reproduces observed emission-line fluxes of different ions in the optical range. This model also predicts emission-line fluxes in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) ranges that agree well with the observed ones. This implies that the star-forming re...

  19. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA Survey: I. Sample, data analysis, and correlation to star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Mourão, A M; Rodrigues, M; Flores, H; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Mendoza, M A; Sánchez, S F; Badenes, C; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Falcón-Barroso, J; García-Lorenzo, B; Gomes, J M; Delgado, R M González; Kehrig, C; Lyubenova, M; López-Sánchez, A R; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Marino, R A; Meidt, S; Mollá, M; Papaderos, P; Pérez-Torres, M A; Rosales-Ortega, F F; van de Ven, G

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We use optical IFS of nearby SN host galaxies provided by the CALIFA Survey with the goal of finding correlations in the environmental parameters at the location of different SN types. We recover the sequence in association of different SN types to the star-forming regions by using several indicators of the ongoing and recent SF related to both the ionized gas and the stellar populations. While the total ongoing SF is on average the same for the three SN types, SNe Ibc/IIb tend to happen closer to star-forming regions and occur in higher SF density locations compared to SNe II and SNe~Ia, the latter showing the weakest correlation. SNe~Ia host galaxies have on average masses that are $\\sim$0.3-0.8~dex higher than CC SNe hosts due to a larger fraction of old stellar populations in the SNe~Ia hosts. Using the recent SN~Ia delay-time distribution and the SFHs of the galaxies, we show that the SN~Ia hosts in our sample should presently produce a factor 2 more SNe~Ia than the CC~SN hosts. Since both typ...

  20. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE HOSTS OF LOW-EXCITATION RADIO GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir, E-mail: cameronpace@suu.edu, E-mail: salims@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Department of Astronomy, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The feedback from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (R-AGNs) may help maintain low star-formation (SF) rates in their early-type hosts, but the observational evidence for this mechanism has been inconclusive. We study systematic differences of aggregate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of various subsets of ∼4000 low-redshift R-AGNs from Best and Heckman with respect to (currently) inactive control samples selected to have matching redshift, stellar mass, population age, axis ratio, and environment. Aggregate SEDs, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 22 μm), were constructed using a Bayesian method that eliminates biases from non-detections in Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. We study rare high-excitation sources separately from low-excitation ones, which we split by environment and host properties. We find that both the UV and mid-IR emission of non-cluster R-AGNs (80% of sample) are suppressed by ∼0.2 dex relative to that of the control group, especially for moderately massive galaxies (log M{sub *} ≲ 11). The difference disappears for high-mass R-AGNs and for R-AGNs in clusters, where other, non-AGN quenching/maintenance mechanisms may dominate, or where the suppression of SF due to AGNs may persist between active phases of the central engine, perhaps because of the presence of a hot gaseous halo storing AGN energy. High-excitation (high accretion rate) sources, which make up 2% of the R-AGN sample, do not show any evidence of SF suppression (their UV is the same as in controls), but they exhibit a strong mid-IR excess due to AGN dust heating.

  1. A Method to Measure the Mass of Damped Ly-alpha Absorber Host Galaxies Using Fluctuations in 21cm Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Wyithe, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Observations of damped Ly-alpha absorbers (DLA) indicate that the fraction of hydrogen in its neutral form (HI) is significant by mass at all redshifts. This gas represents the reservoir of material that is available for star formation at late times. As a result, observational identification of the systems in which this neutral hydrogen resides is an important missing ingredient in models of galaxy formation. Precise identification of DLA host mass via traditional clustering studies is not practical owing to the small numbers of known systems being spread across sparsely distributed sight lines. However following the completion of reionization, 21cm surface brightness fluctuations will be dominated by neutral hydrogen in DLAs. Observations of these fluctuations will measure the combined clustering signal from all DLAs within a large volume. We show that measurement of the spherically averaged power-spectrum of 21cm intensity fluctuations due to DLAs could be used to measure the galaxy bias for DLA host galaxi...

  2. Constraints on Black Hole/Host Galaxy Co-evolution and Binary Stalling Using Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays are now setting increasingly tight limits on the gravitational wave background from binary supermassive black holes. But as upper limits grow more constraining, what can be implied about galaxy evolution? We investigate which astrophysical parameters have the largest impact on strain spectrum predictions and provide a simple framework to directly translate between measured values for the parameters of galaxy evolution and PTA limits on the gravitational wave background of binary supermassive black holes. We find that the most influential observable is the relation between a host galaxy's central bulge and its central black hole, $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{\\rm bulge}$}$, which has the largest effect on the mean value of the characteristic strain amplitude. However, the variance of each prediction is dominated by uncertainties in the galaxy stellar mass function. Using this framework with the best published PTA limit, we can set limits on the shape and scatter of the $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{...

  3. Evidence of suppression of star formation by quasar-driven winds in gas-rich host galaxies at z < 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-10-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is widely considered to be the main driver in regulating the growth of massive galaxies through heating or driving gas out of the galaxy, preventing further increase in stellar mass. Observational proof for this scenario has, however, been scarce. We have assembled a sample of 132 radio-quiet type-2 and red AGN at 0.1 < z < 1. We measure the kinematics of the AGN-ionized gas, the host galaxies' stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) and investigate the relationships between AGN luminosities, specific star formation rates (sSFRs) and outflow strengths W90 - the 90 per cent velocity width of the [O III]λ5007Å line power and a proxy for the AGN-driven outflow speed. Outflow strength is independent of sSFR for AGN selected on their mid-IR luminosity, in agreement with previous work demonstrating that star formation is not sufficient to produce the observed ionized gas outflows which have to be powered by AGN activity. More importantly, we find a negative correlation between W90 and sSFR in the AGN hosts with the highest SFRs, i.e. with the highest gas content, where presumably the coupling of the AGN-driven wind to the gas is strongest. This implies that AGN with strong outflow signatures are hosted in galaxies that are more `quenched' than galaxies with weaker outflow signatures. Despite the galaxies' high SFRs, we demonstrate that the outflows are not star formation driven but indeed due to AGN powering. This observation is consistent with the AGN having a net suppression, `negative' impact, through feedback on the galaxies' star formation history.

  4. The host galaxies and narrow-line regions of four double-peaked [OIII] AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villforth, Carolin; Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 32611 Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Major gas-rich mergers of galaxies are expected to play an important role in triggering and fueling luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The mechanism of AGN fueling during mergers, however, remains poorly understood. We present deep multi-band (u/r/z) imaging and long-slit spectroscopy of four double-peaked [OIII] emitting AGNs. This class of object is likely associated with either kiloparsec-separated binary AGNs or final stage major mergers, although AGNs with complex narrow-line regions (NLRs) are known contaminants. Such objects are of interest since they represent the onset of AGN activity during the merger process. Three of the four double-peaked [OIII] emitters studied have been confirmed as major mergers using near-infrared imaging and one is a confirmed X-ray binary AGN. All AGNs are luminous, radio-quiet to radio-intermediate, and have redshifts of 0.1host morphologies and tidal features, while the remaining source is morphologically undisturbed down to low surface brightness limits (∼27 mag arcsec{sup −2} in r). The lack of morphological disturbances in this galaxy despite the fact that it is a close binary AGN suggests that the merger of a binary black hole can take longer than 1 Gyr. All AGNs hosted by merging galaxies have companions at distances ⩽150 kpc. The NLRs have large sizes (10 kpc < r < 100 kpc) and consist of compact clumps with considerable relative velocities between components (∼200–650 km s{sup −1}). We detect broad, predominantly blue, wings with velocities up to ∼1500 km s{sup −1} in [OIII], indicative of powerful outflows. The outflows are compact (<5 kpc) and co-spatial with nuclear regions showing considerable reddening, consistent with enhanced star formation. One source shows an offset between gas and stellar kinematics, consistent with either a bipolar flow or a counter-rotating gas disk. In all other sources, the ionized gas

  5. A glimpse at quasar host galaxy far-UV emission using damped Lyα's as natural coronagraphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Ran; McGreer, Ian, E-mail: caize@arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Finley, Hayley; Petitjean, Patrick [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Carithers, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, Weston Creek, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona (Spain); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zakamska, Nadia L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ge, Jian [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. We have stacked the spectra of ∼2000 DLA systems (N {sub H} {sub I} > 10{sup 20.6} cm{sup –2}) with a median absorption redshift (z) = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual flux in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift (z) = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ((L) = 2.5 × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} Å{sup –1}; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.

  6. Driving the Growth of the Earliest Supermassive Black Holes with Major Mergers of Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L

    2014-01-01

    The formation mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in general, and of $\\sim 10^9\\,{\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ SMBHs observed as luminous quasars at redshifts $z> 6$ in particular, remains an open fundamental question. The presence of such massive BHs at such early times, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, implies that they grew via either super-Eddington accretion, or nearly uninterrupted gas accretion near the Eddington limit; the latter, at first glance, is at odds with empirical trends at lower redshifts, where quasar episodes associated with rapid BH growth are rare and brief. In this work, I examine whether and to what extent the growth of the $z> 6$ quasar SMBHs can be explained within the standard quasar paradigm, in which major mergers of host galaxies trigger episodes of rapid gas accretion below or near the Eddington limit. Using a suite of Monte Carlo merger tree simulations of the assembly histories of the likely hosts of the $z> 6$ quasars, I investigate (i) their growth and major...

  7. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA Survey: II. SN environmental metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Mourão, A M; Rodrigues, M; Flores, H; Walcher, C J; Sánchez, S F; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Badenes, C; Delgado, R M González; Kehrig, C; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Mollá, M; Meidt, S; Pérez, E; van de Ven, G; Vílchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity of a supernova (SN) progenitor, together with its mass, is one of the main parameters that rules their outcome. We present a metallicity study of 115 nearby SN host galaxies (0.00510 dex) by targeted searches. We also found no evidence that the metallicity at the SN location differs from the average metallicity at the GCD of the SNe. By extending our SN sample with published metallicities at the SN location, we studied the metallicity distributions for all SN subtypes split into SN discovered in targeted and untargeted searches. We confirm a bias toward higher host masses and metallicities in the targeted searches. Combining data from targeted and untargeted searches we found a sequence from higher to lower local metallicity: SN Ia, Ic, and II show the highest metallicity, which is significantly higher than SN Ib, IIb, and Ic-BL. Our results support the picture of SN Ib resulting from binary progenitors and, at least part of, SN Ic being the result of single massive stars stripped of their out...

  8. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the host galaxies and environments of calcium-rich supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Lyman, J D; James, P A; Angus, C R; Church, R P; Davies, M B; Tanvir, N R

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-rich supernovae represent a significant challenge for our understanding of the fates of stellar systems. They are less luminous than other supernova (SN) types and they evolve more rapidly to reveal nebular spectra dominated by strong calcium lines with weak or absent signatures of other intermediate- and iron-group elements, which are seen in other SNe. Strikingly, their explosion sites also mark them out as distinct from other SN types. Their galactocentric offset distribution is strongly skewed to very large offsets (around one third are offset greater than 20 kpc), meaning they do not trace the stellar light of their hosts. Many of the suggestions to explain this extreme offset distribution have invoked the necessity for unusual formation sites such as globular clusters or dwarf satellite galaxies, which are therefore difficult to detect. Building on previous work attempting to detect host systems of nearby Ca-rich SNe, we here present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 5 members of the class - 3 e...

  9. The host galaxies of core-collapse supernovae and gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, K M; Tanvir, N R; Fruchter, A S; Strolger, L -G

    2010-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the galactic and small scale environments of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and core collapse supernovae (CCSN). We use a sample of 34 GRB hosts at z<1.2, and a comparison sample of 58 supernova hosts located within the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey footprint. We fit template spectra to the available photometric data, which span the range 0.45-24 micron, and extract absolute magnitudes, stellar masses and star formation rates from the resulting fits. Our results broadly corroborate previous findings, but offer significant enhancements in spectral coverage and a factor 2-3 increase in sample size. Specifically, we find that CCSN occur frequently in massive spirals (spiral fraction ~50%). In contrast GRBs occur in small, relatively low mass galaxies with high specific and surface star formation rates, and have a spiral fraction of only ~10%. A comparison of the rest frame absolute magnitudes of the GRB and CCSN sample is less conclusive than found in previous work, suggest...

  10. Bright [CII] and dust emission in three z>6.6 quasar host galaxies observed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Venemans, B P; Zschaechner, L; Decarli, R; De Rosa, G; Findlay, J R; McMahon, R G; Sutherland, W J

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [CII] 158 micron emission line and the underlying far-infrared continuum of three quasars at 6.6~6 quasar hosts correlate with the quasar's bolometric luminosity. In one quasar, the [CII] line is significantly redshifted by ~1700 km/s with respect to the MgII broad emission line. Comparing to values in the literature, we find that, on average, the MgII is blueshifted by 480 km/s (with a standard deviation of 630 km/s) with respect to the host galaxy redshift, i.e. one of our quasars is an extreme outlier. Through modeling we can rule out a flat rotation curve for our brightest [CII] emitter. Finally, we find that the ratio of black hole mass to host galaxy (dynamical) mass is higher by a factor 3-4 (with significant scatter) than local relations.

  11. Attenuation of TeV $\\gamma$-rays by the starlight photon field of the host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael; Wagner, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    The absorption of TeV $\\gamma$-ray photons produced in relativistic jets by surrounding soft photon fields is a long-standing problem of jet physics. In some cases the most likely emission site close to the central black hole is ruled out because of the high opacity caused by strong optical and infrared photon sources, such as the broad line region. Mostly neglected for jet modeling is the absorption of $\\gamma$-rays in the starlight photon field of the host galaxy. Analyzing the absorption for arbitrary locations and observation angles of the $\\gamma$-ray emission site within the host galaxy we find that the distance to the galaxy center, the observation angle, and the distribution of starlight in the galaxy are crucial for the amount of absorption. We derive the absorption value for a sample of $20$ TeV detected blazars with a redshift $z_r<0.2$. The absorption value of the $\\gamma$-ray emission located in the galaxy center may be as high as $20\\%$ with an average value of $6\\%$. This is important in ord...

  12. The Contribution of Host Galaxies to the Infrared Energy Output of $z\\gtrsim5.0$ QUASARS

    CERN Document Server

    Lyu, Jianwei; Alberts, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of $z\\gtrsim 5$ quasars can be reproduced by combining a low-metallicity galaxy template with a standard AGN template. The host galaxy is represented by Haro 11, a compact, moderately low metallicity, star-bursting galaxy that shares typical features of high-$z$ galaxies. For the vast majority of $z\\gtrsim 5$ quasars, the AGN contribution is well modeled by a standard empirical template with the contamination of star formation in the infrared subtracted. Together, these two templates can separate the contributions from the host galaxy and the AGN even in the case of limited data points, given that this model has only two free parameters. Using this method, we re-analyze 69 $z\\gtrsim 5$ quasars with extensive Herschel observations, and derive their AGN luminosities $L_{\\rm AGN}$ in a range $\\sim (0.78-27.4) \\times10^{13}\\, L_{\\odot}$, the infrared luminosities from star formation $L_{\\rm SF,IR} \\sim (<1.5-25.7)\\times10^{12}\\, L_{\\odot}$, and the correspondin...

  13. ALMA Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23: Deep Limits on Obscured Star Formation 630 Million Years After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Chary, R -R; Laskar, T; Chornock, R; Tanvir, N R; Stanway, E R; Levan, A J; Levesque, E M; Davies, J E

    2014-01-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3-sigma limits of Fnu(222 GHz)4 (Lyman break galaxies, Ly-alpha emitters, and submillimeter galaxies), and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z>4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  14. Supermassive black holes in disc-dominated galaxies outgrow their bulges and co-evolve with their host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, B. D.; Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C.

    2017-09-01

    The deep connection between galaxies and their supermassive black holes is central to modern astrophysics and cosmology. The observed correlation between galaxy and black hole mass is usually attributed to the contribution of major mergers to both. We make use of a sample of galaxies whose disc-dominated morphologies indicate a major-merger-free history and show that such systems are capable of growing supermassive black holes at rates similar to quasars. Comparing black hole masses to conservative upper limits on bulge masses, we show that the black holes in the sample are typically larger than expected if processes creating bulges are also the primary driver of black hole growth. The same relation between black hole and total stellar mass of the galaxy is found for the merger-free sample as well as a sample that has experienced substantial mergers, indicating that major mergers do not play a significant role in controlling the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes. We suggest that more fundamental processes that contribute to galaxy assembly are also responsible for black hole growth.

  15. Gamma-ray burst afterglows as probes of their host galaxies and the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Antonino

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) represent the sole class of catastrophic phenomena seen over almost the entire history of the Universe. Their extreme luminosities in high energy gamma-ray radiation make them readily detectable, even with relatively small satellite-based detectors, out to the earliest cosmic epochs. Moreover, the brilliance of their fading afterglow light, routinely observed in X-ray, optical, near-infrared, and radio wavelengths, allows them to be exploited -- for hours, days, or weeks -- as cosmic lighthouses, probing the conditions of gas and dust along the line of sight, through their host galaxies and the cosmos at large. Since the November 2004 launch of Swift, this GRB-focused NASA mission has discovered more than 500 GRBs, in almost all cases reporting the burst coordinates to ground-based observers within seconds of the event. The availability of prompt burst positions from Swift, combined with promptly-reported flux measurements from instruments on Swift and an array of ground-based robotic telescopes, have enabled targeted spectroscopic campaigns that have gathered detailed observations of the young, bright afterglows of hundreds of these events. This thesis reports the results of my own efforts over the past 5 years, analyzing imaging and spectroscopic observations of Swift-detected GRBs as triggered according to my own requests, or as gathered from public data archives. In Chapter 2, I discuss our follow-up campaign for GRB090429B, one of our best "extreme redshift" (z > 8) candidates. This burst followed closely on the spectroscopicallyconfirmed z = 8.2 GRB090423, and our multiwavelength observations and SED modeling demonstrate the value and limitation of such studies, in cases where a spectroscopic redshift cannot be gathered in a timely fashion. I also address the importance of such extreme-redshift events from a cosmological perspective. In Chapter 3, I use high-resolution GRB afterglow spectra to study the properties of intervening

  16. Spatially Resolved Patchy Lyα Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Sharon, Keren; Acharyya, Ayan; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bian, Fuyan; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Runnoe, Jessie; Dahle, Hakon; Kewley, Lisa; Florian, Michael; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Lyα in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ˜200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Lyα emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ˜0.5-2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Lyα and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Lyα, host galaxy Lyα, and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  17. GEMINI SPECTROSCOPY OF THE SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST GRB 130603B AFTERGLOW AND HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucchiara, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Perley, D.; Cao, Y. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Cardwell, A.; Turner, J. [Gemini South Observatory, AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cobb, B. E., E-mail: acucchia@ucolick.org [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present early optical photometry and spectroscopy of the afterglow and host galaxy of the bright short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B discovered by the Swift satellite. Using our Target of Opportunity program on the Gemini South telescope, our prompt optical spectra reveal a strong trace from the afterglow superimposed on continuum and emission lines from the z = 0.3568 ± 0.0005 host galaxy. The combination of a relatively bright optical afterglow (r' = 21.52 at Δt = 8.4 hr), together with an observed offset of 0.''9 from the host nucleus (4.8 kpc projected distance at z = 0.3568), allow us to extract a relatively clean spectrum dominated by afterglow light. Furthermore, the spatially resolved spectrum allows us to constrain the properties of the explosion site directly, and compare these with the host galaxy nucleus, as well as other short-duration GRB host galaxies. We find that while the host is a relatively luminous (L∼0.8 L{sup *}{sub B}), star-forming (SFR = 1.84 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) galaxy with almost solar metallicity, the spectrum of the afterglow exhibits weak Ca II absorption features but negligible emission features. The explosion site therefore lacks evidence of recent star formation, consistent with the relatively long delay time distribution expected in a compact binary merger scenario. The star formation rate (SFR; both in an absolute sense and normalized to the luminosity) and metallicity of the host are both consistent with the known sample of short-duration GRB hosts and with recent results which suggest GRB 130603B emission to be the product of the decay of radioactive species produced during the merging process of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary ({sup k}ilonova{sup )}. Ultimately, the discovery of more events similar to GRB 130603B and their rapid follow-up from 8 m class telescopes will open new opportunities for our understanding of the final stages of compact-objects binary systems and provide crucial

  18. GOODS-Herschel: The far-infrared view of star formation in AGN host galaxies since z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, J R; Daddi, E; Alexander, D M; Elbaz, D; Hickox, R C; Bournaud, F; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Coia, D; Dannerbauer, H; Dasyra, K; Dickinson, M; Hwang, H S; Kartaltepe, J; Leiton, R; Magdis, G; Magnelli, B; Popesso, P; Valtchanov, I; Del Moro, A; Hanish, D J; Ivison, R J; Juneau, S; Lutz, D; Sargent, M T

    2011-01-01

    Using 100um and 160um fluxes from GOODS-Herschel - the deepest survey undertaken by the Herschel telescope - we explore the infrared properties of X-ray AGNs up to z~3. The observed 100um and 160um fluxes are dominated by the host galaxy in the vast majority of cases (>94 per cent), meaning that these far-infrared fluxes provide an uncontaminated view of the star formation in the host galaxies. There is no evidence of any correlation between the levels of AGN and global star formation activity at all surveyed redshifts. We confirm that the star formation rates of AGN hosts increase strongly with redshift; by a factor of 43^{+27}_{-18} from z50 per cent at Mstars>10^{11}Msun. We argue that our findings imply that the majority of moderate nuclear activity is fuelled by internal mechanisms rather than violent mergers, which suggests that high redshift disk instabilities could be an important AGN feeding mechanism. Our results also show it is stellar mass that is most important in dictating whether a galaxy hosts...

  19. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE {sup 56}Ni PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Fraser, Morgan [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Pastorello, Andrea [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Valenti, Stefano [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M{sub g} = -17.42 {+-} 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 {+-} 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] {lambda}4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive {sup 56}Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m{sub AB} {approx} 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any {sup 56}Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae ({approx}10{sup -4} of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z{sub Sun }), high progenitor mass (>60 M{sub Sun }) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).

  20. The Contribution of Host Galaxies to the Infrared Energy Output of z ≳ 5.0 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, G. H.; Alberts, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    The infrared spectral energy distributions of z ≳ 5 quasars can be reproduced by combining a low-metallicity galaxy template with a standard active galactic nucleus (AGN) template. The host galaxy is represented by Haro 11, a compact, moderately low metallicity, starbursting galaxy that shares typical features of high-z galaxies. For the vast majority of z ≳ 5 quasars, the AGN contribution is well modeled by a standard empirical template with the contamination of star formation in the infrared subtracted. Together, these two templates can separate the contributions from the host galaxy and the AGN even in the case of limited data points, given that this model has only two free parameters. Using this method, we reanalyze 69 z ≳ 5 quasars with extensive Herschel observations and derive their AGN luminosities [LAGN = (0.78{--}27.4)× {10}13 {L}⊙ ], infrared luminosities from star formation [{L}{{SF,IR}}\\quad ≲ (1.5{--}25.7)× {10}12 {L}⊙ ], and corresponding star formation rates ({{SFR}}\\quad ≲ 290{--}2650{M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1). The average infrared luminosity from star formation and the average total AGN luminosity of the z ≳ 5 quasar sample follow the correlation defined by quasars at z ˜ (3{--}5)× {10}11{M}⊙ . Combining with the black hole (BH) mass measurements, this stellar mass is adequate to establish a BH-galaxy mass ratio {M}{{BH}}/{M}* at 0.1%-1%, consistent with the local relation.

  1. The effects of host galaxy properties on merging compact binaries detectable by LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Brooks, Alyson; Shen, Sijing; Governato, Fabio; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation can produce present-day galaxies with a large range of assembly and star formation histories. A detailed study of the metallicity evolution and star formation history of such simulations can assist in predicting LIGO-detectable compact object binary mergers. Recent simulations of compact binary evolution suggest the compact object merger rate depends sensitively on the progenitor's metallicity. Rare low-metallicity star formation during galaxy assembly can produce more detected compact binaries than typical star formation. Using detailed simulations of galaxy and chemical evolution, we determine how sensitively the compact binary populations of galaxies with similar present-day appearance depend on the details of their assembly. We also demonstrate by concrete example the extent to which dwarf galaxies overabundantly produce compact binary mergers, particularly binary black holes, relative to more massive galaxies. We discuss the implications for transient multimes...

  2. The effects of host galaxy properties on merging compact binaries detectable by LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, R.; Bellovary, J. M.; Brooks, A.; Shen, S.; Governato, F.; Christensen, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation can produce present-day galaxies with a large range of assembly and star formation histories. A detailed study of the metallicity evolution and star formation history of such simulations can assist in predicting Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)-detectable compact object binary mergers. Recent simulations of compact binary evolution suggest that the compact object merger rate depends sensitively on the progenitor's metallicity. Rare low-metallicity star formation during galaxy assembly can produce more detected compact binaries than typical star formation. Using detailed simulations of galaxy and chemical evolution, we determine how sensitively the compact binary populations of galaxies with a similar present-day appearance depend on the details of their assembly. We also demonstrate by concrete example the extent to which dwarf galaxies overabundantly produce compact binary mergers, particularly binary black holes, relative to more massive galaxies. We discuss the implications for transient multimessenger astronomy with compact binary sources.

  3. The evolution of superluminous supernova LSQ14mo and its interacting host galaxy system

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, T -W; Smartt, S J; Mazzali, P A; Yates, R M; Moriya, T J; Inserra, C; Langer, N; Kruehler, T; Pan, Y -C; Kotak, R; Galbany, L; Schady, P; Wiseman, P; Greiner, J; Schulze, S; Man, A W S; Jerkstrand, A; Smith, K W; Dennefeld, M; Baltay, C; Bolmer, J; Kankare, E; Knust, F; Maguire, K; Rabinowitz, D; Rostami, S; Sullivan, M; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present and analyse an extensive dataset of the superluminous supernova LSQ14mo (z = 0.256), consisting of a multi-colour lightcurve from -30 d to +70 d in the rest-frame and a series of 6 spectra from PESSTO covering -7 d to +50 d. This is among the densest spectroscopic coverage, and best-constrained rising lightcurve, for a fast-declining hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova. The bolometric lightcurve can be reproduced with a millisecond magnetar model with ~ 4 M_sol ejecta mass, and the temperature and velocity evolution is also suggestive of a magnetar as the power source. Spectral modelling indicates that the SN ejected ~ 6 M_sol of CO-rich material with a kinetic energy of ~ 7 x 10^51 erg, and suggests a partially thermalised additional source of luminosity between -2 d and +22 d. This may be due to interaction with a shell of material originating from pre-explosion mass loss. We further present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy system of LSQ14mo. PESSTO and GROND imaging show three spatially ...

  4. High-redshift quasars host galaxies: is there a stellar mass crisis?

    CERN Document Server

    Valiante, Rosa; Salvadori, Stefania; Gallerani, Simona

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolutionary properties of a sample of quasars at 5hosts have final stellar masses in the range $(4-6)\\times 10^{11} M_{sun}$, a factor 3-30 larger than the upper limits allowed by the observations. We discuss alternative scenarios to alleviate this apparent tension: the most likely explanation resides in the large uncertainties that still affect dynamical mass measurements in these high-z galaxies. In addition, during the transition between the starburs...

  5. The Host Galaxies of X-ray Quasars Are Not Strong Star Formers

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, A J; Owen, F N; Chen, C -C; Hasinger, G; Hsu, L -Y; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    We use ultradeep SCUBA-2 850um observations (~0.37 mJy rms) of the 2 Ms CDF-N and 4 Ms CDF-S X-ray fields to examine the amount of dusty star formation taking place in the host galaxies of high-redshift X-ray AGNs. Supplementing with COSMOS, we measure the submillimeter fluxes of the 4-8 keV sources at z>1, finding little flux at the highest X-ray luminosities but significant flux at intermediate luminosities. We determine grey body and MIR luminosities by fitting spectral energy distributions to each X-ray source and to each radio source in an ultradeep Karl G. Jansky VLA 1.4 GHz (11.5uJy at 5-sigma) image of the CDF-N. We confirm the FIR-radio and MIR-radio correlations to z=4 using the non-X-ray detected radio sources. Both correlations are also obeyed by the X-ray less luminous AGNs but not by the X-ray quasars. We interpret the low FIR luminosities relative to the MIR for the X-ray quasars as being due to a lack of star formation, while the MIR stays high due to the AGN contribution. We find that the FIR...

  6. SNe Ia host galaxy properties from Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Jonas; Pforr, Janine; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C; Smith, Mathew; Lampeitl, Hubert; Beifiori, Alessandra; Gupta, Ravi R; Schneider, Donald P

    2012-01-01

    We study the stellar populations of SNe Ia host galaxies using SDSS-II spectroscopy. We focus on the relationships of SNe Ia properties with stellar velocity dispersion and the stellar population parameters age, metallicity and element abundance ratios derived by fitting absorption line indices to stellar population models. We concentrate on a sub-sample of 84 SNe Ia from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. In agreement with previous findings, we find that SALT2 stretch factor values show the strongest dependence on stellar population age. Hence, SNe Ia peak-luminosity is closely related to the age of the stellar progenitor systems, where more luminous SNe Ia appear in younger stellar populations. We find no statistically significant trends in the Hubble residual with any of the stellar population parameters studied, including age and metallicity contrary to the literature, as well as with stellar velocity dispersion. Moreover, we find that the method of stellar mass derivation is affecting the Hubble residual-mass...

  7. The disc-dominated host galaxy of FR-I radio source B2 0722+30

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A; Holt, J; Brogt, E; Van Moorsel, G

    2009-01-01

    We present new observational results that conclude that the nearby radio galaxy B2 0722+30 is one of the very few known disc galaxies in the low-redshift Universe that host a classical double-lobed radio source. In this paper we use HI observations, deep optical imaging, stellar population synthesis modelling and emission-line diagnostics to study the host galaxy, classify the Active Galactic Nucleus and investigate environmental properties under which a radio-loud AGN can occur in this system. Typical for spiral galaxies, B2 0722+30 has a regularly rotating gaseous disc throughout which star formation occurs. Dust heating by the ongoing star formation is likely responsible for the high infrared luminosity of the system. The optical emission-line properties of the central region identify a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (LINER)-type nucleus with a relatively low [OIII] luminosity, in particular when compared with the total power of the Fanaroff & Riley type-I radio source that is present in t...

  8. WISE colours and star-formation in the host galaxies of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1

    CERN Document Server

    Caccianiga, A; Ballo, L; Foschini, L; Maccacaro, T; Della Ceca, R; Severgnini, P; Marcha, M J; Mateos, S; Sani, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the mid-infrared properties of the largest (42 objects) sample of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (RL NLS1) collected to date, using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We analyse the mid-IR colours of these objects and compare them to what is expected from different combinations of AGN and galaxy templates. We find that, in general, the host-galaxy emission gives an importan contribution to the observed mid-IR flux in particular at the longest wavelengths (W3, at 12micron, and W4, at 22micron). In about half of the sources (22 objects) we observe a very red mid-IR colour (W4-W3>2.5) that can be explained only using a starburst galaxy template (M82). Using the 22micron luminosities, corrected for the AGN contribution, we have then estimated the star-formation rate for 20 of these "red" RL NLS1, finding values ranging from 10 to 500 Msun/y. For the RL NLS1 showing bluer colours, instead, we cannot exclude the presence of a star-forming host galaxy although, on average, we ...

  9. Determining the nature of orbits in a three-dimensional galaxy model hosting a BL Lacertae object

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamical model for a galaxy hosting a BL Lacertae object is constructed. The model consists of a logarithmic potential representing an elliptical host galaxy with a bulge of radius $c_b$ and a dense massive nucleus. Using numerical experiments, we try to distinguish between regular and chaotic motion in both 2D and 3D system. In particular, we investigate how the basic parameters of our model, such as the mass of the nucleus, the internal perturbation and the flattening parameters influence the amount and the degree of chaos. Interesting correlations are presented for both 2D and 3D dynamical models. Our numerical results are explained and supported using elementary theoretical arguments and analytical calculations. Of particular interest, is the local integral of motion which have been found to exist in the vicinity of stable periodic points. The obtained numerical outcomes of the present research, are linked and also compared with several data derived from observations.

  10. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Radial Gas Inflow and Shock Excitation in NGC 1042

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongxin; Hao, Lei; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Jogee, Shardha; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Weinzirl, Tim

    2016-06-01

    NGC 1042 is a late-type bulgeless disk galaxy that hosts low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) coincident with a massive nuclear star cluster. In this paper, we present the integral field spectroscopy studies of this galaxy, based on the data obtained with the Mitchell spectrograph on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope. In the central 100-300 pc region of NGC 1042, we find a circumnuclear ring structure of gas with enhanced ionization, which we suggest is mainly induced by shocks. Combining this with the harmonic decomposition analysis of the velocity field of the ionized gas, we propose that the shocked gas is the result of gas inflow driven by the inner spiral arms. The inflow velocity is ˜ 32+/- 10 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the estimated mass-inflow rate is ˜ 1.1+/- 0.3× {10}-3 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The mass-inflow rate is about one hundred times the black hole’s mass-accretion rate (˜ 1.4× {10}-5 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1) and slightly larger than the star-formation rate in the nuclear star cluster (7.94× {10}-4 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1), implying that the inflow material is enough to feed both the AGN activity and star formation in the nuclear star cluster. Our study highlights that secular evolution can be important in late-type unbarred galaxies like NGC 1042.

  11. SDSS-II Supernova Survey: An Analysis of the Largest Sample of Type Ia Supernovae and Correlations with Host-Galaxy Spectral Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Rachel C; Gupta, Ravi R; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A; Kessler, Rick; Jha, Saurabh W; March, Marisa C; Scolnic, Daniel M; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HR). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically-classified or spectroscopically-confirmed SNeIa discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release (Sako et al. 2014) such as host stellar mass and star-formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6{\\sigma} significance of a non-zero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and s...

  12. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Silverman, J. M., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  13. AGN Feedback, Host Halo Mass and Central Cooling Time: Implications for Galaxy Formation Efficiency and $M_{BH} - \\sigma$

    CERN Document Server

    Main, Robert; Nulsen, Paul; Russell, Helen; Vantyghem, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We derive X-ray mass, luminosity, and temperature profiles for 45 galaxy clusters to explore relationships between halo mass, AGN feedback, and central cooling time. We find that radio--mechanical feedback power (referred to here as "AGN power") in central cluster galaxies correlates with halo mass, but only in halos with central atmospheric cooling times shorter than 1 Gyr. This timescale corresponds approximately to the cooling time (entropy) threshold for the onset of cooling instabilities and star formation in central galaxies (Rafferty et al. 2008). No correlation is found in systems with central cooling times greater than 1 Gyr. The trend with halo mass is consistent with self-similar scaling relations assuming cooling is regulated by feedback. The trend is also consistent with galaxy and central black hole co-evolution along the $M_{BH} - \\sigma $ relation. AGN power further correlates with X-ray gas mass and the host galaxy's K-band luminosity. AGN power in clusters with central atmospheric cooling ti...

  14. Blending bias impacts the host halo masses derived from a cross-correlation analysis of bright sub-millimetre galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, William I; Baugh, Carlton M; Cole, Shaun; Wilkinson, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Placing bright sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) within the broader context of galaxy formation and evolution requires accurate measurements of their clustering, which can constrain the masses of their host dark matter halos. Recent work has shown that the clustering measurements of these galaxies may be affected by a `blending bias,' which results in the angular correlation function of the sources extracted from single-dish imaging surveys being boosted relative to that of the underlying galaxies. This is due to confusion introduced by the coarse angular resolution of the single-dish telescope and could lead to the inferred halo masses being significantly overestimated. We investigate the extent to which this bias affects the measurement of the correlation function of SMGs when it is derived via a cross-correlation with a more abundant galaxy population. We find that the blending bias is essentially the same as in the auto-correlation case and conclude that the best way to reduce its effects is to calculate the...

  15. Optical Identification of Cepheids in 19 Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae and NGC 4258 with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Samantha L; Riess, Adam G; Yuan, Wenlong; Casertano, Stefano; Filippenko, Alexei V; Tucker, Brad E; Chornock, Ryan; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Welch, Douglas L; Goobar, Ariel; Amanullah, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an optical search for Cepheid variable stars using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 19 hosts of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258, conducted as part of the SH0ES project (Supernovae and H0 for the Equation of State of dark energy). The targets include 9 newly imaged SN Ia hosts using a novel strategy based on a long-pass filter that minimizes the number of HST orbits required to detect and accurately determine Cepheid properties. We carried out a homogeneous reduction and analysis of all observations, including new universal variability searches in all SN Ia hosts, that yielded a total of 2200 variables with well-defined selection criteria -- the largest such sample identified outside the Local Group. These objects are used in a companion paper to determine the local value of H0 with a total uncertainty of 2.4%.

  16. AGN-host connection at 0.5 < z < 2.5: A rapid evolution of AGN fraction in red galaxies during the last 10 Gyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Elbaz, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Xue, Y. Q.; Gabor, J. M.; Juneau, S.; Schreiber, C.; Zheng, X.-Z.; Wuyts, S.; Shi, Y.; Daddi, E.; Shu, X.-W.; Fang, G.-W.; Huang, J.-S.; Luo, B.; Gu, Q.-S.

    2017-05-01

    We explore the dependence of the incidence of moderate-luminosity (L0.5-8 keV = 1041.9-43.7 erg s-1) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the distribution of their accretion rates on host color at 0.5 1010 M⊙. We use extinction-corrected rest-frame U-V colors to divide both AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies into red sequence (red), green valley (green), and blue cloud (blue) populations. We find that the fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN at fixed X-ray luminosity increases with stellar mass and redshift for all the three galaxy populations, independent of their colors. However, both the AGN fraction at fixed stellar mass and its evolution with redshift are clearly dependent on host colors. Most notably, red galaxies have the lowest AGN fraction ( 5%) at z 1 yet with most rapid evolution with redshift, increasing by a factor of 5 (24%) at z 2. Green galaxies exhibit the highest AGN fraction across all redshifts, which is most pronounced at z 2 with more than half of them hosting an AGN at M∗ > 1010.6 M⊙. Together with the high AGN fraction in red galaxies at z 2, this indicates that (X-ray) AGNs could be important in both transforming (quenching) star-forming galaxies into quiescent ones and subsequently maintaining their quiescence at high redshift. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies at lower redshifts, we show that the probability of hosting an AGN for the total galaxy population can be characterized by a universal Eddington ratio (as approximated by LX/M∗) distribution (p(λEdd) λEdd-0.4), which is independent on host mass. Yet consistent with their different AGN fractions, galaxies with different colors appear to also have different p(λEdd) with red galaxies exhibiting more rapid redshift evolution compared with that for green and blue galaxies. Evidence for a steeper power-law distribution of p(λEdd) in red galaxies (p(λEdd) λEdd-0.6) is also presented, though larger samples are needed to confirm. These results suggest that the AGN accretion

  17. Star Cluster Complexes and the Host Galaxy in Three HII Galaxies: Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Patricio; Nigoche-Netro, A; Carrasco, Eleazar Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    We present a stellar population study of three HII galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high resolution near-infrared J, H and Kp broad-band and Br narrow-band images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low luminosity HII galaxies is ~10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses > 10^4 Mo. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently an...

  18. The Afterglow and Early-Type Host Galaxy of the Short GRB 150101B at z=0.1343

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Wen-fai; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Shappee, Benjamin J; Levan, Andrew J; Tanvir, Nial R; Smith, Nathan; Milne, Peter A; Laskar, Tanmoy; Fox, Derek B; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Blanchard, Peter K; Hjorth, Jens; Wiersema, Klaas; van der Horst, Alexander J; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of the X-ray and optical afterglows of the short-duration GRB 150101B, pinpointing the event to an early-type host galaxy at z=0.1343 +/- 0.0030. This makes GRB 150101B the most nearby short GRB with an early-type host galaxy discovered to date. Fitting the spectral energy distribution of the host galaxy results in an inferred stellar mass of ~7x10^10 M_sol, stellar population age of ~2-2.5 Gyr, and star formation rate of 9 deg. Using observations extending to ~30 days, we place upper limits of <(2-4)x10^41 erg s^-1 on associated kilonova emission. We compare searches following previous short GRBs to existing kilonova models, and demonstrate the difficulty of performing effective kilonova searches from cosmological short GRBs using current ground-based facilities. We show that at the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO horizon distance of 200 Mpc, searches reaching depths of ~23-24 AB mag are necessary to probe a meaningful range of kilonova models.

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Kaisey S; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J; Kirshner, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the distribution of dusty extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as a convolution of the intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and the host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M_B vs. B-V) slope beta_int differs from the host galaxy dust law R_B, this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude vs. apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from beta_int in the blue tail to R_B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve at this transition near the average apparent color, resultin...

  20. A Revised Host Galaxy Association for GRB 020819B: A High-Redshift Dusty Starburst, Not a Low-Redshift Gas-Poor Spiral

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, Daniel A; Schady, Patricia; Michałowski, Michał J; Thöne, Christina C; Petry, Dirk; Graham, John F; Greiner, Jochen; Schulze, Steve; Kim, Sam

    2016-01-01

    The purported spiral host galaxy of GRB 020819B at z=0.41 has been seminal in establishing our view of the diversity of long-duration gamma-ray burst environments: optical spectroscopy of this host provided evidence that GRBs can form even at high metallicities, while millimetric observations suggested that GRBs may preferentially form in regions with minimal molecular gas. We report new observations from VLT (MUSE and X-shooter) which demonstrate that the purported host is an unrelated foreground galaxy. The probable radio afterglow is coincident with a compact, highly star-forming, dusty galaxy at z=1.9621. The revised redshift naturally explains the apparent nondetection of CO(3-2) line emission at the afterglow site from ALMA. There is no evidence that molecular gas properties in GRB host galaxies are unusual, and limited evidence that GRBs can form readily at super-Solar metallicity.

  1. Obscured Supermassive Black Hole Growth - Connections to Host Galaxies and Evolutionary Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2017-08-01

    A large fraction of the supermassive black hole growth in the Universe is hidden from view behind thick columns of dust. The most heavily obscured quasars can be challenging to detect even with current high energy X-ray observatories such as NuSTAR - however with infrared observations that can detect the hot nuclear dust in even the most enshrouded systems, we are now beginning to characterize large populations of these hidden monsters.With roughly half-a-million quasars selected with WISE, we have found via clustering and CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements that obscured quasars reside in dark matter halos 0.5 dex more massive than unobscured quasars. This implies that obscuration is directly linked to host galaxy properties, and not simply the dust geometry around the quasar. Using cross-correlations we accurately characterize the redshift distribution of the obscured quasar population, confirming that it peaks at z = 1, and using long-wavelength bands find that it has a similar bolometric luminosity distribution as unobscured quasars as well. Finally, using a simple model based on empirical relationships between halo, stellar, and black hole masses, we show that an evolutionary sequence from obscured to unobscured quasar, combined with a flux limit, can predict the observed halo mass differences.Studies of the most obscured quasars provide valuable insights on the rapid growth of the most massive black holes in the Universe, and motivates future work with the next generation high energy observatories such as eROSITA, Athena, and Lynx.

  2. Properties of compact HII regions and their host clumps in the inner vs outer Galaxy - early results from SASSy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Julie; Thompson, Mark; Urquhart, James S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of compact and ultracompact HII regions for all Galactocentric radii. Previous catalogs focus on the inner Galaxy (Rgal ≤ 8 kpc) but the recent SASSy 870 µm survey allows us to identify regions out to ~20 kpc. Early samples are also filled with false classifications leading to uncertainty when deriving star formation efficiencies in Galactic models. These objects have similar mid-IR colours to HII regions. Urquhart et al. (2013) found that they could use mid-IR, submm, and radio data to identify the genuine compact HII regions, avoiding confusion. They used this method on a small portion of the Galaxy (10 < l < 60), identifying 213 HII regions embedded in 170 clumps. We use ATLASGAL and SASSy, crossmatched with RMS, to sample the remaining galactic longitudes out to Rgal = 20 kpc. We derive the properties of the identified compact HII regions and their host clumps while addressing the implications for recent massive star formation in the outer Galaxy. Observations towards nearby galaxies are biased towards massive stars, affecting simulations and overestimating models for galactic evolution and star formation rates. The Milky Way provides the ideal template for studying factors affecting massive star formation rates and efficiencies at high resolution, thus fine-tuning those models. We find that there is no significant change in the rate of massive star formation in the outer vs inner Galaxy. Despite some peaks in known complexes and possible correlation with spiral arms, the outer Galaxy appears to produce massive stars as efficiently as the inner regions. However, many of the potential star forming SASSy clumps have no available radio counterpart to confirm the presence of an HII region or other star formation tracer. Follow-up observations will be required to verify this conclusion and are currently in progress.

  3. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-06-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M B versus B - V) slope {β }{int} differs from the host galaxy dust law R B , this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude versus apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from {β }{int} in the blue tail to R B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope {β }{app} between {β }{int} and R B . We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a data set of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 248 nearby SNe Ia at zlinear fit gives {β }{app}≈ 3. Our model finds {β }{int}=2.3+/- 0.3 and a distinct dust law of {R}B=3.8+/- 0.3, consistent with the average for Milky Way dust, while correcting a systematic distance bias of ˜0.10 mag in the tails of the apparent color distribution. Finally, we extend our model to examine the SN Ia luminosity-host mass dependence in terms of intrinsic and dust components.

  4. Origin of X-shaped radio-sources: further insights from the properties of their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gillone, Melissa; Rossi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a sample of X-shaped radio-sources (XRSs). These objects show, in addition to the main lobes, a pair of wings producing their peculiar radio morphology. We obtain our sample by selecting from the initial list of Cheung (2007, AJ, 133, 2097) the 53 galaxies with the better defined wings and with available SDSS images. We identified the host galaxies and measured their optical position angle, obtaining a positive result in 22 cases. The orientation of the secondary radio structures shows a strong connection with the optical axis, with all (but one) wing forming a angle larger than 40 degrees with the host major axis. The probability that this is compatible with a uniform distribution is P = 0.9 10E-4. Spectra are available from the SDSS for 28 XRSs. We modeled them to extract information on their emission lines and stellar population properties. The sample is formed by approximately the same number of high and low excitation galaxies (HEG and LEG); this classification is essential f...

  5. On the origin of X-shaped radio-sources new insights from the properties of their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Capetti, A; Rossi, P; Bodo, G; Zanni, C; Massaglia, S

    2002-01-01

    A significant fraction of extended radio sources presents a peculiar X-shaped radio morphology: in addition to the classical double lobed structure, radio emission is also observed along a second axis of symmetry in the form of diffuse wings or tails. We re-examine the origin of these extensions relating the radio morphology to the properties of their host galaxies. The orientation of the wings shows a striking connection with the structure of the host galaxy as they are preferentially aligned with its minor axis. Furthermore, wings are only observed in galaxies of high projected ellipticity. Hydrodynamical simulations of the radio-source evolution show that X-shaped radio-sources naturally form in this geometrical situation: as a jet propagates in a non-spherical gas distribution, the cocoon surrounding the radio-jets expands laterally at a high rate producing wings of radio emission, in a way that is reminiscent of the twin-exhaust model for radio-sources.

  6. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. II. Rest-frame Near-IR Luminosity Distribution and Evidence for a Near-solar Metallicity Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Chary, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T.; Levan, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Schulze, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ˜ 0.5 and z ˜ 1.5, but little variation between z ˜ 1.5 and z ˜ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass-metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2 metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  7. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Laskar, T.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chary, R. [US Planck Data Center, MS220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Postigo, A. de Ugarte [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schulze, S., E-mail: dperley@dark-cosmology.dk [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  8. SDSS-II Supernova survey. An analysis of the largest sample of type IA supernovae and correlations with host-galaxy spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; Kessler, Rick; Jha, Saurabh W.; March, Marisa C.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew

    2016-04-20

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HR). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically-classified or spectroscopicallyconfirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric hostgalaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release (Sako et al. 2014) such as host stellar mass and star-formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6σ significance of a non-zero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and hostgalaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star-formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large dataset, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically-confirmed and photometrically-classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined datasets for future surveys.

  9. Providing stringent star formation rate limits of z$\\sim$2 QSO host galaxies at high angular resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Vayner, Andrey; Do, Tuan; Larkin, James E; Armus, Lee; Gallagher, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z=2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini-North Observatories using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z=2.15. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFS provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a PSF from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy. We detect H$\\alpha$ and [NII] for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 and SDSS J0925+06 that have both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line H$\\alpha$ is from star formation, we inf...

  10. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Ohio State U., CCAPP /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2017-05-11

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.

  11. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-06-01

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.

  12. The Effects of X-Ray Feedback from AGN on Host Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hambrick, D Clay; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies with active galactic nuclei (AGN) have typically employed feedback that is purely local: i.e., an injection of energy to the immediate neighborhood of the black hole. We perform GADGET-2 simulations of massive elliptical galaxies with an additional feedback component: an observationally calibrated X-ray radiation field which emanates from the black hole and heats gas out to large radii from the galaxy center. We find that including the heating and radiation pressure associated with this X-ray flux in our simulations enhances the effects which are commonly reported from AGN feedback. This new feedback model is twice as effective as traditional feedback at suppressing star formation, produces 3 times less star formation in the last 6 Gyr, and modestly lowers the final BH mass (30%). It is also significantly more effective than an X-ray background in reducing the number of satellite galaxies.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  14. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pian, E. [INAF, Trieste Astronomical Observatory, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2 Liverpool Science Park 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cano, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pe' er, A. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Misra, K., E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India)

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  15. Host galaxies of luminous z$\\sim$0.6 quasars: Major mergers are not prevalent at the highest AGN luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Villforth, C; Pawlik, M M; Hewlett, T; Rowlands, K; Herbst, H; Shankar, F; Fontana, A; Hamann, F; Koekemoer, A; Pforr, J; Trump, J; Wuyts, S

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are thought to be one of the main triggers of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), especially at high luminosities, where the accreted gas mass during the AGN lifetime is substantial. Evidence for a connection between mergers and AGN, however, remains mixed. Possible triggering mechanisms remain particularly poorly understood for luminous AGN, which are thought to require triggering by major mergers, rather than secular processes. We analyse the host galaxies of a sample of 20 optically and X-ray selected luminous AGN (log($L_{bol}$ [erg/s]) $>$ 45) at z $\\sim$ 0.6 using HST WFC3 data in the F160W/H band. 15/20 sources have resolved host galaxies. We create a control sample of mock AGN by matching the AGN host galaxies to a control sample of non-AGN galaxies. Visual signs of disturbances are found in about 25% of sources in both the AGN hosts and control galaxies. Using both visual classification and quantitative morphology measures, we show that the levels of disturbance are not enhanced when co...

  16. The hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova iPTF 13ajg and its host galaxy in absorption and emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Rubin, Adam; Yaron, Ofer; Tal, David; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Savaglio, Sandra [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Quimby, Robert M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Perley, Daniel A.; Cao, Yi [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Taddia, Francesco; Sollerman, Jesper; Leloudas, Giorgos [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, AlbaNova 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: paul.vreeswijk@weizmann.ac.il [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-12-10

    We present imaging and spectroscopy of a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF 13ajg. At a redshift of z = 0.7403, derived from narrow absorption lines, iPTF 13ajg peaked at an absolute magnitude of M {sub u,} {sub AB} = –22.5, one of the most luminous supernovae to date. The observed bolometric peak luminosity of iPTF 13ajg is 3.2 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}, while the estimated total radiated energy is 1.3 × 10{sup 51} erg. We detect narrow absorption lines of Mg I, Mg II, and Fe II, associated with the cold interstellar medium in the host galaxy, at two different epochs with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. From Voigt profile fitting, we derive the column densities log N(Mg I) =11.94 ± 0.06, log N(Mg II) =14.7 ± 0.3, and log N(Fe II) =14.25 ± 0.10. These column densities, as well as the Mg I and Mg II equivalent widths of a sample of hydrogen-poor SLSNe taken from the literature, are at the low end of those derived for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) whose progenitors are also thought to be massive stars. This suggests that the environments of hydrogen-poor SLSNe and GRBs are different. From the nondetection of Fe II fine-structure absorption lines, we derive a lower limit on the distance between the supernova and the narrow-line absorbing gas of 50 pc. The neutral gas responsible for the absorption in iPTF 13ajg exhibits a single narrow component with a low velocity width, ΔV = 76 km s{sup –1}, indicating a low-mass host galaxy. No host galaxy emission lines are detected, leading to an upper limit on the unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of SFR{sub [O} {sub II]}<0.07M{sub ⊙}yr{sup −1}. Late-time imaging shows the iPTF 13ajg host galaxy to be faint, with g {sub AB} ≈ 27.0 and R {sub AB} ≥ 26.0 mag, corresponding to M {sub B,} {sub Vega} ≳ –17.7 mag.

  17. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Scolnic, Daniel; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan; Kirshner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Inferring peak optical absolute magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) from distance-independent measures such as their light curve shapes and colors underpins the evidence for cosmic acceleration. SN Ia with broader, slower declining optical light curves are more luminous (“broader-brighter”) and those with redder colors are dimmer. But the “redder-dimmer” color-luminosity relation widely used in cosmological SN Ia analyses confounds its two separate physical origins. An intrinsic correlation arises from the physics of exploding white dwarfs, while interstellar dust in the host galaxy also makes SN Ia appear dimmer and redder. Conventional SN Ia cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (MB vs. B-V) slope βint differs from the host galaxy dust law RB, this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude vs. apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from βint in the blue tail to RB in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope βapp between βint and RB. We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a dataset of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 277 nearby SN Ia at z < 0.10. The conventional linear fit obtains βapp ≈ 3. Our model finds a βint = 2.2 ± 0.3 and a distinct dust law of RB = 3.7 ± 0

  18. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Radial Gas Inflow and Shock Excitation in NGC 1042

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Rongxin; Blanc, Guillermo A; Jogee, Shardha; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Weinzirl, Tim

    2016-01-01

    NGC 1042 is a late type bulgeless disk galaxy which hosts a low luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) coincident with a massive nuclear star cluster. In this paper, we present the integral-field-spectroscopy (IFS) studies of this galaxy, based on the data obtained with the Mitchell spectrograph on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith telescope. In the central $100\\textrm{-}300\\ \\mathrm{pc}$ region of NGC 1042, we find a circumnuclear ring structure of gas with enhanced ionization, which we suggest is mainly induced by shocks. Combining with the harmonic decomposition analysis of the velocity field of the ionized gas, we propose that the shocked gas is the result of gas inflow driven by the inner spiral arms. The inflow velocity is $\\sim 32\\pm10\\ \\mathrm{km}\\ \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and the estimated mass inflow rate is $\\sim 1.1\\pm0.3 \\times 10^{-3}\\ \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}\\ \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. The mass inflow rate is about one hundred times the blackhole's mass accretion rate ($\\sim 1.4 \\times 10^{-5}\\ \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}\\ \\ma...

  19. IDENTIFYING THE LOCATION IN THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SHORT GRB 111117A WITH THE CHANDRA SUBARCSECOND POSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, T.; Troja, E. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Aoki, K. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Guiriec, S.; Barthelmy, S. D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Andersen, M. I. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Melandri, A.; D' Avanzo, P. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Xu, D. [Department of Particle Physics and Astronomy, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gorosabel, J.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Bai, J. [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650011 (China); Briggs, M. S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Foley, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2013-03-20

    We present our successful Chandra program designed to identify, with subarcsecond accuracy, the X-ray afterglow of the short GRB 111117A, which was discovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportunity request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, though no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. The host galaxy was clearly detected in the optical and near-infrared band, with the best photometric redshift of z=1.31{sub -0.23}{sup +0.46} (90% confidence), making it one of the highest known short gamma-ray burst (GRB) redshifts. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0 {+-} 0.2 arcsec, which corresponds to 8.4 {+-} 1.7 kpc, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining subarcsecond X-ray localizations of short GRB afterglows to study GRB environments.

  20. K-band Imaging of strong CaII-absorber host galaxies at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We present K-band imaging of fields around 30 strong CaII absorption line systems, at 0.7galaxies is found within 6"0 (~50kpc) from the absorber line-of-sight. The excess galaxies are preferentially luminous compared to the population of field galaxies. A model in which field galaxies possess a luminosity-dependent cross-section for CaII absorption of the form (L/L*)^0.7 reproduces the observations well. The luminosity-dependent cross-section for the CaII absorbers appears to be significantly stronger than the established (L/L*)^0.4 dependence for MgII absorbers. The associated galaxies lie at large physical distances from the CaII-absorbing gas; we find a mean impact parameter of 24kpc (H0=70km\\s\\Mpc). Combined with the observed number density of CaII absorbers the large physical separations result in an inferred filling factor of only ~10 per cent. The physical origin of the strong CaII absorption remains unclear,...

  1. Evidence of suppression of star formation by quasar-driven winds in gas-rich host galaxies at z<1?

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is widely considered to be the main driver in regulating the growth of massive galaxies through heating or driving gas out of the galaxy, preventing further increase in stellar mass. Observational proof for this scenario has, however, been scarce. We have assembled a sample of 132 radio-quiet type-2 and red AGN at 0.1host galaxies' stellar masses and star formation rates and investigate the relationships between AGN luminosities, specific star formation rates (sSFR) and outflow strengths W90 -- the 90\\% velocity width of the [OIII]5007 line power and a proxy for the AGN-driven outflow speed. Outflow strength is independent of sSFR for AGN selected on their mid-IR luminosity, in agreement with previous work demonstrating that star formation is not sufficient to produce the observed ionized gas outflows which have to be powered by AGN activity. More importantly, we find a negative correlation between W90...

  2. Bright [CII] 158$\\mu$m emission in a quasar host galaxy at $z=6.54$

    CERN Document Server

    Bañados, E; Walter, F; Venemans, B P; Farina, E P; Fan, X

    2015-01-01

    The [CII] 158$\\mu$m fine-structure line is known to trace regions of active star formation and is the main coolant of the cold, neutral atomic medium. In this \\textit{Letter}, we report a strong detection of the [CII] line in the host galaxy of the brightest quasar known at $z>6.5$, the Pan-STARRS1 selected quasar PSO J036.5078+03.0498 (hereafter P036+03), using the IRAM NOEMA millimeter interferometer. Its [CII] and total far-infrared luminosities are $(5.8 \\pm 0.7) \\times 10^9 \\,L_\\odot$ and $(7.6\\pm1.5) \\times 10^{12}\\,L_\\odot$, respectively. This results in a $L_{[CII]} /L_{TIR}$ ratio of $\\sim 0.8\\times 10^{-3}$, which is at the high end for those found for active galaxies, though it is lower than the average found in typical main sequence galaxies at $z\\sim 0$. We also report a tentative additional line which we identify as a blended emission from the $3_{22} - 3_{13}$ and $5_{23} - 4_{32}$ H$_2$O transitions. If confirmed, this would be the most distant detection of water emission to date. P036+03 riva...

  3. A Merger Origin for Short Gamma-Ray Bursts Inferred from the Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 050724

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Soderberg, A M; Kasliwal, M; Leonard, D C; Cameron, P B; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Murphy, D C; Krzeminski, W; Piran, T; Lee, B L; Roth, K C; Moon, D S; Fox, D B; Harrison, F A; Persson, S E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B E; Rich, J; Peterson, B A; Cowie, L L

    2005-01-01

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness -- the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, and indicating an energy release of about 10^51 erg. While theoretical arguments suggest that short GRBs are produced in the merger of compact object binaries (neutron stars or black holes), the progenitors, energetics, and environments of these events remain elusive despite recent localizations. Here we report the discovery of radio, optical, and infrared afterglow emission from the short-hard GRB 050724, which unambiguously associate it with an elliptical galaxy at a redshift, z=0.257. We show that the energy release is 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of long GRBs, and that the burst ejecta may be collimated in jets. More importantly, the nature of the host galaxy for...

  4. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey - II. Rest-Frame NIR Luminosity Distribution and Evidence for a Near-Solar Metallicity Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, D A; Hjorth, J; Laskar, T; Berger, E; Chary, R; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Fynbo, J P U; Krühler, T; Levan, A J; Michałowski, M J; Schulze, S

    2016-01-01

    We present rest-frame NIR luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly-selected population of GRB host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 117 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z<1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star-formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be a small minority at most redshifts (~10% at z~2, ~25% at z~3, and ~50% at z=3.5-6.0).

  5. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift​ Supermassive​ Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-02-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z≃ 4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/{L}{Edd}≃ 0.7 and {M}{BH}≃ {10}9 {M}ȯ . Our sample consists of three “FIR-bright” sources, which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of {SFR}> 1000 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1, and three “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ∼400 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data and resolved on scales of ∼2 kpc, in both continuum ({λ }{rest}∼ 150 μ {{m}}) and [{{C}} {{II}}] λ 157.74 μ {{m}} line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasar hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ∼ 14{--}45 {kpc} and ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers are important drivers for rapid early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs and the gas kinematics as observed by ALMA suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  6. Origin of X-shaped radio-sources: further insights from the properties of their host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillone, M.; Capetti, A.; Rossi, P.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the properties of a sample of X-shaped radio-sources (XRSs). These objects show, in addition to the main lobes, a pair of wings that produce their peculiar radio morphology. We obtain our sample by selecting from the initial list of Cheung (2007, AJ, 133, 2097) the 53 galaxies with the better defined wings and with available SDSS images. We identify the host galaxies and measure their optical position angle, obtaining a positive result in 22 cases. The orientation of the secondary radio structures shows a strong connection with the optical axis, with all (but one) wing forming an angle larger than 40° with the host major axis. The probability that this is compatible with a uniform distribution is P = 0.9 × 10-4. For all but three sources of the sample, spectroscopic or photometric redshifts are avaliable. The radio luminosity distribution of XRSs has a high power cut-off at L ˜ 1034 erg s-1 Hz-1 at 1.4 GHz. Spectra are available from the SDSS for 28 XRSs. We modeled them to extract information on their emission lines and stellar population properties. The sample is formed by approximately the same number of high and low excitation galaxies (HEGs and LEGs); this classification is essential for a proper comparison with non-winged radio-galaxies. XRSs follow the same relations between radio and line luminosity defined by radio-galaxies in the 3C sample. While in HEGs a young stellar population is often present, this is not detected in the 13 LEGs, which is, again, in agreement with the properties of non-XRSs. The lack of young stars in LEGs supports the idea that they have not experienced a recent gas-rich merger. The connection between the optical axis and the wing orientation, as well as the stellar population and emission-line properties, provide further support for a hydro-dynamic origin of the radio-wings (for example, associated with the expansion of the radio cocoon in an asymmetric external medium) rather than with a change of orientation of the

  7. The extraordinarily bright optical afterglow of GRB 991208 and its host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Sokolov, V.V.; Gorosabel, J.;

    2001-01-01

    a massive star origin. The absolute magnitude of the galaxy is M-B = -18.2, well below the knee of the galaxy luminosity function and we derive a star-forming rate of (11.5 +/- 7.1) M-circle dot yr(-1), which is much larger than the present-day rate in our Galaxy. The quasi simultaneous broad......-band photometric spectral energy distribution of the afterglow was determined similar to3.5 day after the burst (Dec. 12.0) implying a cooling frequency ve below the optical band, i.e. supporting a jet model with p = -2.30 as the index of the power-law electron distribution....

  8. Reaching the Peak of the quasar spectral energy distribution - II. Exploring the accretion disc, dusty torus and host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, James S; Landt, Hermine; Done, Chris; Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    We continue our study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 11 AGN at 1.5 < z < 2.2, with optical-NIR spectra, X-ray data and mid-IR photometry. In a previous paper we presented the observations and models; in this paper we explore the parameter space of these models. We first quantify uncertainties on the black hole masses (M$_{\\rm BH}$) and degeneracies between SED parameters. The effect of BH spin is tested, and we find that while low to moderate spin values (a$_*$ $\\leq$ 0.9) are compatible with the data in all cases, maximal spin (a$_*$ = 0.998) can only describe the data if the accretion disc is face-on. The outer accretion disc radii are well constrained in 8/11 objects, and are found to be a factor ~5 smaller than the self-gravity radii. We then extend our modelling campaign into the mid-IR regime with WISE photometry, adding components for the host galaxy and dusty torus. Our estimates of the host galaxy luminosities are consistent with the M$_{\\rm BH}$-bulge relationship, and the meas...

  9. Reaching the peak of the quasar spectral energy distribution - II. Exploring the accretion disc, dusty torus and host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, James S.; Ward, Martin J.; Landt, Hermine; Done, Chris; Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan C.

    2017-02-01

    We continue our study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 11 active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 1.5 maximal spin (a* = 0.998) can only describe the data if the accretion disc is face-on. The outer accretion disc radii are well constrained in 8/11 objects and are found to be a factor ˜5 smaller than the self-gravity radii. We then extend our modelling campaign into the mid-IR regime with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry, adding components for the host galaxy and dusty torus. Our estimates of the host galaxy luminosities are consistent with the MBH-bulge relationship, and the measured torus properties (covering factor and temperature) are in agreement with earlier work, suggesting a predominantly silicate-based grain composition. Finally, we deconvolve the optical-NIR spectra using our SED continuum model. We claim that this is a more physically motivated approach than using empirical descriptions of the continuum such as broken power laws. For our small sample, we verify previously noted correlations between emission linewidths and luminosities commonly used for single-epoch MBH estimates, and observe a statistically significant anticorrelation between [O III] equivalent width and AGN luminosity.

  10. MUSE Reveals a Recent Merger in the Post-starburst Host Galaxy of the TDE ASASSN-14li

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, J L; Anderson, J P; Galbany, L; Kochanek, C S; Aquino, E; Brown, J S; Dong, Subo; Förster, F; Holoien, T W -S; Kuncarayakti, H; Maureira, J C; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Sánchez, S F; Shappee, B J; Stanek, K Z

    2016-01-01

    We present MUSE integral field spectroscopic observations of the host galaxy (PGC 043234) of one of the closest ($z=0.0206$, $D\\simeq 90$ Mpc) and best-studied tidal disruption events (TDE), ASASSN-14li. The MUSE integral field data reveal asymmetric and filamentary structures that extend up to $\\gtrsim 10$ kpc from the post-starburst host galaxy of ASASSN-14li. The structures are traced only through the strong nebular [O III] $\\lambda$5007, [N II] $\\lambda$6584, and H$\\alpha$ emission lines. The total off nuclear [O III] $\\lambda$5007 luminosity is luminosity is $4.7\\times 10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and the ionized H mass is $\\rm \\sim 10^4(500/n_e)\\,M_{\\odot}$. Based on the BPT diagram, the nebular emission can be driven by either AGN photoionization or shock excitation, with AGN photoionization favored given the narrow intrinsic line widths. The emission line ratios and spatial distribution strongly resemble ionization nebulae around fading AGNs such as IC 2497 (Hanny's Voorwerp) and ionization "cones" around Se...

  11. The very red afterglow of GRB 000418: Further evidence for dust extinction in a gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, S.; Stecklum, B.; Masetti, N.;

    2000-01-01

    We report near-infrared and optical follow-up observations of the afterglow of the GRB 000418 starting 2.5 days after the occurrence of the burst and extending over nearly 7 weeks. GRB 000418 represents the second case for which the afterglow was initially identified by observations in the near-i......) bursts are associated with events in star-forming regions.......-infrared. During the first 10 days its R-band afterglow was well characterized by a single power-law decay with a slope of 0.86. However, at later times the temporal evolution of the afterglow flattens with respect to a simple power-law decay. Attributing this to an underlying host galaxy, we find its magnitude...... to be R = 23.9 and an intrinsic afterglow decay slope of 1.22. The afterglow was very red with R-K approximate to 4 mag. The observations can be explained by an adiabatic, spherical fireball solution and a heavy reddening due to dust extinction in the host galaxy. This supports the picture that (long...

  12. Observation of Weak Low-ionization Winds in Host Galaxies of Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei at z ~1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesuf, Hassen; David C. Koo, S. M. Faber, J. Xavier Prochaska, Yicheng Guo, F. S. Liu, Emily C. Cunningham, Alison L. Coil, Puragra Guhathakurta

    2017-01-01

    A key physical manifestation of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback is predicted to be powerful galactic winds. However, the relative roles between AGN activity and star formation in driving such winds remain largely unexplored at high redshifts, near the peak of cosmic activity for both. We study winds in 12 X-ray AGN host galaxies at z ~ 1 in the CANDELS fields using deep Keck rest-frame UV spectroscopy. We find, using the low-ionization Fe II 2586 absorption in the stacked spectra, that the AGN show a median centroid velocity shift of -137 km/s and a median velocity dispersion of 103 km/ s. The centroid velocity and the velocity dispersions are obtained from a two component (ISM+wind) absorption line model. For comparison, a star-forming and X-ray undetected galaxies at a similar redshift, matched roughly in stellar mass and galaxy inclination, show the outflows to have a median centroid velocity of -135 km/s and a median velocity dispersion of 140 km/s. Thus, winds in the AGN are similar in velocities to those found in star-formation-driven winds, and are weak to escape and expel substantial cool gas from galaxies. A joint reanalysis of the z ~ 0.5 AGN sample and our sample yields a centroid velocity of -139 (+48, -87) km/s and a velocity dispersion of 82 (+47,-37) km/s. For the combined sample, about half the total equivalent width of the Fe II 2586 absorption is due to the wind. We do not observe winds with bulk velocities greater than 500 km/s predicted by some AGN feedback models.

  13. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Davies, J. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, University of Colorado UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000 μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  14. The Connection between Globular Cluster Systems and their Host Galaxy and Environment: A Case Study of the Isolated Elliptical NGC 821

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P; Gallagher, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to probe the globular cluster (GC) system of an isolated elliptical galaxy, a comprehensive analysis of the NGC 821 GC system was performed. New imaging from the WIYN Mini-Mosaic imager, supplemented with HST WFPC2 images reveals a GC system similar to those found in counterpart ellipticals located in high density environments. To put these results into the context of galaxy formation, a robustly-determined census of GC systems is presented and analysed for galaxies spanning a wide range of masses (> M_star), morphologies and environments. Results from this meta-study: (1) confirm previous findings that the number of GCs normalized by host galaxy stellar mass increases with host stellar mass. Spiral galaxies in the sample show smaller relative GC numbers than those of massive ellipticals, suggesting the GC systems of massive ellipticals were not formed from major spiral-spiral mergers; (2) indicate that GC system numbers per unit galaxy baryon mass increases with host baryon mass and that GC form...

  15. Optical Identification of Cepheids in 19 Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae and NGC 4258 with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Macri, Lucas M.; Riess, Adam G.; Yuan, Wenlong; Casertano, Stefano; Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Tucker, Brad E.; Chornock, Ryan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Welch, Douglas L.; Goobar, Ariel; Amanullah, Rahman

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an optical search conducted as part of the SH0ES project (Supernovae and H0 for the Equation of State of dark energy) for Cepheid variable stars using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 19 hosts of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258. The targets include nine newly imaged SN Ia hosts using a novel strategy based on a long-pass filter that minimizes the number of HST orbits required to detect and accurately determine Cepheid properties. We carried out a homogeneous reduction and analysis of all observations, including new universal variability searches in all SN Ia hosts, which yielded a total of 2200 variables with well-defined selection criteria, the largest such sample identified outside the Local Group. These objects are used in a companion paper to determine the local value of H0 with a total uncertainty of 2.4%. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. CONNECTING GRBs AND ULIRGs: A SENSITIVE, UNBIASED SURVEY FOR RADIO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Krühler, T. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-10

    Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and provide an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate and that of overall cosmic star formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 32 uniformly selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star formation rates (SFRs) ranging between 50 and 300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically obscured 'dark' bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 9% and 23% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S {sub 3GHz} > 10 μJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 1 or >250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10%-30% of all cosmic star formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate that is not strongly biased with respect to the total SFR of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have stellar masses significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that the GRB rate may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy SFR.

  17. The Metallicity and Dust Content of a Redshift 5 Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparre, M.; Hartoog, O.E.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Watson, D.J.; Wiersema, K.; D'Elia, V.; Zafar, T.; Afonso, P.M.J.; Covino, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaper, L.; Klose, S.; Levan, A.J.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Nardini, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Sollerman, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N.R.; Vergani, S.D.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A, from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and extinction of the GR

  18. PS1-10bzj: A FAST, HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA IN A METAL-POOR HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Milisavljevic, D.; Drout, M.; Sanders, N. E.; Challis, P. M.; Czekala, I.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Leibler, C.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huber, M. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Roth, K. C. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Scolnic, D., E-mail: rlunnan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-07-10

    We present observations and analysis of PS1-10bzj, a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey at a redshift z = 0.650. Spectroscopically, PS1-10bzj is similar to the hydrogen-poor SLSNe 2005ap and SCP 06F6, though with a steeper rise and lower peak luminosity (M{sub bol} {approx_equal} -21.4 mag) than previous events. We construct a bolometric light curve, and show that while PS1-10bzj's energetics were less extreme than previous events, its luminosity still cannot be explained by radioactive nickel decay alone. We explore both a magnetar spin-down and circumstellar interaction scenario and find that either can fit the data. PS1-10bzj is located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South and the host galaxy is imaged in a number of surveys, including with the Hubble Space Telescope. The host is a compact dwarf galaxy (M{sub B} Almost-Equal-To -18 mag, diameter {approx}< 800 pc), with a low stellar mass (M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }), young stellar population ({tau}{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 5 Myr), and a star formation rate of {approx}2-3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The specific star formation rate is the highest seen in an SLSN host so far ({approx}100 Gyr{sup -1}). We detect the [O III] {lambda}4363 line, and find a low metallicity: 12 + (O/H) = 7.8 {+-} 0.2 ({approx_equal} 0.1 Z{sub Sun }). Together, this indicates that at least some of the progenitors of SLSNe come from young, low-metallicity populations.

  19. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF A z = 6.42 QUASAR HOST GALAXY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechtley, M.; Windhorst, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Scannapieco, E. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Ryan, R. E.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schneider, G.; Fan, X. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Keel, W. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Roettgering, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Strauss, M. A. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yan, H. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Missouri, 701 South College Ave, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We report on deep near-infrared F125W (J) and F160W (H) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of the z = 6.42 quasar J1148+5251 to attempt to detect rest-frame near-ultraviolet emission from the host galaxy. These observations included contemporaneous observations of a nearby star of similar near-infrared colors to measure temporal variations in the telescope and instrument point-spread function (PSF). We subtract the quasar point source using both this direct PSF and a model PSF. Using direct subtraction, we measure an upper limit for the quasar host galaxy of m{sub J} > 22.8 and m{sub H} > 23.0 AB mag (2 {sigma}). After subtracting our best model PSF, we measure a limiting surface brightness from 0.''3 to 0.''5 radius of {mu}{sub J} > 23.5 and {mu}{sub H} > 23.7 AB mag arcsec{sup -2} (2 {sigma}). We test the ability of the model subtraction method to recover the host galaxy flux by simulating host galaxies with varying integrated magnitude, effective radius, and Sersic index, and conducting the same analysis. These models indicate that the surface brightness limit ({mu}{sub J} > 23.5 AB mag arcsec{sup -2}) corresponds to an integrated upper limit of m{sub J} > 22-23 AB mag, consistent with the direct subtraction method. Combined with existing far-infrared observations, this gives an infrared excess log (IRX) > 1.0 and corresponding ultraviolet spectral slope {beta} > -1.2 {+-} 0.2. These values match those of most local luminous infrared galaxies, but are redder than those of almost all local star-forming galaxies and z {approx_equal} 6 Lyman break galaxies.

  20. THE OPTICALLY UNBIASED GRB HOST (TOUGH) SURVEY. VI. RADIO OBSERVATIONS AT z {approx}< 1 AND CONSISTENCY WITH TYPICAL STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance), Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Kamble, A.; Kaplan, D. L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kruehler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Reinfrank, R. F. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bonavera, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Castro Ceron, J. M. [Department of Radio Astronomy, Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (INTA-NASA/INSA), Ctra. M-531, km. 7, E-28.294 Robledo de Chavela (Madrid) (Spain); Ibar, E. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Garrett, M. A. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Massardi, M. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Pal, S. [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA (Australia); Sollerman, J. [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Van der Horst, A. J., E-mail: mm@roe.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2012-08-20

    The objective of this paper is to determine the level of obscured star formation activity and dust attenuation in a sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts, and to test the hypothesis that GRB hosts have properties consistent with those of the general star-forming galaxy populations. We present a radio continuum survey of all z < 1 GRB hosts in The Optically Unbiased GRB Host (TOUGH) sample supplemented with radio data for all (mostly pre-Swift) GRB-SN hosts discovered before 2006 October. We present new radio data for 22 objects and have obtained a detection for three of them (GRB 980425, 021211, 031203; none in the TOUGH sample), increasing the number of radio-detected GRB hosts from two to five. The star formation rate (SFR) for the GRB 021211 host of {approx}825 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, the highest ever reported for a GRB host, places it in the category of ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We found that at least {approx}63% of GRB hosts have SFR < 100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and at most {approx}8% can have SFR > 500 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. For the undetected hosts the mean radio flux (<35 {mu}Jy 3{sigma}) corresponds to an average SFR < 15 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Moreover, {approx}> 88% of the z {approx}< 1 GRB hosts have ultraviolet dust attenuation A{sub UV} < 6.7 mag (visual attenuation A{sub V} < 3 mag). Hence, we did not find evidence for large dust obscuration in a majority of GRB hosts. Finally, we found that the distributions of SFRs and A{sub UV} of GRB hosts are consistent with those of Lyman break galaxies, H{alpha} emitters at similar redshifts, and of galaxies from cosmological simulations. The similarity of the GRB population with other star-forming galaxies is consistent with the hypothesis that GRBs, a least at z {approx}< 1, trace a large fraction of all star formation, and are therefore less biased indicators than once thought.

  1. Scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: comparing theoretical and observational measurements, and the impact of selection effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraf, C.; Di Matteo, T.; Treu, T.; Feng, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, D.

    2015-11-01

    We use the high-resolution simulation MassiveBlackII to examine scaling relations between black hole (BH) mass and host galaxy properties (σ, total M* and LV), finding good agreement with recent observational data, especially at the high-mass end. We find Gaussian intrinsic scatter (˜half the observed scatter) about all three relations, except among the most massive objects. Below z ˜ 2 the slope of the relations remain roughly z-independent, and only steepen by 50 per cent by z ˜ 4. The normalization of the σ, LV relations evolve by 0.3, 0.43 dex, while the M* correlation does not evolve out to at least z ˜ 2. Testing for selection biases, we find MBH- or M*-selected samples have steeper slopes than random samples, suggesting a constant-mass selection function can exhibit faster evolution than a random sample. We find a potential bias among high-LBH subsamples due to their more massive hosts, but that bright (active) active galactic nuclei exhibit no intrinsic bias relative to fainter (inactive) BHs in equivalent-mass hosts. Finally, we show that BHs below the local relation tend to grow faster than their host (72 per cent of BHs >0.3 dex below the mean relation have an MBH-M* trajectory steeper than the local relation), while those above have shallower trajectories (only 14 per cent are steeper than local). Thus BHs tend to grow faster than their hosts until surpassing the local relation, when their growth is suppressed, bringing them back towards the mean relation.

  2. Spectroscopy of supernova host galaxies from the SDSS-II SN survey with the SDSS and BOSS spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Matthew Dwaune

    Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) have been used as standard candles to measure cosmological distances. The initial discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe was performed using ~50 SNe Ia. Large SNe surveys have increased the number of spectroscopically-confirmed SNe Ia to over a thousand with redshift coverage beyond z = 1. We are now in the age of abundant photometry without the ability for full follow-up spectroscopy of all SN candidates. SN cosmology using these large samples will increasingly rely on robust photometric classification of SN candidates. Photometric classification will increase the sample by including faint SNe as these are preferentially not observed with follow-up spectroscopy. The primary concern with using photometrically classified SNe Ia in cosmology is when a core-collapse SNe is incorrectly classified as an SN Ia. This can be mitigated by obtaining the host galaxy redshift of each SN candidate and using this information as a prior in the photometric classification, removing one degree of freedom. To test the impact of redshift on photometric classification, I have performed an assessment on photometric classification of candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. I have tested the classification with and without redshift priors by looking at the change of photometric classification, the effect of data quality on photometric classification, and the effect of SN light curve properties on photometric classification. Following our suggested classification scheme, there are a total of 1038 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1002 SNe~Ia with the spectroscopic redshift. For 912 (91.0%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Finally, I investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2

  3. Low-mass disc galaxies and the issue of stability: MOND versus dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Martínez-Gómez, E.; Aguirre-Torres, V. M.; Hernández-Toledo, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    We analyse the rotation curves and gravitational stability of a sample of six bulgeless galaxies for which detailed images reveal no evidence for strong bars. We explore two scenarios: Newtonian dark matter models and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). By adjusting the stellar mass-to-light ratio, dark matter models can match simultaneously both the rotation curve and bar-stability requirements in these galaxies. To be consistent with stability constraints, in two of these galaxies, the stellar mass-to-light ratio is a factor of ˜1.5-2 lower than the values suggested from galaxy colours. In contrast, MOND fits to the rotation curves are poor in three galaxies, perhaps because the gas tracer contains non-circular motions. The bar stability analysis provides a new observational test to MOND. We find that most of the galaxies under study require abnormally high levels of random stellar motions to be bar stable in MOND. In particular, for the only galaxy in the sample for which the line-of-sight stellar velocity dispersion has been measured (NGC 6503), the observed velocity dispersion is not consistent with MOND predictions because it is far below the required value to guarantee bar stability. Precise measurements of mass-weighted velocity dispersions in (unbarred and bulgeless) spiral galaxies are crucial to test the consistency of MOND.

  4. Identifying the Location in the Host Galaxy of Short GRB 1111l7A with the Chandra Sub- Arcsecond Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Troja, E.; Aoki, K.; Guiriec, S.; Im, M.; Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; Melandri, A.; deUgartePostigo, A.; Urata, Y.; Xu, D.; DAvanzo, P.; Gorosabel, J.; Anderson, M. I.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Aoki, K.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present our successful program using Chandra for identifying the X-ray afterglow with sub-arcsecond accuracy for the short GRB 111117A d iscovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportuni ty request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, whereas no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. Instead, we clearly detect the host galaxy in optica; and also in near-infrared b ands. We found that the best photometric redshift fitofthe host is z = 1.31:(+0.46/-0.23) (90% confidence), making it one of the highest redshift short GRBs. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0+/-O.2 arcseco nds, which corresponds to 8.4+/-1.7 kpc aSBuming z= 1.31, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining sub-arcsecond localization of the afterglow in X -rays for short GRBs to study GRB environments in great detail.

  5. The low-extinction afterglow in the solar-metallicity host galaxy of gamma-ray burst 110918A

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, J; Greiner, J; Savaglio, S; E., F Olivares; Rau, A; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Wiersema, K; Schady, P; Kann, D A; Filgas, R; Nardini, M; Berger, E; Fox, D; Gorosabel, J; Klose, S; Levan, A; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Rossi, A; Schmidl, S; Sudilovsky, V; Tanvir, N R; Thöne, C C

    2013-01-01

    Metallicity is theoretically thought to be a fundamental driver in gamma-ray burst (GRB) explosions and energetics, but is still, even after more than a decade of extensive studies, not fully understood. This is largely related to two phenomena: a dust-extinction bias, that prevented high-mass and thus likely high-metallicity GRB hosts to be detected in the first place, and a lack of efficient instrumentation, that limited spectroscopic studies including metallicity measurements to the low-redshift end of the GRB host population. The subject of this work is the very energetic GRB 110918A, for which we measure a redshift of z=0.984. GRB 110918A gave rise to a luminous afterglow with an intrinsic spectral slope of b=0.70, which probed a sight-line with little extinction (A_V=0.16 mag) typical of the established distributions of afterglow properties. Photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the galaxy hosting GRB 110918A, including optical/NIR photometry with GROND and spectroscopy with VLT/X-shoo...

  6. Identifying the Location in the Host Galaxy of Short GRB 111117A with the Chandra Sub-arcsecond Position

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, T; Aoki, K; Guiriec, S; Im, M; Leloudas, G; Malesani, D; Melandri, A; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Urata, Y; Xu, D; D'Avanzo, P; Gorosabel, J; Jeon, Y; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Andersen, M I; Bai, J; Barthelmy, S D; Briggs, M S; Foley, S; Fruchter, A S; Fynbo, J P U; Gehrels, N; Huang, K; Jang, M; Kawai, N; Korhonen, H; Mao, J; Norris, J P; Preece, R D; Racusin, J L; Thone, C C; Vida, K; Zhao, X

    2012-01-01

    We present our successful program using Chandra for identifying the X-ray afterglow with sub-arcsecond accuracy for the short GRB 111117A discovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportunity request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, whereas no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. Instead, we clearly detect the host galaxy in optical and also in near-infrared bands. We found that the best fit photometric redshift of the host is $z=1.31_{-0.23}^{+0.46}$ (90% confidence), making it one of the highest redshift short GRBs. Furthermore, we see an offset of $1.0 \\pm 0.2$ arcseconds, which corresponds to $8.4 \\pm 1.7$ kpc assuming z=1.31, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining sub-arcsecond localization of the afterglow in X-rays for short GRBs to study GRB environments in great detail.

  7. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    CERN Document Server

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the $\\Lambda$ CDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should have sunk to the galactic centre many Gyr ago due to dynamical friction. Due to this, some authors proposed that the most massive clusters may have formed out of Fornax and later tidally captured. In this paper we investigate the past evolution of the Fornax GC system by using both a recently developed, semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction and direct $N$-body simulations of the orbital evolution of the globular clusters within Fornax and of Fornax galaxy around the Milky Way. Our results suggest that an "in-sit...

  8. Massive stars formed in atomic hydrogen reservoirs: H i observations of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, J.

    2015-01-01

    , implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought. In this case, it is possible that star formation is directly fuelled by atomic gas (or that the H1-to-H2 conversion is very efficient, which rapidly...... exhaust molecular gas), as has been theoretically shown to be possible. This can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because cooling of gas (necessary for star formation) is faster than the H1-to-H2 conversion. Indeed, large atomic gas reservoirs, together with low molecular gas...... masses, stellar, and dust masses are consistent with GRB hosts being preferentially galaxies which have very recently started a star formation episode after accreting metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. This provides a natural route for forming GRBs in low-metallicity environments. The gas...

  9. Structural Transition in the NGC 6251 Jet: an Interplay with the Supermassive Black Hole and Its Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-Yin; Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori; Pu, Hung-Yi; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Lo, Wen-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The structure of the NGC 6251 jet on the milliarcsecond scale is investigated using images taken with the European VLBI Network and the Very Long Baseline Array. We detect a structural transition of the jet from a parabolic to a conical shape at a distance of (1-2) × 105 times the Schwarzschild radius from the central engine, which is close to the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also examine the jet pressure profiles with the synchrotron minimum energy assumption to discuss the physical origin of the structural transition. The NGC 6251 jet, together with the M87 jet, suggests a fundamental process of structural transition in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Collimated AGN jets are characterized by their external galactic medium, showing that AGN jets interplay with the SMBH and its host galaxy.

  10. Structural Transition in the NGC 6251 Jet: An Interplay with the Supermassive Black Hole and Its Host Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Chih-Yin; Nakamura, Masanori; Pu, Hung-Yi; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Lo, Wen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the NGC 6251 jet at the milliarcsecond scale is investigated using the images taken with the European VLBI Network and the Very Long Baseline Array. We detect a structural transition of the jet from a parabolic to a conical shape at a distance of (1-2) x 10^5 times the Schwarzschild radius from the central engine, which is close to the sphere of gravitational influence (SGI) of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also examine the jet pressure profiles with the synchrotron minimum energy assumption to discuss the physical origin of the structural transition. The NGC 6251 jet, together with the M 87 jet, suggests a fundamental process of the structural transition in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets. The collimated AGN jets are characterized by their external galactic medium, showing that AGN jets interplay with the SMBH and its host galaxy.

  11. DETERMINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXY EXTINCTION PROBABILITIES AND A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO ESTIMATING THE ABSORPTION-TO-REDDENING RATIO R{sub V}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cikota, Aleksandar [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Deustua, Susana [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marleau, Francine, E-mail: acikota@eso.org [Institute for Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25/8, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-03-10

    We investigate limits on the extinction values of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to statistically determine the most probable color excess, E(B – V), with galactocentric distance, and use these statistics to determine the absorption-to-reddening ratio, R{sub V}, for dust in the host galaxies. We determined pixel-based dust mass surface density maps for 59 galaxies from the Key Insight on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). We use SN Ia spectral templates to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of color excess E(B – V) with R{sub V} = 3.1 and investigate the color excess probabilities E(B – V) with projected radial galaxy center distance. Additionally, we tested our model using observed spectra of SN 1989B, SN 2002bo, and SN 2006X, which occurred in three KINGFISH galaxies. Finally, we determined the most probable reddening for Sa–Sap, Sab–Sbp, Sbc–Scp, Scd–Sdm, S0, and irregular galaxy classes as a function of R/R{sub 25}. We find that the largest expected reddening probabilities are in Sab–Sb and Sbc–Sc galaxies, while S0 and irregular galaxies are very dust poor. We present a new approach for determining the absorption-to-reddening ratio R{sub V} using color excess probability functions and find values of R{sub V} = 2.71 ± 1.58 for 21 SNe Ia observed in Sab–Sbp galaxies, and R{sub V} = 1.70 ± 0.38, for 34 SNe Ia observed in Sbc–Scp galaxies.

  12. Providing Stringent Star Formation Rate Limits of z ˜ 2 QSO Host Galaxies at High Angular Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Do, Tuan; Larkin, James E.; Armus, Lee; Gallagher, S. C.

    2016-04-01

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ˜ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ˜0.″2 (˜1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (zHα = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (zHα = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M⊙ yr-1 originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290-350 km s-1. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M⊙ yr-1 distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ˜7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%-40% of the Eddington rate, if star formation is present in the host (1.4-20 kpc) it would have to occur diffusely with significant

  13. Very thin disc galaxies in the SDSS catalogue of edge-on galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizyaev, D. V.; Kautsch, S. J.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Reshetnikov, V. P.; Mosenkov, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    We study the properties of galaxies with very thin discs (VTDs) using a sample of 85 objects whose stellar disc radial-to-vertical scale ratio determined from photometric decomposition, exceeds 9. We present evidences of similarities between the VTD galaxies and low surface brightness (LSB) disc galaxies, and conclude that both small and giant LSB galaxies may reveal themselves as VTD, edge-on galaxies. Our VTD galaxies are mostly bulgeless, and those with large radial scalelength tend to have redder colours. We performed spectral observations of 22 VTD galaxies with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. The spectra with good resolution (R ∼ 5000) allow us to determine the distance and the ionized gas rotation curve maximum for the galaxies. Our VTD galaxies have low dust content, in contrast to regular disc galaxies. Apparently, VTD galaxies reside in specific cosmological low-density environments and tend to have less connection with filaments. Comparing a toy model that assumes marginally low star formation in galactic discs with obtained gas kinematics data, we conclude that there is a threshold central surface density of about 88 M⊙ pc-2, which we observe in the case of very thin, rotationally supported galactic discs.

  14. The Lyα emission from high- z galaxies hosting strong damped Lyα systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    We study the average Lyα emission associated with high-z strong (log N(H I) ≥ 21) damped Lyα systems (DLAs). We report Lyα luminosities (LLyα) for the full as well as various sub-samples based on N(H I), z, (r - i) colours of QSOs and rest equivalent width of Si IIλ1526 line (i.e. W1526). For the full sample, we find LLyα level detection of Lyα emission in the red part of the DLA trough. The LLyα is found to be higher for systems with higher W1526 with its peak, detected at ≥3σ, redshifted by about 300-400 km s-1 with respect to the systemic absorption redshift, as seen in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and Lyα emitters. A clear signature of a double-hump Lyα profile is seen when we consider W1526 ≥0.4 Å and (r - i) radiation that is 4-10 times stronger than the metagalactic UV background at these redshifts. The relationship between the SFR and surface mass density of atomic gas seen in DLAs is similar to that of local dwarf and metal-poor galaxies. We show that the low-luminosity galaxies will contribute appreciably to the stacked spectrum if the size-luminosity relation seen for H I at low z is also present at high-z. Alternatively, large Lyα haloes seen around LBGs could also explain our measurements.

  15. A Monster At Any Other Epoch: Are Intermediate Redshift ULIRGs the Progenitors of QSO Host Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Barry; Fischer, Jackie; Rodrigues, Myriam; Pirzkal, Nor

    2015-08-01

    There is a clear progression from merger-induced SF to QSO activity via Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). While not all mergers are ULIRGs, multi-wavelength imaging confirms that all local ULIRGs are mergers. At 0.4 1 are responsible for ˜ 70% of the co-moving IR density. At these earlier epochs ULIRGs contained more gas, formed stars faster, and their number density was much higher. At z>1 there are conflicting conclusions about ULIRGs. Many studies conclude they are massive star-forming galaxies, not major mergers nor AGN. Nearly all studies of ULIRGs at z > 0.4 have selected these systems via scaling observed 24μm or 170μm Spitzer fluxes to integrated 8-1000μm fluxes and inferring masses from scaling photometric fluxes or millimeter observations of CO gas emission. These methods often rely heavily on uncertain assumptions (e.g. gas conversions, SED fitting and templates). Instead, we have assembled a representative sample of "classically" selected ULIRGs (60 and 100μm IRAS fluxes and 12 and 25μm WISE fluxes) for 0.4 < z < 1.0 and obtained optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy from Hubble Space Telescope, Keck, and the Large Binocular Telescope. We use the same techniques for measuring the dynamical and BH masses of ULIRGs in the local Universe to measure these parameters in more distant systems. Unlike other methods, we directly measure the mass at an epoch when galaxy formation and evolution appears to have changed dramatically from what we see today and compare these intermediate redshift ULIRGs with their counterparts in the local Universe. Our restframe optical and UV spectroscopy also allow us to directly probe gas-metallicities, outflows, and measure the properties of their stellar populations. Our results indicate that these intermediate redshift ULIRGs are dynamically similar to their local counterparts.

  16. Near-Infrared Imaging of a z=6.42 Quasar Host Galaxy With the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3

    CERN Document Server

    Mechtley, Matt; Ryan, Russell E; Schneider, Glenn; Cohen, Seth H; Jansen, Rolf A; Fan, Xiaohui; Hathi, Nimish P; Keel, William C; Koekemoer, Anton M; Röttgering, Huub; Scannapieco, Evan; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A; Yan, Haojing

    2012-01-01

    We report on deep near-infrared F125W (J) and F160W (H) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of the z=6.42 quasar J1148+5251 to attempt to detect rest-frame near-ultraviolet emission from the host galaxy. These observations included contemporaneous observations of a nearby star of similar near-infrared colors to measure temporal variations in the telescope and instrument point spread function (PSF). We subtract the quasar point source using both this direct PSF and a model PSF. Using direct subtraction, we measure an upper limit for the quasar host galaxy of m_J>22.8, m_H>23.0 AB mag (2 sigma). After subtracting our best model PSF, we measure a limiting surface brightness from 0.3"-0.5" radius of mu_J > 23.5, mu_H > 23.7 AB magarc (2 sigma). We test the ability of the model subtraction method to recover the host galaxy flux by simulating host galaxies with varying integrated magnitude, effective radius, and S\\'ersic index, and conducting the same analysis. These models indicate that the surface b...

  17. Late-time VLA reobservations rule out ULIRG-like host galaxies for most pre- Swift long-duration gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel A.; Hjorth, Jens; Tanvir, Nial R.; Perley, Richard A.

    2017-02-01

    We present new Jansky Very Large Array observations of five pre-Swift gamma-ray bursts for which an ultraluminous [star formation rate (SFR) >100 M⊙ yr-1] dusty host galaxy had previously been inferred from radio or submillimetre observations taken within a few years after the burst. In four of the five cases, we no longer detect any source at the host location to limits much fainter than the original observations, ruling out the existence of an ultraluminous galaxy hosting any of these gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We continue to detect a source at the position of GRB 980703, but it is much fainter than it was a decade ago and the inferred radio SFR (∼80 M⊙) is relatively modest. The radio flattening at 200-1000 d observed in the light curve of this GRB may have been caused by a decelerating counterjet oriented 180 deg away from the viewer, although an unjetted wind model can also explain the data. Our results eliminate all well-established ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) among the pre-Swift host population. They also rule out all cases for which an unobscured GRB was found in a galaxy dominated by heavily obscured star formation. When GRBs do occur in ULIRGs, the afterglow is almost always observed to be heavily obscured, consistent with the large dust opacities and high dust covering fractions characteristic of these systems.

  18. A revised host galaxy association for GRB 020819B: a high-redshift dusty starburst, not a low-redshift gas-poor spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel A.; Krühler, Thomas; Schady, Patricia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Thöne, Christina C.; Petry, Dirk; Graham, John F.; Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Schulze, Steve; Kim, Sam

    2017-02-01

    The purported spiral host galaxy of GRB 020819B at z = 0.41 has been seminal in establishing our view of the diversity of long-duration gamma-ray burst environments: Optical spectroscopy of this host provided evidence that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can form even at high metallicities, whereas millimetric observations suggested that GRBs may preferentially form in regions with minimal molecular gas. We report new observations from the Very Large Telescope (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer and X-shooter), which demonstrate that the purported host is an unrelated foreground galaxy. The probable radio afterglow is coincident with a compact, highly star forming, dusty galaxy at z = 1.9621. The revised redshift naturally explains the apparent non-detection of CO(3-2) line emission at the afterglow site from the Atacama Large Millimetre Observatory. There is no evidence that molecular gas properties in GRB host galaxies are unusual, and limited evidence that GRBs can form readily at a super-Solar metallicity.

  19. The properties of the host galaxy and the immediate environment of GRB 980425 / SN 1998bw from the multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Malesani, Daniele; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Cerón, José María Castro; Reinfrank, Robert F; Garrett, Michael A; Fynbo, Johan P U; Watson, Darach J; Jørgensen, Uffe G

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the galaxy ESO 184-G82, the host of the closest known long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 980425 and its associated supernova SN 1998bw. We use our observations obtained at the Australia Telescope Compact Array (the third >3 sigma radio detection of a GRB host) as well as archival infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) observations to estimate its star formation state. We find that ESO 184-G82 has a UV star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass consistent with the population of cosmological GRB hosts and of local dwarf galaxies. It has however a higher specific SFR (per unit stellar mass) and lower molecular gas-to-dust ratio than luminous spiral galaxies. The mass of ESO 184-G82 is dominated by an older stellar population in contrast to the majority of GRB hosts. The Wolf-Rayet region ~800 pc from the supernova site experienced a starburst episode during which the majority of its stellar population was built up. Unlike that of the entire galaxy, its SED ...

  20. Type Ia Supernova Properties as a Function of the Distance to the Host Galaxy in the SDSS-II SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); et al.

    2012-08-20

    We use type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey to search for dependencies between SN Ia properties and the projected distance to the host galaxy center, using the distance as a proxy for local galaxy properties (local star-formation rate, local metallicity, etc.). The sample consists of almost 200 spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed SNe Ia at redshifts below 0.25. The sample is split into two groups depending on the morphology of the host galaxy. We fit light-curves using both MLCS2k2 and SALT2, and determine color (AV, c) and light-curve shape (delta, x1) parameters for each SN Ia, as well as its residual in the Hubble diagram. We then correlate these parameters with both the physical and the normalized distances to the center of the host galaxy and look for trends in the mean values and scatters of these parameters with increasing distance. The most significant (at the 4-sigma level) finding is that the average fitted AV from MLCS2k2 and c from SALT2 decrease with the projected distance for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. We also find indications that SNe in elliptical galaxies tend to have narrower light-curves if they explode at larger distances, although this may be due to selection effects in our sample. We do not find strong correlations between the residuals of the distance moduli with respect to the Hubble flow and the galactocentric distances, which indicates a limited correlation between SN magnitudes after standardization and local host metallicity.

  1. The Relative Growth of Black Holes and of the Stellar Components of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, Nicola; Bongiorno, Angela; Lamastra, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the mass of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) correlate differently with different galaxy stellar components. Comparing such observations with the results of "ab initio" galaxy formation models can provide insight on the mechanisms leading to the growth of SMBHs. Here we use a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to investigate the correlation of the different galaxy stellar components with the mass of the central SMBH. The stellar mass in the disc, in the bulge, and in the pseudo-bulge of galaxies is related to quiescent star formation, to galaxy interactions, and to the loss of angular momentum following disc instabilities, respectively. Consistently with recent findings, we find that while the predicted bulge masses are tightly correlated with the SMBH masses, the correlation between the latter and the galactic discs shows a much larger scatter, in particular when bulgeless galaxies are considered. In addition, we obtain that the predicted masses of pseu...

  2. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2016-01-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z~4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/L_Edd~0.7 and M_BH~10^9 M_sol. Our sample consists of three "FIR-bright" sources which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of SFR>1000 M_sol/yr, and three "FIR-faint" sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ~400 M_sol/yr. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data, and resolved on scales of 2 kpc, in both continuum (\\lambda_rest~150um) and [CII]157.74um line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasars' hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) for three sources -- one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ~14-45 kpc an...

  3. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, Thomas W -S; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new open source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program for using Gaussian mixtures to do density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms that has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML (Vanderplas et al. 2012; Ivezic et al. 2015) and Bovy et al. (2011) fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms (Pedregosa et al. 2011). Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an example application of this functionality that can be used for fitting an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host datas...

  4. Active Galactic Nuclei in Groups and Clusters of Galaxies: Detection and Host Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Timothy J; Mulchaey, John S; Berti, Angela; Jeltema, Tesla E

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the field, groups, and clusters can provide new information about how these objects are triggered and fueled, similar to how these environments have been employed to study galaxy evolution. We have obtained new XMM-Newton observations of seven X-ray selected groups and poor clusters with 0.02 10^{41}; M_R2.5}(L_X>10^{41}; M_R

  5. Investigating the host galaxies of luminous AGN in the local universe with integral field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Rebecca; Croom, Scott; Husemann, Bernd; Close AGN Reference Survey; SAMI Galaxy Survey

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates how galaxies and their super massive black holes coevolve. We use integral field spectroscopy to search for evidence of AGN feedback and triggering. We demonstrate that outflows are ubiquitous among luminous local type 2 AGN using observations from the AAT's SPIRAL instrument. Using multiple component Gaussian emission line decomposition we are able to disentangle the kinematic and ionisation properties of these winds. This allows us to argue that the outflows from these AGN are directly impacting the surrounding ISM within the galaxies. We search for evidence of AGN triggering using data from The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). CARS aims to provide a detailed multi-wavelength view of 40 nearby (0.01 type not once, but twice. So called ‘changing look’ AGN are an uncommon phenomenon, but twice changed AGN are much rarer. This AGN first transitioned from a narrow line AGN (type 2) to a broad line AGN (type 1) in the 1980s. It was recently observed as part of CARS. Examination of the MUSE data for this particular source showed that it no longer had the spectral features typical of a type 1 AGN. The continuum emission from the accretion disk was no longer visible and the broad lines were dramatically diminished. In this talk we describe the possible reasons for this change, supported by analysis of multi-epoch optical photometry and spectroscopy, alongside data obtained through director’s discretionary time from Chandra, HST, and the VLA. We then conclude by discussing the implications of this discovery on our understanding of AGN timescales and the physics behind AGN spectral types.

  6. GRB hosts through cosmic time - VLT/X-shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 GRB-selected galaxies at 0.1 < z < 3.6

    CERN Document Server

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Hartoog, O E; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Perley, D A; Rossi, A; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Tanvir, N R; Vergani, S D; Wiersema, K; Afonso, P M J; Bolmer, J; Cano, Z; Covino, S; D'Elia, V; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Filgas, R; Friis, M; Graham, J F; Greiner, J; Goldoni, P; Gomboc, A; Hammer, F; Japelj, J; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Klose, S; Levan, A J; Leloudas, G; Milvang-Jensen, B; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Palazzi, E; Pian, E; Piranomonte, S; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Savaglio, S; Selsing, J; Tagliaferri, G; Vreeswijk, P M; Watson, D J; Xu, D

    2015-01-01

    We present data and initial results from VLT/X-shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 GRB-selected galaxies at 0.1host spectroscopy available to date. The majority of our GRBs was detected by Swift and 76% are at 0.5hosts with redshift. The median SFR, for example, increases from ~0.6 M_sun/yr at z~0.6 up to ~15 M_sun/yr at z~2. A higher ratio of [OIII]/[OII] at higher redshifts leads to an increasing distance of GRB-selected galaxies to the locus of local galaxies in the BPT diagram. Oxygen abundances of the galaxies are distributed between 12+log(O/H)=7.9 and 12+log(O/H)=9.0 with a median of 12+log(O/H)~8.5. The fraction of GRB-selected galaxies with super-solar metallic...

  7. The redshifted selected sample of long gamma-ray burst host galaxies: the complete metallicity measurements at $z \\leq 0.41$

    CERN Document Server

    Niino, Yuu; Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Hattori, Takashi; Ishikawa, Shoto; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kosugi, George; Onoue, Masafusa; Toshikawa, Jun; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete list of host galaxy metallicities for all long GRBs whose redshifts were determined to be $\\leq 0.41$ before the end of March 2014, including newly obtained spectroscopic datasets of the host galaxies of GRB 060614, 090417B, and 130427A. We compare the metallicity distribution of the redshift selected complete sample to the model predictions, and constrain the relation between metallicity and GRB occurrence. We take account of spatial variation of metallicities among star forming regions within a galaxy. We found that the models, in which only low-metallicity stars produce GRBs with a sharp cutoff of GRB production efficiency around 12+log(O/H) $\\sim$ 8.2, can well reproduce the observed distribution, while the models with moderate (or no) metallicity dependence are not consitistent with the observations. This is the first fair estimate of the metallicity distribution of GRB host galaxies based on the redshift selected complete sample in the {\\it Swift} era. We also discuss possible sa...

  8. Determining Type Ia Supernovae Host galaxy extinction probabilities and a statistical approach to estimating the absorption-to-reddening ratio $R_V$

    CERN Document Server

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Marleau, Francine

    2016-01-01

    We investigate limits on the extinction values of Type Ia supernovae to statistically determine the most probable color excess, E(B-V), with galactocentric distance, and use these statistics to determine the absorption-to-reddening ratio, $R_V$, for dust in the host galaxies. We determined pixel-based dust mass surface density maps for 59 galaxies from the Key Insight on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with \\textit{Herschel} (KINGFISH, Kennicutt et al. (2011)). We use Type Ia supernova spectral templates (Hsiao et al. 2007) to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of color excess E(B-V) with $R_V$ = 3.1 and investigate the color excess probabilities E(B-V) with projected radial galaxy center distance. Additionally, we tested our model using observed spectra of SN 1989B, SN 2002bo and SN 2006X, which occurred in three KINGFISH galaxies. Finally, we determined the most probable reddening for Sa-Sap, Sab-Sbp, Sbc-Scp, Scd-Sdm, S0 and Irregular galaxy classes as a function of $R/R_{25}$. We find that the larges...

  9. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the ΛCDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should have sunk to the galactic centre many Gyr ago due to dynamical friction. Due to this, some authors proposed that the most massive clusters may have formed out of Fornax and later tidally captured. In this paper, we investigate the past evolution of the Fornax GC system by using both a recently developed, semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction and direct N-body simulations of the orbital evolution of the globular clusters within Fornax and of Fornax galaxy around the Milky Way. Our results suggest that an `in situ' origin for all the clusters is likely if their observed positions are close to their spatial ones and their orbits are almost circular. Moreover, the Milky Way seems to accelerate the GC decay reducing the decay time of 15 per cent. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the GCs survival probability exceeds 50 per cent, even in the case of cuspy density profiles. We conclude that more detailed data are required to shed light on the Fornax dark matter content, to distinguish between a cuspy or a cored profile.

  10. A Tidal Disruption Event in a Nearby Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D; Cenko, S. B.; Covino, S.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Fox, O.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Landt, H.; Butler, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 kiloelectronvolt flux declined by a factor of approximately 2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index approximately equal to 2.44 plus or minus 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of approximately 20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kiloteslas approximately equal to 0.09 kiloelectronvolts (approximately equal to 10 (sup 6) Kelvin). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1 sigma level with the cluster (redshift = 0.062476).We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log(M (sub BH) / M (sub 1 solar mass)) approximately equal to 5.5 plus or minus 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  11. Late-Time VLA Reobservations Rule Out ULIRG-Like Host Galaxies For Most Pre-Swift Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, Daniel A; Tanvir, Nial R; Perley, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    We present new Jansky Very Large Array observations of five pre-Swift gamma-ray bursts for which an ultraluminous (SFR > 100 M_sun/yr) dusty host galaxy had previously been inferred from late-time radio or submillimetre observations taken 1-3 years after the burst. In four of the five cases we no longer detect any source at the host location to limits much fainter than the original observations, ruling out the existence of an ultraluminous galaxy hosting any of these GRBs. We continue to detect a source at the position of GRB 980703, but it is much fainter than it was a decade ago and the inferred radio star-formation rate (~80 M_sun) is relatively modest. The radio flattening at 200-1000 days observed in the light curve of this GRB may have been caused by a decelerating counterjet oriented 180 degrees away from the viewer, although an unjetted wind model can also explain the data. Our results eliminate all well-established pre-Swift ULIRG hosts, and all cases for which an unobscured GRB was found in a galaxy...

  12. Keck Observations of the Young Metal-Poor Host Galaxy of the Super-Chandrasekhar-Mass Type Ia Supernova SN 2007if

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Hsiao, E Y; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Thomas, R C; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy and $g$-band photometry of the metal-poor, low-luminosity host galaxy of the super-Chandrasekhar mass Type Ia supernova SN 2007if. Deep imaging of the host reveals its apparent magnitude to be $m_g=23.15\\pm0.06$, which at the spectroscopically-measured redshift of $z_{helio}=0.07450\\pm0.00015$ corresponds to an absolute magnitude of $M_g=-14.45\\pm0.06$. Galaxy $g-r$ color constrains the mass-to-light ratio, giving a host stellar mass estimate of $\\log(M_*/M_\\odot)=7.32\\pm0.17$. Balmer absorption in the stellar continuum, along with the strength of the 4000\\AA\\ break, constrain the age of the dominant starburst in the galaxy to be $t_\\mathrm{burst}=123^{+165}_{-77}$ Myr, corresponding to a main-sequence turn-off mass of $M/M_\\odot=4.6^{+2.6}_{-1.4}$. Using the R$_{23}$ method of calculating metallicity from the fluxes of strong emission lines, we determine the host oxygen abundance to be $12+\\log(O/H)_\\mathrm{KK04}=8.01\\pm0.09$, significantly lower than any previously reported...

  13. Molecular Gas Kinematics and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly-lensed Quasar Host Galaxy RXS J1131–1231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.; Pavesi, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    We report observations of CO(J = 2 → 1) and {CO}(J=3\\to 2) line emission toward the quadruply-lensed quasar RXS J1131‑1231 at z = 0.654 obtained using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). Our lens modeling shows that the asymmetry in the double-horned CO(J = 2 → 1) line profile is mainly a result of differential lensing, where the magnification factor varies from ∼3 to ∼9 across different kinematic components. The intrinsically symmetric line profile and a smooth source-plane velocity gradient suggest that the host galaxy is an extended rotating disk, with a CO size of {R}{CO}∼ 6 kpc and a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}∼ 8× {10}10 M ⊙. We also find a secondary CO-emitting source near RXS J1131‑1231, the location of which is consistent with the optically-faint companion reported in previous studies. The lensing-corrected molecular gas masses are M gas = (1.4 ± 0.3) × 1010 M ⊙ and (2.0 ± 0.1) × 109 M ⊙ for RXS J1131‑1231 and the companion, respectively. We find a lensing-corrected stellar mass of M * = (3 ± 1) × 1010 M ⊙ and a star formation rate of SFRFIR = (120 ± 63) M ⊙ yr‑1, corresponding to a specific SFR and star formation efficiency comparable to z ∼ 1 disk galaxies not hosting quasars. The implied gas mass fraction of ∼18 ± 4% is consistent with the previously observed cosmic decline since z ∼ 2. We thus find no evidence for quenching of star formation in RXS J1131‑1231. This agrees with our finding of an elevated {M}{BH}/{M}{bulge} ratio of >0.27{}-0.08+0.11% compared to the local value, suggesting that the bulk of its black hole mass is largely in place while its stellar bulge is still assembling.

  14. Suppression of Star Formation in the Hosts of Low-Excitation Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    The feedback from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (R-AGN) may help maintain low star formation (SF) rates in their early-type hosts, but the observational evidence for this mechanism has been inconclusive. We study systematic differences of aggregate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of various subsets of $\\sim$4000 low-redshift R-AGN from Best & Heckman (2012) with respect to (currently) inactive control samples selected to have matching redshift, stellar mass, population age, axis ratio, and environment. Aggregate SEDs, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 22 $\\mu$m), were constructed using a Bayesian method that eliminates biases from non-detections in GALEX and WISE. We study rare high-excitation sources separately from low-excitation ones, which we split by environment and host properties. We find that both the UV and mid-IR emission of non-cluster R-AGNs (80% of sample) are suppressed by $\\sim$0.2 dex relative to that of the control group, especially for moderately ma...

  15. THE STELLAR, MOLECULAR GAS, AND DUST CONTENT OF THE HOST GALAXIES OF TWO z {approx} 2.8 DUST-OBSCURED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martinez-Sansigre, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Ridgway, S. E. [NOAO, Colina El Pino s/n, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Sajina, A. [Tuffs University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    We present optical through radio observations of the host galaxies of two dust-obscured, luminous quasars selected in the mid-infrared, at z = 2.62 and z = 2.99, including a search for CO emission. Our limits on the CO luminosities are consistent with these objects having masses of molecular gas {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, several times less than those of luminous submillimeter-detected galaxies at comparable redshifts. Their near-infrared spectral energy distributions, however, imply that these galaxies have high stellar masses ({approx}10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }). The relatively small reservoirs of molecular gas and low dust masses are consistent with them being relatively mature systems at high-z.

  16. PROVIDING STRINGENT STAR FORMATION RATE LIMITS OF z ∼ 2 QSO HOST GALAXIES AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Do, Tuan [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Larkin, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-04-10

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (z{sub Hα} = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (z{sub Hα} = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s{sup −1}. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington rate, if

  17. The hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova iPTF13ajg and its host galaxy in absorption and emission

    CERN Document Server

    Vreeswijk, Paul M; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Quimby, Robert M; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Perley, Daniel A; Filippenko, Alexei V; Clubb, Kelsey I; Taddia, Francesco; Sollerman, Jesper; Leloudas, Giorgos; Arcavi, Iair; Rubin, Adam; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Cao, Yi; Yaron, Ofer; Tal, David; Ofek, Eran O; Capone, John; Kutyrev, Alexander S; Toy, Vicki; Nugent, Peter E; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R

    2014-01-01

    We present imaging and spectroscopy of a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: iPTF13ajg. At a redshift of z=0.7403, derived from narrow absorption lines, iPTF13ajg peaked at an absolute magnitude M(u,AB)=-22.5, one of the most luminous supernovae to date. The uBgRiz light curves, obtained with the P48, P60, NOT, DCT, and Keck telescopes, and the nine-epoch spectral sequence secured with the Keck and the VLT (covering 3 rest-frame months), are tied together photometrically to provide an estimate of the flux evolution as a function of time and wavelength. The observed bolometric peak luminosity of iPTF13ajg is 3.2x10^44 erg/s, while the estimated total radiated energy is 1.3x10^51 erg. We detect narrow absorption lines of Mg I, Mg II, and Fe II, associated with the cold interstellar medium in the host galaxy, at two different epochs with X-shooter at the VLT. From Voigt-profile fitting, we derive the column densities log N(Mg I)=11.94+-0.06, log ...

  18. AGN-Host Galaxy Connection: Morphology and Colours of X-ray Selected AGN at z < 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pović, M; García, A M Pérez; Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Huertas-Company, M; Lara-López, M A; Lorenzo, M Fernández; Ederoclite, A; Alfaro, E; Castañeda, H; Gallego, J; González-Serrano, J I; González, J J

    2012-01-01

    The connection between AGN and their host galaxies has been widely studied over recent years, showing it to be of great importance for providing answers to some fundamental questions related with AGN fueling mechanisms, their formation and evolution. Using X-ray and one of the deepest broad-band optical data sets, we studied morphology and colours in relationship with X-ray properties for sources at redshifts z < 2.0, using a sample of 262 AGN in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). Morphological classification was obtained using the galSVM code, one of the new methods useful especially when dealing with high-redshift sources and low-resolution data. Colour-magnitude diagrams were studied in relationship with redshift, morphology, X-ray obscuration, and X-ray-to-optical flux ratio. Finally, the significance of different regions was analysed on colour-magnitude diagrams, relating the observed properties of AGN populations with some models of their formation and evolution.

  19. The bolometric output and host-galaxy properties of obscured AGN in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lusso, E; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Treister, E; Sanders, D; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Civano, F; Gilli, R; Mainieri, V; Nair, P; Aller, M C; Carollo, M; Koekemoer, A M; Merloni, A; Trump, J R

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the multi-wavelength properties, from the mid-infrared to the hard X-rays, of a sample of 255 spectroscopically identified X-ray selected Type-2 AGN from the XMM-COSMOS survey. Most of them are obscured the X-ray absorbing column density is determined by either X-ray spectral analyses (for the 45% of the sample), or from hardness ratios. Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) are computed for all sources in the sample. The average SEDs in the optical band is dominated by the host-galaxy light, especially at low X-ray luminosities and redshifts. There is also a trend between X-ray and mid-infrared luminosity: the AGN contribution in the infrared is higher at higher X-ray luminosities. We calculate bolometric luminosities, bolometric corrections, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for these sources using a multi-component modeling to properly disentangle the emission associated to stellar light from that due to black hole accretion. For 90% of the sample we also have the morpholo...

  20. VLT adaptive optics imaging of QSO host galaxies and close environment at z ~2.5: results from a pilot program

    CERN Document Server

    Falomo, R; Scarpa, R; Treves, A

    2004-01-01

    We report ESO-VLT near-infrared adaptive optics imaging of one radio-loud (PKS 0113-283) and two radio-quiet (Q 0045-3337 and Q 0101-337) QSOs at z > 2. In the first case, we are able to resolve the QSO and find that it is hosted by an elliptical of absolute magnitude M(K) = -27.6. For the other two objects, no extended emission has been unambiguously detected. This result, though restricted to a single object, extends up to z ~2.5 the finding that cosmic evolution of radio-loud QSO hosts follows the trend expected for luminous and massive spheroids undergoing passive evolution. For Q 0045-3337, our high resolution images show that it is located 1.2 arcsec from a K = 17.5 foreground disc galaxy, which may act as a gravitational lens, since the QSO most probably lies within the galaxy Einstein radius.

  1. Supplement: Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO and Virgo Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-up

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, L P; Holz, D E; Farr, W M; Price, L R; Raymond, V; Cenko, S B; Gehrels, N; Cannizzo, J; Kasliwal, M M; Nissanke, S; Coughlin, M; Farr, B; Urban, Alex L; Vitale, S; Veitch, J; Graff, P; Berry, C P L; Mohapatra, S; Mandel, I

    2016-01-01

    This is an online supplement to https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.07333 . In the main Letter, we demonstrated a rapid algorithm for obtaining joint three-dimensional estimates of sky location and luminosity distance from observations of binary neutron star mergers with Advanced LIGO and Virgo. We argued that combining the reconstructed volumes with positions and redshifts of possible host galaxies can provide large-aperture but small field of view instruments with a manageable list of targets to search for optical or infrared emission. In this Supplement, we document the new HEALPix-based file format for 3D localizations of gravitational wave transients. We include Python sample code to show the reader how to perform simple manipulations of the 3D sky maps and extract ranked lists of likely host galaxies. Finally, we include mathematical details of the rapid volume reconstruction algorithm.

  2. GRB hosts through cosmic time. VLT/X-Shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 γ-ray-burst-selected galaxies at 0.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Krühler; D. Malesani; J.P.U. Fynbo; O.E. Hartoog; J. Hjorth; P. Jakobsson; D.A. Perley; A.. Rossi; P. Schady; S. Schulze; N.R. Tanvir; S.D. Vergani; K. Wiersema; P.M.J. Afonso; J. Bolmer; Z. Cano; S. Covino; V. D’Elia; A. de Ugarte Postigo; R. Filgas; M. Friis; J.F. Graham; J. Greiner; P. Goldoni; A. Gomboc; F. Hammer; J. Japelj; D.A. Kann; L. Kaper; S. Klose; A.J. Levan; G. Leloudas; B. Milvang-Jensen; A. Nicuesa Guelbenzu; E. Palazzi; E. Pian; S. Piranomonte; R. Sánchez-Ramírez; S. Savaglio; J. Selsing; G. Tagliaferri; P.M. Vreeswijk; D.J. Watson; D. Xu

    2015-01-01

    We present data and initial results from VLT/X-Shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 galaxies selected by long γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at 0.1 host spectra available to date. Most of our GRBs were detected by Swift and 76% are at 0.5

  3. The host-galaxy response to the afterglow of GRB 100901A

    CERN Document Server

    Hartoog, Olga E; Vreeswijk, Paul M; Kaper, Lex; Tanvir, Nial R; Savaglio, Sandra; Berger, Edo; Chornock, Ryan; Covino, Stefano; D'Elia, Valerio; Flores, Hector; Fynbo, Johan P U; Goldoni, Paolo; Gomboc, Andreja; Melandri, Andrea; Pozanenko, Alexei; Schaye, Joop; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2013-01-01

    For Gamma-Ray Burst 100901A, we have obtained Gemini-North and Very Large Telescope optical afterglow spectra at four epochs: one hour, one day, three days and one week after the burst, thanks to the afterglow remaining unusually bright at late times. Apart from a wealth of metal resonance lines, we also detect lines arising from fine-structure levels of the ground state of Fe II, and from metastable levels of Fe II and Ni II at the host redshift (z = 1.4084). These lines are found to vary significantly in time. The combination of the data and modelling results shows that we detect the fall of the Ni II 4 F9/2 metastable level population, which to date has not been observed. Assuming that the population of the excited states is due to the UV-radiation of the afterglow, we estimate an absorber distance of a few hundred pc. This appears to be a typical value when compared to similar studies. We detect two intervening absorbers (z = 1.3147, 1.3179). Despite the wide temporal range of the data, we do not see sign...

  4. Connecting Transitions in Galaxy Properties to Refueling

    CERN Document Server

    Kannappan, Sheila J; Eckert, Kathleen D; Moffett, Amanda J; Wei, Lisa H; Pisano, D J; Baker, Andrew J; Vogel, Stuart N; Fabricant, Daniel G; Laine, Seppo; Norris, Mark A; Jogee, Shardha; Lepore, Natasha; Hough, Loren E; Weinberg-Wolf, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    We relate transitions in galaxy structure and gas content to refueling, here defined to include both the external gas accretion and the internal gas processing needed to renew reservoirs for star formation. We analyze two z=0 data sets: a high-quality ~200-galaxy sample (the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, data release herein) and a volume-limited ~3000-galaxy sample with reprocessed archival data. Both reach down to baryonic masses ~10^9Msun and span void-to-cluster environments. Two mass-dependent transitions are evident: (i) below the "gas-richness threshold" scale (V~125km/s), gas-dominated quasi-bulgeless Sd--Im galaxies become numerically dominant, while (ii) above the "bimodality" scale (V~200km/s), gas-starved E/S0s become the norm. Notwithstanding these transitions, galaxy mass (or V as its proxy) is a poor predictor of gas-to-stellar mass ratio M_gas/M_*. Instead, M_gas/M_* correlates well with the ratio of a galaxy's stellar mass formed in the last Gyr to its preexisting stellar mass, such that the two...

  5. Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-Scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei II: Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kpc-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1~0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow up observations. We find that kpc-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from ...

  6. The clustering of ALFALFA galaxies: dependence on HI mass, relationship to optical samples & clues on host halo properties

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Jones, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    We use a sample of ~6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21cm survey, to measure the clustering properties of HI-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on the galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) mass, over the range M_HI ~ 10^{8.5} - 10^{10.5} M_sun. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low-HI mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that HI-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of HI-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than HI-selected gala...

  7. The 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Cosmic Black-Hole Growth is Mainly Linked to Host-Galaxy Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, W. Niel; Yang, Guang; Chen, Chien-Ting; Vito, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The Chandra exposure on the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) has recently been increased to 7 Ms, allowing unmatched X-ray and multiwavelength characterization of cosmic black-hole growth in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have used these data to investigate the dependence of black-hole accretion rate (BHAR) on host-galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M*) at z = 0.5-2. Our sample consists of 18,000 galaxies with SFR and M* measurements, and we use sample-mean BHAR for these galaxies to approximate their long-term average BHAR. Our sample-mean BHARs are derived from the CDF-S observations via both direct spectral analysis and stacking. The average BHAR is correlated positively with both SFR and M*, and the BHAR-SFR and BHAR-M* relations can both be described acceptably by linear models with a slope of unity. However, according to partial-correlation analyses, BHAR is correlated more strongly with M* than SFR. This result indicates that M* is the primary host-galaxy property related to black-hole growth, and the well-known BHAR-SFR relation is largely a secondary effect due to the "star-forming main sequence". Among our sources, massive galaxies have significantly higher BHAR/SFR ratios than less-massive galaxies, indicating the former have higher black-hole fueling efficiency and/or higher SMBH occupation fraction than the latter; e.g., the deeper potential wells in higher mass galaxies may promote black-hole accretion and counteract AGN/supernova feedback. Our results can naturally explain the observed proportionality between MBH and M* for local giant ellipticals, and suggest their MBH/M* ratios are higher than those of local star-forming galaxies. Finally, prospects for extending this work will be discussed; e.g., by further investigating the redshift evolution of the primary BHAR-M* relation and measuring this relation for even higher values of M*, above ~ 1011 solar masses, using wide-field X-ray surveys.

  8. The Compact, ∼1 kpc Host Galaxy of a Quasar at a Redshift of 7.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bañados, Eduardo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Hewett, Paul; McMahon, Richard G.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Simpson, Chris

    2017-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the [C ii] fine-structure line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission in J1120+0641, the most distant quasar currently known (z=7.1). We also present observations targeting the CO(2–1), CO(7–6), and [C i] 369 μm lines in the same source obtained at the Very Large Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We find a [C ii] line flux of {F}[{{C}{{II}}]}=1.11+/- 0.10 Jy {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a continuum flux density of {S}227{GHz}=0.53+/- 0.04 mJy beam‑1, consistent with previous unresolved measurements. No other source is detected in continuum or [C ii] emission in the field covered by ALMA (∼ 25″). At the resolution of our ALMA observations (0.″23, or 1.2 kpc, a factor of ∼70 smaller beam area compared to previous measurements), we find that the majority of the emission is very compact: a high fraction (∼80%) of the total line and continuum flux is associated with a region 1–1.5 kpc in diameter. The remaining ∼20% of the emission is distributed over a larger area with radius ≲4 kpc. The [C ii] emission does not exhibit ordered motion on kiloparsec scales: applying the virial theorem yields an upper limit on the dynamical mass of the host galaxy of (4.3+/- 0.9)× {10}10 {M}ȯ , only ∼20 × higher than the central black hole (BH). The other targeted lines (CO(2–1), CO(7–6), and [C i]) are not detected, but the limits of the line ratios with respect to the [C ii] emission imply that the heating in the quasar host is dominated by star formation, and not by the accreting BH. The star formation rate (SFR) implied by the FIR continuum is 105–340 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1, with a resulting SFR surface density of ∼100–350 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 kpc‑2, well below the value for Eddington-accretion-limited star formation.

  9. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF

  10. ALMA Detection of the Vibrationally Excited HCN J=4-3 Emission Line in the AGN-Hosting Luminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 20551-4250

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO+, and HNC J=4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551-4250 at z=0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured AGN. In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO+, and HNC J=4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H2S and CH3CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO+ J=4-3 flux ratio (~0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (~0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (~5 sigma) detected the vibrationally excited (v2=1) HCN J=4-3 (l=1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be rela...

  11. On the cosmic evolution of the scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: Broad Line AGN in the zCOSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Merloni, A; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Gilli, R; Hao, H; Jahnke, K; Koekemoer, A M; Lusso, E; Mainieri, V; Mignoli, M; Miyaji, T; Renzini, A; Salvato, M; Silverman, Joseph; Trump, J; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Capak, P; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D; Taniguchi, Y; Bardelli, S; Carollo, C M; Caputi, K; Contini, T; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Iovino, A; Iwasawa, K; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Scodeggio, M; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L A M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2009-01-01

    (Abriged) We report on the measurement of the rest frame K-band luminosity and total stellar mass of the hosts of 89 broad line Active Galactic Nuclei detected in the zCOSMOS survey in the redshift range 1host galaxy from that of the nuclear black hole in their Spectral Energy Distributions. We derive an estimate of black hole masses through the analysis of the broad Mg II emission lines observed in the medium-resolution spectra taken with VIMOS/VLT as part of the zCOSMOS project. We found that, as compared to the local value, the average black hole to host galaxy mass ratio appears to evolve positively with redshift, with a best fit evolution of the form (1+z)^{0.68 \\pm0.12 +0.6 -0.3}, where the large asymmetric systematic errors stem from the uncertainties in the choice of IMF, in the calibration of the virial relation used to estimate BH masses and in the mean QSO SED adopted. A thoroug...

  12. Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO and Virgo Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Leo P.; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Farr, Will M.; Price, Larry R.; Raymond, Vivien; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Coughlin, Michael; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Graff, Philip; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Mohapatra, Satya; Mandel, Ilya

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO’s sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, the total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.

  13. Gas dynamical imaging and dust properties of the strongly-lensed quasar host galaxy RXJ1131-1231 at z~0.65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tsz Kuk Daisy; Riechers, Dominik; Pavesi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Studies over the last two decades have revealed that the comoving star formation rate (SFR) and the black hole accretion rate densities have been steeply declining since z~2. Tracing the evolution of the cold molecular gas which fuels star formation and black hole accretion in galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5github.com/astro313/uvmcmcfit), finding that the asymmetry in its double-horned line profile is a result of differential lensing, with a magnification factor varying from ˜3 to ˜9 across different kinematic components. We recover an intrinsically symmetric line profile and a source-plane velocity gradient that suggest the presence of an extended, ~6kpc radius gas disk with a dynamical mass of ˜8×1010M⊙, a gas mass of ~1.5×1010M⊙, and a gas mass fraction of ˜19% in RXJ1131-1231. The modest gas fraction is consistent with the observed trend of decreasing molecular gas content in star-forming galaxies since z˜2. Based on our spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling, we find a lensing-corrected stellar mass of ˜3×1010M⊙ and a SFR of ~120 M⊙ yr-1, a rate comparable to those of local mergers and high-z disk galaxies. The CO source size, gas depletion timescale and star formation efficiency of RXJ1131-1231 suggest that its star formation is driven by global gravitational instabilities rather than merger interactions. We also find a black hole-to-bulge mass ratio of >0.27%, which is higher than those of local galaxies, suggesting that its black hole mass is largely in place while its stellar bulge is still assembling. Our results thus support the emerging picture that quasars grow faster and/or earlier than their host galaxies at earlier epochs.

  14. SN 2010ay IS A LUMINOUS AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA WITHIN A LOW-METALLICITY HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Valenti, S.; Smartt, S.; Botticella, M. T. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Narayan, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Terada, Y. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-09-10

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{pi} survey just {approx}4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, M{sub R} Almost-Equal-To -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v{sub Si} Almost-Equal-To 19 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1} at {approx}40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines {approx}2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of {sup 56}Ni, M{sub Ni} = 0.9 M{sub Sun }. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 4.7 M{sub Sun }, and total kinetic energy, E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To 11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. The ratio of M{sub Ni} to M{sub ej} is {approx}2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H){sub PP04} + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and {approx}0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E{sub {gamma}} {approx}< 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E {approx}> 10{sup 48} erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less

  15. Molecular Gas in Lensed z>2 Quasar Host Galaxies and the Star Formation Law for Galaxies with Luminous Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of luminous CO(2-1), CO(3-2), and CO(4-3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z=2.059), HE0230-2130 (z=2.166), HE1104-1805 (z=2.322), and B1359+154 (z=3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). B1938+666 was identified in a `blind' CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of mu_L~11-170, and thus allow us to probe molecular gas in intrinsically fainter galaxies than currently possible without the aid of gravitational lensing. We report lensing-corrected intrinsic CO line luminosities of L'(CO) = 0.65-21 x 10^9 K km/s pc^2, translating to H2 masses of M(H2) = 0.52-1.7 x 10^9 (alpha_CO/0.8) M_sun. To investigate whether or not the AGN in luminous quasars substantially contribute to L_FIR, we study the L'(CO)-L_FIR relation for quasars relative to galaxies without a luminous AGN as a function of redshift. We ...

  16. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the z=2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, T K Daisy

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(J=3-2) line emission in the strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z=2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z=0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of S_cont = 7.4 +/- 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J=3-2) line intensity of I_(CO(3-2)) = (12.6 +/- 2.0) Jy km s^-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of L'(CO(3-2)) = (3.4 +/- 0.7) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) K km s^-1 pc^2 for the SMG, where mu_L is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of M_gas = (2.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) Msun. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1^{+1.1}_{-1.3} K, a dust mass of M_du...

  17. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  18. Mid-infrared properties of OH megamaser host galaxies. I: Spitzer IRS low- and high-resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Kyle W; Spoon, Henrik W W; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee

    2011-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry from the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope for 51 OH megamasers (OHMs), along with 15 galaxies confirmed to have no megamaser emission above L_OH = 10^2.3 L_sun. The majority of galaxies display moderate-to-deep 9.7 um amorphous silicate absorption, with OHM galaxies showing stronger average absorption and steeper 20-30 um continuum emission than non-masing galaxies. Emission from multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 um, is detected in almost all systems. Fine-structure atomic emission (including [Ne II], [Ne III], [S III], and [S IV]) and multiple H2 rotational transitions are observed in more than 90% of the sample. A subset of galaxies show emission from rarer atomic lines, such as [Ne V], [O IV], and [Fe II]. 50% of the OHMs show absorption from water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains (HACs), while absorption features from CO2, HCN, C2H2, and crystalline silicates are also seen in sev...

  19. Multi-wavelength Observations of the Gas-rich Host Galaxy of PDS 456: a New Challenge for the ULIRG-to-QSO Transition Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, M S; Frayer, D T; Tilanus, R P J; Yun, Min S.

    2004-01-01

    We report new K-band, radio continuum, and CO (1-0) imaging observations and 850 micron photometric observations of PDS 456, the most luminous QSO in the local universe (z<0.3). The 0.6'' resolution K-band image obtained using the Keck telescope shows three compact K~16.5 (M(K)~ -21) sources at a projected distance of ~10 kpc to the southwest, and the host galaxy of PDS 456 may be interacting or merging with one or more companions. The observations using the OVRO millimeter array has revealed a narrow CO (1-0) line (FWHM = 181 km/s) centered at z=0.1849, and 9 x 10^9 solar mass of molecular gas mass is inferred. Radio continuum luminosity is nearly an order of magnitude larger than expected from its FIR luminosity, and the radio source, unresolved by the 2" beam of the VLA, is dominated by the AGN activity. Our 850 micron photometric observations suggest that the cold dust content of the host galaxy is less than one half of the amount in Arp 220. Its SED has both a QSO-like and a ULIRG-like nature, and the...

  20. Hα Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (i.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (GMOS z\\prime -band image (≃ 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 (4.6 kpc) at FWHM with ellipticity b/a=0.45). The spatial offset between the centroid of the Hα emission region and the position of the radio bursts is 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 08+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (0.26 ± 0.07 kpc), indicating that FRB 121102 is located within the star-forming region. This close spatial association of FRB 121102 with the star-forming region is consistent with expectations from young pulsar/magnetar models for FRB 121102, and it also suggests that the observed Hα emission region can make a major dispersion measure (DM) contribution to the host galaxy DM component of FRB 121102. Nevertheless, the largest possible value of the DM contribution from the Hα emission region inferred from our observations still requires a significant amount of ionized baryons in intergalactic medium (IGM; the so-called “missing” baryons) as the DM source of FRB 121102, and we obtain a 90% confidence level lower limit on the cosmic baryon density in the IGM in the low-redshift universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  1. Host galaxies and environment of active galactic nuclei : a study of the XMM large scale structure survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasse, Cyril

    2008-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) result from the infall of matter onto the super-massive black holes that are situated at the centres of galaxies. This process releases an enormous amount of energy into the inter-stellar and inter-galactic medium. Hence, the study of AGN becomes essential in the context

  2. A diversity of progenitors and histories for isolated spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martig, Marie; Croton, Darren J; Dekel, Avishai; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a suite of 33 cosmological simulations following the evolution of Milky Way-mass galaxies in low-density environments. Our sample at z = 0 comprises galaxies with a broad range of Hubble types, from nearly bulgeless disks to bulge-dominated galaxies. The bulges are typically pseudo-bulges, with a Sersic index lower than 2, and 70% of the galaxies have bars. Despite the fact that a large fraction of the bulge is typically in place by z = 1, we find no significant correlation between the morphology at z = 1 and at z = 0. The progenitors of disk galaxies span a whole range of morphologies at z = 1, including smooth disks, unstable disks, interacting galaxies and bulge-dominated systems. By z = 0.5, the progenitor morphology is correlated with the z = 0 morphology, with spiral arms and bars largely in place at z = 0.5. From this sample we analyze the formation histories of galaxies with a bulge-to-total ratio below 0.3 (typically Sb and later types). They do form in our simulations, but with a lower ab...

  3. Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-up

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, L P; Holz, D E; Farr, W M; Price, L R; Raymond, V; Cenko, S B; Gehrels, N; Cannizzo, J; Kasliwal, M M; Nissanke, S; Coughlin, M; Farr, B; Urban, Alex L; Vitale, S; Veitch, J; Graff, P; Berry, C P L; Mohapatra, S; Mandel, I

    2016-01-01

    Advanced LIGO discovered gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger in September 2015 and may soon observe gravitational waves from neutron-star binary mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their electromagnetic counterparts, though they are expected to be faint and fade rapidly and gravitational wave position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Since LIGO's sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local Universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since gravitational-wave observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with sky positions and redshifts of galaxies could even more dramatically reduce the area to search. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid gravitational-wave parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the...

  4. High Resolution Simulations for Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos Hosting Galaxies and AGNs at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12h-1Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20×108 h-1M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1h-1Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. Compared with the Millennium simulation (Springel et al. 2005), our simulation offers the advantages of a mass resolution that is four times better and a spatial volume that is 11 times larger. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of 70h-1Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44×106 -1M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology, from redshift 10 to 0. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.

  5. Elliptical Galaxies and Bulges of Disc Galaxies: Summary of Progress and Outstanding Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    Bulge components of disc galaxies are the high-density centers interior to their outer discs. Once thought to be equivalent to elliptical galaxies, their observed properties and formation histories turn out to be richer and more varied than those of ellipticals. This book reviews progress in many areas of bulge studies. Two advances deserve emphasis: (1) Observations divide bulges into "classical bulges" that look indistinguishable from ellipticals and "pseudobulges" that are discier and (except in S0s) more actively star-forming than are ellipticals. Classical bulges and ellipticals are thought to form by major galaxy mergers. Discy pseudobulges are a product of the slow ("secular") evolution of galaxy discs. Nonaxisymmetries such as bars and oval distortions transport some disc gas toward the center, where it starbursts and builds a dense central component that is discier in structure than are classical bulges. Secular evolution explains many regular structures (e.g., rings) seen in galaxy discs. It is a new area of galaxy evolution work that complements hierarchical clustering. (2) Studies of high-redshift galaxies reveal that their discs are so gas-rich that they are violently unstable to the formation of mass clumps that sink to the center and merge. This is an alternative channel for the formation of classical bulges. This chapter summarizes big-picture successes and unsolved problems in the formation of bulges and ellipticals and their coevolution (or not) with supermassive black holes. I present an observer's perspective on simulations of cold dark matter galaxy formation including baryonic physics. Our picture of the quenching of star formation is becoming general and secure at redshifts z 1000 in mass but that differ from each other as we observe over that whole range. A related difficulty is how hierarchical clustering makes so many giant, bulgeless galaxies in field but not cluster environments. I present arguments that we rely too much on star

  6. A tight relation between the age distributions of stellar clusters and the properties of the interstellar medium in the host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miholics, Meghan; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Sills, Alison

    2017-09-01

    The age distributions of stellar cluster populations have long been proposed to probe the recent formation history of the host galaxy. However, progress is hampered by the limited understanding of cluster disruption by evaporation and tidal shocks. We study the age distributions of clusters in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated disc galaxies, which include a self-consistent, physical model for the formation and dynamical evolution of the cluster population and account for the variation of cluster disruption in time and space. We show that the downward slope of the cluster age distribution due to disruption cannot be reproduced with a single functional form, because the disruption rate exhibits systematic trends with cluster age (the 'cruel cradle effect'). This problem is resolved by using the median cluster age to trace cluster disruption. Across 120 independent galaxy snapshots and simulated cluster populations, we perform two-dimensional power-law fits of the median cluster age to various macroscopic physical quantities and find that it scales as t_med∝ Σ ^{-0.51± 0.03}σ _1D^{-0.85± 0.10}M_min^γ, for the gas surface density Σ, gas velocity dispersion σ1D, and minimum cluster mass Mmin. This scaling accurately describes observed cluster populations and indicates disruption by impulsive tidal shocks from the interstellar medium. The term M_min^γ provides a model-independent way to measure the mass dependence of the cluster disruption time γ. Finally, the ensemble-average cluster lifetime depends on the gas density less strongly than the instantaneous disruption time of single clusters. These results reflect the variation of cluster disruption in time and space. We provide quantitative ways of accounting for these physics in cluster population studies.

  7. A Ringed Dwarf LINER 1 Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate-mass Black Hole with Large-scale Rotation-like Hα Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Qian, Lei; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Ning; Lira, Paulina; Cai, Zheng; Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi; Xiao, Ting; Kim, Minjin

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of a 20 kpc sized {{H}}α emission in SDSS J083803.68+540642.0, a ringed dwarf galaxy ({M}V=-17.89 mag) hosting an accreting intermediate-mass black hole at z = 0.02957. Analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that it is an early-type galaxy with a featureless low-surface brightness disk ({μ }0=20.39 mag arcsec‑2 in the V band) and a prominent, relatively red bulge (V ‑ I = 2.03, {R}{{e}}=0.28 {kpc} or 0.″48) that accounts for ≈81% of the total light in the I band. A circumgalactic ring of a diameter 16 kpc is also detected, with a disperse shape on its south side. The optical emission lines reveal the nucleus to be a broad-line LINER. Our MMT longslit observation indicates that the kinematics of the extended {{H}}α emission is consistent with a rotational gaseous disk, with a mean blueshifted velocity of 162 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and mean redshifted velocity of 86 {km} {{{s}}}-1. According to our photoionization calculations, the large-scale {{H}}α emission is unlikely to be powered by the central nucleus or by hot evolved (post-AGB) stars interspersed in the old stellar populations, but by in situ star formation; this is vindicated by the line-ratio diagnostic of the extended emission. We propose that both the ring and large-scale {{H}}α -emitting gas are created by the tidal accretion in a collision—and then merger—with a gas-rich galaxy of a comparable mass.

  8. Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z~4.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wagg, J; Aravena, M; Cox, P; Lentati, L; Maiolino, R; McMahon, R G; Riechers, D; Walter, F; Andreani, P; Hills, R; Wolfe, A

    2014-01-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J=2-1 line emission in BR1202-0725 at z=4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI1335-0417 at z=4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the Low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J=2-1 line luminosities of BR1202-0725 are L'(CO) = (8.7+/-0.8)x10^10 K km/s pc^2 and L'(CO) = (6.0+/-0.5)x10^10 K km/s pc^2 for the submm galaxy (SMG) and quasar, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J=5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ~9x10^10 Msun. In BRI1335-0417 we measure L'(CO) = (7.3+/-0.6)x10^10 K km/s pc^2. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BR1202-0725 North (S(44GHz) = 51+/-6 microJy), while the quasar is detected with S(44GHz) = 24+/-6 microJy and in BR...

  9. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the Z = 2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line emission in the strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z = 2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z = 0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of Scont = 7.4 ± 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line intensity of ICO(3-2) = (12.6 ± 2.0) Jy km s-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of {L}{{CO(1-0)}}\\prime = (3.4 ± 0.7) × 1010 (10.1/μL) K km s-1 pc2 for the SMG, where μL is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of Mgas = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1010 (10.1/μL) M⊙. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1{}-1.3+1.1 K, a dust mass of Mdust = (5.2 ± 2.1) × 108 (10.1/μL) M⊙, and a total infrared luminosity of LIR = (9.1 ± 1.2) ×1012 (10.1/μL) L⊙. We find that the properties of the interstellar medium of SMM J0939+8315 overlap with both SMGs and type-2 quasars. Hence, SMM J0939+8315 may be transitioning from a starbursting phase to an unobscured quasar phase as described by the “evolutionary link” model, according to which this system may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of present-day galaxies at an earlier epoch.

  10. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, H B; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02r_{vir,nei} and \\rho <\\bar{\\rho} well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests importance of hydrodynamic interaction among galaxies within their virial radii in galaxy evolution.

  11. A Classical Morphological Analysis of Galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, A; Knapen, J; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H; Elmegreen, D; Ho, L; Zaritsky, D; Courtois, H; Hinz, J; Muñoz-Mateos, J-C; Kim, T; Regan, M; Gadotti, D; de Paz, A Gil; Laine, J; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Comeron, Sebastien; Ferrer, S Erroz; Seibert, M; Mizusawa, T; Holwerda, B; Madore, B

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S4G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs (1959) morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S4G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, p...

  12. Active galaxies in a complete sample of isolated galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabater, J.; Leon, S.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bergond, G.; Carpio, J.; Combes, F.; Espada, D.; Garc??a, E.; Huchtmeier, W.; Lisenfeld, Ute; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Sulentic, J.; Verley, S.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxy evolution depends strongly on the environment, in particular, galaxy-galaxy interaction can induce nuclear activity by removing angular momentum from the gas so feeding the central black hole. Hence a higher rate of nuclear activity is expected in interacting galaxies. Different studies of this topic lead to contradictory results. Some works conclude that galaxies hosting an active galactic nuclei (AGN) have a higher rate of companions than non active ones. On the other hand other stud...

  13. The effects of assembly bias on cosmological inference from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling can extend the approach down to nonlinear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with large scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older halos affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function $\\langle N_\\text{cen}(M_\\text{min}) \\rangle$ for central galaxies, with halos in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We intro...

  14. The Ly$\\alpha$ emission from high-$z$ galaxies hosting strong Damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Ravi; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We study the average Ly$\\alpha$ emission associated with high-$z$ strong (log $N$(H I) $\\ge$ 21) damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs). We report Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities ($L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$) for the full as well as various sub-samples based on $N$(H I), $z$, $(r-i)$ colours of QSOs and rest equivalent width of Si II$\\lambda$1526 line (i.e., $W_{1526}$). For the full sample, we find $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$$< 10^{41} (3\\sigma)\\ \\rm erg\\ s^{-1}$ with a $2.8\\sigma$ level detection of Ly$\\alpha$ emission in the red part of the DLA trough. The $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ is found to be higher for systems with higher $W_{1526}$ with its peak, detected at $\\geq 3\\sigma$, redshifted by about 300-400 $\\rm km\\ s^{-1}$ with respect to the systemic absorption redshift, as seen in Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. A clear signature of a double-hump Ly$\\alpha$ profile is seen when we consider $W_{1526} \\ge 0.4$ \\AA\\ and $(r-i) < 0.05$. Based on the known correlation between metallicity and $W_{1526}$, we interpret our...

  15. The impact of the early stages of radio source evolution on the ISM of the host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A; Holt, J; Tzioumis, A K; Wills, K

    2002-01-01

    The study of both neutral and ionized gas in young radio sources is providing key information on the effect the radio plasma has on the ISM of these objects. We present results obtained for the compact radio sources PKS1549-79, 4C12.50 and PKS1814-63 and for the intermediate-size radio galaxy 3C459. At least in the first two, low ionisation optical emission lines and HI absorption appear to be associated with the extended, but relatively quiescent, dusty cocoon surrounding the nucleus. The [OIII] lines are, on the other hand, mostly associated with the region of interaction between the radio plasma and the ISM, indicating a fast outflow from the canter. A case of fast outflow (up to ~1000 km/s) is also observed in HI in the radio source 4C12.50. As the radio source evolves, any obscuring material along the radio axis is swept aside until, eventually, cavities (of the same kind as observed e.g. in Cygnus A) are hollowed out on either side of the nucleus. We may witness this phase in the evolution of a radio so...

  16. A Study of the Type II-Plateau Supernova 1999gi, and the Distance to its Host Galaxy, NGC 3184

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, D C; Li, W; Matheson, T; Kirshner, R P; Chornock, R; Van Dyk, S D; Berlind, P; Calkins, M L; Challis, P M; Garnavich, P M; Jha, S; Mahdavi, A M; Leonard, Douglas C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chornock, Ryan; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Challis, Peter M.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jha, Saurabh; Mahdavi, Andisheh

    2002-01-01

    We present optical spectra and photometry sampling the first six months after discovery of supernova (SN) 1999gi in NGC 3184. SN 1999gi is shown to be a Type II-plateau event with a photometric plateau lasting until about 100 days after discovery. The reddening values resulting from five independent techniques are all consistent with an upper bound of E(B-V) < 0.45 mag established by comparing the early-time color of SN 1999gi with that of an infinitely hot blackbody, and yield a probable reddening of E(B-V) = 0.21 +/- 0.09 mag. Using the expanding photosphere method (EPM), we derive a distance to SN 1999gi of 11.1^{+2.0}_{-1.8} Mpc and an explosion date of 1999 December 5.8^{+3.0}_{-3.1}, or 4.1^{+3.0}_{-3.1} days prior to discovery. This distance is consistent with a recent Tully-Fisher distance derived to NGC 3184 (D ~ 11.59 Mpc), but is somewhat closer than the Cepheid distances derived to two galaxies that have generally been assumed to be members of a small group containing NGC 3184 (NGC 3319, D = 13...

  17. Are LGRBs biased tracers of star formation? Clues from the host galaxies of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of bright LGRBs. II: star formation rates and metallicities at z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Japelj, J; Salvaterra, R; D'Avanzo, P; Mannucci, F; Fernandez-Soto, A; Boissier, S; Hunt, L K; Atek, H; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L; Scodeggio, M; Cristiani, S; Floc'h, E Le; Flores, H; Gallego, J; Ghirlanda, G; Gomboc, A; Hammer, F; Perley, D A; Pescalli, A; Petitjean, P; Puech, M; Rafelski, M; Tagliaferri, G

    2016-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the deaths of massive stars and could thus be a potentially powerful tool to trace cosmic star formation. However, especially at low redshifts (z < 1.5) LGRBs seem to prefer particular types of environment. Our aim is to study the host galaxies of a complete sample of bright LGRBs to investigate the impact of the environment on GRB formation. We study host galaxy spectra of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of 14 z < 1 bright LGRBs. We use the detected nebular emission lines to measure the dust extinction, star formation rate (SFR) and nebular metallicity (Z) of the hosts and supplement the data set with previously measured stellar masses M$_{\\star}$. The distributions of the obtained properties and their interrelations (e.g. mass-metallicity and SFR-M$_{\\star}$ relations) are compared to samples of field star-forming galaxies.We find that LGRB hosts at z < 1 have on average lower SFRs than if they were direct star-formation tracers. By directly comparin...

  18. Ultra-Flat Galaxies Selected from RFGC Catalog. I. The Sample Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentseva, V E; Karachentsev, I D; Makarov, D I; Melnik, O V

    2016-01-01

    We used the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalog (RFGC) to create a sample of ultra-flat galaxies (UFG) covering the whole northern and southern sky apart from the Milky Way zone. It contains 817 spiral galaxies seen edge-on, selected into the UFG sample according to their apparent axial ratios $(a/b)_B\\geq10.0$ and $(a/b)_R\\geq8.53$ in the blue and red bands, respectively. Within this basic sample we fixed an exemplary sample of 441 UFG galaxies having the radial velocities of $V_{LG} 10^{\\circ}$ and the blue angular diameter of $a_B > 1.0^{\\prime}$. According to the Schmidt test the exemplary sample of 441 galaxies is characterized by about (80--90)% completeness, what is quite enough to study different properties of the ultra-flat galaxies. We found that more than 3/4 of UFGs have the morphological types within the narrow range of $T= 7\\pm1$, i.e. the thinnest stellar disks occur among the Scd, Sd, and Sdm types. The average surface brightness of UFG galaxies tends to diminish towards the flattest bulge-less galaxi...

  19. The Host Galaxies of X-Ray Selected Active Galactic Nuclei to z - 2.5: Structure, Star-Formation and Their Relationships from CANDELS and Herschel/Pacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, D.J.; McIntosh, D. H.; van der Wel, A.; Kartaltepe, J.; Lang, P.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Rafelski, M.; Villforth, C.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Bell, E. F.; Berta, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Conselice, C. J.; Dekel, A.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Genzel, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Straughn, A.

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the structure and star-formation rate (SFR) of X-ray selected low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the two Chandra Deep Fields, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and deep far-infrared maps from the PEP+GOODS-Herschel survey. We derive detailed distributions of structural parameters and FIR luminosities from carefully constructed control samples of galaxies, which we then compare to those of the AGNs. At z is approximately 1, AGNs show slightly diskier light profiles than massive inactive (non-AGN) galaxies, as well as modestly higher levels of gross galaxy disturbance (as measured by visual signatures of interactions and clumpy structure). In contrast, at z 2, AGNs show similar levels of galaxy disturbance as inactive galaxies, but display a red central light enhancement, which may arise due to a more pronounced bulge in AGN hosts or due to extinguished nuclear light. We undertake a number of tests of both these alternatives, but our results do not strongly favour one interpretation over the other. The mean SFR and its distribution among AGNs and inactive galaxies are similar at z greater than 1.5. At z less than 1, however, clear and significant enhancements are seen in the SFRs of AGNs with bulge-dominated light profiles. These trends suggest an evolution in the relation between nuclear activity and host properties with redshift towards a minor role for mergers and interactions at z greater than 15

  20. The KMOS AGN Survey at High redshift (KASHz): the prevalence and drivers of ionised outflows in the host galaxies of X-ray AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, C M; Mullaney, J R; Stott, J P; Swinbank, A M; Arumugam, V; Bauer, F E; Bower, R G; Bunker, A J; Sharples, R M

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from the KMOS AGN Survey at High redshift (KASHz), a VLT/KMOS integral-field spectroscopic survey of z>0.6 AGN. We present galaxy-integrated spectra of 89 X-ray AGN (Lx=10^42-10^45 erg/s), for which we observed [O III] (z=1.1-1.7) or Halpha emission (z=0.6-1.1). The targets have X-ray luminosities representative of the parent AGN population and we explore the emission-line luminosities as a function of X-ray luminosity. For the [O III] targets, ~50 per cent have ionised gas velocities indicative of gas that is dominated by outflows and/or highly turbulent material (i.e., overall line-widths >~600 km/s). The most luminous half (i.e., Lx>6x10^43 erg/s) have a >~2 times higher incidence of such velocities. On the basis of our results, we find no evidence that X-ray obscured AGN are more likely to host extreme kinematics than unobscured AGN. Our KASHz sample has a distribution of gas velocities that is consistent with a luminosity-matched sample of z<0.4 AGN. This implies little ev...

  1. Supplement: “Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO and Virgo Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-up” (2016, ApJL, 829, L15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Leo P.; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Farr, Will M.; Price, Larry R.; Raymond, Vivien; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Coughlin, Michael; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Graff, Philip; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Mohapatra, Satya; Mandel, Ilya

    2016-09-01

    This is a supplement to the Letter of Singer et al., in which we demonstrated a rapid algorithm for obtaining joint 3D estimates of sky location and luminosity distance from observations of binary neutron star mergers with Advanced LIGO and Virgo. We argued that combining the reconstructed volumes with positions and redshifts of possible host galaxies can provide large-aperture but small field of view instruments with a manageable list of targets to search for optical or infrared emission. In this Supplement, we document the new HEALPix-based file format for 3D localizations of gravitational-wave transients. We include Python sample code to show the reader how to perform simple manipulations of the 3D sky maps and extract ranked lists of likely host galaxies. Finally, we include mathematical details of the rapid volume reconstruction algorithm.

  2. The host galaxies of X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei to z=2.5: Structure, star-formation and their relationships from CANDELS and Herschel/PACS

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J; van der Wel, A; Kartaltepe, J; Lang, P; Santini, P; Wuyts, S; Lutz, D; Rafelski, M; Villforth, C; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Bell, E F; Berta, S; Brandt, W N; Conselice, C J; Dekel, A; Faber, S M; Ferguson, H C; Genzel, R; Grogin, N A; Kocevski, D D; Koekemoer, A M; Koo, D C; Lotz, J M; Magnelli, B; Maiolino, R; Mozena, M; Mullaney, J R; Papovich, C J; Popesso, P; Tacconi, L J; Trump, J R; Avadhuta, S; Bassett, R; Bell, A; Bernyk, M; Bournaud, F; Cassata, P; Cheung, E; Croton, D; Donley, J; DeGroot, L; Guedes, J; Hathi, N; Herrington, J; Hilton, M; Lai, K; Lani, C; Martig, M; McGrath, E; Mutch, S; Mortlock, A; McPartland, C; O'Leary, E; Peth, M; Pillepich, A; Poole, G; Snyder, D; Straughn, A; Telford, O; Tonini, C; Wandro, P

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the structure and star-formation rate (SFR) of X-ray selected low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the two Chandra Deep Fields, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and deep far-infrared maps from the PEP+GOODS-Herschel survey. We derive detailed distributions of structural parameters and FIR luminosities from carefully constructed control samples of galaxies, which we then compare to those of the AGNs. At z~1, AGNs show slightly diskier light profiles than massive inactive (non-AGN) galaxies, as well as modestly higher levels of gross galaxy disturbance (as measured by visual signatures of interactions and clumpy structure). In contrast, at z~2, AGNs show similar levels of galaxy disturbance as inactive galaxies, but display a red central light enhancement, which may arise due to a more pronounced bulge in AGN hosts or due to extinguished nuclear light. We undertake a number ...

  3. Evidence for a Large Stellar Bar in the LSB Galaxy UGC 7321

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlen, M; Lütticke, R; Dettmar, R J

    2003-01-01

    Late-type spiral galaxies are thought to be the dynamically simplest type of disk galaxies and our understanding of their properties plays a key role in the galaxy formation and evolution scenarios. The low surface brightness (LSB) galaxy UGC 7321, a nearby, isolated, ``superthin'' edge-on galaxy, is an ideal object to study those purely disk dominated bulge-less galaxies. Although late type spirals are believed to exhibit the simplest possible structure, even prior observations showed deviations from a pure single component exponential disk in the case of UGC 7321. We present for the first time photometric evidence for peanut-shaped outer isophotes from a deep optical (R-band) image of UGC 7321. Observations and dynamical modeling suggest that boxy/peanut-shaped (b/p) bulges in general form through the buckling instability in bars of the parent galaxy disks. Together with recent HI observations supporting the presence of a stellar bar in UGC 7321 this could be the earliest known case of the buckling process ...

  4. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2011-01-20

    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges.

  5. Low-mass disc galaxies and the issue of stability: MOND vs dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Salcedo, F J; Aguirre-Torres, V M; Hernandez-Toledo, H M

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the rotation curves and gravitational stability of a sample of six bulgeless galaxies for which detailed images reveal no evidence for strong bars. We explore two scenarios: Newtonian dark matter models and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). By adjusting the stellar mass-to-light ratio, dark matter models can match simultaneously both the rotation curve and bar-stability requirements in these galaxies. To be consistent with stability constraints, in two of these galaxies, the stellar mass-to-light ratio is a factor of ~1.5-2 lower than the values suggested from galaxy colours. In contrast, MOND fits to the rotation curves are poor in three galaxies, perhaps because the gas tracer contains noncircular motions. The bar stability analysis provides a new observational test to MOND. We find that most of the galaxies under study require abnormally-high levels of random stellar motions to be bar stable in MOND. In particular, for the only galaxy in the sample for which the line-of-sight stellar velocity ...

  6. A CLASSICAL MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GALAXIES IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Kim, Taehyun [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Knapen, Johan H. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna (Spain); Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sébastien [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90014 (Finland); Elmegreen, Debra [Vassar College, Deparment of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Courtois, Helene [Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Lyon (France); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Paz, Armando Gil de [Departmento de Astrofisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín [University of Rio de Janeiro, Observatorio de Valongo, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S{sup 4}G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S{sup 4}G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, pure disk galaxies) in the range Scd-Im. The most common family classification for mid-IR types S0/a to Sc is SA while that for types Scd to Sm is SB. The bars in these two type domains are very different in mid-IR structure and morphology. This paper examines the bar, ring, and type classification fractions in the sample, and also includes several montages of images highlighting the various kinds of “stellar structures” seen in mid-IR galaxy morphology.

  7. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  8. Do AGN suppress star formation in early-type galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The observation that AGN host galaxies preferentially inhabit the "green valley" between the blue cloud and the red sequence has significant consequences for our understanding of the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes via accretion events. I discuss the interpretation of green valley AGN host galaxy colours with particular focus on early-type galaxies.

  9. Galaxy-galaxy Lensing: Dissipationless Simulations Versus the Halo Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, R; Seljak, U; Kravtsov, A V; Wechsler, R H; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Tasitsiomi, Argyro; Seljak, Uros; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2004-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy lensing is a powerful probe of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos, but its theoretical interpretation requires a careful modeling of various contributions, such as the contribution from central and satellite galaxies. For this purpose, a phenomenological approach based on the halo model has been developed, allowing for fast exploration of the parameter space of models. In this paper, we investigate the ability of the halo model to extract information from the g-g weak lensing signal by comparing it to high-resolution dissipationless simulations that resolve subhalos. We find that the halo model reliably determines parameters such as the host halo mass of central galaxies, the fraction of galaxies that are satellites, and their radial distribution inside larger halos. If there is a significant scatter present in the central galaxy host halo mass distribution, then the mean and median mass of that distribution can differ significantly from one another, and the halo model mass dete...

  10. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than glog (M∗/M⊙) processing, reflected in the significant changes in the physical properties of the host galaxies.

  11. How environment drives galaxy evolution: lessons learnt from satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, A

    2015-01-01

    It is by now well established that galaxy evolution is driven by intrinsic and environmental processes, both contributing to shape the observed properties of galaxies. A number of early studies, both observational and theoretical, have shown that the star formation activity of galaxies depends on their environmental local density and also on galaxy hierarchy, i.e. centrals vs. satellites. In fact, contrary to their central (most massive) galaxy of a group/cluster, satellite galaxies are stripped of their gas and stars, and have their star formation quenched by their environment. Large galaxy surveys like SDSS now permit us to investigate in detail environment-driven transformation processes by comparing centrals and satellites. In this paper I summarize what we have so far learnt about environmental effects by analysing the observed properties of local central and satellite galaxies in SDSS, as a function of their stellar mass and the dark matter mass of their host group/cluster.

  12. The very wide-field $gzK$ galaxy survey -- II. The relationship between star-forming galaxies at $z \\sim 2$ and their host haloes based upon HOD modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Hamana, Takashi; Toshikawa, Jun; Onoue, Masafusa

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of an halo occupation distribution (HOD) analysis of star-forming galaxies at $z \\sim 2$. We obtained high-quality angular correlation functions based on a large sgzK sample, which enabled us to carry out the HOD analysis. The mean halo mass and the HOD mass parameters are found to increase monotonically with increasing $K$-band magnitude